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Sample records for ciliary assembly resorption

  1. Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) Role in Ciliary Assembly, Resorption and Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Rosenbaum, Joel L

    2008-01-01

    hedgehog, polycystin, and Wnt pathways. In addition, the realization that defective assembly or function of cilia can cause a plethora of diseases and developmental defects ("ciliopathies") has increased focus on the mechanisms by which these antenna-like, microtubular structures assemble. Ciliogenesis...

  2. CCDC103 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disrupting assembly of ciliary dynein arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Becker-Heck, Anita; Castleman, Victoria H.; Al-Mutairi, Dalal; Liu, Yan; Loges, Niki T.; Pathak, Narendra; Austin-Tse, Christina; Sheridan, Eamonn; Schmidts, Miriam; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Häffner, Karsten; Hellman, Nathan; Chodhari, Rahul; Gupta, Amar; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Olale, Felix; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Schier, Alexander F.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie MK; Reinhardt, Richard; Mitchison, Hannah M.; King, Stephen M.; Omran, Heymut; Drummond, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. PMID:22581229

  3. Arf4 is required for Mammalian development but dispensable for ciliary assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Follit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at the Golgi complex and deemed a key regulator of ciliary protein trafficking. In this work, we show that Arf4 binds to the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS of fibrocystin. Knockdown of Arf4 indicates that it is not absolutely required for trafficking of the fibrocystin CTS to cilia as steady-state CTS levels are unaffected. However, we did observe a delay in delivery of newly synthesized CTS from the Golgi complex to the cilium when Arf4 was reduced. Arf4 mutant mice are embryonic lethal and die at mid-gestation shortly after node formation. Nodal cilia appeared normal and functioned properly to break left-right symmetry in Arf4 mutant embryos. At this stage of development Arf4 expression is highest in the visceral endoderm but we did not detect cilia on these cells. In the visceral endoderm, the lack of Arf4 caused defects in cell structure and apical protein localization. This work suggests that while Arf4 is not required for ciliary assembly, it is important for the efficient transport of fibrocystin to cilia, and also plays critical roles in non-ciliary processes.

  4. Self-assembling bisphosphonates into nanofibers to enhance their inhibitory capacity on bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anming; Qian, Yu; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Weijuan; Xu, Bing; Qin, An; Liang, Gaolin

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is an important aging-related disease and the effective prevention/treatment of this disease remains challenging. Considering the acidic microenvironment of bone resorption lacunae, herein, we rationally designed two pamidronate (Pami)-derivative and alendronate (Alen)-derivative hydrogelators Pami-D and Alen-D which self-assemble into nanofibers to form supramolecular hydrogels under acidic conditions. Cell viability assay, osteoclastogenesis, osteoclastic gene expression, and in vitro bone resorption results indicated that both Pami-D and Alen-D have better inhibitory effects on osteoclastic formation and bone resorption than Pami and Alen, respectively. We anticipate that our new drugs Pami-D and Alen-D could ``smartly'' self-assemble and locally concentrate the drugs at bone resorption lacunae in vivo and subsequently prevent/treat osteoporosis more efficiently.Osteoporosis (OP) is an important aging-related disease and the effective prevention/treatment of this disease remains challenging. Considering the acidic microenvironment of bone resorption lacunae, herein, we rationally designed two pamidronate (Pami)-derivative and alendronate (Alen)-derivative hydrogelators Pami-D and Alen-D which self-assemble into nanofibers to form supramolecular hydrogels under acidic conditions. Cell viability assay, osteoclastogenesis, osteoclastic gene expression, and in vitro bone resorption results indicated that both Pami-D and Alen-D have better inhibitory effects on osteoclastic formation and bone resorption than Pami and Alen, respectively. We anticipate that our new drugs Pami-D and Alen-D could ``smartly'' self-assemble and locally concentrate the drugs at bone resorption lacunae in vivo and subsequently prevent/treat osteoporosis more efficiently. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experiment methods and details; syntheses and characterization of Pami-D and Alen-D; HPLC conditions; Fig. S1-S15, Schemes S1 and S2, Tables S1 and S2

  5. HEATR2 plays a conserved role in assembly of the ciliary motile apparatus.

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    Christine P Diggle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD. Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme.

  6. The ciliary inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, is assembled in the cytoplasm and transported by IFT before axonemal docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadha, Rasagnya; Hunter, Emily L; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Wirschell, Maureen; Alford, Lea M; Dutcher, Susan K; Sale, Winfield S

    2014-10-01

    To determine mechanisms of assembly of ciliary dyneins, we focused on the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, also known as dynein f. I1 dynein assembles in the cytoplasm as a 20S complex similar to the 20S I1 dynein complex isolated from the axoneme. The intermediate chain subunit, IC140 (IDA7), and heavy chains (IDA1, IDA2) are required for 20S I1 dynein preassembly in the cytoplasm. Unlike I1 dynein derived from the axoneme, the cytoplasmic 20S I1 complex will not rebind I1-deficient axonemes in vitro. To test the hypothesis that I1 dynein is transported to the distal tip of the cilia for assembly in the axoneme, we performed cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons formed between wild-type and I1 dynein mutant cells. Rescue of I1 dynein assembly in mutant cilia occurred first at the distal tip and then proceeded toward the proximal axoneme. Notably, in contrast to other combinations, I1 dynein assembly was significantly delayed in dikaryons formed between ida7 and ida3. Furthermore, rescue of I1 dynein assembly required new protein synthesis in the ida7 × ida3 dikaryons. On the basis of the additional observations, we postulate that IDA3 is required for 20S I1 dynein transport. Cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons using the conditional kinesin-2 mutant, fla10-1 revealed that transport of I1 dynein is dependent on kinesin-2 activity. Thus, I1 dynein complex assembly depends upon IFT for transport to the ciliary distal tip prior to docking in the axoneme.

  7. X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia due to mutations in the cytoplasmic axonemal dynein assembly factor PIH1D3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcese, Chiara; Patel, Mitali P.; Shoemark, Amelia; Kiviluoto, Santeri; Legendre, Marie; Williams, Hywel J.; Vaughan, Cara K.; Hayward, Jane; Goldenberg, Alice; Emes, Richard D.; Munye, Mustafa M.; Dyer, Laura; Cahill, Thomas; Bevillard, Jeremy; Gehrig, Corinne; Guipponi, Michel; Chantot, Sandra; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Thomas, Lucie; Jeanson, Ludovic; Copin, Bruno; Tamalet, Aline; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Papon, Jean- François; Garin, Antoine; Pin, Isabelle; Vera, Gabriella; Aurora, Paul; Fassad, Mahmoud R.; Jenkins, Lucy; Boustred, Christopher; Cullup, Thomas; Dixon, Mellisa; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Bush, Andrew; Chung, Eddie M. K.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Wilson, Robert; Armengot, Miguel; Escudier, Estelle; Hogg, Claire; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Antony, Dinu; Barroso, Inês; Beales, Philip L.; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Cirak, Sebahattin; Cosgrove, Catherine; Allan, Daly; Durbin, Richard; Fitzpatrick, David; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; McCarthy, Shane; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Parker, Victoria; Payne, Felicity; Plagnol, Vincent; Raymond, Lucy; Savage, David B.; Scambler, Peter J.; Schmidts, Miriam; Semple, Robert; Serra, Eva; Stalker, Jim; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Walter, Klaudia; Amselem, Serge; Sun, Zhaoxia; Bartoloni, Lucia; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of dynein arm motors into cilia and flagella axonemes. Before their import into cilia and flagella, multi-subunit axonemal dynein arms are thought to be stabilized and pre-assembled in the cytoplasm through a DNAAF2–DNAAF4–HSP90 complex akin to the HSP90 co-chaperone R2TP complex. Here, we demonstrate that large genomic deletions as well as point mutations involving PIH1D3 are responsible for an X-linked form of PCD causing disruption of early axonemal dynein assembly. We propose that PIH1D3, a protein that emerges as a new player of the cytoplasmic pre-assembly pathway, is part of a complementary conserved R2TP-like HSP90 co-chaperone complex, the loss of which affects assembly of a subset of inner arm dyneins. PMID:28176794

  8. Assembly of IFT trains at the ciliary base depends on IFT74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason M; Cochran, Deborah A; Craige, Branch; Kubo, Tomohiro; Witman, George B

    2015-06-15

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) moves IFT trains carrying cargoes from the cell body into the flagellum and from the flagellum back to the cell body. IFT trains are composed of complexes IFT-A and IFT-B and cargo adaptors such as the BBSome. The IFT-B core proteins IFT74 and IFT81 interact directly through central and C-terminal coiled-coil domains, and recently it was shown that the N termini of these proteins form a tubulin-binding module important for ciliogenesis. To investigate the function of IFT74 and its domains in vivo, we have utilized Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ift74 mutants. In a null mutant, lack of IFT74 destabilized IFT-B, leading to flagella assembly failure. In this null background, expression of IFT74 lacking 130 amino acids (aa) of the charged N terminus stabilized IFT-B and promoted slow assembly of nearly full-length flagella. A further truncation (lacking aa 1-196, including part of coiled-coil 1) also stabilized IFT-B, but failure in IFT-A/IFT-B interaction within the pool at the base of the flagellum prevented entry of IFT-A into the flagellum and led to severely decreased IFT injection frequency and flagellar-assembly defects. Decreased IFT-A in these short flagella resulted in aggregates of stalled IFT-B in the flagella. We conclude that IFT74 is required to stabilize IFT-B; aa 197-641 are sufficient for this function in vivo. The N terminus of IFT74 may be involved in, but is not required for, tubulin entry into flagella. It is required for association of IFT-A and IFT-B at the base of the flagellum and flagellar import of IFT-A.

  9. The Oligomeric Outer Dynein Arm Assembly Factor CCDC103 Is Tightly Integrated within the Ciliary Axoneme and Exhibits Periodic Binding to Microtubules*

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen M.; Patel-King, Ramila S.

    2015-01-01

    CCDC103 is an ∼29-kDa protein consisting of a central RPAP3_C domain flanked by N- and C-terminal coiled coils. Defects in CCDC103 lead to primary ciliary dyskinesia caused by the loss of outer dynein arms. This protein is present along the entire length of the ciliary axoneme and does not require other dynein or docking complex components for its integration. Unlike other known dynein assembly factors within the axoneme, CCDC103 is not solubilized by 0.6 m NaCl and requires more chaotropic conditions, such as 0.5 m KI. Alternatively, it can be extracted using 0.3% sarkosyl. CCDC103 forms stable dimers and other oligomers in solution through interactions involving the central domain. The smallest particle observed by dynamic light scattering has a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼25 nm. Furthermore, CCDC103 binds microtubules directly, forming ∼9-nm diameter particles that exhibit a 12-nm spacing on the microtubule lattice, suggesting that there may be two CCDC103 units per outer arm dynein repeat. Although the outer dynein arm docking complex is necessary to form arrays of dyneins along microtubules, it is not sufficient to set up a single array in a precise location on each axonemal doublet. We propose that CCDC103 helps generate a high-affinity site on the doublets for outer arm assembly, either through direct interactions or indirectly, perhaps by modifying the underlying microtubule lattice. PMID:25572396

  10. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  11. Ciliary/Flagellar Protein Ubiquitination

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Long; Qiyu Wang; Kaiyao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Cilia/flagella are conserved eukaryotic organelles that play an important role in the control of cell motility and detection of environmental cues. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ciliary/flagellar assembly, maintenance, disassembly, and signal transduction are not yet completely understood. Recent studies demonstrated that post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, methylation, glutamylation, and ubiquitination are involved in these processes. In this mini ...

  12. Osteoclast cytosolic calcium, regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels and extracellular calcium, controls podosome assembly and bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, A.; Hruska, K. A.; Greenfield, E. M.; Duncan, R.; Alvarez, J.; Barattolo, R.; Colucci, S.; Zambonin-Zallone, A.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Teti, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and their effects on cell function were investigated in cultured chicken osteoclasts and putative osteoclasts produced by fusion of mononuclear cell precursors. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) were detected by the effects of membrane depolarization with K+, BAY K 8644, and dihydropyridine antagonists. K+ produced dose-dependent increases of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in osteoclasts on glass coverslips. Half-maximal effects were achieved at 70 mM K+. The effects of K+ were completely inhibited by dihydropyridine derivative Ca2+ channel blocking agents. BAY K 8644 (5 X 10(-6) M), a VGCC agonist, stimulated Ca2+ entry which was inhibited by nicardipine. VGCCs were inactivated by the attachment of osteoclasts to bone, indicating a rapid phenotypic change in Ca2+ entry mechanisms associated with adhesion of osteoclasts to their resorption substrate. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e) induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx. The Ca2+ release was blocked by dantrolene (10(-5) M), and the influx by La3+. The effects of [Ca2+]e on [Ca2+]i suggests the presence of a Ca2+ receptor on the osteoclast cell membrane that could be coupled to mechanisms regulating cell function. Expression of the [Ca2+]e effect on [Ca2+]i was similar in the presence or absence of bone matrix substrate. Each of the mechanisms producing increases in [Ca2+]i, (membrane depolarization, BAY K 8644, and [Ca2+]e) reduced expression of the osteoclast-specific adhesion structure, the podosome. The decrease in podosome expression was mirrored by a 50% decrease in bone resorptive activity. Thus, stimulated increases of osteoclast [Ca2+]i lead to cytoskeletal changes affecting cell adhesion and decreasing bone resorptive activity.

  13. CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merveille, Anne-Christine; Davis, Erica E; Becker-Heck, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory...

  14. Mutations in ZMYND10, a gene essential for proper axonemal assembly of inner and outer dynein arms in humans and flies, cause primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Daniel J; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a ciliopathy characterized by airway disease, infertility, and laterality defects, often caused by dual loss of the inner dynein arms (IDAs) and outer dynein arms (ODAs), which power cilia and flagella beating. Using whole-exome and candidate-gene Sanger resequ...

  15. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

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    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  17. Primary ciliary dyskinesia

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    Plavec Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with chronic respiratory diseases that last since the early childhood, primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD needs to be considered. Four patients reviewed in this paper were with typical disease history and clinical picture, as well as clear ciliary axonema damage. Complete examination was performed in all the patients, including bronchoscopy with bronchography, and the examination of the biopsy samples of respiratory airways’ mucous membrane, obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM. In two of the patients spermatozoa were also examined by TEM. Large anatomic deffects of airways were found in all the patients, but pulmonary function was normal (except in one case, representing one of PCD’s significant characteristics. First two cases fulfilled the criteria for Kartagener’s syndrome, which was initially sufficient for the diagnosis of PCD.

  18. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

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    Mary Anne Kowal Olm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of ciliary structure or function. It results in mucus accumulation and bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract which leads to chronic upper and lower airway infections, organ laterality defects, and fertility problems. We review the respiratory signs and symptoms of PCD, as well as the screening tests for and diagnostic investigation of the disease, together with details related to ciliary function, ciliary ultrastructure, and genetic studies. In addition, we describe the difficulties in diagnosing PCD by means of transmission electron microscopy, as well as describing patient follow-up procedures.

  19. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olm, Mary Anne Kowal; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Mauad, Thais

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of ciliary structure or function. It results in mucus accumulation and bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract which leads to chronic upper and lower airway infections, organ laterality defects, and fertility problems. We review the respiratory signs and symptoms of PCD, as well as the screening tests for and diagnostic investigation of the disease, together with details related to ciliary function, ciliary ultrastructure, and genetic studies. In addition, we describe the difficulties in diagnosing PCD by means of transmission electron microscopy, as well as describing patient follow-up procedures. PMID:26176524

  20. Primary ciliary dyskinesiatwo cases reports

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    Mohammad Sadegh Rezaee1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 22 December, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome are rare genetic disorders. There is a ciliary dysfunction in these disorders that cause recurrent infections in respiratory and sinus tracts associated with dextrocardia, chronic vasomotor rhinitis and dextrocardia. The aim of this paper is to report two rare cases of Primary ciliary dyskinesia, including one case of primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome for additional knowledge. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 85-89 (Persian.

  1. A ternary complex comprising transportin1, Rab8 and the ciliary targeting signal directs proteins to ciliary membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugula, Viswanadh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sensory functions of cilia are dependent on the enrichment of cilium-resident proteins. Although it is known that ciliary targeting signals (CTSs) specifically target ciliary proteins to cilia, it is still unclear how CTSs facilitate the entry and retention of cilium-resident proteins at the molecular level. We found that non-ciliary membrane reporters can passively diffuse into cilia through the lateral transport pathway, and the translocation of membrane reporters through the ciliary diffusion barrier is facilitated by importin binding motifs and domains. Screening known CTSs of ciliary membrane residents uncovered that fibrocystin, photoreceptor retinol dehydrogenase, rhodopsin and retinitis pigmentosa 2 interact with transportin1 (TNPO1) through previously identified CTSs. We further discovered that a new ternary complex, comprising TNPO1, Rab8 and a CTS, can assemble or disassemble under the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Rab8. Our study suggests a new mechanism in which the TNPO1–Rab8–CTS complex mediates selective entry into and retention of cargos within cilia. PMID:27633000

  2. Genetics Home Reference: primary ciliary dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome. Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ... Registry: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 17 Genetic Testing Registry: Kartagener syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Primary ciliary dyskinesia Other ...

  3. Ciliary genes are down-regulated in bronchial tissue of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Geremek

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, bronchiectasis and male infertility. The pulmonary phenotype in PCD is caused by the impaired motility of cilia in the respiratory epithelium, due to ultrastructural defects of these organelles. We hypothesized that defects of multi-protein ciliary complexes should be reflected by gene expression changes in the respiratory epithelium. We have previously found that large group of genes functionally related to cilia share highly correlated expression pattern in PCD bronchial tissue. Here we performed an explorative analysis of differential gene expression in the bronchial tissue from six PCD patients and nine non-PCD controls, using Illumina HumanRef-12 Whole Genome BeadChips. We observed 1323 genes with at least 2-fold difference in the mean expression level between the two groups (t-test p-value <0.05. Annotation analysis showed that the genes down-regulated in PCD biopsies (602 were significantly enriched for terms related to cilia, whereas the up-regulated genes (721 were significantly enriched for terms related to cell cycle and mitosis. We assembled a list of human genes predicted to encode ciliary proteins, components of outer dynein arms, inner dynein arms, radial spokes, and intraflagellar transport proteins. A significant down-regulation of the expression of genes from all the four groups was observed in PCD, compared to non-PCD biopsies. Our data suggest that a coordinated down-regulation of the ciliome genes plays an important role in the molecular pathomechanism of PCD.

  4. Invasive cervical resorption: treatment challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption. It is characterized by invasion of cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue derived from the periodontal ligament. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption occurring in maxillary lateral incisor, following damage in cervical cementum from avulsion and intracoronal bleaching procedure. Flap reflection, debridement and restoration with glass ionomer cement were performed in an attempt to...

  5. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the diffe

  6. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about...

  7. Preeruptive intracoronal resorption observed in 13 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Steiniche, Kirsten; Kortegaard, Ulla;

    2012-01-01

    The literature on preeruptive intracoronal resorption is sparse, comprising mainly reports of single patients. This study includes 13 patients with preeruptive intracoronal resorption, forwarded for consultation regarding diagnostics and etiology. The purposes were to determine which teeth are af...

  8. [Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, E; Palazzo, S; Argirò, S; El, Oksha S; Riva, E

    2012-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  9. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  10. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis.

  11. The intraflagellar transport machinery in ciliary signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourão, André; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Lorentzen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    environmental cues necessary for organ development and maintenance of human health. Pathways reported to rely on the cilium organelle include Hedgehog, TGF-β, Wnt, PDGFRα, integrin and DNA damage repair signaling. An emerging theme in ciliary signaling is the requirement for active transport of signaling...

  12. An international registry for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Claudius; Lablans, Martin; Ataian, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to chronic upper and lower airway disease. Fundamental data on epidemiology, clinical presentation, course and treatment strategies are lacking in PCD. We have established an international PCD registry to realise an u...

  13. A safe method of ciliary sulcus fixation of foldable intraocular lens using a ciliary sulcus guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertuğrul; Gül, Adem; Birinci, Hakkı

    2016-08-01

    To describe a novel technique for implantation of intraocular lens in the absence of capsular support using a ciliary sulcus guide. Based on the anatomic knowledge of the ciliary sulcus and the sclera, a new instrument was developed to pierce the needle safely through the ciliary sulcus and sclera. While the foldable lens is stored inside the cartridge, the leading haptic is sutured with a cow-hitch knot. The needle is then inserted into the ciliary sulcus guide. The tip of the guide is inserted from the corneal incision and proceeded under the iris to touch and fit the ciliary sulcus. The needle is pushed from back side. The needle comes out at precise point at the sclera. Implantation of the lens was performed through a 2.8 mm clear cornea incision using the injector. The trailing haptic is tied after implantation, and then the same procedure is performed at the opposite side. We performed this technique to 15 aphakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. There was no bleeding or other intraoperative complication. All the points coming out the sclera were between 2 and 2.5 mm from the limbus. The ab interno technique for scleral fixation of IOL is quicker, easier and less traumatic then ab externo techniques. A new ciliary sulcus guide which is usable with both straight and curved needles eliminates the blind maneuvers of ab interno technique and makes this technique more safe and precise.

  14. The four mechanisms of dental resorption initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a classification with a clinical application for root resorption, so that diagnosis will be more objective and immediately linked to the source of the problem, leading the clinician to automatically develop the likely treatment plan with a precise prognosis. With this purpose, we suggest putting together all diagnosed dental resorptions into one of these four criteria: 1 Root resorption caused by cementoblast cell death, with preservation of the Malassez epithelial rests. 2 Root resorption by cementoblasts and Malassez epithelial rests death. 3 Dental resorption by odontoblasts cell death with preservation of pulp vitality. 4 Dental resorption by direct exposure of dentin to gingival connective tissue at the cementoenamel junction gaps.

  15. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  16. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  17. Variation in nutrient resorption by desert shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant nutrient resorption prior to leaf senescence is an important nutrient conservation mechanism for aridland plant species. However, little is known regarding the phylogenetic and environmental factors influencing this trait. Our objective was to compare nitrogen and phosphorus resorption in a ...

  18. Root resorption during orthodontic tooth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, C; Hofman, Z

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the extent of maxillary incisor root resorption during different orthodontic tooth movements using three different techniques, namely the basal intrusion arch, the three component arch, and levelling of the upper dental arch with the straightwire appliance. The radiographs of 49 subjects (20 males and 29 females) with a mean age of 14.5 years were taken at two time points: in groups 1 and 2 after the levelling phase and in group 3 immediately after placement of the archwire (T1) and in all groups after a period of 6 months (T2). The amount of root resorption of the central incisors was determined at T2. The average incisor resorption was different in the three groups, with group 2 (three component arch) showing greater resorption (0.46 mm) than groups 1 (basal arch) and 3 (straightwire) of 0.26 and 0.25 mm, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that differences in root resorption in the three groups were not significant. Wilcoxon paired test showed that the root resorption occurring between T1 and T2 in the three groups was not significant. There was also no significant difference among the rates of resorption in the three groups. Grouping the subjects on the basis of the extent of root resorption and the biomechanics used showed differences in the percentage of subjects with the least (resorption between the three groups. This again showed that the technique of three component intrusion arch resulted in the greatest increase in root resorption.

  19. Quantitative analysis of ciliary beating in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papon Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare congenital respiratory disorder characterized by abnormal ciliary motility leading to chronic airway infections. Qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern based on digital high-speed videomicroscopy analysis has been proposed in the diagnosis process of PCD. Although this evaluation is easy in typical cases, it becomes difficult when ciliary beating is partially maintained. We postulated that a quantitative analysis of beat pattern would improve PCD diagnosis. We compared quantitative parameters with the qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern in patients in whom the diagnosis of PCD was confirmed or excluded. Methods Nasal nitric oxide measurement, nasal brushings and biopsies were performed prospectively in 34 patients with suspected PCD. In combination with qualitative analysis, 12 quantitative parameters of ciliary beat pattern were determined on high-speed videomicroscopy recordings of beating ciliated edges. The combination of ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities on transmission electron microscopy analysis with low nasal nitric oxide levels was the “gold standard” used to establish the diagnosis of PCD. Results This “gold standard” excluded PCD in 15 patients (non-PCD patients, confirmed PCD in 10 patients (PCD patients and was inconclusive in 9 patients. Among the 12 parameters, the distance traveled by the cilium tip weighted by the percentage of beating ciliated edges presented 96% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative analysis were concordant in non-PCD patients. In 9/10 PCD patients, quantitative analysis was concordant with the “gold standard”, while the qualitative evaluation was discordant with the “gold standard” in 3/10 cases. Among the patients with an inconclusive “gold standard”, the use of quantitative parameters supported PCD diagnosis in 4/9 patients (confirmed by the identification of disease

  20. Osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, and idiopathic condylar resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Louis G

    2008-05-01

    The term "osteoarthritis" has classically been defined as a low-inflammatory arthritic condition. The term "osteoarthrosis," a synonym for osteoarthritis in the medical orthopedic literature, has recently come to be identified in the dental/temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders literature with any noninflammatory arthritic condition that results in similar degenerative changes as in osteoarthritis. The term "idiopathic condylar resorption," also known as "progressive condylar resorption," is described as a dysfunctional remodeling of the TMJ manifested by morphologic change, decreased ramal height, progressive mandibular retrusion in the adult, or decreased mandibular growth in the juvenile. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of osteoarthritic TMJ disorders and idiopathic condylar resorption.

  1. A novel approach to inhibit bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panwar, Preety; Søe, Kent; Guido, Rafael VC;

    2016-01-01

    -dihydrotanshinone (DHT1), and the active site inhibitor, odanacatib (ODN), on bone resorption and TGF-ß1 degradation. Cell cultures, Western blot, light and scanning electron microscopy as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, molecular modelling and enzymatic assays were used to evaluate the inhibitors. KEY...... RESULTS: DHT1 selectively inhibited the collagenase activity of CatK, without affecting the viability of osteoclasts. Both inhibitors abolished the formation of resorption trenches, with DHT1 having a slightly higher IC50 value than ODN. Maximal reductions of other resorption parameters by DHT1 and ODN...

  2. LRRC6 mutation causes primary ciliary dyskinesia with dynein arm defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Horani

    Full Text Available Despite recent progress in defining the ciliome, the genetic basis for many cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD remains elusive. We evaluated five children from two unrelated, consanguineous Palestinian families who had PCD with typical clinical features, reduced nasal nitric oxide concentrations, and absent dynein arms. Linkage analyses revealed a single common homozygous region on chromosome 8 and one candidate was conserved in organisms with motile cilia. Sequencing revealed a single novel mutation in LRRC6 (Leucine-rich repeat containing protein 6 that fit the model of autosomal recessive genetic transmission, leading to a change of a highly conserved amino acid from aspartic acid to histidine (Asp146His. LRRC6 was localized to the cytoplasm and was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in human airway epithelial cells in a Foxj1-dependent fashion. Nasal epithelial cells isolated from affected individuals and shRNA-mediated silencing in human airway epithelial cells, showed reduced LRRC6 expression, absent dynein arms, and slowed cilia beat frequency. Dynein arm proteins were either absent or mislocalized to the cytoplasm in airway epithelial cells from a primary ciliary dyskinesia subject. These findings suggest that LRRC6 plays a role in dynein arm assembly or trafficking and when mutated leads to primary ciliary dyskinesia with laterality defects.

  3. Artificial ciliary bundles with nano fiber tip links

    CERN Document Server

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensory ciliary bundles in fishes are the inspiration for carefully engineered artificial flow sensors. We report the development of a new class of ultrasensitive MEMS flow sensors that mimic the intricate morphology of the ciliary bundles, including the stereocilia, tip links, and the cupula, and thereby achieve threshold detection limits that match the biological example. An artificial ciliary bundle is achieved by fabricating closely-spaced arrays of polymer micro-pillars with gradiating heights. Tip links that form the fundamental sensing elements are realized through electrospinning aligned PVDF piezoelectric nano-fibers that link the distal tips of the polymer cilia. An optimized synthesis of hyaluronic acid-methacrylic anhydride hydrogel that results in properties close to the biological cupula, together with drop-casting method are used to form the artificial cupula that encapsulates the ciliary bundle. In testing, fluid drag force causes the ciliary bundle to slide, stretching the flexible nan...

  4. Recent advances in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Kitano, Masako; Ishinaga, Hajime; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Nakatani, Kaname; Masuda, Sawako; Nagao, Mizuho; Fujisawa, Takao

    2016-06-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disease inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The prevalence of PCD is estimated to be 1 in 20,000 live births. Congenital abnormality of the primary cilia results in situs inversus in 50% of patients. Decreased function of motile cilia causes chronic rhinosinusitis, otitis media with effusion, bronchiectasis and infertility. Cases with situs inversus are considered to show "Kartagener's syndrome", and diagnosis is not difficult. However, in cases without situs inversus, the diagnosis is much more troublesome. PCD without situs inversus is thus probably underdiagnosed. Prolonged chronic cough represents an important symptom that is seen in most patients. The diagnosis of PCD requires the presence of the characteristic clinical phenotypes and either: (1) specific ciliary ultrastructural defects identified by transmission electron microscopy in biopsy samples of respiratory epithelium; or (2) identification of mutation in one of the genes known to be associated with PCD. Nasal nitric oxide concentration is extremely low in PCD, and this could be useful for screening of the disease. At present, no fundamental therapies are available for PCD. Diagnosis in the early stages is important to prevent progression of bronchiectasis and deterioration of lung function by guidance for daily life, immunization, cessation of smoking and prompt therapy at the time of respiratory tract infection. Since PCD is inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner, genetic counseling is necessary after definite diagnosis.

  5. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  6. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  7. Ciliary extracellular vesicles: Txt msg orgnlls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Barr, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles that protrude from cell surfaces to monitor the surrounding environment. In addition to its role as sensory receiver, the cilium also releases extracellular vesicles (EVs). The release of sub-micron sized EVs is a conserved form of intercellular communication used by all three kingdoms of life. These extracellular organelles play important roles in both short and long range signaling between donor and target cells and may coordinate systemic responses within an organism in normal and diseased states. EV shedding from ciliated cells and EV-cilia interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena, yet remarkably little is known about the relationship between the cilia and EVs and the fundamental biology of EVs. Studies in the model organisms Chlamydomonas and C. elegans have begun to shed light on ciliary EVs. Chlamydomonas EVs are shed from tips of flagella and are bioactive. C. elegans EVs are shed and released by ciliated sensory neurons in an intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependent manner. C. elegans EVs play a role in modulating animal-to-animal communication, and this EV bioactivity is dependent on EV cargo content. Some ciliary pathologies, or ciliopathies, are associated with abnormal EV shedding or with abnormal cilia-EV interactions, suggest the cilium may be an important organelle as an EV donor or as an EV target. Until the past few decades, both cilia and EVs were ignored as vestigial or cellular junk. As research interest in these two organelles continues to gain momentum, we envision a new field of cell biology emerging. Here, we propose that the cilium is a dedicated organelle for EV biogenesis and EV reception. We will also discuss possible mechanisms by which EVs exert bioactivity and explain how what is learned in model organisms regarding EV biogenesis and function may provide insight to human ciliopathies. PMID:26983828

  8. Coupling of Bone Resorption and Formation in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Nicolai Ernlund; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pløen, Gro Grunnet;

    2017-01-01

    and osteoclasts alternate, thus revealing the existence of a mixed "reversal-resorption" phase. 3D reconstructions obtained from serial sections indicated that initial resorption is mainly involved in elongating the canal and the additional resorption events in widening it. Canal diameter measurements show...... that the latter contribute the most to overall resorption. Of note, the density of osteoprogenitors continuously grew along the "reversal/resorption" surface, reaching at least 39 cells/mm on initiation of bone formation. This value was independent of the length of the reversal/resorption surface...

  9. Identified Circadian Rhythm Genes of Ciliary Epithelium with Differential Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia Li; Dongcheng Lu; Jian Ge; Yanna Li; Yehong Zhuo; Sears ML

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To identify differential genes expressed in the rabbit ciliary epithelium duringthe circadian cycle of aqueous flow.Methods: Total RNA from ciliary epithelium of rabbits at 8AM (light on 1 hour) and8PM(light off 1 hour) were compared by differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaetion(DD RT-PCR), using 6 % denaturing polyacrylamide electro-phoresis, choose differential display bands, cut and reamplify with the same primer, cloneand sequence. Search the database of Genbank, prolong them with 5' RACE and 3'RACE technique then clone, sequence and search database of Genbank.Results: 93 Significant differences gene expression were detected between light on andlight off in the rabbit ciliary epithelium.Conclusion: Differential display is a powerful tool to screen differentially expressedgenes in circadian rhythm of ciliary epithelium.

  10. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Catrina M.; Bialas, Nathan J.; Dekkers, Martijn; Walker, Denise S.; Grundy, Laura J.; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P. Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Michel R Leroux

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-a...

  11. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Catrina M.; Bialas, Nathan J.; Dekkers, Martijn P. J.; Walker, Denise S.; Grundy, Laura J.; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P. Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Michel R Leroux

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-a...

  12. Apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment -- a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apajalahti, Satu; Peltola, Jaakko Sakari

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence and severity of apical root resorption in patients treated with different orthodontic appliances and to evaluate the effect of treatment duration on the degree of apical root resorption. A further aim was to analyse the degree of apical root resorption in different tooth groups in patients presenting with root resorption. The sample consisted of 625 patients (269 males, 356 females) aged 8-16 years at the beginning of treatment. Active removable plates and fixed appliances were used most frequently. Following exclusion of poor quality radiographs, the final sample included 601 patients (348 females, 253 males). Root resorption in all tooth groups, except third molars, was evaluated from pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. The correlation of root resorption with treatment modality and duration was studied using multinomial logistic regression analysis. Of the tooth groups, maxillary incisors showed apical root resorption most frequently, followed by the mandibular incisors. Root resorption was significantly correlated with fixed appliance treatment (P resorption. The mean duration of treatment in patients without root resorption was 1.5 years, whereas in those with severe resorption was 2.3 years. The most severe resorption was seen in the maxillary incisors and premolars. It is concluded that with a long duration of fixed appliance treatment, the risk of severe resorption increases. In patients where treatment is prolonged, a 6-month radiographic follow-up is recommended.

  13. Diagnosis by ultrastructural study of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgarejo-Moreno P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, also known as ciliary immotility (SIC syndrome is an inherited disorder that includes a group of diseases in which respiratory cilia are immobile, ciliary movement is dyskinetic and ineffective or no cilia . The aim of this study is to determine the ciliary ultrastructure in patients with suspected DCP. Method: In 8 patients with suspected DCP nasal mucosa biopsy is performed with endoscopy at the inferior turbinate in the middle third by the ENT service under local anesthesia. Results: Of the 8 cases studied in 2 cases no ciliary ultrastructural level defects were found. In two cases with abnormal ciliary ultrastructure is present Kartagener syndrome. In a case no cilia were observed in the nasal mucosa. Discussion: The DCP and SIC are synonymous terms from clinical and pathogenetic view: immobility and dyskinesia lead to an absence of mucociliary transport, stasis of respiratory secretions with their consequences: chronic infections of lower respiratory tract and from birth . The most common ultrastructural defect is the total or partial absence of dynein. Conclusions: The ultrastructural study allows the diagnosis of PCD because genetic diagnosis is complicated and therefore get an early diagnosis of this condition which serves to improve the morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  14. Thyroxine Induced Resorption of Xenopus Laevis Tail Tissue in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of studying thyroxine-induced resorption of tadpole tails in vitro is described. This procedure demonstrates that resorption is dependent on thyroxine and requires protein synthesis. It introduces students to the use of tissue culture methods. (Author)

  15. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.

  16. Ciliary and non-ciliary expression and function of PACRG during vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumberger Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Park2-co-regulated gene (PACRG is evolutionarily highly conserved from green algae to mammals. In Chlamydomonas and trypanosomes, the PACRG protein associates with flagella. Loss of PACRG results in shortened or absent flagella. In mouse the PACRG protein is required for spermatogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze (1 the expression patterns of PACRG during vertebrate embryogenesis, and (2 whether the PACRG protein was required for left-right (LR axis specification through cilia-driven leftward flow in Xenopus laevis. Methods PACRG cDNAs were cloned and expression was analyzed during early embryonic development of Xenopus, mouse, rabbit and zebrafish. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO mediated gene knockdown was applied in Xenopus to investigate LR development at the level of tissue morphology, leftward flow and asymmetric marker gene expression, using timelapse videography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results were statistically evaluated using Wilcoxon paired and χ2 tests. Results PACRG mRNA expression was found in cells and tissues harboring cilia throughout the vertebrates. Highly localized expression was also detected in the brain. During early development, PACRG was specifically localized to epithelia where leftward flow arises, that is, the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in Xenopus, the posterior notochord (PNC in mammals and Kupffer’s vesicle (KV in zebrafish. Besides its association with ciliary axonemes, subcellular localization of PACRG protein was found around the nucleus and in a spotty pattern in the cytoplasm. A green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion construct preferentially labeled cilia, rendering PACRG a versatile marker for live imaging. Loss-of-function in the frog resulted dose dependently in LR, neural tube closure and gastrulation defects, representing ciliary and non-ciliary functions of PACRG. Conclusions The PACRG protein is a novel

  17. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature. PMID:27901225

  18. Root resorption after orthodontic intrusion and extrusion:.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, G.; Huang, S.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Zeng, X.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare root resorption in the same individual after application of continuous intrusive and extrusive forces. In nine patients (mean age 15.3 years), the maxillary first premolars were randomly intruded or extruded with a continuous force of 100 cN for eight wee

  19. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  20. Internal root resorption in the maxillary central incisor

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Internal root resorption is a chronic inflammatory process initiated within the pulp space with the loss of dentin. The clastic cells present in the pulp tissue trigger a progressive resorption phenomenon. Case report and conclusion: This paper reports a clinical case of an internal root resorption in the permanent central incisor, at the middle third of the root canal. Because it is asymptomatic,internal root resorption needs an early diagnosis in order to institute the endodon...

  1. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  2. Regional Aggressive Root Resorption Caused by Neuronal Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthodontic treatment, root resorption can occur unexplainably. No clear distinction has been made between resorption located within specific regions and resorption occurring generally in the dentition. The purpose is to present cases with idiopathic (of unknown origin root resorption occurring regionally. Two cases of female patients, 26 and 28 years old, referred with aggressive root resorption were investigated clinically and radiographically. Anamnestic information revealed severe virus diseases during childhood, meningitis in one case and whooping cough in the other. One of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface against resorption. Therefore, the normal nerve pattern is important for diagnostics and for predicting the course of severe unexpected root resorption.

  3. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share function

  4. [Calcitonin as an alternative treatment for root resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A; Berg, J O; Lindskog, S

    1989-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a common finding following trauma and will cause eventual destruction of the tooth root if left untreated. This study examined the effects of intrapulpal application of calcitonin, a hormone known to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, on experimental inflammatory root resorption induced in monkeys. Results were histologically evaluated using a morphometric technique and revealed that calcitonin was an effective medicament for the treatment of inflammatory root resorption. It was concluded that this hormone could be a useful therapeutic adjunct in difficult cases of external root resorption.

  5. Regional aggressive root resorption caused by neuronal virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger; Strøm, Carsten; Worsaae, Nils

    2012-01-01

    of the patients was treated with dental implants. Virus spreading along nerve paths is a possible explanation for the unexpected resorptions. In both cases, the resorptions began cervically. The extent of the resorption processes in the dentition followed the virus infected nerve paths and the resorption process...... stopped when reaching regions that were innervated differently and not infected by virus. In one case, histological examination revealed multinuclear dentinoclasts. The pattern of resorption in the two cases indicates that innervation is a factor, which under normal conditions may protect the root surface...

  6. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Catrina M; Bialas, Nathan J; Dekkers, Martijn P J; Walker, Denise S; Grundy, Laura J; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Leroux, Michel R

    2016-07-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-associated ciliary components. Roles for protofilament ribbon-associated proteins in nonmotile cilia and cellular signaling have not been investigated. We show that PACRG localizes to a small subset of nonmotile cilia in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting an evolutionary adaptation for mediating specific sensory/signaling functions. We find that it influences a learning behavior known as gustatory plasticity, in which it is functionally coupled to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. We also demonstrate that PACRG promotes longevity in C. elegans by acting upstream of the lifespan-promoting FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and likely upstream of insulin/IGF signaling. Our findings establish previously unrecognized sensory/signaling functions for PACRG and point to a role for this protein in promoting longevity. Furthermore, our work suggests additional ciliary motility-signaling connections, since EFHC1 (EF-hand containing 1), a potential PACRG interaction partner similarly associated with the protofilament ribbon and ciliary motility, also positively regulates lifespan.

  7. Molecular modulation of airway epithelial ciliary response to sneezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Qing; Cowan, Andrew T; Lee, Robert J; Goldstein, Natalia; Droguett, Karla; Chen, Bei; Zheng, Chunquan; Villalon, Manuel; Palmer, James N; Kreindler, James L; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the mechanical force of a sneeze on sinonasal cilia function and determine the molecular mechanism responsible for eliciting the ciliary response to a sneeze. A novel model was developed to deliver a stimulation simulating a sneeze (55 mmHg for 50 ms) at 26°C to the apical surface of mouse and human nasal epithelial cells. Ciliary beating was visualized, and changes in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were determined. To interrogate the molecular cascades driving sneeze-induced changes of CBF, pharmacologic manipulation of intra- and extracellular calcium, purinergic, PKA, and nitric oxide (NO) signaling were performed. CBF rapidly increases by ≥150% in response to a sneeze, which is dependent on the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), calcium influx, and PKA activation. Furthermore, apical release of ATP is independent of calcium influx, but calcium influx and subsequent increase in CBF are dependent on the ATP release. Lastly, we observed a blunted ciliary response in surgical specimens derived from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis compared to control patients. Apical ATP release with subsequent calcium mobilization and PKA activation are involved in sinonasal ciliary response to sneezing, which is blunted in patients with upper-airway disease.

  8. Stoichiometric patterns in foliar nutrient resorption across multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Davidson, Eric A.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2012-01-01

    *Nutrient resorption is a fundamental process through which plants withdraw nutrients from leaves before abscission. Nutrient resorption patterns have the potential to reflect gradients in plant nutrient limitation and to affect a suite of terrestrial ecosystem functions. *Here, we used a stoichiometric approach to assess patterns in foliar resorption at a variety of scales, specifically exploring how N : P resorption ratios relate to presumed variation in N and/or P limitation and possible relationships between N : P resorption ratios and soil nutrient availability. *N : P resorption ratios varied significantly at the global scale, increasing with latitude and decreasing with mean annual temperature and precipitation. In general, tropical sites (absolute latitudes resorption ratios of resorption ratios. Resorption ratios also varied with forest age along an Amazonian forest regeneration chronosequence and among species in a diverse Costa Rican rain forest. *These results suggest that variations in N : P resorption stoichiometry offer insight into nutrient cycling and limitation at a variety of spatial scales, complementing other metrics of plant nutrient biogeochemistry. The extent to which the stoichiometric flexibility of resorption will help regulate terrestrial responses to global change merits further investigation.

  9. Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim; Kristensen, Helene Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    . Collectively, our observations suggest that arrested reversal cells reflect aborted remodeling cycles that did not progress to the bone formation step. We, therefore, propose that bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis does not only result from a failure of the bone formation step, as commonly believed......Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing...... these lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined...

  10. Etiology and sequelae of root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskalic, V; Boyd, R L; Baumrind, S

    1998-06-01

    This article reviews the current status of investigation into apical root resorption within the context of orthodontic treatment. Treatment and patient factors that have traditionally been investigated are discussed, along with the results of current research in this area. The need for rethinking traditional research strategies in the quest for identifying both control and causative mechanisms is explored. Finally, proposals for key areas of future interest are highlighted.

  11. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  12. Angioleiomyoma of the Ciliary Body:A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu; Yongping Li; Guanguang Feng; Hao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To report a rare case of angioleiomyoma of the ciliary body Methods :The clinical manifestation, imaging findings, histopathologic characteristics were analyzed in a 32-year-old male patient with angioleiomyoma of the ciliary body. Results:The tumor was removed intact with local resection. Histopathologic examination revealed that the tumor was full of vessels and it was composed of spindle cells with abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive for SMA and Desmin and negative for S100 and HMB-45. Conclusions: Angioleiomyoma of the ciliary body is a rare tumor that can be successfully treated with local surgical resection in this area. It needs to be differentiated from other tumors, especially malignant melanoma. Eye Science 2004;20:19-22.

  13. Rer1p maintains ciliary length and signaling by regulating γ-secretase activity and Foxj1a levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisch-Yaksi, Nathalie; Rose, Applonia J; Lu, Huiqi; Raemaekers, Tim; Munck, Sebastian; Baatsen, Pieter; Baert, Veerle; Vermeire, Wendy; Scales, Suzie J; Verleyen, Daphne; Vandepoel, Roel; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Yaksi, Emre; de Ravel, Thomy; Yost, H Joseph; Froyen, Guy; Arrington, Cammon B; Annaert, Wim

    2013-03-18

    Cilia project from the surface of most vertebrate cells and are important for several physiological and developmental processes. Ciliary defects are linked to a variety of human diseases, named ciliopathies, underscoring the importance of understanding signaling pathways involved in cilia formation and maintenance. In this paper, we identified Rer1p as the first endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi-localized membrane protein involved in ciliogenesis. Rer1p, a protein quality control receptor, was highly expressed in zebrafish ciliated organs and regulated ciliary structure and function. Both in zebrafish and mammalian cells, loss of Rer1p resulted in the shortening of cilium and impairment of its motile or sensory function, which was reflected by hearing, vision, and left-right asymmetry defects as well as decreased Hedgehog signaling. We further demonstrate that Rer1p depletion reduced ciliary length and function by increasing γ-secretase complex assembly and activity and, consequently, enhancing Notch signaling as well as reducing Foxj1a expression.

  14. Conservation of ciliary proteins in plants with no cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Matthew E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cilia are complex, highly conserved microtubule-based organelles with a broad phylogenetic distribution. Cilia were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and many proteins involved in cilia function have been conserved through eukaryotic diversification. However, cilia have also been lost multiple times in different lineages, with at least two losses occurring within the land plants. Whereas all non-seed plants produce cilia for motility of male gametes, some gymnosperms and all angiosperms lack cilia. During these evolutionary losses, proteins with ancestral ciliary functions may be lost or co-opted into different functions. Results Here we identify a core set of proteins with an inferred ciliary function that are conserved in ciliated eukaryotic species. We interrogate this genomic dataset to identify proteins with a predicted ancestral ciliary role that have been maintained in non-ciliated land plants. In support of our prediction, we demonstrate that several of these proteins have a flagellar localisation in protozoan trypanosomes. The phylogenetic distribution of these genes within the land plants indicates evolutionary scenarios of either sub- or neo-functionalisation and expression data analysis shows that these genes are highly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen cells. Conclusions A large number of proteins possess a phylogenetic ciliary profile indicative of ciliary function. Remarkably, many genes with an ancestral ciliary role are maintained in non-ciliated land plants. These proteins have been co-opted to perform novel functions, most likely before the loss of cilia, some of which appear related to the formation of the male gametes.

  15. Frequency of root resorption following trauma to permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Adriana J; Souza, Gustavo A; Pereira, Andrea C; Vargas-Neto, Julio; Zaia, Alexandre A; Silva, Emmanuel J N L

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency of development of root resorption in dental trauma cases involving supporting tissue. For 249 traumatized teeth of 125 patients aged between 7 and 51 years, we collected data on the gender and age of the patient, the teeth involved, the type of trauma, and the period between dental injury and initial examination. Radiographic parameters examined in relation to root resorption included the presence of inflammatory external root resorption, internal root resorption, replacement resorption, and canal calcification. Data were analyzed by chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and mult iple logistic regression (P resorption (P = 0.0199), as well as the type of injury (P = 0.0406). Furthermore, external resorption was most frequently associated with intrusive luxation (92.8%), followed by avulsion (89.0%), lateral luxation (80.2%), and extrusive luxation (77.4%). Among the types of dental injury, replacement resorption was observed more frequently in cases of avulsion (87.2%). The only factor that was significantly associated with this type of resorption was the type of injury (P resorption is observed more frequently and its risk of development is higher in cases of severe trauma, especially avulsion and intrusive luxation.

  16. The morphology, topography and cytoarchitectonics of the ciliary ganglion in the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzimirska, Małgorzata

    2003-11-01

    The ciliary ganglion of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is located between the posterior wall of the eyeball and the optic nerve. It is closely connected with the oculomotor nerve; in particular with its inferior branch. The ganglion has a cask-like shape and is adjacent to the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve. From this ganglion postganglionic fibres emerge which are arranged in two fasciculi. These are termed the long ciliary nerves and the short ciliary nerves. A cross-section of the ciliary ganglion revealed two populations of cells: small ones - choroid cells and large ones - ciliary cells.

  17. Idiopathic internal resorption: Report of a case with unusual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth resorption can occur from the internal surface of a tooth or from the external surface of a tooth. Internal resorption is commonly termed to be "idiopathic" because of unknown cause. The aim is to report a case of idiopathic internal resorption showing unusual features. A 25-year-old female patient complains of mobility of tooth in right lower back tooth region since 2 months. Clinically, there was slight mobility in 48. Radiographically a resorptive area was seen in crown region of 48. The crown part was removed with gentle pressure using probe. A hollow crown with resorbed dentin and intact thin enamel was seen in gross specimen. A final diagnosis of idiopathic internal resorption was given. Early detection is essential for successful management of idiopathic internal resorption. This prevents further weakening of remaining tooth structure leading to crown or root perforations.

  18. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  19. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  20. Structural and functional lung disease in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Santamaria (Francesca); S. Montella (Silvia); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); G. Guidi (Guido); V. Casotti (Valeria); M. Maglione (Marco); P.A. de Jong (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) related lung disease are scarce. Study objectives: We evaluated the lung disease in children and adults with PCD by a modified Brody composite HRCT scan score to assess the prevalence of the structural ab

  1. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide) composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was...

  2. Amelogenesis Imperfecta with Coronal Resorption: Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shannu K; Hunter, M Lindsay; Ashley, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Intracoronal resorption of the permanent dentition in cases of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare finding which poses an added complication to the already complex management of this condition. This paper presents three cases of AI associated with delayed eruption of permanent teeth in which asymptomatic intracoronal resorption occurred. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This paper highlights the fact that teeth affected with amelogenesis imperfecta may undergo asymptomatic intracoronal resorption which is only identifiable radiographically.

  3. Prostaglandin induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 In ciliary melanocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning-li; LU Qing-jun; LI Jun-hong; WANG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Background Latanoprost,a prostaglandin F2a analog,has been shown to be an effective intraocular pressure lowering agent which acts by inducing ciliary muscle cells to synthesise matrix metalloproteinases.However,the response of ciliary melanocytes to latanoprost has never been reported.This research has investigated the ability of latanoprost to induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in human ciliary melanocytes,and thereby advance the understanding of the mechanism of PGF2a in decreasing Intraocular pressure.Methods In vitro human ciliary melanocytes were treated for 48 hours with five different concentrations of latanoprost (100,150,200,500,and 1000 nmol/L).Ciliary melanocytes treated with 0.01% ethanel(vehicle)were used as a control.The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in ciliary melanocytes was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining.Results Western blotting showed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in ciliary melanocytes was induced by latanoprost,and the level of expression was dependent on the concentration of latanoprost in the culture medium.Immunofluorescent staining showed that matrix metalloproteinase-1 was confined to the ciliary melanocyte cytoplasm.Conclusions Latanoprost induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human ciliary melanocytes in a dose-dependent manner.Ciliary melanocytes,as well as ciliary muscle cells,may also play an important role in uveoscleral outflow modulation.

  4. Ciliary photoreceptors in the cerebral eyes of a protostome larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamaneck Yale J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a non-visual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results To test the hypothesis that protostome cerebral eyes employ exclusively rhabdomeric photoreceptors, we investigated the ultrastructure of the larval eyes in the brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. We show that these pigment-cup eyes consist of a lens cell and a shading pigment cell, both of which are putative photoreceptors, deploying a modified, enlarged cilium for light perception, and have axonal connections to the larval brain. Our investigation of the gene expression patterns of c-opsin, Pax6 and otx in these eyes confirms that the larval eye spots of brachiopods are cerebral eyes that deploy ciliary type photoreceptors for directional light detection. Interestingly, c-opsin is also expressed during early embryogenesis in all potential apical neural cells, becoming restricted to the anterior neuroectoderm, before expression is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the eyes. Coincident with the expression of c-opsin in the presumptive neuroectoderm

  5. Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Henriksen, Kim; Sørensen, Mette G;

    2005-01-01

    Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results...... in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose...... dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We...

  6. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Hienz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways.

  7. Frequency of the external resorptions of root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorptions present a significant problem in endodontic therapy of the affected teeth and in dentistry in general. The objective of this study was to analyze, based on epidemiological and statistical research, the frequency of clinical incidence of pathological root resorptions in everyday practice related to localization, type of tooth, age and sex of patients. Radiographie documentation of patients treated from 1997 till 2002 at the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Stomatology in Belgrade, was used as baseline for this study. Retroalveolar radiographs of teeth with visible signs of resorptions were singled out from 15654 patients' clinical records used for this study. The external resorptions were shown as radiolucent areas localized on various outer root surfaces, followed by significant or less significant resorption of lamina dura and alveolar bone. Out of all teeth analyzed in this study, 594 (3.79% showed some kind of resorption. The external resorptions were found to be more present in the upper jaw (55.10% and molars (50.30% than in the lower jaw (44.90% and single root teeth (49.70%, but in both cases without significant statistical differences. The most frequent localization of resorptions was root apex (82.44%. In regard to age, the most frequent resorptions were recorded in patients aged between 21 and 30 years (28.40%, and the lowest incidence was found in the youngest population (5.51%. The results also showed that resorptions were more frequent among the female population (59.04% than among the male population (40.96%. Based on these results, we may conclude that the external root resorptions are not a frequent clinical phenomenon. Proper and early diagnostics of such tissue pathology is one of the basic prerequisites for successful endodontic therapy of the affected root.

  8. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H;

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...... resorption....

  9. Negative effects of fertilization on plant nutrient resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z Y; Chen, Han Y H

    2015-02-01

    Plants in infertile habitats are thought to have a high rate of nutrient resorption to enable them reuse nutrients more efficiently than those in fertile habitats. However, there is still much debate on how plant nutrient resorption responds to nutrient availability. Here we used a meta-analysis from a global data set of 9703 observations at 306 sites from 508 published articles to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on plant foliar N and P concentrations and resorption efficiency. We found that N fertilization enhanced N concentration in green leaves by 27% and P fertilization enhanced green-leaf P by 73% on average. The N and P concentrations in senesced leaves also increased with respective nutrient fertilization. Resorption efficiencies (percentage of nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) of both N and P declined in response to respective nutrient fertilization. Combined N and P fertilization also had negative effects on both N and P resorption efficiencies. Whether nutrient resorption efficiency differs among plant growth types and among ecosystems, however, remains uncertain due to the limited sample sizes when analyzed by plant growth types or ecosystem types. Our analysis indicates that fertilization decreases plant nutrient resorption and the view that nutrient resorption is a critical nutrient conservation strategy for plants in nutrient-poor environments cannot be abandoned. The response values to fertilization presented in our analysis can help improve biogeochemical models.

  10. Generalized cervical root resorption associated with periodontal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beertsen, W; Piscaer, M; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Everts, P. A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Background and description of case: The etiology and pathogenesis of generalized cervical root resorptions is not well understood. In the present report, a case of severe cervical root resorption involving 24 anterior and posterior teeth is presented. The lesions developed within a period of 2 years

  11. A Unified Taxonomy for Ciliary Dyneins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Erik F.Y.; Witman, George B.; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Dutcher, Susan K.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Mitchell, David R.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Porter, Mary E.; Sale, Winfield S.; Wirschell, Maureen; Yagi, Toshiki; King, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation and function of eukaryotic cilia/flagella require the action of a large array of dynein microtubule motor complexes. Due to genetic, biochemical, and microscopic tractability, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become the premier model system in which to dissect the role of dyneins in flagellar assembly, motility, and signaling. Currently, fifty-four proteins have been described as components of various Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins or as factors required for their assembly in the cytoplasm and/or transport into the flagellum; orthologues of nearly all these components are present in other ciliated organisms including humans. For historical reasons, the nomenclature of these diverse dynein components and their corresponding genes, mutant alleles and orthologues has become extraordinarily confusing. Here, we unify Chlamydomonas dynein gene nomenclature and establish a systematic classification scheme based on structural properties of the encoded proteins. Furthermore, we provide detailed tabulations of the various mutant alleles and protein aliases that have been used and explicitly define the correspondence with orthologous components in other model organisms and humans. PMID:21953912

  12. Management of internal resorption of central incisor using hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Prabakaran; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Jain, Eesha

    2014-01-28

    Internal inflammatory root resorption is characterised by progressive destruction of intraradicular dentin and dentinal tubules along the root canal wall. A number of theories have been proposed as a possible cause for internal resorption. It is usually asymptomatic and detected during routine radiographic investigations. Prompt diagnosis and early management of such defects is essential to maintain the integrity of the tooth. Non-surgical and surgical methods are the two main strategies involved in the management of internal resorption. The non-surgical method is usually preferred, but in cases of extensive resorption with external root perforation, surgical intervention has been advocated. The present case illustrates repair of perforating internal resorption by hybrid method, using mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha, following surgical exposure. After a 10-month follow-up, no clinical and radiographic abnormalities were observed. Additionally, there was also marked reduction in periodontal pocket depth.

  13. Clinical Management of Two Root Resorption Cases in Endodontic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mincik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption is a pathological process involving loss of hard dental tissues. It may occur as a consequence of dental trauma, orthodontic treatment, and bleaching, and occasionally it accompanies periodontal disease. Although the mechanism of resorption process is examined in detail, its etiology is not fully understood. Wide open apical foramen is more difficult to manage and the root canal may often overfill. In this report we present two cases of root resorption and describe means for its clinical management. We conclude that useful measure of a success or failure in managing root resorption is the persistence of the resorption process. It is a clear sign of an active ongoing inflammatory process and shows the clinical need for retreatment.

  14. Invasive cervical root resorption: Engineering the lost tissue by regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexton Antony Johns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR is a localized resorptive process that commences on the surface of the root below the epithelial attachment and the coronal aspect of the supporting alveolar process, namely the zone of the connective tissue attachment′ early diagnosis, elimination of the resorption and restorative management are the keys to a successful outcome. Treatment done was a combined non-surgical root canal therapy, surgical treatment to expose the resorptive defect and the resorptive defect was filled up with reverse sandwich technique and finally the bony defect filled with platelet rich fibrin (PRF, hydroxylapatite and PRF membrane. Significant bone fill was obtained in our case after a 2 year follow-up period. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with ICR.

  15. ['Door de beugel': resorption at dental elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunisse, M; Barendrecht, D S

    2015-09-01

    A twenty-year-old man was referred to an orthodontist for orthodontic re-treatment of dental element 32 by his dentist and a periodontist. At the buccal surface of the dental element a significant gingival resorption had occurred and the root of the element was located outside of the processus alveolaris buccally. This case will be presented at the thematic tour 'Door de beugel: team up' on 27 October 2015, which is organised by the Nederlandse Vereniging van Tandartsen (Dutch Dentists' Society) and will be held at 4 different locations in the Netherlands. Readers of the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde get an exclusive preview of the case. The treatment of choice will be published in the December 2015 issue.

  16. Quantification of Condylar Resorption in TMJ Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, LHS; Hajati, A-K; Paniagua, B; Lim, PF; Walker, DG; Palconet, G; Nackley, AG; Styner, M; Ludlow, JB; Zhu, H; Phillips, C

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was performed to determine the condylar morphological variation of osteoarthritic (OA) and asymptomatic temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and to determine its correlation with pain intensity and duration. STUDY DESIGN Three dimensional surface models of mandibular condyles were constructed from Cone-Beam CT images of 29 female patients with TMJ OA (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Group III) and 36 female asymptomatic subjects. Shape Correspondence was used to localize and quantify the condylar morphology. Statistical analysis was performed with MANCOVA analysis using Hotelling T2 metric based on covariance matrices, and Pearson correlation. RESULTS OA condylar morphology was statistically significantly different from the asymptomatic condyles (p<0.05). 3D morphological variation of the OA condyles was significantly correlated with pain intensity and duration. CONCLUSION 3D quantification of condylar morphology revealed profound differences between OA and asymptomatic condyles and the extent of the resorptive changes paralleled pain severity and duration. PMID:20382043

  17. The Pediatric Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jamal, Rana'a T; Cassoux, Nathalie; Desjardins, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To collect comprehensive data on choroidal and ciliary body melanoma (CCBM) in children and to validate hypotheses regarding pediatric CCBM: children younger than 18 years, males, and those without ciliary body involvement (CBI) have more favorable survival prognosis than young adults 18...... entered through a secure website and were reviewed centrally. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of females, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, cell type, and melanoma-related mortality. RESULTS: Cumulative frequency...... type, known for 35% of tumors, and TNM stage (I in 22% and 21%, II in 49% and 52%, III in 30% and 28%, respectively) were comparable for children and young adults. Melanoma-related survival was 97% and 90% at 5 years and 92% and 80% at 10 years for children compared with young adults, respectively (P...

  18. [A rare case of primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Cátia; Meireles, Cláudia; Bettencourt, Maria João; Ribeirinho, Augusto; Bentes, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disease with a clinical history of upper and lowers respiratory infections, rhinosinusitis and bronquitis associated with complete or partial situs inversus. The authors present a 78 -year -old male caucasian patient with rhinosinusitis, lower respiratory tract infection and dyspnea, chronic otitis with hearing deficit and infertility followed in Gastroenterology for dyspepsia and constipation. The radiological studies revealed agenesis of right frontal sinus; bronchial wall thickening; bronchiectasis; cecum and ascending colon located on the left and small bowel occupies right side of abdomen. He had no immunodeficiency, allergies, cystic fibrosis and others. We concluded primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy. For the rarity of this case we decided to present it.

  19. Diphyllin, a novel and naturally potent V-ATPase inhibitor, abrogates acidification of the osteoclastic resorption lacunae and bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette G; Henriksen, Kim; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V;

    2007-01-01

    Dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone by the osteoclasts mediated by V-ATPase and ClC-7 is a prerequisite for bone resorption. Inhibitors of osteoclastic V-ATPase or ClC-7 are novel approaches for inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. By testing natural compounds in acidification assay...

  20. Connexins form functional hemichannels in porcine ciliary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The expression of connexins in the ciliary epithelium is consistent with gap junctions between the pigmented (PE) and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE) that form when connexon hemichannels from adjacent cells pair to form a channel. Here we present evidence that suggests undocked connexons may form functional hemichannels that permit exchange of substances between NPE and the aqueous humor. Intact porcine eyes were perfused via the ciliary artery and propidium iodide (PI) (MW 668) was added to the aqueous humor compartment as a tracer. After calcium-free solution containing PI was introduced into the aqueous humor compartment for 30 min, fluorescence microscopy revealed PI in the NPE cell layer. PI entry into the NPE was inhibited by calcium and by the connexin antagonist 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-AGA). Studies also were carried out with cultured porcine NPE. Under normal conditions, little PI entered the cultured cells but calcium-free medium stimulated PI accumulation and the entry was inhibited by 18-AGA. In cells loaded with calcein (MW 622), calcium-free solution stimulated calcein exit. 18-AGA partially suppressed calcein exit in calcium-free medium. Connexin 43 and connexin 50 proteins were detected by western blot analysis in both native and cultured NPE. In the intact eye, immunolocalization studies revealed connexin 50 at the basolateral, aqueous humor-facing, margin of the NPE. In contrast, connexin 43 was observed at the junction of the PE and NPE layer and on the basolateral membrane of PE. The results point to functional hemichannels at the NPE basolateral surface. It is feasible that hemichannels might contribute to the transfer of substances between the ciliary epithelium cytoplasm and aqueous humor.

  1. Meiotic chromosome behaviour in Cenchrus ciliaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A basic chromosome number of x = 9 has been confirmed for Cenchrus ciliaris L. Polyploidy is common and levels vary from tetraploid to hexaploid. Aneuploidv is reported for a single specimen, where two chromosomes of a single genome were lost. Various meiotic irregularities were observed. The highest incidence of meiotic abnormalities was observed in the pentaploid specimens. This was attributed to their uneven polyploid level All specimens varied from segmental alloploid to alloploid.

  2. Photosynthesis of Digitaria ciliaris during repeated soil drought and rewatering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaYong Luo; XueYong Zhao; JingHui Zhang; YuLin Li; XiaoAn Zuo; DianChao Sun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte photosynthesis to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for vegetation sta-bility in semi-arid sandy lands. The responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual grass, Digitaria ciliaris, were measured through three soil drought and rewatering cycles. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 92%, 95%, and 63%at end of the three drought periods, respectively, water use efficiency (WUE) de-creased by 67%, 54%, and 48%, while the constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased by 1.08, 0.88, and 0.45 times. During those three cycles, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv′/Fm′) decreased by 55%, 51%, and 9%, the electron transport per cross section (ET0′/CS0′) decreased by 63%, 42%, and 18%, and the dissipation per cross section (DI0′/CS0′) increased by 97%, 96%, and 21%. These results indicated that D. ciliaris was subjected to photoinhi-bition and some non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, after four days of rewatering, its photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values. This capability to recover from drought may contribute to making the plant's use of water as efficient as possible. Furthermore, the photosynthesis decreased more slowly in the subsequent drought cycles than in the first cycle, allowing D. ciliaris to enhance its future drought tolerance after drought hardening. Thus, it acclimatizes itself to repeated soil drought.

  3. An evaluation of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E; Evans, W G; Becker, P

    2012-08-01

    Root resorption is commonly seen, albeit in varying degrees, in cases that have been treated orthodontically. In this retrospective study the objective was to compare the amount of root resorption observed after active orthodontic treatment had been completed with one of three different appliance systems, namely, Tip Edge, Modified Edgewise and Damon. The sample consisted of pre and post-treatment cephalograms of sixty eight orthodontic cases. Root resorption of the maxillary central incisor was assessed from pre- and post- treatment lateral ce phalograms using two methods. In the first, overall tooth length from the incisal edge to the apex was measured on both pre and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and root resorption was recorded as an actual millimetre loss of tooth length. There was a significant upward linear trend (p = 0.052) for root resorption from the Tip Edge Group to the Damon Group. In the second method root resorption was visually evaluated by using the five grade ordinal scale of Levander and Malmgren (1988). It was found that the majorty of cases in the sample came under Grade 1 and Grade 2 category of root resorption. Statistical evaluation tested the extent of agree ment in this study between visual measurements and actual measurements and demonstrated a significant association (p = 0.018) between the methods.

  4. Root resorption in relation to orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Chaitra; Hofman, Zdenĕk

    2006-01-01

    Root resorption is an undesirable sequela of orthodontic tooth movement. The odontoclasts are responsible for root resorption and the process of hyalinization is known to preceed the orthodontic root resorption. It is found that there are several predisposing factors, therefore an evaluation of these factors should be done by careful examination of personal medical history, severity of malocclusion and dental treatment (if any due to previous history of trauma), anterior crossbite etc. The evaluation becomes an essential factor as it helps the orthodontists in detecting the occurance and severity of the root resorption and thereby plan out the treatment more effectively. Orthodontic tooth movements especially intrusion and other movements like tipping, torque are all known to influence the root resorption, therefore the detection using radiographs and repair of root resorption is of utmost significance as root resorption is a more serious problem from a medicolegal stand point of view. However some studies have shown that the repair process is known to occur after the cessation of orthodontic treatment by the deposition of cementum of cellular type. In the light of orthodontist's liability of what is basically an unpredictable phenomenon, it is necessary that the speciality define this uncertainity and protect its members against unnecessary and unjustified litigation.

  5. [THE STRUCTURE OF LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES OF THE CILIARY BODY OF THE HUMAN EYE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Bgatova, N P; Chernykh, V V; Trunov, A N; Pozhidayeva, A A; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structural organization of interstitial spaces and vessels of the ciliary body of the human eye (n = 5) were studied. The ciliary body was found to contain wide interstitial spaces--tissue clefts bound by collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Organ-specific lymphatic capillaries were also demonstrated in the ciliary body. According to the present findings and the lymphatic region concept, the first 2 elements of the lymphatic region of the eye were described: tissue clefts--prelymphatics and lymphatic capillaries of the ciliary body. The third element of the lymphatic region are the lymph nodes of the head and neck.

  6. Dental root periapical resorption caused by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental root resorption especially in maxillary incisive region almost always happens simultaneously with orthodontic treatment, and it gained researchers attention, in particular after the use of periapical radiography. However, the fundamental etiology of dental root resorption is still dubious. Multifactoral causes are mentioned, among others are hormonal, nutritition, trauma, dental root form and dental root structure anomalies, genetic, while from treatment side are duration, types, strength scale and dental movement types. Based on these findings, orthodontic treatment was proven to cause dental root resorption in maxillary incisive teeth.

  7. Early and unusual incisor resorption due to impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Ronald L

    2003-10-01

    A very early and severe case of maxillary incisor resorption caused by impacted canines is reported. An estimated 50,000 cases of ectopic eruption and impaction of maxillary canines occur each year in the United States. Although incisor resorption due to ectopically positioned permanent maxillary canines can be swift, silent, and devastating, an effective protocol has been developed for early detection and management of this condition. Palpation and, if indicated, radiographic evaluation are combined with primary canine removal in selected cases. These strategies--particularly when used early--can prevent the vast majority of palatally impacted maxillary canines and the potentially devastating resorption of adjacent incisors.

  8. Prevalence of dental resorptive lesions in Swedish cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, A; Mannerfelt, T

    2003-09-01

    Ninety-six, randomly selected Swedish cats were evaluated for the presence of dental resorptive lesions. All cats were examined while receiving general anesthesia. Diagnosis was based on oral examination and full-mouth, intraoral dental radiographs. Information concerning age, sex, vaccination status, eating habits, food type, environment (indoor or outdoor housing), oral, discomfort, dental care, and medical treatment was recorded. Hematologic samples included analysis for FeLV, FIV, and calcivirus. Of the cats examined in this study, 32% had gross or radiographic signs of dental resorptive lesions. There was a positive relationship between the occurrence of dental resorptive lesions and increasing age.

  9. Culture of primary ciliary dyskinesia epithelial cells at air-liquid interface can alter ciliary phenotype but remains a robust and informative diagnostic aid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Hirst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns. METHODS: We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n  111 was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture. RESULTS: Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia.

  10. Apical root resorption in patients wearing orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousehal, L; Lazrak, L; Essmaali, F E; Ngom, P I

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of orthodontically induced root resorption during the tooth alignment and leveling phase, and to assess the impact of the variables age, sex and degree and direction of incisor displacement. We studied a consulting population at the dentofacial orthopaedics unit of the Dental Consultation and Treatment Centre (DCTC), Casablanca. Our sample was composed of 30 exposed cases and 30 non-exposed cases, followed up for a period of 8 months. A survey document was drawn up for data collection, and retro-alveolar radiographic imaging was used to evaluate resorption. Our results showed that the patients receiving orthodontic treatment all developed minor root resorptions during the alignment and levelling phase in the incisor group. We found that the central incisors underwent greater resorption than the lateral incisors.

  11. Condylar resorption in orthognathic surgery. The role of intermaxillary fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, J P; Kerstens, H C; Tuinzing, D B

    1994-08-01

    Condylar resorption that occurs after orthognathic surgery was investigated in a large sample of patients treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Free University in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The findings correspond with previous publications on this subject. In a 1-year follow-up study the role of intermaxillary fixation was investigated radiologically. In a group of 158 patients prone to show occurrence of condylar resorption, 24 (26.4%) of the 91 patients treated with intermaxillary fixation showed signs of condylar resorption. In the group of 67 patients treated without intermaxillary fixation only eight (11.9%) of the patients showed signs of reduced volume of the condyle. Avoidance of intermaxillary fixation seems to reduce the incidence of condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery in patients with a mandibular deficiency with high mandibular plane angle.

  12. Nutrient resorption is associated with leaf vein density and growth performance of dipterocarp tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.L.; Zhang, S.B.; Chen, Y.J.; Zhang, Y.P.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    1.Nutrient resorption is important for the nutrient budget of plants, but little is known about which plant traits mediate nutrient resorption, how resorption efficiency is associated with other leaf traits and whether nutrient resorption has an impact on plant growth. 2.In this study, 17 dipterocar

  13. Glucocorticoids maintain human osteoclasts in the active mode of their resorption cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    as a negative-feedback loop, switching resorptive activity off and promoting migration to a new resorption site, thereby generating an additional resorption pit. We conclude that glucocorticoids change the osteoclastic resorption mode from intermittent to continuous and speculate that this change may contribute...

  14. Bone resorption: an actor of dental and periodontal development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Andrea; Navet, Benjamin; Vargas, Jorge William; Castaneda, Beatriz; Lézot, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Dental and periodontal tissue development is a complex process involving various cell-types. A finely orchestrated network of communications between these cells is implicated. During early development, communications between cells from the oral epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme govern the dental morphogenesis with successive bud, cap and bell stages. Later, interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells occur during dental root elongation. Root elongation and tooth eruption require resorption of surrounding alveolar bone to occur. For years, it was postulated that signaling molecules secreted by dental and periodontal cells control bone resorbing osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation. Reverse signaling originating from bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts) toward dental cells was not suspected. Dental defects reported in osteopetrosis were associated with mechanical stress secondary to defective bone resorption. In the last decade, consequences of bone resorption over-activation on dental and periodontal tissue formation have been analyzed with transgenic animals (RANK (Tg) and Opg (-∕-) mice). Results suggest the existence of signals originating from osteoclasts toward dental and periodontal cells. Meanwhile, experiments consisting in transitory inhibition of bone resorption during root elongation, achieved with bone resorption inhibitors having different mechanisms of action (bisphosphonates and RANKL blocking antibodies), have evidenced dental and periodontal defects that support the presence of signals originating bone cells toward dental cells. The aim of the present manuscript is to present the data we have collected in the last years that support the hypothesis of a role of bone resorption in dental and periodontal development.

  15. Inflammatory root resorption in primary molars: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence of inflammatory root resorption and associated factors in 1068 primary mandibular molars in 453 children 3 to 12 years of age. Age, dental history and medical history were recorded using a questionnaire administered to the children's parents/caregivers. Previously trained and calibrated examiners assessed radiographic images of the primary molars by direct observation, with the aid of a viewing box. Root resorption (physiological or inflammatory, dental crown status (healthy, carious with no pulp involvement, carious with pulp involvement and evidence of restoration, and pulpotomy or pulpectomy were determined. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and a multiple logistic regression (p < 0.05. The prevalence of inflammatory root resorption was 16.2% (n = 173. The male gender (OR: 1.4; 95% CI, the 3-to-7-years age bracket (OR: 1.5; 95% CI, an unhealthy dental crown (OR: 8.7; 95% CI, caries with pulp involvement (OR: 7.4; 95% CI, pulpotomy (OR: 3.1; 95% CI, and pulpectomy (OR: 5.4; 95% CI were risk factors for the occurrence of inflammatory root resorption in primary molars. In conclusion, the prevalence of inflammatory root resorption in the present sample was 16.2%. Gender, age, an unhealthy tooth, caries with pulp involvement, pulpotomy, pulpectomy, and the absence of a restoration were associated with a higher occurrence of inflammatory root resorption in primary molars.

  16. Clinical and genetic aspects of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Margaret W; Pittman, Jessica E; Carson, Johnny L; Ferkol, Thomas W; Dell, Sharon D; Davis, Stephanie D; Knowles, Michael R; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2009-07-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia. Most of the disease-causing mutations identified to date involve the heavy (dynein axonemal heavy chain 5) or intermediate(dynein axonemal intermediate chain 1) chain dynein genes in ciliary outer dynein arms, although a few mutations have been noted in other genes. Clinical molecular genetic testing for primary ciliary dyskinesia is available for the most common mutations. The respiratory manifestations of primary ciliary dyskinesia (chronic bronchitis leading to bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, and chronic otitis media)reflect impaired mucociliary clearance owing to defective axonemal structure. Ciliary ultrastructural analysis in most patients (>80%) reveals defective dynein arms, although defects in other axonemal components have also been observed. Approximately 50% of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia have laterality defects (including situs inversus totalis and, less commonly, heterotaxy, and congenital heart disease),reflecting dysfunction of embryological nodal cilia. Male infertility is common and reflects defects in sperm tail axonemes. Most patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a history of neonatal respiratory distress, suggesting that motile cilia play a role in fluid clearance during the transition from a fetal to neonatal lung. Ciliopathies involving sensory cilia, including autosomal dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and Alstrom syndrome, may have chronic respiratory symptoms and even bronchiectasis suggesting clinical overlap with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

  17. Computational modelling elucidates the mechanism of ciliary regulation in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundhausen Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ciliary dysfunction leads to a number of human pathologies, including primary ciliary dyskinesia, nephronophthisis, situs inversus pathology or infertility. The mechanism of cilia beating regulation is complex and despite extensive experimental characterization remains poorly understood. We develop a detailed systems model for calcium, membrane potential and cyclic nucleotide-dependent ciliary motility regulation. Results The model describes the intimate relationship between calcium and potassium ionic concentrations inside and outside of cilia with membrane voltage and, for the first time, describes a novel type of ciliary excitability which plays the major role in ciliary movement regulation. Our model describes a mechanism that allows ciliary excitation to be robust over a wide physiological range of extracellular ionic concentrations. The model predicts the existence of several dynamic modes of ciliary regulation, such as the generation of intraciliary Ca2+ spike with amplitude proportional to the degree of membrane depolarization, the ability to maintain stable oscillations, monostable multivibrator regimes, all of which are initiated by variability in ionic concentrations that translate into altered membrane voltage. Conclusions Computational investigation of the model offers several new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of ciliary pathologies. According to our analysis, the reported dynamic regulatory modes can be a physiological reaction to alterations in the extracellular environment. However, modification of the dynamic modes, as a result of genetic mutations or environmental conditions, can cause a life threatening pathology.

  18. In vitro studies of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of the Indian grasses Dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris and Kala-Dhaman (Cenchrus setigerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus extracts in order to use it as a possible source for new antimicrobial substances against important human pathogens. Crude extracts of the stem of Cenchrus ciliaris and Cenchrus setigerus were evaluated against some medically important pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Raoultella planticola, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The dried and powdered stems were successively extracted with hexane, toluene, isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol using soxhlet assembly. The antimicrobial activity assay was done by both disc diffusion and serial dilution methods. Isopropyl alcohol extract of Cenchrus setigerus showed highest activity against Escherichia coli. The test pathogens were more sensitive to the isopropyl alcohol, acetone and ethanol extracts than to the hexane and toluene extracts except against Bacillus subtilis. Result reveals that the most bioactive compound was cycloleucolenol-9,19-cycloergost-24 (28-en-3-ol, 4, 14-dimethyl acetate in both the species of Cenchrus grass, (19.15% in isopropanol extract of Cenchrus setigerus whereas, (14.03% in acetone extract of Cenchrus ciliaris.

  19. Cdc42 deficiency causes ciliary abnormalities and cystic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Huang, Liwei; McKenna, Sarah; Wilson, F Perry; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2013-09-01

    Ciliogenesis and cystogenesis require the exocyst, a conserved eight-protein trafficking complex that traffics ciliary proteins. In culture, the small GTPase Cdc42 co-localizes with the exocyst at primary cilia and interacts with the exocyst component Sec10. The role of Cdc42 in vivo, however, is not well understood. Here, knockdown of cdc42 in zebrafish produced a phenotype similar to sec10 knockdown, including tail curvature, glomerular expansion, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, suggesting that cdc42 and sec10 cooperate in ciliogenesis. In addition, cdc42 knockdown led to hydrocephalus and loss of photoreceptor cilia. Furthermore, there was a synergistic genetic interaction between zebrafish cdc42 and sec10, suggesting that cdc42 and sec10 function in the same pathway. Mice lacking Cdc42 specifically in kidney tubular epithelial cells died of renal failure within weeks of birth. Histology revealed cystogenesis in distal tubules and collecting ducts, decreased ciliogenesis in cyst cells, increased tubular cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, increased fibrosis, and led to MAPK activation, all of which are features of polycystic kidney disease, especially nephronophthisis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cdc42 localizes the exocyst to primary cilia, whereupon the exocyst targets and docks vesicles carrying ciliary proteins. Abnormalities in this pathway result in deranged ciliogenesis and polycystic kidney disease.

  20. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  1. Clinical spectrum of primary ciliary dyskinesia in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretzayas, Andrew; Moustaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although the triad of bronchiectasis, sinusitis and situs inversus was first described by Kartagener in 1933, the clinical spectrum of primary ciliary dyskinesia is still under investigation. Heterotaxy defects as well as upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms are the main manifestations in childhood. It is now recognized that situs inversus is encountered in only half of patients. The first lower respiratory symptoms may be present from infancy as neonatal respiratory distress. The most common lower airway manifestations are chronic wet cough, recurrent pneumonia and therapy resistant wheezing. Patients are at risk of developing bronchiectasis which may even be the presenting finding due to delayed diagnosis. Upper respiratory tract infections such as nasal congestion, nasal drainage and recurrent sinusitis as well as otologic manifestations such as otitis media or otorrhea with conductive hearing loss are also often encountered. It seems that the type of ciliary ultrastructure defects and the involved mutated genes are associated to some extent to the clinical profile. The disease, even in nowadays, is not recognized at an early age and the primary care clinician should have knowledge of its clinical spectrum in order to select appropriately the children who need further investigation for the diagnosis of this disorder. PMID:26862502

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: considerations regarding six cases of Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Alejandro Vega; Vega, Nelson de Araujo; Santos, Bruno Quirino Dos; Maia, Guilherme Tavares da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), previously known as immotile cilia syndrome, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that includes various patterns of ciliary ultrastructural defects. The most serious form is Kartagener syndrome (KS), which accounts for 50% of all cases of PCD. The incidence of PCD ranges from 1:20,000 to 1:60,000. Since PCD causes deficiency or even stasis of the transport of secretions throughout the respiratory tract, it favors the growth of viruses and bacteria. As a result, patients have lifelong chronic and recurrent infections, typically suffering from bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, sinusitis, and infertility. Bronchiectasis and other chronic conditions infections can be the end result of the irreversible bronchial alterations, leading to chronic cor pulmonale and its consequences. Only half of the patients affected by PDC present all of the symptoms, a condition designated complete KS, compared with incomplete KS, typically defined as cases in which situs inversus does not occur. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed through transmission electron microscopy. Since there is no specific therapy for PCD, it is recommended that, upon diagnosis, secondary infections be treated with potent antibiotics and prophylactic interventions be implemented. In this paper, we report six cases of PCD (five cases of complete KS and one case of KS) and review the related literature, focusing on the diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical aspects of this disease.

  3. Mesenchymal dental pulp cells attenuate dentin resorption in homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Chen, M; He, L; Marão, H F; Sun, D M; Zhou, J; Kim, S G; Song, S; Wang, S L; Mao, J J

    2015-06-01

    Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone-derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal

  4. MNS1 is essential for spermiogenesis and motile ciliary functions in mice.

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    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available During spermiogenesis, haploid round spermatids undergo dramatic cell differentiation and morphogenesis to give rise to mature spermatozoa for fertilization, including nuclear elongation, chromatin remodeling, acrosome formation, and development of flagella. The molecular mechanisms underlining these fundamental processes remain poorly understood. Here, we report that MNS1, a coiled-coil protein of unknown function, is essential for spermiogenesis. We find that MNS1 is expressed in the germ cells in the testes and localizes to sperm flagella in a detergent-resistant manner, indicating that it is an integral component of flagella. MNS1-deficient males are sterile, as they exhibit a sharp reduction in sperm production and the remnant sperm are immotile with abnormal short tails. In MNS1-deficient sperm flagella, the characteristic arrangement of "9+2" microtubules and outer dense fibers are completely disrupted. In addition, MNS1-deficient mice display situs inversus and hydrocephalus. MNS1-deficient tracheal motile cilia lack some outer dynein arms in the axoneme. Moreover, MNS1 monomers interact with each other and are able to form polymers in cultured somatic cells. These results demonstrate that MNS1 is essential for spermiogenesis, the assembly of sperm flagella, and motile ciliary functions.

  5. HIV-1 tat and rev upregulates osteoclast bone resorption

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    Nicholas Chew

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disruption in bone homeostasis with increased osteoclastic resorption may lead to osteoporosis. HIV tat has been found to increase differentiation of precursor cells into osteoclast (OC (1. Presence of soluble HIV proteins in virally suppressed HIV patients on ART may drive a bone resorption phenotype. We investigated the role of soluble HIV proteins (tat, gp120 Mn and Bal, rev and p55-gag on osteoclastogenesis and OC resorptive capacity. Methods: Mouse monocyte RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate into OCs with 50 ng/mL RANKL and 25 ng/mL mCSF. Medium was supplemented with 100 ng/mL of recombinant HIV tat, gp120 (Mn and Bal, rev, nef and p55-gag, respectively, with zolendronate as negative control. Differentiated OCs were stained for TRAP and counted. OC resorption function was examined by culturing differentiated OCs (in the presence of respective HIV proteins on dentin-coated plates and examining the following (i sealing zone formation, (ii volume of resorption pits and (iii area of resorption pits per field using confocal microscopy. Expression of OC specific genes including NFATc1 and cathepsin K was investigated by qPCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is essential in RANKL-induced OC differentiation (2,3; effect of these proteins on ROS production was assessed using the fluorescent H2DCFH-DA. Mean fluorescence intensity was then measured by flow cytometry. TNFα production by OC precursors when incubated with tat and rev was measured by ELISA. Results: Tat and rev treatment was associated with increased OC formation by 70 and 26%, respectively (p<0.01, relative to control, while zolendronate significantly inhibited OC formation by 75%. Gp120 Mn and Bal, nef and p55-gag treatment had no effect on OC differentiation. Interestingly, neither tat nor rev treatment caused significant increases in sealing zone formation but increased dentin resorption pit area by 28 and 19%, respectively, and

  6. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Nimeri G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Nimeri, Chung H Kau, Rachel Corona, Jeffery Shelly Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. Keywords: photobiomodulation, root resorption, accelerate tooth movement, orthodontics, cone beam computed tomography

  7. Spontaneous resorption of a large cervical herniated nucleus pulposus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Hsu, Andrew R; Frank, Rachel M; An, Howard S; Andersson, Gunnar B

    2014-07-01

    The majority of patients with symptomatic herniated discs can be successfully and conservatively managed and can achieve clinical improvement without surgical intervention. Resorption of the herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is 1 conservative mechanism for clinical improvement. We present the case of a 76-year-old healthy man with acute cervical radicular right arm pain and positive Spurling test. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large disc extrusion behind the C6 vertebral body, causing severe central canal stenosis and right-greater-than-left foraminal stenosis. The patient did not want surgical intervention, and his symptoms resolved with conservative treatment. A follow-up MRI 7 months after his initial presentation showed almost complete resorption of the herniated disc. The patient returned to his normal activities and has not had recurrence of symptoms for 2 years. This report provides an interesting example of complete resorption of a large, extruded cervical herniated disc in a symptomatic patient and a review of the literature on resorption of herniated discs. The review suggests that larger herniations with an epidural location (penetration of the posterior longitudinal ligament) have a greater chance of resorption.

  8. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  9. Cilium assembly and disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium is an antenna-like, immotile organelle present on most types of mammalian cells, which interprets extracellular signals that regulate growth and development. Although once considered a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now the focus of considerable interest. We now know that ciliary defects lead to a panoply of human diseases, termed ciliopathies, and the loss of this organelle may be an early signature event during oncogenic transformation. Ciliopathies include numerous seemingly unrelated developmental syndromes, with involvement of the retina, kidney, liver, pancreas, skeletal system and brain. Recent studies have begun to clarify the key mechanisms that link cilium assembly and disassembly to the cell cycle, and suggest new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27350441

  10. Expression of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase in the human ciliary body and trabecular meshwork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning

    2012-01-01

    Background The role played by the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the aqueous humor dynamics is still unclear.This study was designed to investigate the expression and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and guanylate cyclase (GC) in human ciliary body,trabecular meshwork and the Schlemm's canal.Methods Twelve eyes after corneal transplantation were used.Expression of three NOS isoforms (i.e.neuronal NOS (nNOS),inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS)) and GC were assessed in 10 eyes by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal or polyclonal antibody of NOS and GC.Ciliary bodies were dissected free and the total proteins were extracted.Western blotting was performed to confirm the protein expression of 3 NOS isoforms and GC.Results Expression of 3 NOS isoforms and GC were observed in the ciliary epithelium,ciliary muscle,trabecular meshwork and the endothelium of the Schlemm's canal.Immunoreactivity of nNOS was detected mainly along the apical cytoplasmic junction of the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) and pigmented epithelial (PE) cells.Protein expressions of 3 NOS isoforms and GC were confirmed in isolated human ciliary body by Western blotting.Conclusions The expression of NOS isoforms and GC in human ciliary body suggest the possible involvement of NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP,cGMP) signaling pathway in the ciliary body,and may play a role in both processes of aqueous humor formation and drainage.

  11. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

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    Liviu Feller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  12. Management of Root Resorption Using Chemical Agents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; C. Cehreli, Zafer; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the premature loss of the affected tooth. Several hypotheses have been suggested as the mechanisms of root resorption such as absence of the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the absence of some intrinsic factors in cementum and predentin such as amelogenin or osteoprotegerin (OPG). It seems that a barrier is formed by the less-calcified intermediate cementum or the cementodentin junction that prevents external RR. There are several chemical strategies to manage root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to review several chemical agents to manage RR such as tetracycline, sodium hypochlorite, acids (citric acid, phosphoric acid, ascorbic acid and hydrochloric acid), acetazolamide, calcitonin, alendronate, fluoride, Ledermix and Emdogain. PMID:26843869

  13. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

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    Kaličanin Biljana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

  14. Bone resorption and mineral excretion in rats during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, C. E.; Adachi, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Bone resorption was measured directly in flight and synchronous control rats during COSMOS 1129. Continuous tracer administration techniques were used, with replacement of dietary calcium with isotopically enriched Ca-40 and measurement by neutron activation analysis of the Ca-48 released by the skeleton. There is no large change in bone resorption in rats at the end of 20 days of spaceflight as has been found for bone formation. Based on the time course of changes, the measured 20-25 percent decrease in resorption is probably secondary to a decrease in total body calcium turnover. The excretion of sodium, potassium, and zinc all increase during flight, sodium and potassium to a level four to five times control values.

  15. Icariin suppresses bone resorption activity of rabbit osteoclasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; ZHANG JinChao; ZHANG TianLan; WANG Kui

    2007-01-01

    The effect of icariin on the bone resorption activity of rabbit osteoclasts is assessed in vitro. Osteoclasts were isolated from Japanese white rabbits and cultured on plates with a sterilized bone slice in each well. After treatment with icariin at various concentrations, the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts was evaluated by examining pit areas, superoxide anion (O2-) generation, size and number of actin rings and intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i. As revealed by these data, icariin elicited continuous decline of [Ca2+]1, making actin ring constricted and O2- generation decreased. These events resulted in smaller and fewer pits which indicate suppressed bone resorption activity of rabbit osteoclasts by icariin.

  16. [Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment: a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houb-Dine, Afaf; Rerhrhaye, Mariam; Ismaili, Zouheir; Rerhrhaye, Wiam

    2011-12-01

    Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment is of multiple etiologies and a non intentional iatrogenic side effect which exists in almost all the orthodontic treatment. This clinical case of an apparently healthy patient illustrates the occurrence during the orthodontic treatment of a root resorption interesting the left central incisor, victims of previous traumatism and presenting a moderate periodontal attachment loss. The orthodontic treatment was carried out with light and continuous forces and a per-orthodontic periodontal maintenance in respect of periodontal requirements. As soon as the root resorption on the left central incisive was diagnosed, the active orthodontic treatment was interrupted in order to stabilize the lesion and a regular clinical and radiological monitoring was established.

  17. An unusual case of idiopathic multiple invasive cervical resorption

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    Sathya Prakash Reddy Kesary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a rare form of root resorption, characterized by destruction of the cervical region of teeth resulting from the action of tooth resorbing cells. Being an asymptomatic condition, it is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. This multifactorial disease process can most commonly occur as a sequel to orthodontic treatment, dental trauma, bleaching procedures, and less commonly, as an outcome of segmental orthognathic surgery, periodontal root planning, tetracycline conditioning of the root canal, bruxism, transplantation of tooth, guided tissue regeneration, cementoenamel disjunction. In the absence of these predisposing factors, it can be labeled as ′idiopathic multiple cervical resorption′. This article describes the case of a medically fit Indian male, who displayed idiopathic invasive cervical resorption in multiple teeth.

  18. Peculiarities of the bone tissue resorption under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N.; Oganov, V.; Polkovenko, O.; Nitsevich, T.

    The actual problem - peculiarities of resorptive processes in the spongiose of thingbones - we studied with the use of tranmissive electron microscopy in experiments on rats (American space station SLS-2) and on monkeys Macaca mulatt? (BION-11). Animals were onboard during 2 weeks. There was established, that the resorption happen with osteoclasts participation. They can create groups of cells. In the osteoclasts population we indicated not typical for the control (ground experiment) "giant" cells, which have on ultrathin sections 5-6 nuclei, many lysosomes, well developed "light" zone and "brush-border". The destruction of minera lized matrix in bone lacunas also happens by the way of osteolytic activity of osteocytes. Lysosome ferments of osteocytes are secreted by the eczocytosis. The osteocytic osteolysis, as well as the osteoclastic one can be seen as a physiological, gormon-dependent mechanism of resorption. The presence of a considerable number of neutrophiles, which enter in some zones of resorption is also typical. When these neutrophiles destruct, they release lysosomic ferments that dissolve the bone matrix. In some zones of resorption we noted the presence of the row from collagen fibrils, which loosed crystals , on mineralized matrix borders. The cell detritus is noted in zones of surface dissolving among crystallic conglomerates. It certificates the processes of osteogenic cells destruction that happen here. So, under the microgravity conditions in zones of adaptive remodeling of the spongiose the processes of the bone tissue resorption happen by some ways, namely: by the functional activization of osteoclasts; by the osteocytic osteolysis increasing; as a result of hydrolytic activity of neutrophiles, entering in these zones, and also by the local demineralization and further destruction of bone matrix surface zones.

  19. NOD2 Contributes to Porphyromonas gingivalis–induced Bone Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, T.P.; Taira, T.M.; Holanda, M.C.; Bignardi, L.A.; Salvador, S.L.; Zamboni, D.S.; Cunha, F.Q.; Fukada, S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The NOD-like receptors are cytoplasmic proteins that sense microbial by-products released by invasive bacteria. Although NOD1 and NOD2 are functionally expressed in cells from oral tissues and play a role triggering immune responses, the role of NOD2 receptor in the bone resorption and in the modulation of osteoclastogenesis is still unclear. We show that in an experimental model of periodontitis with Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, NOD2-/- mice showed lower bone resorption when compared to wild type. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that wild-type infected mice showed an elevated RANKL/OPG ratio when compared to NOD2-/- infected mice. Moreover, the expression of 2 osteoclast activity markers—cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9—was significantly lower in gingival tissue from NOD2-/- infected mice compared to WT infected ones. The in vitro study reported an increase in the expression of the NOD2 receptor 24 hr after stimulation of hematopoietic bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. We also evaluated the effect of direct activation of NOD2 receptor on osteoclastogenesis, by the activation of this receptor in preosteoclasts culture, with different concentrations of muramyl dipeptide. The results show no difference in the number of TRAP-positive cells. Although it did not alter the osteoclasts differentiation, the activation of NOD2 receptor led to a significant increase of cathepsin K expression. We confirm that this enzyme was active, since the osteoclasts resorption capacity was enhanced by muramyl dipeptide stimulation, evaluated in osteoassay plate. These results show that the lack of NOD2 receptor impairs the bone resorption, suggesting that NOD2 receptor could contribute to the progression of bone resorption in experimental model of periodontitis. The stimulation of NOD2 by its agonist, muramyl dipeptide, did not affect osteoclastogenesis, but it does favor the bone resorption capacity identified by increased osteoclast

  20. Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Senthil; Kumar, N S Mohan; Karunakaran, J V; Nagendran, S

    2015-08-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally.

  1. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dakheel, Abdullah J; Hussain, M Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005). The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m(-1)). The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW) were in the range from 122.5 to 148.9 g/pot in control; 96.4-133.8 g/pot at 10 dS m(-1); 65.6-80.4 g/pot at 15 dS m(-1), and 55.4-65.6 g/pot at 20 dS m(-1). The highest DW (148.9 g/pot) was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8% of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal lands to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  2. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  3. The Meckel syndrome- associated protein MKS1 functionally interacts with components of the BBSome and IFT complexes to mediate ciliary trafficking and hedgehog signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Chloe L.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The importance of primary cilia in human health is underscored by the link between ciliary dysfunction and a group of primarily recessive genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features, now known as ciliopathies. Many of the proteins encoded by ciliopathy-associated genes are components of a handful of multi-protein complexes important for the transport of cargo to the basal body and/or into the cilium. A key question is whether different complexes cooperate in cilia formation, and whether they participate in cilium assembly in conjunction with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins. To examine how ciliopathy protein complexes might function together, we have analyzed double mutants of an allele of the Meckel syndrome (MKS) complex protein MKS1 and the BBSome protein BBS4. We find that Mks1; Bbs4 double mutant mouse embryos exhibit exacerbated defects in Hedgehog (Hh) dependent patterning compared to either single mutant, and die by E14.5. Cells from double mutant embryos exhibit a defect in the trafficking of ARL13B, a ciliary membrane protein, resulting in disrupted ciliary structure and signaling. We also examined the relationship between the MKS complex and IFT proteins by analyzing double mutant between Mks1 and a hypomorphic allele of the IFTB component Ift172. Despite each single mutant surviving until around birth, Mks1; Ift172avc1 double mutants die at mid-gestation, and exhibit a dramatic failure of cilia formation. We also find that Mks1 interacts genetically with an allele of Dync2h1, the IFT retrograde motor. Thus, we have demonstrated that the MKS transition zone complex cooperates with the BBSome to mediate trafficking of specific trans-membrane receptors to the cilium. Moreover, the genetic interaction of Mks1 with components of IFT machinery suggests that the transition zone complex facilitates IFT to promote cilium assembly and structure. PMID:28291807

  4. Simultaneous sinus and lung infections in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Aanaes, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sinuses should be considered as a bacterial reservoir and a target for surgery and antibiotic treatment in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The observed decrease in serum precipitating antibodies (precipitins) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa may indicate a beneficial...

  5. Adenoma of nonpigmented epithelium in ciliary body:literature review and case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Adenomas of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE) are often clinically indistinguishable from amelanotic malignant melanomas of the ciliary body or metastatic carcinomas. This paper reports a case study of a distinctive variant of adenoma of the NPCE, which clinically appears as epiretinal membrane in the macular region. Histopathologic studies have revealed this is an adenoma of the NPCE. Identification of this clinic feature is important because it will miss the diagnosis of the adenoma of the NPCE. In this case study, B-scan ultrasonography as well as computerized tomography (CT) has been used to provide help in diagnosing the ciliary body tumor. Because of their anterior location in the ciliary body, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy is an effective method of treatment.

  6. Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in sciatic motor neurons following axotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, A J; Devlin, B K; Neitzel, K L; McLaurin, D L; Anderson, K J; Lee, N

    1999-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons are one of the few classes of neurons capable of regenerating axons following axotomy. Injury-induced expression of neurotrophic factors and corresponding receptors may play an important role in this rare ability. A wide variety of indirect data suggests that ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha may critically contribute to the regeneration of injured spinal motor neurons. We used immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and retrograde tracing techniques to study the regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha in axotomized sciatic motor neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha immunoreactivity, detected with two independent antisera, is increased in a subpopulation of caudal sciatic motor neuron soma one, two and six weeks after sciatic nerve transection and reattachment, while no changes are detected at one day and 15 weeks post-lesion. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA levels are augmented in the same classes of neurons following an identical lesion, suggesting that increased synthesis contributes, at least in part, to the additional ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein. Separating the proximal and distal nerve stumps with a plastic barrier does not noticeably affect the injury-induced change in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha regulation, thereby indicating that this injury response is not dependent on signals distal to the lesion traveling retrogradely through the nerve or signals generated by axonal growth through the distal nerve. The prolonged increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha protein and messenger RNA found in regenerating sciatic motor neurons contrast with the responses of non-regenerating central neurons, which are reported to display, at most, a short-lived increase in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor alpha messenger RNA expression following injury. The present data are the first to demonstrate, in vivo, neuronal regulation of

  7. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Corona, Rachel; Shelly, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm(2) continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected.

  8. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    -minute glucose clamps with co-infusion of GIP (4 pmol/kg/min for 15 min, followed by 2 pmol/kg/min for 45 min) or placebo. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of degradation products of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a bone resorption marker. RESULTS regarding effects...

  9. Disassociation of bone resorption and formation by GLP-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Hartmann, Bolette

    2007-01-01

    of collagen type I (s-CTX and u-CTX) and u-DPD, markers of bone resorption. In contrast, bone formation, as assessed by serum osteocalcin and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), appeared to be unaffected by treatment with exogenous GLP-2. These effects were further investigated in a 14-day study...

  10. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  11. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by...

  12. Regulatory Factor X (RFX)-mediated transcriptional rewiring of ciliary genes in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Brian P; Burghoorn, Jan; Swoboda, Peter

    2010-07-20

    Cilia were present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) and were retained by most organisms spanning all extant eukaryotic lineages, including organisms in the Unikonta (Amoebozoa, fungi, choanoflagellates, and animals), Archaeplastida, Excavata, Chromalveolata, and Rhizaria. In certain animals, including humans, ciliary gene regulation is mediated by Regulatory Factor X (RFX) transcription factors (TFs). RFX TFs bind X-box promoter motifs and thereby positively regulate >50 ciliary genes. Though RFX-mediated ciliary gene regulation has been studied in several bilaterian animals, little is known about the evolutionary conservation of ciliary gene regulation. Here, we explore the evolutionary relationships between RFX TFs and cilia. By sampling the genome sequences of >120 eukaryotic organisms, we show that RFX TFs are exclusively found in unikont organisms (whether ciliated or not), but are completely absent from the genome sequences of all nonunikont organisms (again, whether ciliated or not). Sampling the promoter sequences of 12 highly conserved ciliary genes from 23 diverse unikont and nonunikont organisms further revealed that phylogenetic footprints of X-box promoter motif sequences are found exclusively in ciliary genes of certain animals. Thus, there is no correlation between cilia/ciliary genes and the presence or absence of RFX TFs and X-box promoter motifs in nonanimal unikont and in nonunikont organisms. These data suggest that RFX TFs originated early in the unikont lineage, distinctly after cilia evolved. The evolutionary model that best explains these observations indicates that the transcriptional rewiring of many ciliary genes by RFX TFs occurred early in the animal lineage.

  13. Roles of paroxetine and corticosterone on adult mammalian ciliary body cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LAU Benson WM; YAU Suk-yu; LI Suk-yee; LEUNG Nelson; WANG Ning-li; TANG Siu-wa; LEE Tatia MC; SO Kwok-fai

    2010-01-01

    Background The neurogenesis in retina of adult mammals is generally abolished, and this renders the retina lack of regenerative capacity.Despite this, there is a small population of nestin-positive cells in the ciliary epithelium which retains neurogenic potential.The present study aimed at investigating the effect of two drugs, corticosterone and paroxetine, on the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given vehicle, corticosterone, paroxetine, or both corticosterone and paroxetine treatment for 14 days.Cell proliferation in the ciliary body was quantified using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry.Co-labelling of BrdU and stem cell marker was used to phenotype the BrdU immunoreactive cells.Results Corticosterone treatment suppressed while paroxetine treatment increased the cell proliferation of the ciliary body.Co-labelling with cell markers revealed that the BrdU positive cells also showed nestin expression but not glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).Conclusions The results illustrate that proliferation of retinal progenitor cells situated in ciliary body are subjected to regulation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and corticosteroid, which is similar to our previous findings in neurogenic regions in central nervous system (CNS).Paroxetine treatment could reverse the suppressive effect of corticosterone on ciliary body cell proliferation.This provides information for future investigation of retinal stem cell biology and potential treatment of retinal degenerative diseases.

  14. Influence of endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor on neural differentiation of adult rat hippocampal progenitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ding; Zhili He; Juan Ruan; Ying Liu; Chengxin Gong; Shenggang Sun; Honghui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor is the only known neurotrophic factor that can promote differentiation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells to glial cells and neurons in adult rats. This process is similar to spontaneous differentiation. Therefore, ciliary neurotrophic factor may be involved in spontaneous differentiation of neural stem cells. To verify this hypothesis, the present study isolated neural progenitor cells from adult male rats and cultured them in vitro. Results showed that when neural progenitor cells were cultured in the absence of mitogen fibroblast growth factor-2 or epidermal growth factor, they underwent spontaneous differentiation into neurons and glial cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical staining showed that exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor strongly induced adult hippocampal progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons and glial cells. Moreover, passage 4 adult hippocampal progenitor cells expressed high levels of endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor, and a neutralizing antibody against ciliary neurotrophic factor prevented the spontaneous neuronal and glial differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells. These results suggest that the spontaneous differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells is mediated partially by endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor.

  15. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinagha Aghili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. Results: In general, the differences were insignificant (P > 0.05. As the only exception, the group in which both ovalbumin and force were applied had significantly more root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  16. Detection of root resorption using dentin and bone markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Evans, C A

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVES - To test the hypothesis that during root resorption, organic matrix proteins and cytokines from the surrounding bone and dentin are released into the gingival crevice. MATERIAL AND METHODS - Subjects with mild (resorption (>2 mm) were identified. Control group subjects with no loss of root structure or undergoing orthodontic treatment were also identified. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected non-invasively from the mesial and distal sides of each of the four upper incisors by using filter paper strips. The eluted GCF was used for analysis using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Antibodies used were against osteopontin (OPN), (osteoprotegerin) OPG, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). RESULTS - Western blot analysis showed differential expression of OPN, OPG, and RANKL in the control and root resorbed subjects. However, processed forms of these proteins were only observed in the root resorbed subjects. Results from ELISA with OPG antibodies revealed a difference in OPG concentration between the control and root resorption groups. ELISA results with RANKL antibodies did show a statistically significant difference between the control group and the two study groups. The ratio RANKL/OPG was statistically higher in subjects with severe root resorption than in the control subjects. CONCLUSIONS - Preliminary results confirm the presence of matrix proteins and cytokines in the GCF of root resorbed subjects. Further, OPG was locally present in excess amounts over RANKL and an increased RANKL/OPG in the study groups could be correlated with an increased bone resorption activity during orthodontic tooth movement.

  17. [Specific features of centriole formation and ciliogenesis in ciliary epithelium cells of respiratory tracts in patients with Kartagener syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskiĭ, K E; Uvakina, E V; Volkov, I K; Onishchenko, G E

    2005-01-01

    An electron microscopic study of the ciliary epithelium of respiratory tracts was carried out in children (members of the same family) with Kartagener syndrome, which is a variant of ciliary dyskinesia. It was shown that in the case of both mobile cilia and ciliary dyskinesia in man, centrioles are formed during formation of the ciliary basal bodies predominantly de novo, involving deuterosomes. A wide spectrum of pathological changes was described in literature, such as the absence of dynein arms in the axoneme and disorganization of axoneme structure. In addition to these changes in the ciliary system, we found integration of several ciliary axonemes by the same plasma membrane, running of microtubules from the plasma membrane as bundles, different orientation of basal legs, etc.

  18. Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Resorption in Nine Canopy Trees of a Wet Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T. E.; Lawrence, D.

    2006-12-01

    Withdrawal of nutrients at the time of leaf abscission (nutrient resorption) is a nutrient conserving mechanism that could play an important role in stand-level nutrient economy. Currently data on nutrient resorption in wet tropical forests and on how this process varies temporally are sparse. We evaluated the N and P resorption efficiency of nine rain forest canopy tree species in both wet and dry season months. In addition, we measured short-term (bi-weekly) variation in nutrient resorption in the two dominant tree species, Pentaclethra macroloba and Laetia procera, over a 4-month period. We hypothesized that nutrient resorption would be more efficient during the dry season months and that resorption would be low during periods of high rainfall. Contrary to expectations, P resorption efficiency was higher in the wet season for four of the nine canopy tree species, while N resorption did not differ seasonally. The low dry season P resorption efficiency found in this study may be the result of drought stress during short periods of low rainfall, leading to incomplete nutrient resorption from senescing leaves. Nutrient resorption also varied significantly over the short-term. Both P and N resorption efficiency increased in P. macroloba and L. procera as the wet season progressed. The variability in resorption was not related to rainfall or temperature. Instead, the senesced leaf concentrations were a simple proportion of green leaf nutrient concentrations, with short punctuated periods of high resorption efficiency that may be reflective of species-specific phenological events, such as fruit and leaf production. The different timing of the seasonal increase in nutrient resorption between L. procera and P. macroloba supports this hypothesis, deserving of further study.

  19. Diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia: an international patient perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Rubbo, Bruna; Masefield, Sarah; Copeland, Fiona; Manion, Michele; Rindlisbacher, Bernhard; Redfern, Beatrice; Lucas, Jane S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by progressive sino-pulmonary disease, with symptoms starting soon after birth. A European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force aims to address disparities in diagnostics across Europe by providing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to identify challenges faced by patients when referred for PCD diagnostic testing. A patient survey was developed by patient representatives and healthcare specialists to capture experience. Online versions of the survey were translated into nine languages and completed in 25 countries. Of the respondents (n=365), 74% were PCD-positive, 5% PCD-negative and 21% PCD-uncertain/inconclusive. We then interviewed 20 parents/patients. Transcripts were analysed thematically. 35% of respondents visited their doctor more than 40 times with PCD-related symptoms prior to diagnostic referral. Furthermore, the most prominent theme among interviewees was a lack of PCD awareness among medical practitioners and failure to take past history into account, leading to delayed diagnosis. Patients also highlighted the need for improved reporting of results and a solution to the “inconclusive” diagnostic status. These findings will be used to advise the ERS Task Force guidelines for diagnosing PCD, and should help stakeholders responsible for improving existing services and expanding provision for diagnosis of this rare disease. PMID:27492837

  20. Protective Effects of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on Denervated Skeletal Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄仕龙; 王发斌; 洪光祥; 万圣祥; 康皓

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on denervated skeletal muscle atrophy and to find a new approach to ameliorate atrophy of denervated muscle, a model was estab lished by cutting the right sciatic nerve in 36 Wistar mice, with the left side serving as control. Then they were divided into two groups randomly. CNTF (1 U/ml) 0. 1 ml was injected into the right tib-ial muscle every day in experimental group, and saline was used into another group for comparison.The muscle wet weight, muscle total protein, Ca2+, physiological response and morphology were an alyzed on the 7th, 14th and 28th day after operation. Our results showed that compared to control group, there was a significant increase in muscle wet weight, total protein, Ca2+ , muscle fiber cross section area in CNTF group (P< 0. 05). CNTF could ameliorate the decrease of tetanic tension (PO), post-tetanic twitch potentiation (PTP), and the prolonged muscle relaxation time (RT)caused by denervation (P<0. 05). The motor end-plate areas 7 days and 14 days after denervation was similar (P>0. 05), but significantly larger 28 days after the denervation (P<0.05). Our re-sults suggest that CNTF exerts myotrophic effects by attenuating the morphological and functional changes associated with denervation of rat muscles and has protective effects on denervated muscle and motor end plate.

  1. The Bone Resorption Inhibitors Odanacatib and Alendronate Affect Post-Osteoclastic Events Differently in Ovariectomized Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L;

    2014-01-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a bone resorption inhibitor which differs from standard antiresorptives by its ability to reduce bone resorption without decreasing bone formation. What is the reason for this difference? In contrast with other antiresorptives, such as alendronate (ALN), ODN targets only...... the very last step of the resorption process. We hypothesize that ODN may therefore modify the remodeling events immediately following osteoclastic resorption. These events belong to the reversal phase and include recruitment of osteoblasts, which is critical for connecting bone resorption to formation. We...... in the interface between osteoclasts and surrounding osteoblast-lineage cells. This increase is expected to favor the osteoclast-osteoblast interactions required for bone formation. Regarding bone resorption itself, we show that ODN, but not ALN, treatment results in shallower resorption lacunae, a geometry...

  2. Multiple idiopathic external and internal resorption: Case report with cone-beam computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Kurt, Hakan [Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-12-15

    Root resorption is loss of dental hard tissue as a result of clastic activities. The dental hard tissue of permanent teeth does not normally undergo resorption, except in cases of inflammation or trauma. However, there are rare cases of tooth resorption of an unknown cause, known as 'idiopathic root resorption.' This report would discuss a rare case of multiple idiopathic resorption in the permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth of an otherwise healthy 36-year-old male patient. In addition to a clinical examination, the patient was imaged using conventional radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The examinations revealed multiple external and internal resorption of the teeth in all four quadrants of the jaws with an unknown cause. Multiple root resorption is a rare clinical phenomenon that should be examined using different radiographic modalities. Cross-sectional CBCT is useful in the diagnosis and examination of such lesions.

  3. Multiple idiopathic external and internal resorption: Case report with cone-beam computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Kurt, Hakan

    2014-12-01

    Root resorption is loss of dental hard tissue as a result of clastic activities. The dental hard tissue of permanent teeth does not normally undergo resorption, except in cases of inflammation or trauma. However, there are rare cases of tooth resorption of an unknown cause, known as "idiopathic root resorption." This report would discuss a rare case of multiple idiopathic resorption in the permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth of an otherwise healthy 36-year-old male patient. In addition to a clinical examination, the patient was imaged using conventional radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The examinations revealed multiple external and internal resorption of the teeth in all four quadrants of the jaws with an unknown cause. Multiple root resorption is a rare clinical phenomenon that should be examined using different radiographic modalities. Cross-sectional CBCT is useful in the diagnosis and examination of such lesions.

  4. Experimental study of diamond resorption during mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchuk, Yana; Schmidt, Max W.; Liebske, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Many of kimberlite-derived diamonds are partially dissolved to various degree but show similar resorption style. This resorption style has been observed in experiments with aqueous fluid at the conditions corresponding to kimberlite emplacement (1-2 GPa). At the same time, each diamond population has more than ten percent of diamond crystals with several drastically different resorption styles, which have not been observed in experiments, and may represent partial dissolution of diamonds during metasomatism in different mantle domains. Metasomatic processes modify the composition of subcratonic mantle, may trigger the formation of kimberlite magma, and result in the growth and partial dissolution of diamonds. Composition of metasomatic agents as constrained from studies of the reaction rims on mantle minerals (garnet, clinopyroxene) and experimental studies vary between carbonatitic melt, aqueous silicate melt, and CHO fluid. However, complex chemical pattern of mantle minerals and estimates of redox regime in subcratonic mantle allow different interpretations. Here we explore diamond dissolution morphology as an indicator of the composition of mantle metasomatic agents. Towards this end we examine diamond dissolution morphologies developed in experiments at the conditions of mantle metasomatism in different reacting media and compare them to the mantle-derived dissolution features of natural diamonds. The experiments were conducted in multi-anvil (Walker-Type) apparatus at 6 GPa and 1200-1500oC. Dissolution morphology of natural octahedral diamond crystals (0.5 mg) was examined in various compositions in synthetic system MgO-CaO- SiO2-CO2-H2O. The runs had the following phases present: solid crystals with fluid (various ratio of H2O-CO2-SiO2, and in the air), carbonate melt, carbonate-silicate melt, and carbonate melt with CHO fluid. Experiments produced three different styles of diamond resorption. In the presence of a fluid phase with variable proportions of H2O

  5. Root resorption related to orthodontics and other factors: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, R

    1995-09-01

    Each patient (and parents or guardian) should be clearly informed that there is a real possibility of one or more teeth undergoing root resorption during orthodontic procedures. They should sign an Information and Consent Form arranged by the dentist that they understand these risks before treatment is begun. Open bite cases possess significantly great degrees of resorption. Since trauma is closely associated with root resorption, the patient (and parents or guardian) should be questioned concerning previous traumatic occurrences that involved blows or accidents involving the teeth. Periapical radiographs are an important part of orthodontic records. They are useful to compare pretreatment and posttreatment root resorption. Maxillary incisors are affected more frequently and to a greater degree than the rest of the teeth during active treatment. Also, root resorption of the upper incisors during the initial 6-9 months of treatment with fixed appliances gives a high risk for continued resorption during the subsequent treatment. Therefore, it would be prudent to take periapical radiographs periodically during treatment. When root resorption is detected during active treatment, a decision must be made as to whether to continue, modify or discontinue the treatment. Extremely heavy forces should be avoided, since they have been shown to produce greater resorption activity. The ectopic eruption of canines causes a significant number of resorptions in lateral incisors. Habits adversely affect root resorption and should be eliminated if possible. Pathological lesions increase the risk of resorption. Periodontal disease increases the risk of resorption. The practitioner contemplating doing orthodontics should be cognizant of the above factors in evaluating the risk of root resorption. Patients (and parents or guardians) should be made clearly aware that any type of orthodontic treatment carries with it the risk of root tip blunting or resorption during orthodontic therapy.

  6. Resorption of labial bone in maxillary anterior implant

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Bum; Moon, Seung-Jin; Chung, Chae-Heon; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of resorption and thickness of labial bone in anterior maxillary implant using cone beam computed tomography with Hitachi CB Mercuray (Hitachi, Medico, Tokyo, Japan). MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-one patients with 26 implants were followed-up and checked with CBCT. 21 OSSEOTITE NT® (3i/implant Innovations, Florida, USA) and 5 OSSEOTITE® implants (3i/implant Innovations, Florida, USA) were placed at anterior region and they were posi...

  7. Spontaneous resorption of sub-retinal cortical lens material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil S Gadkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of retained sub-retinal cortical material, which underwent spontaneous resorption. Patient presented with a left eye traumatic retinal detachment with a large retinal tear and posteriorly dislocated cataractous lens. Vitrectomy, lensectomy, silicone oil injection, and endolaser were performed. A good visual result was achieved. The report draws attention to this condition and highlights possible technique for minimizing risk of this complication in similar cases.

  8. Conservative Management of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Raza Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a condition that affects the root surface area below the epithelial attachment. Multiple treatment modalities are advocated, involving exposure of the invasive defect, removal of the granulation tissue and sealing with various restorative materials. This report demonstrates conservative treatment of a patient presenting with peri-apical periodontitis in upper right central and lateral incisors, along with Class II invasive resorption defect cervically on the mesial aspect of the central incisor, as a result of trauma. As the patient was not willing for any surgical intervention, only ortho-grade root canal treatment was carried out in both teeth, with Calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medicament. At three year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic demonstrating radiographic evidence of infilling of defect with bone-like tissue.Within the limitations of this report, it was seen that this conservative method for halting the progression of invasive cervical resorption could be under taken in patients who are un-willing for surgical intervention or in whom surgery is contra-indicated.

  9. Biocompatibility and resorption of a brushite calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Felix; Apelt, Detlef; Brand, Bastian; Kutter, Annette; Zlinszky, Katalin; Bohner, Marc; Matter, Sandro; Frei, Christian; Auer, Joerg A; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2005-07-01

    A hydraulic calcium phosphate cement with beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) granules embedded in a matrix of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was implanted in experimentally created defects in sheep. One type of defect consisted of a drill hole in the medial femoral condyle. The other, partial metaphyseal defect was located in the proximal aspect of the tibia plateau and was stabilized using a 3.5 mm T-plate. The bone samples of 2 animals each per group were harvested after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Samples were evaluated for cement resorption and signs of immediate reaction, such as inflammation, caused by the cement setting in situ. Differences regarding these aspects were assessed for both types of defects using macroscopical, radiological, histological and histomorphometrical evaluations. In both defects the brushite matrix was resorbed faster than the beta-TCP granules. The resorption front was followed directly by a front of new bone formation, in which residual beta-TCP granules were embedded. Cement resorption occurred through (i) extracellular liquid dissolution with cement disintegration and particle formation, and (ii) phagocytosis of the cement particles through macrophages. Signs of inflammation or immunologic response leading to delayed new bone formation were not noticed at any time. Cement degradation and new bone formation occurred slightly faster in the femur defects.

  10. Beyond the mucus escalator: Complex ciliary hydrodynamics in disease and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Guo, Hanliang; John, Dabiri; Kanso, Eva; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures lining external and internal body surfaces where they interact with fluids. The main function of motile cilia is often described as that of a ``mucus escalator'', i.e., a homogeneous ciliary carpet moving along layer of mucus along the surface to transport food, germ cells, debris, or pathogens. Accordingly, the performance of ciliary systems is usually measured in terms of a single metric, transport velocity, or its presumed proxy, ciliary beat frequency. We challenge this simple view through the observation that both healthy and diseased biological systems exhibit a variety of cilia morphologies, beat patterns, and arrangements, resulting in complex flow patterns and transport phenomena that cannot be reduced to a single parameter. Here we present two case studies. In one system, the ciliated surface creates two distinct flow regimes for first trapping and then sheltering potential symbiont bacteria for further biochemical screening. In the other system, chronic disease induces a misalignment of ciliary beat, leading to a pathological transition from uniform mucus transport to a pattern of stagnation and circulation. These studies suggest that (a), we need to develop a wider range of metrics for describing ciliary transport in biological and clinical contexts, and (b), engineered ciliated systems exploiting a variety of design parameters could provide novel ways of manipulating fluids at the microscale.

  11. Defining the proteome of human iris, ciliary body, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingbo; Kirby, David; Dufresne, Craig; Chen, Yan; Turner, Randi; Ferri, Sara; Edward, Deepak P; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Semba, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    The iris is a fine structure that controls the amount of light that enters the eye. The ciliary body controls the shape of the lens and produces aqueous humor. The retinal pigment epithelium and choroid (RPE/choroid) are essential in supporting the retina and absorbing light energy that enters the eye. Proteins were extracted from iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid tissues of eyes from five individuals and fractionated using SDS-PAGE. After in-gel digestion, peptides were analyzed using LC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. In iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid, we identified 2959, 2867, and 2755 nonredundant proteins with peptide and protein false-positive rates of body, and RPE/choroid. Four "missing proteins" were identified in ciliary body based on ≥2 proteotypic peptides. The mass spectrometric proteome database of the human iris, ciliary body, and RPE/choroid may serve as a valuable resource for future investigations of the eye in health and disease. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifiers PXD001424 and PXD002194.

  12. [Primary ciliary dyskinesia, immotile cilia syndrome, and Kartagener syndrome: diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombi, V H; Walt, H

    1996-03-16

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is the generic term for a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases in which ciliary ultrastructure is defective and as a consequence ciliary motility is disturbed. An international consensus on the diagnostic criteria has not yet been reached. This paper reviews some recent findings which are useful in the diagnosis of the disease and attempts to establish the best diagnostic criteria. The marker symptoms are chronic bronchitis, otitis, and sinusitis since childhood. Additionally, one or more of the following criteria must be present: Kartagener syndrome, a dextrocardia situation, markedly reduced frequency in ciliary motility, or an essential ultrastructure deviation in more than 20% of the square cuts (e.g. reduced number of dynein arms). Biopsy of the ciliated mucosa is usually required for the above criteria and is studied by vital microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary ciliary dyskinesia can be distinguished by these methods and the rare case of PCD without ultrastructure deficiency ruled out. In special cases a cell culture is recommended for the diagnosis. Practical aspects of the sampling methods and diagnostic pitfalls are reviewed.

  13. Swimming speed of larval snail does not correlate with size and ciliary beat frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kit Yu Karen; Jiang, Houshuo; Padilla, Dianna K

    2013-01-01

    Many marine invertebrates have planktonic larvae with cilia used for both propulsion and capturing of food particles. Hence, changes in ciliary activity have implications for larval nutrition and ability to navigate the water column, which in turn affect survival and dispersal. Using high-speed high-resolution microvideography, we examined the relationship between swimming speed, velar arrangements, and ciliary beat frequency of freely swimming veliger larvae of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata over the course of larval development. Average swimming speed was greatest 6 days post hatching, suggesting a reduction in swimming speed towards settlement. At a given age, veliger larvae have highly variable speeds (0.8-4 body lengths s(-1)) that are independent of shell size. Contrary to the hypothesis that an increase in ciliary beat frequency increases work done, and therefore speed, there was no significant correlation between swimming speed and ciliary beat frequency. Instead, there are significant correlations between swimming speed and visible area of the velar lobe, and distance between centroids of velum and larval shell. These observations suggest an alternative hypothesis that, instead of modifying ciliary beat frequency, larval C. fornicata modify swimming through adjustment of velum extension or orientation. The ability to adjust velum position could influence particle capture efficiency and fluid disturbance and help promote survival in the plankton.

  14. Swimming speed of larval snail does not correlate with size and ciliary beat frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Yu Karen Chan

    Full Text Available Many marine invertebrates have planktonic larvae with cilia used for both propulsion and capturing of food particles. Hence, changes in ciliary activity have implications for larval nutrition and ability to navigate the water column, which in turn affect survival and dispersal. Using high-speed high-resolution microvideography, we examined the relationship between swimming speed, velar arrangements, and ciliary beat frequency of freely swimming veliger larvae of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata over the course of larval development. Average swimming speed was greatest 6 days post hatching, suggesting a reduction in swimming speed towards settlement. At a given age, veliger larvae have highly variable speeds (0.8-4 body lengths s(-1 that are independent of shell size. Contrary to the hypothesis that an increase in ciliary beat frequency increases work done, and therefore speed, there was no significant correlation between swimming speed and ciliary beat frequency. Instead, there are significant correlations between swimming speed and visible area of the velar lobe, and distance between centroids of velum and larval shell. These observations suggest an alternative hypothesis that, instead of modifying ciliary beat frequency, larval C. fornicata modify swimming through adjustment of velum extension or orientation. The ability to adjust velum position could influence particle capture efficiency and fluid disturbance and help promote survival in the plankton.

  15. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  16. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding.

  17. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-29

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m(-2) year(-1)) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China.

  18. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  19. Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China.

  20. Prospective study of alveolar bone resorption after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Etude prospective de la resorption osseuse alveolaire apres radiotherapie et chimiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libersa, P. (Faculte de Chirurgie Dentaire, 59 - Lille (France)); Prevost, B.; Mirabel, X.; Poissonnier, B.; Demaille, A. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)); Laude, M. (Laboratoire de craniologie humaine et comparee, 80 - Amiens (France))

    1993-01-01

    A prospective comparative study of the alveolar bone resorption after teeth extraction was achieved in a series of 79 patients in order to analyze macroscopically the possible consequences of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the toothless edges. After quarterly coronal and sagittal X-rays for two years, this study enhances quite a similar vertical resorption for the radiation and chemotherapy-treated patients as well as for the witness patients. The alveolar bone resorption progression also appears unaltered by anti cancerous treatments. In both cases, a resorption stabilization can be clearly seen after 6 months according to dental extractions. The vertical alveolar bone resorption is more important in incisor and canin regions. The anti cancerous treatments may not have significant disastrous consequences as fas as available bone amount is concerned, on a post prosthetic restoration.

  1. Broad-minded links cell cycle-related kinase to cilia assembly and hedgehog signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyuk Wan; Norman, Ryan X; Tran, John; Fuller, Kimberly P; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan T

    2010-02-16

    Recent findings indicate that mammalian Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction occurs within primary cilia, although the cell biological mechanisms underlying both Shh signaling and ciliogenesis have not been fully elucidated. We show that an uncharacterized TBC domain-containing protein, Broad-minded (Bromi), is required for high-level Shh responses in the mouse neural tube. We find that Bromi controls ciliary morphology and proper Gli2 localization within the cilium. By use of a zebrafish model, we further show that Bromi is required for proper association between the ciliary membrane and axoneme. Bromi physically interacts with cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), whose Chlamydomonas homolog regulates flagellar length. Biochemical and genetic interaction data indicate that Bromi promotes CCRK stability and function. We propose that Bromi and CCRK control the structure of the primary cilium by coordinating assembly of the axoneme and ciliary membrane, allowing Gli proteins to be properly activated in response to Shh signaling.

  2. KIF13B establishes a CAV1-enriched microdomain at the ciliary transition zone to promote Sonic hedgehog signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Mogensen, Johanne Bay; Morthorst, Stine Kjær

    2017-01-01

    Ciliary membrane composition is controlled by transition zone (TZ) proteins such as RPGRIP1, RPGRIPL and NPHP4, which are vital for balanced coordination of diverse signalling systems like the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Activation of this pathway involves Shh-induced ciliary accumulation...

  3. Brachytherapy, A viable option of globe salvage in treatment of large ciliary body melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of large histopathologically proven melanocytoma of the ciliary body in a 15-year-old male, presented with rapid extraocular growth following incisional biopsy with scleral patch graft. We chose brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 plaque over enucleation as the later was refused by the parents. The initial apical height of the tumor was 14.2 mm on ultrasonography. Two weeks after brachytherapy, the mass regressed to a size of 8.1 mm and 1 year later to 6.7 mm. This is the first case report showing the response of brachytherapy to ciliary body melanocytoma, which results in ocular and visual acuity salvation with considerable decreased in size of the tumor. The authors conclude that brachytherapy is an option in the management of non-resectable melanocytoma of the ciliary body.

  4. Primary ciliary dyskinesia diagnosed by electron microscopy in one case of Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugină, Aniela Luminiţa; Dimitriu, Alexandru Grigore; Nistor, Nicolai; Mihăilă, Doina

    2014-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with abnormalities in the structure of a function of motile cilia, causing impairment of muco-ciliary clearence, with bacterial overinfection of the upper and lower respiratory tract (chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease), heterotaxia (situs abnormalities), with/without congenital heart disease, abnormal sperm motility with male infertility, higher frequency of ectopic pregnancy and female subfertility. The presence of recurrent respiratory tract infections in the pediatric age requires differentiation between primary immunodeficiency, diseases with abnormal mucus (e.g., cystic fibrosis) and abnormal ciliary diseases. This case was hospitalized for recurrent respiratory tract infections and total situs inversus at the age of five years, which has enabled the diagnosis of Kartagener syndrome. The PCD confirmation was performed by electron microscopy examination of nasal mucosa cells through which were confirmed dynein arms abnormalities. The diagnosis and early treatment of childhood PCD allows a positive development and a good prognosis, thus improving the quality of life.

  5. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic pathway in the eye is novel and highly relevant to studies of glaucoma and other eye diseases.

  6. Nasal nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase expression in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, M; Bush, A; Maggi, F; Michelucci, A; Ricci, V; Conidi, M E; Cangiotti, A M; Bodini, A; Simi, P; Macchia, P; Boner, A L

    2011-03-01

    No study has evaluated the correlation between different expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in nasal epithelial cells and nasal NO (nNO) level in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Gene expression of endothelial (NOS3) and inducible NOS (NOS2) and their correlation with nNO level, ciliary function and morphology were studied in patients with PCD or secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD). NOS3 gene polymorphisms were studied in blood leukocytes. A total of 212 subjects were studied (48 with PCD, 161 with SCD and three normal subjects). nNO level correlated with mean ciliary beat frequency (p = 0.044; r = 0.174). The lower the nNO level the higher was the percentage of immotile cilia (p<0.001; r = -0.375). A significant positive correlation between NOS2 gene expression and nNO levels was demonstrated in all children (p = 0.001; r = 0.428), and this correlation was confirmed in patients with PCD (p = 0.019; r = 0.484). NOS2 gene expression was lower in PCD than in SCD (p = 0.04). The NOS3 isoform correlated with missing central microtubules (p = 0.048; r = 0.447). nNO levels were higher in PCD subjects with the NOS3 thymidine 894 mutation, and this was associated with a higher ciliary beat frequency (p = 0.045). These results demonstrate a relationship between nNO level, NOS mRNA expression and ciliary beat frequency.

  7. Clinical indications for digital imaging in dento-alveolar trauma. Part 2: root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohenca, Nestor; Simon, James H; Mathur, Aeshna; Malfaz, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Common complications of dento-alveolar trauma are pulp necrosis, pulp canal obliteration, periapical pathosis and root resorption. Different types of root resorption have been identified with traumatic injuries. Repair-related (surface), infection-related (inflammatory), ankylosis-related (osseous replacement) or extraradicular invasive cervical resorption are among the most common. Recent developments in imaging systems have enabled clinicians to visualize structural changes effectively. The diagnosis and three-dimensional imaging assessment of the resorption is important in order to determine the treatment complexity and expected outcome based on the location and extension of the root defect. This article discusses and illustrates the clinical application of cone beam computed tomography for diagnosis and treatment plan of root resorption. Four clinical cases are presented to illustrate the potential use of the NewTom 3G for root resorption.

  8. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  9. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Advanced Inflammatory External Root Resorption Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Obturation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary central incisor affected by severe, perforating external root resorption. An 18-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary central incisor associated with pain and sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root an...

  10. Using waste heat for cooling with compact resorption plants; Kompakte Resorptionsanlagen zum Kuehlen mit Abwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, Thomas [Makatec GmbH, Bondorf (Germany); Helle, Kirsten [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik (IUTA) e.V. Energy Conversion and Energy Storage, Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Cooling technologies gain an increasing importance in the industrialized world. Ammonia based absorption chillers can be employed for air conditioning and refrigeration, using waste heat as driving force. With using the resorption technology for ammonia based absorption chillers gas cleaning is needless. Resorption systems consist of two solvent cycles exchanging refrigerant, both with absorber, desorber and solvent heat exchanger. Plate heat exchangers or new membrane contactors used as desorber and absorber lead to compact resorption chillers. (orig.)

  11. Case report - Root resorption and ankylosis associated with guided tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Cury, PR; Furuse, C; Martins, MT; Sallum, EA; de Araujo, NS

    2005-01-01

    Background. Root resorption and ankylosis have been reported rarely as sequelae to guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The authors describe a clinical case of root resorption following GTR that involved the use of a bioabsorbable membrane. Case Description. Two years after GTR was performed on a Class II furcation defect, the clinical examination revealed root resorption reaching the pulp chamber. The furcation defect was filled with epithelium and connective tissue, which contained inflammator...

  12. TGF-β and Physiological Root Resorption of Deciduous Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Emi; Karakida, Takeo; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Saeko; Fukae, Makoto; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine how transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in root-surrounding tissues on deciduous teeth regulates the differentiation induction into odontoclasts during physiological root resorption. We prepared root-surrounding tissues with (R) or without (N) physiological root resorption scraped off at three regions (R1–R3 or N1–N3) from the cervical area to the apical area of the tooth and measured both TGF-β and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities. The TGF-β activity level was increased in N1–N3, whereas the TRAP activity was increased in R2 and R3. In vitro experiments for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation revealed that proteins from N1–N3 and R1–R3 enhanced the TRAP activity in RAW264 cells. A genetic study indicated that the mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in N1 and N2 were significantly increased, and corresponded with levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, the expression level of RANKL was increased in R2 and R3. Our findings suggest that TGF-β is closely related to the regulation of OPG induction and RANKL-mediated odontoclast differentiation depending on the timing of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in the root-surrounding tissues of deciduous teeth during physiological root resorption. PMID:28035998

  13. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling.

  14. Orthodontic and nonorthodontic root resorption: their impact on clinical dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, Vincent G

    2008-08-01

    Occasionally, general dentists are challenged with providing restorative treatment for a postorthodontic patient who has had moderate to severe root resorption. When this happens, a number of questions about the cause of such resorption and the appropriate treatment arise in the dentist's mind. This article will describe the orthodontic and restorative management of three patients with severe maxillary incisor root resorption, provide a thorough discussion of the currently available literature on the topic of root resorption, and answer clinical questions regarding this relatively infrequent but devastating sequel to orthodontic treatment.

  15. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect.

  16. Primary tooth radicular resorption as a consequence of self-corrected ectopic eruption: 2 unusual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeler, Irem; Sara, Sezgi; Cehreli, Zafer C; Uysal, Serdar; Musselman, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Resorption of the distal root of primary second molars is a common consequence of ectopically erupting permanent first molars. Here, we report 2 unusual cases of primary molar root resorption caused by reversible (self-correcting) ectopic eruption of premolar and canine teeth. In both cases, severe pathological resorption of the mesial roots of primary molars was detected on routine dental radiographs, and the affected molars remained asymptomatic until exfoliation. The purpose of this paper was, using 2 case studies, to highlight the possibility of primary root resorption as a sequel of self-corrected ectopic eruption in locations not frequently diagnosed or reported.

  17. Physiological and pathological factors and mechanisms in the process of root resorption in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Zimmermann Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth resorption is essential in the process of root resorption in primary teeth. However, pathological root resorption, mainly the inflammatory one, is a consequence and/or complication of several clinical conditions, such as dental trauma and periapical inflammatory lesions from dental caries, thus becoming a common cause of tooth loss. Objective: To present and discuss a literature review regarding the mechanisms of physiological and inflammatory pathological root resorption in primary teeth, emphasizing their biochemical and cellular events. Literature review: The odontoclasts cells are responsible for resorption of dental tissues, and they are influenced by several stimuli and molecular signals derived from cytokines, neuropeptides, hormones and degradation products released when tissue is injured. However, so far it is not clear what leads to the differentiation of the precursor cells of odontoclasts, what gives them the signal to start the resorption in a specific place and time (especially in primary teeth and why they are activated in some pathological conditions,but not in others.Conclusion: The knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms and factors that regulate the process of root resorption is still meager.Research in this area is of great relevance,since new knowledge about the molecular pathway(s involved in root resorption may allow the development of different therapies, more biological ones, in order to control or prevent resorption, thus preventing tooth loss and its consequences.

  18. Identification of factors associated with pathological root resorption in traumatized primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mariane; Rocha, Maria José de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the development of pathological root resorptions in traumatized primary teeth. Based on Dental Reports on Traumatism from the Assistance Program for the Traumatized Patient, 90 children were selected. Among these children, 45 did not present pathological root resorption, while 45 did (23 replacement root resorptions and 22 external inflammatory root resorptions). Possible factors associated with the development of the pathological resorption include: (i) over 18 months or over 52 months of age, (ii) complicated trauma, and (iii) presence of more than one trauma in the same tooth. Using the chi-squared test, it was verified that trauma recurrence was considered to be a factor associated with the development of pathological root resorption (chi(2) = 3.636; P children with trauma recurrence present a 2.6 times higher chance of developing pathological root resorptions when compared with children that did not report trauma recurrence. Through the univaried logistic regression test, it was also observed that the association of two or three factors caused the chances of pathological root resorption development to increase by 3.8 times in 18-month-old children or older (95% CI: 1.5-9.7) and by 5.1 times in 52-month-old children or older (95% CI: 1.5-17). Trauma recurrence in the same primary tooth is associated with pathological root resorption, and the interaction among two or three factors increases the chance of developing such sequelae.

  19. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Ring

    Full Text Available GABA is more than the main inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the adult CNS. Several studies have shown that GABA regulates the proliferation of progenitor and stem cells. This work examined the effects of the GABA(A receptor system on the proliferation of retinal progenitors and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE cells. qRT-PCR and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology were used to characterize the GABA(A receptor system. To quantify the effects on proliferation by GABA(A receptor agonists and antagonists, incorporation of thymidine analogues was used. The results showed that the NPE cells express functional extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors with tonic properties and that low concentration of GABA is required for a baseline level of proliferation. Antagonists of the GABA(A receptors decreased the proliferation of dissociated E12 NPE cells. Bicuculline also had effects on progenitor cell proliferation in intact E8 and E12 developing retina. The NPE cells had low levels of the Cl-transporter KCC2 compared to the mature retina, suggesting a depolarising role for the GABA(A receptors. Treatment with KCl, which is known to depolarise membranes, prevented some of the decreased proliferation caused by inhibition of the GABA(A receptors. This supported the depolarising role for the GABA(A receptors. Inhibition of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCCs reduced the proliferation in the same way as inhibition of the GABA(A receptors. Inhibition of the channels increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1, along with the reduced proliferation. These results are consistent with that when the membrane potential indirectly regulates cell proliferation with hyperpolarisation of the membrane potential resulting in decreased cell division. The increased expression of p27(KIP1 after inhibition of either the GABA(A receptors or the L-type VGCCs suggests a link between the GABA(A receptors, membrane potential, and

  20. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  1. Condylar Resorption After Orthognathic Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Paulo Hemerson; Rizzati-Barbosa, Célia Marisa; Olate, Sergio; Moreira, Roger Willian Fernandes; de Moraes, Márcio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk factors related to condylar resorption (CR) after orthognathic surgery. Was realized a systematic review with a search of the literature performed in the electronic databases PubMed, MedLine, Ovid, Cochrane Library for current evidence in the world literature as conducted, and relevant articles were selected in according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and the findings were compared. Eight papers, (follow-up 12 months to 69 months) were including. A sample of 2567 patient with mandible or bi maxillary surgery with an age range from 14 to 46 year old was observed. In 137 patients (5.3%) CR was observed, with a 97.6% (122) female. CR was related to 118 cases with mandibular deficiencies with high mandibular plane (advancement surgery). CR were present principally in bi maxillary surgery with a 103 cases (75.2%) and only two papers show any analysis to the relation with TMJ dysfunction. Current evidence in CR is poor but supports those female patients with mandibular deficiency and high mandibular plane angle submitted to bi maxillary surgery with change in occlusal plane (counterclockwise) are associated with condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery. PMID:28066126

  2. Mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, cause Leber congenital amaurosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Koenekoop, R.K.; Mohamed, M.D.; Arts, H.H.; Boldt, K.; Towns, K.V.; Sedmak, T.; Beer, M. de; Nagel-Wolfrum, K.; McKibbin, M.; Dharmaraj, S.; Lopez, I.; Ivings, L.; Williams, G.A.; Springell, K.; Woods, C.G.; Jafri, H.; Rashid, Y.; Strom, T.M.; Zwaag, B. van der; Gosens, I.; Kersten, F.F.J.; Wijk, E. van; Veltman, J.A.; Zonneveld, M.N.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Maumenee, I.H.; Wolfrum, U.; Cheetham, M.E.; Ueffing, M.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Roepman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes blindness or severe visual impairment at or within a few months of birth. Here we show, using homozygosity mapping, that the LCA5 gene on chromosome 6q14, which encodes the previously unknown ciliary protein lebercilin, is associated with this disease. We dete

  3. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Janssen (Sarah); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); K. Bossers (Koen); J.B. ten Brink (Jacoline); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); M.H. Nagtegaal (Marleen); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecu

  4. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatur

  5. Study and retina allotransplantation of porcine ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogliati, Tiziana Paola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports the isolation, characterization and allotransplantation in porcine retina of ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells, also known as retinal stem cells (RSCs). The self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of these cells in vitro and in vivo makes them candidate donors in

  6. Heteromerization of ciliary G protein-coupled receptors in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A Green

    Full Text Available Nearly every cell type in the mammalian body projects from its cell surface a primary cilium that provides important sensory and signaling functions. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human developmental disorders and diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. Most neurons in the brain possess cilia that are enriched for signaling proteins such as G protein-coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclase type 3, suggesting neuronal cilia sense neuromodulators in the brain and contribute to non-synaptic signaling. Indeed, disruption of neuronal cilia or loss of neuronal ciliary signaling proteins is associated with obesity and learning and memory deficits. As the functions of primary cilia are defined by the signaling proteins that localize to the ciliary compartment, identifying the complement of signaling proteins in cilia can provide important insights into their physiological roles. Here we report for the first time that different GPCRs can colocalize within the same cilium. Specifically, we found the ciliary GPCRs, melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1 and somatostatin receptor 3 (Sstr3 colocalizing within cilia in multiple mouse brain regions. In addition, we have evidence suggesting Mchr1 and Sstr3 form heteromers. As GPCR heteromerization can affect ligand binding properties as well as downstream signaling, our findings add an additional layer of complexity to neuronal ciliary signaling.

  7. A longitudinal study of lung bacterial pathogens in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Alanin, M.; G. Nielsen, K.; von Buchwald, C.

    2015-01-01

    In patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), impaired mucociliary clearance leads to an accumulation of secretions in the airways and susceptibility to repeated bacterial infections. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial flora in non-chronic and chronic infections i...

  8. [Kartagener sindrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia). Report of a case and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; Pardo Romero, G; Iglesias González, R J; Rodríguez Carmona, M; del Castillo Beneyto, F

    2007-01-01

    Kartagener syndrome (a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia) is a recessive autossomical disease characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus with dextrocardia. We report one case described in a 8 years old boy who besides presented a seromucous otitis and bronchitis of repetition. Finally we performed a short bibliographic review at respect of this uncommon pathology.

  9. ZMYND10 is mutated in primary ciliary dyskinesia and interacts with LRRC6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zariwala, Maimoona A; Gee, Heon Yung; Kurkowiak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Defects of motile cilia cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and male infertility. Using whole-exome resequencing and high-throughput mutation analysis, we identified recessive biallelic mutations in ZMYND10 in 14 families and mutations in the ...

  10. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, J K; Nielsen, K G

    2011-01-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has a well-known potential as an indirect discriminative marker between patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and healthy subjects, but real-life experience and usefulness in young children is sparsely reported. Three nNO sampling methods were examined and compar...

  11. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle;

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv...

  12. Multicenter analysis of body mass index, lung function, and sputum microbiology in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglione, Marco; Bush, Andrew; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies longitudinally, simultaneously assessed body mass index (BMI) and spirometry in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). METHODS: We determined BMI and spirometry in 158 PCD children and adolescents from London, UK (n = 75), Naples, Italy (n = 23) and Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 60) ...

  13. Growth of the crabgrass species Digitaria ciliaris and Digitaria nuda Crescimento das espécies de capim-colchão Digitaria ciliaris e Digitaria nuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper was to compare the growth of D. ciliaris and D. nuda crabgrass species under non-competitive conditions. To this end, two experiments were conducted, one from March - July 2010 and the other from February - June 2011. The experimental design of both trials was completely randomized making a factorial (2 seasons x 2 species crabgrass x 12 evaluation periods with four replications. Assessments began at 15 days after sowing (DAS, and repeated weekly until 92 DAS. The variables evaluated were total dry matter (roots+leaves+stems, leaf area, leaf number and tiller. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and leaf area ratio were calculated using the means, which were adjusted regression models. The crabgrass species were significantly different in leaf area, leaf number, tiller number and dry matter per plant. D. ciliaris for all variables was statistically higher than D. nuda. Regarding the speed at which the growth of the species occurred, the absolute growth rate and relative growth rate of D. ciliaris was also greater than D. nuda. In addition, D. ciliaris also had a lower leaf area ratio indicating greater efficiency in converting light energy into carbohydrates. It can be concluded that D. ciliaris has a higher growth rate in conditions where there is no limitation of nutrients and water availability in relation to D. nuda, mainly due to D. ciliaris have greater leaf area, number of leaves and dry matter accumulation per plant.O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi comparar o crescimento das espécies de capim colchão D. ciliaris e D. nuda, em condições não-competitivas. Para isso, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um de março a julho de 2010 e outro de fevereiro a junho de 2011. O delineamento experimental de ambos os ensaios foi inteiramente casualizado, perfazendo um esquema fatorial (2 épocas x 2 espécies de capim colchão x 12 períodos de

  14. Regulation of anterior chamber drainage by bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase in the ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2011-12-02

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (C(t)). Modulation of "inflow" and "outflow" pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in C(t) with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and C(t) is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or C(t) in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate C(t) and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure.

  15. Regulation of Anterior Chamber Drainage by Bicarbonate-sensitive Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in the Ciliary Body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S.; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (Ct). Modulation of “inflow” and “outflow” pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in Ct with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and Ct is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or Ct in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate Ct and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure. PMID:21994938

  16. CCDC65 mutation causes primary ciliary dyskinesia with normal ultrastructure and hyperkinetic cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Horani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function, leading to chronic sinopulmonary disease. The genetic causes of PCD are still evolving, while the diagnosis is often dependent on finding a ciliary ultrastructural abnormality and immotile cilia. Here we report a novel gene associated with PCD but without ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities evident by transmission electron microscopy, but with dyskinetic cilia beating. METHODS: Genetic linkage analysis was performed in a family with a PCD subject. Gene expression was studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and human airway epithelial cells, using RNA assays and immunostaining. The phenotypic effects of candidate gene mutations were determined in primary culture human tracheobronchial epithelial cells transduced with gene targeted shRNA sequences. Video-microscopy was used to evaluate cilia motion. RESULTS: A single novel mutation in CCDC65, which created a termination codon at position 293, was identified in a subject with typical clinical features of PCD. CCDC65, an orthologue of the Chlamydomonas nexin-dynein regulatory complex protein DRC2, was localized to the cilia of normal nasal epithelial cells but was absent in those from the proband. CCDC65 expression was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in cultured airway epithelial cells, as was DRC2 in C. reinhardtii following deflagellation. Nasal epithelial cells from the affected individual and CCDC65-specific shRNA transduced normal airway epithelial cells had stiff and dyskinetic cilia beating patterns compared to control cells. Moreover, Gas8, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex component previously identified to associate with CCDC65, was absent in airway cells from the PCD subject and CCDC65-silenced cells. CONCLUSION: Mutation in CCDC65, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex member, resulted in a frameshift mutation and PCD. The affected individual had altered cilia beating patterns, and

  17. Ciliary beating recovery in deficient human airway epithelial cells after lentivirus ex vivo gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Chhin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia is a heterogeneous genetic disease that is characterized by cilia dysfunction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts, resulting in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite lifelong physiological therapy and antibiotics, the lungs of affected patients are progressively destroyed, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Recessive mutations in Dynein Axonemal Intermediate chain type 1 (DNAI1 gene have been described in 10% of cases of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Our goal was to restore normal ciliary beating in DNAI1-deficient human airway epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector based on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein was used to transduce cultured human airway epithelial cells with a cDNA of DNAI1 driven by the Elongation Factor 1 promoter. Transcription and translation of the transduced gene were tested by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Human airway epithelial cells that were DNAI1-deficient due to compound heterozygous mutations, and consequently had immotile cilia and no outer dynein arm, were transduced by the lentivirus. Cilia beating was recorded and electron microscopy of the cilia was performed. Transcription and translation of the transduced DNAI1 gene were detected in human cells treated with the lentivirus. In addition, immotile cilia recovered a normal beat and outer dynein arms reappeared. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a normalization of ciliary beat frequency of deficient human airway epithelial cells by using a lentivirus to transduce cells with the therapeutic gene. This preliminary step constitutes a conceptual proof that is indispensable in the perspective of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia's in vivo gene therapy. This is the first time that recovery of cilia beating is demonstrated in this disease.

  18. Resorption of elastic fibers in monkey gingival connective tissue: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the remodeling of elastic fibers in gingival connective tissue. In this study, elastic fibers in the lamina propria of monkey gingiva were examined by transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Some elastic fibers were localized at invagination on the surface of the narrow processes of fibroblasts distributed among dense assemblies of collagen fibrils, and also within coated pits, which were pinching off as coated vesicles. At a higher magnification, the coated vesicles contained filamentous structures, as well as pentagonal structures similar those previously reported in elastic fibers. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated positive staining for fibrillin, one of the main components of microfibril, localized either in the coated pits or vesicles. These observations indicate that at least some elastic fibers were resorbed by fibroblasts, and that, in spite of the general belief that little remodeling of elastic fibers occurs under normal conditions, resorption of elastic fibers does occur in monkey gingival connective tissue. The functional significance of this is not yet clear, but it may be involved in facilitating the delicate and efficient adaptation of tissue to physical requirements during mastication.

  19. Identification of orthodontic patients at risk of severe apical root resorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artun, J.; Hullenaar, R. Van 't; Doppel, D.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current information suggests that the major variation in orthodontic root resorption can be explained by differences in individual predisposition. Our aim was therefore to test the predictive value of the amount of maxillary incisor resorption about 6 and 12 months after bracket placem

  20. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  1. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van Parys; I.H.A. Aartman; R. Kuitert; A. Zentner

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88 subjec

  2. Surgical intervention for treating an extensive internal resorption with unfavorable crown-to-root ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Ashouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal resorption is a rare lesion in permanent teeth. Managing perforating internal resorption is a great challenge for dentists. This report presents a successful surgical treatment of a maxillary central incisor that had extensive root perforation due to internal resorption. After unsuccessful nonsurgical approach, during surgical intervention apical part of the resorption defect was removed and the coronal part was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Three years later the tooth was symptom free with normal mobility and pocket depth despite unfavorable crown-to-root ratio. This case report have shown that surgical intervention and using mineral trioxide aggregate as root canal filling material in a tooth with extensive internal resorption and unfavorable crown-to-root ratio can be considered as a treatment option.

  3. Evidence that Resorption of Bone by Rat Peritoneal Macrophages Occurs in an Acidic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal loss in space, like any form of osteoporosis, reflects a relative imbalance of the activities of cells resorbing (degrading) or forming bone. Consequently, prevention of weightlessness induced bone loss may theoretically be accomplished by (1) stimulating bone formation or (2) inhibiting bone resorption. This approach, however, requires fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which cells form or degrade bone, information not yet at hand. An issue central to bone resorption is the pH at which resorption takes place. The pH dependent spectral shift of a fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate) conjugated to bone matrix was used to determine the pH at the resorptive cell bone matrix interface. Devitalized rat bone was used as the substrate, and rat peritoneal macrophages were used as the bone resorbing cells. The results suggest that bone resorption is the result of generation of an acidic microenvironment at the cell matrix junction.

  4. Management of Inflammatory Internal Root Resorption with Biodentine and Thermoplasticised Gutta-Percha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Umashetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal root resorption is a chronic inflammatory process initiated within the pulp space with the loss of dentin. This condition demands a comprehensive understanding of the pathologic process, so as to identify the cause and arrest the resorptive phenomena. It is a rare occurrence, asymptomatic, with slow progression, detected through routine radiographic examination, where it appears as a radiolucent lesion. This paper reports a clinical case of inflammatory internal root resorption in the premolar tooth. Because it is asymptomatic, internal root resorption needs an early diagnosis in order to institute the endodontic treatment before the process compromises the remaining mineralized structures of the tooth. Biodentine was used to reinforce the weaker structures in the root. Thermoplasticised gutta-percha was used to completely obturate the defect. Ten-month follow-up showed arrest of internal root resorption.

  5. Management of Inflammatory Internal Root Resorption with Biodentine and Thermoplasticised Gutta-Percha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umashetty, Girish; Hoshing, Upendra; Patil, Suvarna; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Internal root resorption is a chronic inflammatory process initiated within the pulp space with the loss of dentin. This condition demands a comprehensive understanding of the pathologic process, so as to identify the cause and arrest the resorptive phenomena. It is a rare occurrence, asymptomatic, with slow progression, detected through routine radiographic examination, where it appears as a radiolucent lesion. This paper reports a clinical case of inflammatory internal root resorption in the premolar tooth. Because it is asymptomatic, internal root resorption needs an early diagnosis in order to institute the endodontic treatment before the process compromises the remaining mineralized structures of the tooth. Biodentine was used to reinforce the weaker structures in the root. Thermoplasticised gutta-percha was used to completely obturate the defect. Ten-month follow-up showed arrest of internal root resorption.

  6. Management of External Invasive Cervical Resorption Tooth with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Ikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is entirely uncommon entities and the etiology is poorly understood. A 19 year old patient presented with fractured upper left central incisor and sinus tract opening on the distobuccal aspect in cervical region. Radiographic examination shows irregular radiolucency over the coronal one-third and it extended externally towards the external invasive resorption. After sectional obturation, the defect was accessed surgically. The resorption area was chemomechanically debrided using irrigant solution. Fibre post placement using flowable composite resin and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA was used to fill the resorptive defect, and the coronal access was temporarily sealed. Composite restoration was subsequently replaced with ceramic crown after 4 years. Radiographs at 1 and 4 years showed adequate repair of the resorption and endodontic success. Clinically and radiographically the tooth was asymptomatic, and no periodontal pocket was found after a 4-year followup.

  7. Treatment of inflammatory root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This report presents a case to show inflammatory root resorption can be successfully treated by using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Case Report: A central maxillary incisor of an eight-year-old boy was avulsed associated with crown fracture secondary to a fall. The tooth was stored in ice. Early attempts at pulpal revascularization of the replanted tooth proved unsuccessful. To stop inflammatory root resorption, long-term calcium hydroxide therapy was employed. Despite the use of calcium hydroxide, resorption continued. Subsequent to the failure of that treatment, MTA was used as a root canal filling material. At 20-month follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and had clinical signs of ankylosis but external inflammatory root resorption had stopped. Discussion: MTA may be considered as an alternative option for the treatment of continuous external inflammatory root resorption.

  8. Systemic alendronate prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. A bone chamber study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspenberg Per

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avascular necrosis of bone (osteonecrosis can cause structural failure and subsequent deformation, leading to joint dysfunction and pain. Structural failure is the result of resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization, before new bone has formed or consolidated enough for loadbearing. Bone resorption can be reduced by bisphosphonates. If resorption of the necrotic bone could be reduced during the revascularization phase until sufficient new bone has formed, it would appear that structural failure could be avoided. Methods To test whether resorption of necrotic bone can be prevented, structural grafts were subjected to new bone ingrowth during systemic bisphosphonate treatment in a rat model. Results In rats treated with alendronate the necrotic bone was not resorbed, whereas it was almost entirely resorbed in the controls. Conclusion Systemic alendronate treatment prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. In patients with osteonecrosis, bisphosphonates may therefore prevent collapse of the necrotic bone.

  9. Risk variables of external apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Feio Barroso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: External apical root resorption (EARR is an adverse outcome of the orthodontic treatment. So far, no single or associated factor has been identified as responsible for EARR due to tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association of risk variables (age, gender, extraction for orthodontic treatment and Angle classification with EARR and orthodontic treatment. METHOD: The sample (n=72 was divided into two groups according to presence (n=32 or absence (n=40 of EARR in maxillary central and lateral incisors after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in EARR according to age, gender, extraction or type of malocclusion (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The risk variables examined were not associated with EARR in the study population.

  10. The role of probiotic on alveolar bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sandra Sari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are microbes derived from the group of lactic acid bacteria that work to maintain the health of hosts. Probiotics can also be used to improve oral health. Periodontal disease is usually marked with gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption. Gram negative anaerobic bacteria that play important role in human periodontal disease are Porphyromonas gingivalis. (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis is a virulent bacteria in vivo or in vitro, and mostly found in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients. Purpose: This study is aimed to know the role of probiotics to inhibit the resorption of alveolar bone induced with P. gingivalis. Methods: This study used male wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I was control group (without treatment; group II was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 for 5 days; group III was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and also injected with probiotics (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4224 for 5 days simultaneously; and group IV was induced with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 for 5 days and also injected by probiotics (Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4224 in the next 5 days. After that, the samples were decapitated, taken their alveolar bone, and then were examined by immunohistochemistry to observe osteoclast activity in alveolar bone resorption by using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP expression. All data were then analyzed statistically. Results: It is known that there were significant differences of TRAP expression among all those treatment groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It then can be concluded that probiotics can decrease osteoclast activity in periodontal tissue of wistar rats, so it can inhibit alveolar bone resorption.Latar belakang: Probiotik adalah mikroba dari golongan bakteri asam laktat yang bekerja mempertahankan kesehatan host dan probiotik dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kesehatan rongga mulut. Penyakit periodontal ditandai dengan adanya keradangan pada gingiva dan resobsi tulang

  11. Zebrafish Ciliopathy Screen Plus Human Mutational Analysis Identifies C21orf59 and CCDC65 Defects as Causing Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Tse, Christina; Halbritter, Jan; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Gee, Heon Yung; Hellman, Nathan; Pathak, Narendra; Liu, Yan; Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; O’Toole, Eileen; Porath, Jonathan D.; Hurd, Toby W.; Chaki, Moumita; Diaz, Katrina A.; Kohl, Stefan; Lovric, Svjetlana; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Braun, Daniela A.; Schueler, Markus; Airik, Rannar; Otto, Edgar A.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Noone, Peadar G.; Carson, Johnny L.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Pittman, Jessica E.; Ferkol, Thomas W.; Atkinson, Jeffry J.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Sagel, Scott D.; Dell, Sharon D.; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Milla, Carlos E.; Loges, Niki T.; Omran, Heymut; Porter, Mary E.; King, Stephen M.; Knowles, Michael R.; Drummond, Iain A.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is caused when defects of motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, male infertility, and situs abnormalities. Multiple causative PCD mutations account for only 65% of cases, suggesting that many genes essential for cilia function remain to be discovered. By using zebrafish morpholino knockdown of PCD candidate genes as an in vivo screening platform, we identified c21orf59, ccdc65, and c15orf26 as critical for cilia motility. c21orf59 and c15orf26 knockdown in zebrafish and planaria blocked outer dynein arm assembly, and ccdc65 knockdown altered cilia beat pattern. Biochemical analysis in Chlamydomonas revealed that the C21orf59 ortholog FBB18 is a flagellar matrix protein that accumulates specifically when cilia motility is impaired. The Chlamydomonas ida6 mutant identifies CCDC65/FAP250 as an essential component of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex. Analysis of 295 individuals with PCD identified recessive truncating mutations of C21orf59 in four families and CCDC65 in two families. Similar to findings in zebrafish and planaria, mutations in C21orf59 caused loss of both outer and inner dynein arm components. Our results characterize two genes associated with PCD-causing mutations and elucidate two distinct mechanisms critical for motile cilia function: dynein arm assembly for C21orf59 and assembly of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex for CCDC65. PMID:24094744

  12. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning; HU Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current,Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs.The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change.Methods In an Ussing-type chamber system,the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed.The involvement of Cl-component in the bath solution was investigated.The effect of Cl-channel (10 μmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS)),K+ channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)),or Na+ channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied.Results Dose-dependently,8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 μmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 μmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue.Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side.When the tissue was bathed in low Cl-solutions,the Isc increase was significantly inhibited.Finally,niflumic acid and DIDS,but not TEA or amiloride,significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP.Conclusions cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes.Chloride is likely to be among the ions,the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP,suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  13. The Masquerades of a Childhood Ciliary Body Medulloepithelioma: A Case of Chronic Uveitis, Cataract, and Secondary Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary body medulloepitheliomas in childhood often masquerade other intraocular conditions due to its insidious nature as well as its secondary effects on proximal intraocular tissues in the anterior chamber. We report a case where a ciliary body medulloepithelioma in a two-year-old boy presents with chronic uveitis, cataract, and an uncontrolled secondary glaucoma after an innocuous blunt ocular trauma. The diagnosis was only made after the occurrence of a ciliary body mass. We discuss the clinical features of ciliary body medulloepitheliomas, the implications of a delayed diagnosis and treatment as well as the concern of periorbital tumor seeding with the use of an aqueous shunt implant in this case.

  14. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Kartagener syndrome in a family with a novel DNAH5 gene mutation and variable phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with variable clinical manifestations, including chronic rhinosinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, situs inversus totalis, reduced fertility in female patients and male infertility. The condition occurs as a result of abnormal ciliary structure and function. It is presented in early life with an estimated incidence of approximately 1/16,000–20,000. About 50% of the aff...

  15. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Carlo Demontis; Claudia Aruta; Antonella Comitato; Anna De Marzo; Valeria Marigo

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor...

  16. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kvl.3 in rabbit ciliary epithelium regulates the membrane potential via coupling intracellular calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-feng; ZHUO Ye-hong; BI Wei-na; BAI Yu-jing; LI Yan-na; WANG Zhi-jian

    2008-01-01

    Background The cell layer of the ciliary epithelium is responsible for aqueous humor secretion and maintenance.Ion channels play an important role in these processes.The main aim of this study was to determine whether the well-characterized members of the Kvl family (Kv1.3) contribute to the Kv currents in ciliary epithelium.Methods New Zealand White rabbits were maintained in a 12 hours light/dark cycle.Ciliary epithelium samples were isolated from the rabbits.We used Western blotting and immunocytochemistry to identify the expression and location of a voltage-gated potassium channel Kvl.3 in ciliary body epithelium.Membrane potential change after adding of Kv1.3 inhibitor margatoxin (MgTX) was observed with a fluorescence method.Results Western blotting and immunocytochemical studies showed that the Kv1.3 protein expressed in pigment ciliary epithelium and nonpigment ciliary epithelium,however it seemed to express more in the apical membrane of the nonpigmented epithelial cells.One nmol/L margatoxin,a specific inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels caused depolarization of the cultured nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) membrane potential.The cytosotic calcium increased after NPE cell depolarization,this increase of cytosolic calcium was partially blocked by 12.5 μmol/L dantrolene and 10 μmol/L nifedipine.These observations suggest that Kv1.3 channels modulate ciliary epithelium potential and effect calcium dependent mechanisms.Conclusion Kv1.3 channels contribute to K+ efflux at the membrane of rabbit ciliary epithelium.

  17. KIF13B establishes a CAV1-enriched microdomain at the ciliary transition zone to promote Sonic hedgehog signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Kenneth B.; Mogensen, Johanne B.; Morthorst, Stine K.; Nielsen, Brian S.; Aleliunaite, Aiste; Serra-Marques, Andrea; Fürstenberg, Nicoline; Saunier, Sophie; Bizet, Albane A.; Veland, Iben R.; Akhmanova, Anna; Christensen, Søren T.; Pedersen, Lotte B.

    2017-01-01

    Ciliary membrane composition is controlled by transition zone (TZ) proteins such as RPGRIP1, RPGRIPL and NPHP4, which are vital for balanced coordination of diverse signalling systems like the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Activation of this pathway involves Shh-induced ciliary accumulation of Smoothened (SMO), which is disrupted by disease-causing mutations in TZ components. Here we identify kinesin-3 motor protein KIF13B as a novel member of the RPGRIP1N-C2 domain-containing protein family and show that KIF13B regulates TZ membrane composition and ciliary SMO accumulation. KIF13B is upregulated during ciliogenesis and is recruited to the ciliary base by NPHP4, which binds to two distinct sites in the KIF13B tail region, including an RPGRIP1N-C2 domain. KIF13B and NPHP4 are both essential for establishment of a CAV1 membrane microdomain at the TZ, which in turn is required for Shh-induced ciliary SMO accumulation. Thus KIF13B is a novel regulator of ciliary TZ configuration, membrane composition and Shh signalling. PMID:28134340

  18. Maxillary incisor root resorption after rapid palatal expansion in Felis catus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardimon, Alexander D; Levy, Thierry; Weinreb, Miron

    2005-02-01

    Root resorption after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) treatment was found in anchored teeth but has not been studied on non-anchored incisors. This study evaluated root resorption, root tipping, and root proximity of maxillary incisors after RPE treatment. Fourteen cats were divided into treated (n = 10) and untreated (n = 4) groups. The RPE treatment consisted of active, retention, and relapse phases, lasting 25, 60 and 60 d, respectively. Standardized occlusal radiographs were taken to measure tipping and root proximity before and after each treatment phase. Maxillary incisors were analysed histologically by fluorescent microscopy for root resorption. Data was analysed statistically with anova with repeated measures, t-test and Pearson's coefficient of correlation. Root resorption was confined to the first incisors and was 750-fold greater in the treated vs. the control group. Root tipping and root proximity were significantly greater (2.5- and 17-fold, respectively) in the first than in the second maxillary incisor and highly correlated with root resorption (r = -0.927 and 0.723, respectively). This suggests a cause (tipping and root proximity) and effect (root resorption) relationship. Data suggest that first maxillary incisor susceptibility to root resorption during RPE is associated with severe tipping and root proximity.

  19. Scanning electron microscopic description of cellular activity and mineral changes in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, O; Boudigues, S; Pilet, P; Aguado, E; Heymann, D; Daculsi, G

    2001-12-01

    The cellular activity and changes in mineral composition of dental tissues involved in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions were investigated. Teeth with at least 1 lesion (n = 10) were extracted from 10 different cats that were presented primarily for chronic gingivostomatitis and/or severe periodontal disease. Scanning electron microscopic methods were used to determine the presence of resorptive cells in 8 teeth while 2 teeth were evaluated for pathologic changes in dental mineral composition. Observations were complicated by the presence of organic wear on the dental surfaces, however resorptive cells could be clearly identified in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions. Resorptive cells had morphologic features indicative of "osteoclast-like" cells or odontoclasts. Resorptive cell activity created a resorption area of darker dentin continuous with physiologic dentin. The darker dentin area seemed poorly mineralized and showed a significantly lower calcium/phosphorous ratio compared with adjacent physiologic denting in 1 tooth. A significantly higher level of magnesium combined with available carbonate ions may have increased the solubility in areas of darker dentin.

  20. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute pericoronitis (AP arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A, the proximal surface (B, and distal surface (C in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.Keywords: bone resorption, pericoronitis, mandible, acute inflammation, elderly

  1. Genetic factors contributing to human primary ciliary dyskinesia and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Yong; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2016-06-07

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from the loss of normal ciliary function. Symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, and infertility. However, only 15 PCD-associated genes have been identified to cause male infertility to date. Owing to the genetic heterogeneity of PCD, comprehensive molecular genetic testing is not considered the standard of care. Here, we provide an update of the progress on the identification of genetic factors related to PCD associated with male infertility, summarizing the underlying molecular mechanisms, and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. Further research in this field will impact the diagnostic strategy for male infertility, enabling clinicians to provide patients with informed genetic counseling, and help to adopt the best course of treatment for developing directly targeted personalized medicine.

  2. Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding-swimming tradeoff in starfish larvae

    CERN Document Server

    Gilpin, William; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Many marine invertebrates have larval stages covered in linear arrays of beating cilia, which propel the animal while simultaneously entraining planktonic prey. These bands are strongly conserved across taxa spanning four major superphyla, and they are responsible for the unusual morphologies of many invertebrates. However, few studies have investigated their underlying hydrodynamics. Here, we study the ciliary bands of starfish larvae, and discover a beautiful pattern of slowly-evolving vortices that surrounds the swimming animals. Closer inspection of the bands reveals unusual ciliary "tangles" analogous to topological defects that break-up and re-form as the animal adjusts its swimming stroke. Quantitative experiments and modeling suggest that these vortices create a physical tradeoff between feeding and swimming, which manifests as distinct flow patterns or "eigenstrokes" representing each behavior---potentially implicating neuronal control of cilia. This quantitative interplay between larval form and hyd...

  3. Relationship between dental anomalies and orthodontic root resorption of upper incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Katrien; Aartman, Irene H A; Kuitert, Reinder; Zentner, Andrej

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential relationship between the occurrence of orthodontic root resorption and presence of dental anomalies such as tooth agenesis and pipette-shaped roots. Dental anomalies and root resorption were assessed on dental panoramic tomographs (DPT) of 88 subjects, 27 males and 61 females, mean age 28.4 (SD = 11.3 years), selected from orthodontic patients on the basis of the following exclusion criteria: previous fixed appliance treatment, bad quality of the DPTs and no visibility of the periodontal ligament of every tooth, and younger than 15 years of age at the onset of treatment with fixed edgewise appliance lasting at least 18 months. A pipette-shaped root was identified as defined by a drawing. Tooth agenesis was assessed on DPTs and from subjects' dental history. Root resorption was calculated as the difference between the root length before and after treatment, with and without a correction factor (crown length post-treatment/crown length pre-treatment). If one of the four upper incisors showed root resorption of ≥2.3 mm with both formulas, the patient was scored as having root resorption. Chi-square tests indicated that there was no relationship between orthodontic root resorption and agenesis (P = 0.885) nor between orthodontic root resorption and pipette-shaped roots (P = 0.800). There was no relationship between having one of the anomalies and root resorption either (P = 0.750). In the present study, it was not possible to confirm on DPTs a relationship between orthodontic root resorption and dental anomalies, such as agenesis and pipette-shaped roots.

  4. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  5. Cri du chat syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia: a common genetic cause on chromosome 5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Weck, Karen E; Chao, Kay C; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Nygren, Anders O H; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2014-10-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are rare diseases that present with frequent respiratory symptoms. PCD can be caused by hemizygous DNAH5 mutation in combination with a 5p segmental deletion attributable to CdCS on the opposite chromosome. Chronic oto-sino-pulmonary symptoms or organ laterality defects in CdCS should prompt an evaluation for PCD.

  6. Impact of the Smoothened inhibitor, IPI-926, on smoothened ciliary localization and Hedgehog pathway activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O Peluso

    Full Text Available A requisite step for canonical Hedgehog (Hh pathway activation by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh ligand is accumulation of Smoothened (Smo to the primary cilium (PC. Activation of the Hh pathway has been implicated in a broad range of cancers, and several Smo antagonists are being assessed clinically, one of which is approved for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Recent reports demonstrate that various Smo antagonists differentially impact Smo localization to the PC while still exerting inhibitory activity. In contrast to other synthetic small molecule Smo antagonists, the natural product cyclopamine binds to and promotes ciliary accumulation of Smo and "primes" cells for Hh pathway hyper-responsiveness after compound withdrawal. We compared the properties of IPI-926, a semi-synthetic cyclopamine analog, to cyclopamine with regard to potency, ciliary Smo accumulation, and Hh pathway activity after compound withdrawal. Like cyclopamine, IPI-926 promoted accumulation of Smo to the PC. However, in contrast to cyclopamine, IPI-926 treatment did not prime cells for hyper-responsiveness to Shh stimulation after compound withdrawal, but instead demonstrated continuous inhibition of signaling. By comparing the levels of drug-induced ciliary Smo accumulation with the degree of Hh pathway activity after compound withdrawal, we propose that a critical threshold of ciliary Smo is necessary for "priming" activity to occur. This "priming" appears achievable with cyclopamine, but not IPI-926, and is cell-line dependent. Additionally, IPI-926 activity was evaluated in a murine tumor xenograft model and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship was examined to assess for in vivo evidence of Hh pathway hyper-responsiveness. Plasma concentrations of IPI-926 correlated with the degree and duration of Hh pathway suppression, and pathway activity did not exceed baseline levels out to 96 hours post dose. The overall findings suggest that IPI-926 possesses

  7. The Development of the Ciliary Epithelium in the Embryonic Chicken Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    experiment was to test the role of I extraocular tissues in eye growth. The periocular mesoderm ! I I was stripped away from a small area on one surface...Eichhorn and Barany , 1985). The cells in the pigmented and nonpigmented layers of the ciliary epithelium begin to differentiate from the adjacent...Statistics: The data from the individual chicken embryos in each experimental group were compared to each other and then pooled. Student’s T- test

  8. Flow Field Analysis of Micromixer Powered by Ciliary Motion of Vorticella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Yo; Nagai, Moeto; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Kawashima, Takahiro; Shibata, Takayuki

    We demonstrate the observation of a flow field generated by ciliary motion of Vorticella in a microfluidic chamber. We applied the property that Vorticella vibrates its cilia and create a flow field to a micromixer. The stability and mixing performance of Vorticella were measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). One cell of Vorticella mixed the half area of the microchamber. We revealed that the flow field of a single cell in a chamber was more stable than that of multiple cells.

  9. A novel ICK mutation causes ciliary disruption and lethal endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kayserili Karabey, Hülya; Oud, M.M.; Bonnard, C.; Mans, D.A.; Altunoğlu, U.; Tohari, S.; Ng, A.Y.J.; Eskin, A.; Lee, H.; Rupar, C.A.; Wagenaar, N.P.; Wu, K.M.; Lahiry, P.; Pazour, G.J.; Nelson, S.F.; Hegele, R.A.; Roepman, R; Venkatesh, B.; Siu, V.M.; Reversade, B.; Arts, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome [MIM:612651] caused by a recessive mutation (p.R272Q) in Intestinal cell kinase (ICK) shows significant clinical overlap with ciliary disorders. Similarities are strongest between ECO syndrome, the Majewski and Mohr-Majewski short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with polydactyly syndromes, and hydrolethalus syndrome. In this study, we present a novel homozygous ICK mutation in a fetus with ECO syndrome and compare the effect of this mu...

  10. Adenoma of the Nonpigmented Ciliary Body and Iris Epithelium in Mexican Mestizo Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Ariza-Camacho, Enrique; Collado-Solórzano, Alberto; Flores-Sánchez, Blanca C.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A.; Fulda-Graue, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium is a benign rare tumor, which may present with different clinical characteristics and requires resection along with histopathologic analysis and the identification of specific immunohistochemical markers for an accurate diagnosis. Here, we report a case series of 4 patients in a Mexican mestizo population with this diagnosis, their clinical features, the ultrasound imaging characteristics and the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27171918

  11. Repair of apical root resorption associated with periodontitis using a new intracanal medicament protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel R; Herrera, Carlos M; Lima, Augusto R; Nagata, Juliana Y; Pereira, Andrea C; Silva, Emmanuel J; Soares, Adriana J; Gomes, Brenda P

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic therapy is indicated for cases of traumatic tooth dislocation associated with pulp necrosis and/or inflammatory resorption. Here we describe the management of a maxillary left lateral permanent incisor that suffered lateral luxation, leading to pulp necrosis and root resorption, in a 13-year-old boy. The traumatized tooth was treated successfully by intracanal medication with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel and zinc oxide for 12 months without any need to change the dressing, followed by conventional root canal filling. The postoperative course was uneventful and a stable clinical outcome was obtained with evidence of periapical lesion repair and stabilization of the resorption process.

  12. PERIAPICAL RESORPTIVE PROCESSES IN CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS: AN OVERVIEW AND DISCUSSION OF THE LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root resorption is a biological phenomenon, characterized by processes of cement and/or dentine depletion, resulting from the physiological or pathological activity of resorptive cells. Purpose: The aim of this article is to review of the literature on the peculiarities of the periapical resorptive processes. Conclusion: The absence of a physiological narrowing is challenging to the achievement of satisfactory early and late therapeutic results. It makes probable either the overpressing of necrotic, infected material when preparing the endodontic space or the overpressing of the sealer when sealing the root canal.

  13. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanru Zhang; Hui Zhang; Kaka Katiella; Wenhua Huang

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune re-jection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regenera-tion. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anasto-mosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone.

  14. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  15. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by a mini-symposium on Tuesday May 22, with one featured speaker and presentation of nine abstracts covering a range of research topics. Mattias Salathe (University of Miami, USA and Stephen Brody (Washington University, St Louis, USA chaired the symposium session. Presentations focused on the clinical spectrum of PCD, the genetics of PCD, a proteomics approach to detail the structure of cilia, the role of cilia in the embryology of situs laterality, and airway epithelial cell biology. The mini-symposium was chaired by Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina, USA and Malcolm King (University of Alberta, USA and included presentations on the use of PCD as a human disease model, accurate definition of the phenotype using clinical and cell biologic markers, and molecular studies. The latter reports ranged from isolation of a protein involved in ciliary structure and function to genetic studies using linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach. Clinicians and scientists alike displayed considerable interest at both sessions, and there were several lively question–answer sessions.

  16. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of secretory production of the ciliary glands in the porcine eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Yasui

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to performing general histology and cytology of the ciliary glands of the miniature pig, we studied the localization of glycoconjugates and b-defensins in these glands with the use of carbohydrate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells of the glands were equipped with non-homogeneous secretory granules, a welldeveloped Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory epithelium and luminal secretion of the glands contained large amounts of neutral and acidic glycoconjugates with various saccharide residues (a-L-Fuc, b-DGal, a-D-GalNAc and sialic acid. The sebaceous glands and tarsal glands also exhibited positive reactions to most of the histochemical methods. Additionally, the antimicrobial peptide group of b-defensins was demonstrated to be products of the ciliary glands, as well as the sebaceous glands and tarsal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific function of the ciliary glandular secretions. These secretory products may be related to the moistening and general protection of the skin surface of the eyelid and ocular surface.

  17. Purinergically induced membrane fluidization in ciliary cells: characterization and control by calcium and membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfahel, E; Korngreen, A; Parola, A H; Priel, Z

    1996-02-01

    To examine the role of membrane dynamics in transmembrane signal transduction, we studied changes in membrane fluidity in mucociliary tissues from frog palate and esophagus epithelia stimulated by extracellular ATP. Micromolar concentrations of ATP induced strong changes in fluorescence polarization, possibly indicating membrane fluidization. This effect was dosage dependent, reaching a maximum at 10-microM ATP. It was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ (or Mg2+), though it was insensitive to inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels. It was inhibited by thapsigargin and by ionomycin (at low extracellular Ca2+ concentration), both of which deplete Ca2+ stores. It was inhibited by the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitors quinidine, charybdotoxin, and apamine and was reduced considerably by replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+. Hyperpolarization, or depolarization, of the mucociliary membrane induced membrane fluidization. The degree of membrane fluidization depended on the degree of hyperpolarization or depolarization of the ciliary membrane potential and was considerably lower than the effect induced by extracellular ATP. These results indicate that appreciable membrane fluidization induced by extracellular ATP depends both on an increase in intracellular Ca2+, mainly from its internal stores, and on hyperpolarization of the membrane. Calcium-dependent potassium channels couple the two effects. In light of recent results on the enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, it would appear that extracellular ATP-induced changes both in ciliary beat frequency and in membrane fluidity are triggered by similar signal transduction pathways.

  18. Nervous system and ciliary structures of Micrognathozoa (Gnathifera): evolutionary insight from an early branch in Spiralia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsaae, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that Gnathifera, comprising Rotifera, Gnathostomulida and Micrognathozoa, constitute the sister group to the remaining Spiralia (containing, e.g. flatworms, segmented worms and molluscs). Therefore, a better understanding of Gnathifera is central for unravelling the evolution of the highly diverse Spiralia. Here, we describe the previously unstudied nervous system and ciliary structures of Micrognathozoa, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The nervous system is simple with a large brain, paired sub-esophageal ganglia, two trunk commissures, two pairs of ventral longitudinal nerves and peripheral nerves. The paired ventro-lateral nerve cords are confirmed to be a symplesiomorphy of Gnathifera (possibly even Spiralia), whereas the paired ventro-median nerves are not previously reported in Gnathifera. A pharyngeal ganglion is described for Micrognathozoa: a complex structure with two apical tufts of ciliary receptors, now shown to be shared by all Gnathifera. The ventral pattern of external ciliophores is re-described, and protonephridia with multi-ciliated collecting tubules similar to those of Rotifera are confirmed. A range of new details from a simple nervous system and complex set of ciliary structures in a microscopic metazoan are hereby unravelled. The many resemblances with Rotifera corroborate their close relationship, and shed more light on the evolution of Gnathifera. PMID:27853545

  19. External root resorption: Different etiologies explained from the composition of the human root-close periodontal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots. It also highlights factors important for individual susceptibility to root resorption. Furthermore, the paper focuses on idiopathic root resorption where the provoking factor is not known. The Hypothesis: The several different disturbances causing root resorption can be either orthodontically provoked or acquired by trauma, virus or congenital diseases. It is presumed that all these conditions lead to inflammatory processes in the three main tissue layers, comprising the peri-root sheet. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This paper explains how different etiologies behind root resorption and how different phenotypic traits in root resorption can be understood from immunohistochemical studies of the human periodontal membrane close to the root and thus, gain a new understanding of the phenomenon of root resorption.

  20. Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng He

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2 are widely-expressed and they modulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and protein synthesis in multiple cell lineages. Altered ERK1/2 signaling is found in several genetic diseases with skeletal phenotypes, including Noonan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, and Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, suggesting that MEK-ERK signals regulate human skeletal development. Here, we examine the consequence of Erk1 and Erk2 disruption in multiple functions of osteoclasts, specialized macrophage/monocyte lineage-derived cells that resorb bone. We demonstrate that Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast development and bone resorptive activity, as genetic disruption of Erk1 reduced osteoclast progenitor cell numbers, compromised pit formation, and diminished M-CSF-mediated adhesion and migration. Moreover, WT mice reconstituted long-term with Erk1(-/- bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs demonstrated increased bone mineral density as compared to recipients transplanted with WT and Erk2(-/- BMMNCs, implicating marrow autonomous, Erk1-dependent osteoclast function. These data demonstrate Erk1 plays an important role in osteoclast functions while providing rationale for the development of Erk1-specific inhibitors for experimental investigation and/or therapeutic modulation of aberrant osteoclast function.

  1. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Advanced Inflammatory External Root Resorption Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Utneja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary central incisor affected by severe, perforating external root resorption. An 18-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary central incisor associated with pain and sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root and lateral root surface both mesially and distally. After removal of the root canal filling, the tooth was disinfected with intracanal triple antibiotic paste for 2 weeks. The antibiotic dressing was then removed, and the entire root canal was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The endodontic access cavity was restored with composite resin. After 18 months, significant osseous healing of the periradicular region and lateral periodontium had occurred with arrest of external root resorption, and no clinical symptoms were apparent.

  2. Treatment of inflammatory external root resorption resulting from dental avulsion and pulp necrosis: clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Abe, Flavia Casale; Araujo, Roberta Aranha; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to present a treatment for severe inflammatory external root resorption. The condition developed due to the patient's neglect to seek adequate treatment following replantation of an avulsed maxillary left central incisor. Following diagnosis, treatment consisted of conventional endodontic therapy with calcium hydroxide dressings and definitive filling of the root canal after the resorption was controlled radiographically. A 24-month follow-up showed that the resorption process had stabilized and the patient was free of symptoms. Successful tooth replantation requires following the indicated therapy effectively. Nevertheless, when an inflammatory external root resorption occurs, adequate endodontic treatment to remove the necrotic content and bacteria is required, as is the use of calcium hydroxide dressings.

  3. Management of mucosal fenestration with external root resorption by multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Prasad, Veerendra; Shakya, Vijay Kumar; Singhal, Rameshweri

    2014-10-09

    Mucosal fenestration is a clinical condition in which the overlying gingiva is denuded and the root is exposed to the oral cavity. Invasive cervical resorption is an entirely uncommon entity and its aetiology is poorly understood. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption of maxillary right central incisor with fenestration at the cervical third of the tooth. The resorption area was chemomechanically debrided. It was then restored with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate over which pink glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VII) was placed. Lateral pedicle flap was used to cover the fenestration. The resorptive defect was restored using tooth coloured restorative resin after removal of the pink glass ionomer cement. Orthodontic treatment was continued for correction of malocclusion.

  4. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.; Jensen, V.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process...... is currently not well understood. We used a battery of ion channel inhibitors, human osteoclasts, and their subcellular compartments to perform an unbiased analysis of the importance of the different ion transporters for acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts. CD14(+) monocytes from human...... peripheral blood were isolated, and mature osteoclasts were generated using RANKL and M-CSF. The human osteoclasts were (1) used for acridine orange assays for evaluation of lysosomal acidification, (2) used for bone resorption assays, (3) used for generation of osteoclasts membranes for acid influx...

  5. A case report of gingival enlargement associated with invasive cervical resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M V; Yıldırım, Ş; Saygun, I

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) is a rare external dental resorption with unknown etiology; it progresses asymptomatically in the cervical area of the permanent teeth. Lesions are mostly misdiagnosed as internal resorption or caries, which leads to erroneous treatments. This case report presents the clinical and radiological diagnosis, as well as the results of treatment and 3-year follow-up in a 50-year-old female patient with gingival enlargement associated with ICR in tooth No. 25. Granulation tissue was removed by accessing the cervical resorption area through a flap operation. Following the endodontic treatment, the tooth was restored using composite resin and the hyperplastic lesion was excised. In conclusion, it should be kept in mind that clinical, radiological, and pathological evaluation in the differential diagnosis of localized hyperplastic lesions in the gingiva is of importance and that ICR could play a role in the etiology of these lesions.

  6. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Benarba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al (n=54 and non-A. longa group (non-Al (n=24. 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine pyridinoline (PYD and deoxypyridinoline (DPD were determined by HPLC. Serum and urinary creatinine, uric acid, and urea were measured. 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the reduction in renal function caused by the aristolochic acids contained in the roots.

  7. The role of a posteriorly inclined condylar neck in condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S J; Haers, P E; Sailer, H F

    2000-04-01

    Recently, it has been reported that a posteriorly inclined condylar neck is associated with condylar resorption following orthognathic surgery, although its role in resorption remains unknown. By cephalometric screening of 240 patients with Angle Class II occlusion 2 years after orthognathic surgery, 11 patients with postoperative condylar resorption were identified. The preoperative posterior inclination of the condylar neck and the surgical risk factors mentioned in the literature, particularly surgically induced counterclockwise rotation of the mandibular proximal segment were evaluated. In all 11 cases, the condylar neck was clearly inclined posteriorly. Counterclockwise rotation of the proximal segment was also observed in all cases, and it amounted to 6.7 degrees (2.5-12 degrees) on average. The contributing role of a posteriorly inclined condylar neck in connection with surgical mandibular movement in postoperative condylar resorption is discussed.

  8. OFD1 and flotillins are integral components of a ciliary signaling protein complex organized by polycystins in renal epithelia and odontoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jerman

    Full Text Available Mutation of the X-linked oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1 gene is embryonic lethal in males and results in craniofacial malformations and adult onset polycystic kidney disease in females. While the OFD1 protein localizes to centriolar satellites, centrosomes and basal bodies, its cellular function and how it relates to cystic kidney disease is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OFD1 is assembled into a protein complex that is localized to the primary cilium and contains the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and domain organizing flotillin proteins. This protein complex, which has similarity to a basolateral adhesion domain formed during cell polarization, also contains the polycystin proteins that when mutant cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Importantly, in human ADPKD cells where mutant polycystin-1 fails to localize to cilia, there is a concomitant loss of localization of polycystin-2, OFD1, EGFR and flotillin-1 to cilia. Together, these data suggest that polycystins are necessary for assembly of a novel flotillin-containing ciliary signaling complex and provide a molecular rationale for the common renal pathologies caused by OFD1 and PKD mutations.

  9. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive...

  10. Prevention and management of external inflammatory resorption following trauma to teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P V

    2016-03-01

    External inflammatory resorption is one of the potential consequences of trauma to the teeth. It occurs when there has been loss of cementum due to damage to the external surface of the tooth root during trauma, plus the root canal system has become infected with bacteria. It is characterized by the radiographic appearance of loss of tooth substance with a radiolucency in the adjacent periodontal ligament and bone. The loss of cementum allows the intracanal bacteria and/or their endotoxins to reach the periodontal ligament more readily and this can lead to the development of the inflammatory resorptive process. External inflammatory resorption can ultimately lead to loss of the tooth if it is not managed in a timely manner. There are some injuries that are very likely to develop this type of resorption and a preventive approach can be adopted by commencing root canal treatment immediately as part of the emergency management of such cases. In cases where the resorptive process is already established, root canal treatment can arrest the resorption and encourage hard tissue repair. The use of a corticosteroid-antibiotic intracanal medicament has been shown to be particularly useful in the prevention and management of external inflammatory resorption. Calcium hydroxide should not be used as an immediate medicament because of its inherent toxicity and irritant properties but it is valuable as a subsequent medicament to encourage hard tissue repair where required. This review outlines the external inflammatory resorptive process and the management strategies that can be employed to prevent it from occurring, and to treat it if already present.

  11. Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha; Yu, Qiang; He, Nian-Peng; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Human activities have significantly altered nitrogen (N) availability in most terrestrial ecosystems, with consequences for community composition and ecosystem functioning. Although studies of how changes in N availability affect biodiversity and community composition are relatively common, much less remains known about the effects of N inputs on the coupled biogeochemical cycling of N and phosphorus (P), and still fewer data exist regarding how increased N inputs affect the internal cycling of these two elements in plants. Nutrient resorption is an important driver of plant nutrient economies and of the quality of litter plants produce. Accordingly, resorption patterns have marked ecological implications for plant population and community fitness, as well as for ecosystem nutrient cycling. In a semiarid grassland in northern China, we studied the effects of a wide range of N inputs on foliar nutrient resorption of two dominant grasses, Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis. After 4 years of treatments, N and P availability in soil and N and P concentrations in green and senesced grass leaves increased with increasing rates of N addition. Foliar N and P resorption significantly decreased along the N addition gradient, implying a resorption-mediated, positive plant–soil feedback induced by N inputs. Furthermore, N : P resorption ratios were negatively correlated with the rates of N addition, indicating the sensitivity of plant N and P stoichiometry to N inputs. Taken together, the results demonstrate that N additions accelerate ecosystem uptake and turnover of both N and P in the temperate steppe and that N and P cycles are coupled in dynamic ways. The convergence of N and P resorption in response to N inputs emphasizes the importance of nutrient resorption as a pathway by which plants and ecosystems adjust in the face of increasing N availability.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy reveals severe external root resorption in the large periapical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookubo, Kensuke; Ookubo, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Masaki; Sugimoto, Kouji; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between clinicopathological findings and the resorptive conditions of root apices of teeth with periodontitis. The samples included 21 root apices with large periapical radiolucent lesions. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative findings were correlated with the presence, extension, and the progression pattern of periapical resorption using a scanning electron microscope. The subjects' age, gender, chief complaint, type of tooth, percussion test results, size of periapical lesion using CT, and intraoperative findings were recorded. All apicoectomies were performed under an operative microscope for endodontic microsurgery. A significant large size was observed in cystic lesions compared with granulomatous lesions. The cementum surface at the periphery of the lesion was covered with globular structures (2-3 μm in diameter). Cementum resorption started as small defect formations at the surface. As the defect formation progressed, a lamellar structure appeared at the resorption area, and the size of globular structures became smaller than that of globules at the surface. Further resorption produced typical lacuna formation, which was particularly observed in fracture cases. The most morphologically severe destructive pattern of dentin resorption was observed in large cystic lesions. This study is the first report to elucidate the relationships between three clinical types of undesirable periapical lesions: (1) undertreatment, (2) periapical fracture, (3) macro-level resorption, and the microstructure of external root resorption including from small defects at the cementum surface to a significant destructive pattern inside the dentin. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:495-500, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Advanced glycation end products biphasically modulate bone resorption in osteoclast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziqing; Li, Chaohong; Zhou, Yuhuan; Chen, Weishen; Luo, Guotian; Zhang, Ziji; Wang, Haixing; Zhang, Yangchun; Xu, Dongliang; Sheng, Puyi

    2016-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) disturb bone remodeling during aging, and this process is accelerated in diabetes. However, their role in modulation of osteoclast-induced bone resorption is controversial, with some studies indicating that AGEs enhance bone resorption and others showing the opposite effect. We determined whether AGEs present at different stages of osteoclast differentiation affect bone resorption differently. Based on increased levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K (CTSK), we identified day 4 of induction as the dividing time of cell fusion stage and mature stage in RAW264.7 cell-derived osteoclast-like cells (OCLs). AGE-modified BSA (50-400 μg/ml) or control BSA (100 μg/ml) was then added at the beginning of each stage. Results showed that the presence of AGEs at the cell fusion stage reduced pit numbers, resorption area, and CTSK expression. Moreover, expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) as well as the number of TRAP-positive cells, nuclei per OCL, actin rings, and podosomes also decreased. However, the presence of AGEs at the mature stage enlarged the resorption area markedly and increased pit numbers slightly. Intriguingly, only the number of nuclei per OCL and podosomes increased. These data indicate that AGEs biphasically modulate bone resorption activity of OCLs in a differentiation stage-dependent manner. AGEs at the cell fusion stage reduce bone resorption dramatically, mainly via suppression of RANK expression in osteoclast precursors, whereas AGEs at the mature stage enhance bone resorption slightly, most likely by increasing the number of podosomes in mature OCLs.

  14. Management of external invasive cervical resorption of tooth with Biodentine: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akash Kumar Baranwal

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) of a tooth is relatively uncommon and the etiology is not very clear. It is sometimes misdiagnosed and can lead to improper management or tooth loss. Correct diagnosis and proper management can result in a successful outcome. The treatment should aim toward the complete suppression of all resorbing tissues and the reconstruction of resorptive defect by the placement of a suitable filling material or some biological systems. One of the most significant develo...

  15. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.

  16. Root resorption of the maxillary lateral incisor caused by impacted canine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqerban, A; Jacobs, R; Lambrechts, P; Loozen, G; Willems, G

    2009-09-01

    Root resorption of maxillary lateral incisors caused by erupting canines is well known and a relatively common phenomenon. However, much debate and conflicting evidence exists with regard to the actual resorption trigger and potential etiological factors involved. Consequently, there are no obvious clinical clues concerning prevention and diagnosis as well as subsequent treatment decisions. The introduction of cone beam computer tomography has recently allowed drawing a new and much more documented light on the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, no investigations have determined that this new information may result in another and better diagnostic approach and an improved treatment outcome. Therefore, the present review will attempt to summarize the existing evidence on two- and three-dimensional images and try to link the radiological observations to any further preventive, diagnostic, and/or therapeutic measures. Detection thresholds, accuracy, and reliability of impacted canine localization and neighboring root resorption risks will also be considered. This review demonstrates how adding a third-dimension to the radiographic information may notably alter the prevalence of root resorptions and descriptions of this prevalence. In any case, further investigation is needed to determine resorption detection thresholds in various two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging techniques, as well as to determine therapeutic thresholds and criteria for strategic tooth extraction based on radiographic manifest and not manageable resorption lesions.

  17. Effects of intrusion combined with anterior retraction on apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Décio Rodrigues; Tibola, Douglas; Janson, Guilherme; Maria, Fábio Rogério Torres

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of intrusion mechanics combined with anterior retraction on root resorption of the maxillary incisors. A sample of 56 patients was divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 28 patients (12 females and 16 males), presenting with an increased overjet and deep overbite (6.48 and 4.78 mm, respectively) treated with reverse curve of Spee intrusion mechanics and group 2 comprised 28 patients (12 females and 16 males) with an increased overjet of 5.67 mm and a normal overbite of 1.12 mm. The initial mean ages for groups 1 and 2 were 13.41 and 13.27 years, respectively. Pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment periapical radiographs were used to evaluate root resorption. The groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation between root resorption and tooth movement was investigated with Spearman's correlation coefficient. The subjects in group 1 had statistically greater root resorption (P resorption (r = 0.324 and r = 0.320, respectively). The combination of anterior retraction with intrusive mechanics causes more root resorption than anterior retraction of the maxillary incisors alone.

  18. The effect of resorption cavities on bone stiffness is site dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderoost, Jef; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2014-01-01

    Resorption cavities formed during the bone remodelling cycle change the structure and thus the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. We tested the hypotheses that bone stiffness loss due to resorption cavities depends on anatomical location, and that for identical eroded bone volumes, cavities would cause more stiffness loss than homogeneous erosion. For this purpose, we used beam-shell finite element models. This new approach was validated against voxel-based FE models. We found an excellent agreement for the elastic stiffness behaviour of individual trabeculae in axial compression (R(2) = 1.00) and in bending (R(2)>0.98), as well as for entire trabecular bone samples to which resorption cavities were digitally added (R(2) = 0.96, RMSE = 5.2%). After validation, this new method was used to model discrete cavities, with dimensions taken from a statistical distribution, on a dataset of 120 trabecular bone samples from three anatomical sites (4th lumbar vertebra, femoral head, iliac crest). Resorption cavities led to significant reductions in bone stiffness. The largest stiffness loss was found for samples from the 4th lumbar vertebra, the lowest for femoral head samples. For all anatomical sites, resorption cavities caused significantly more stiffness loss than homogeneous erosion did. This novel technique can be used further to evaluate the impact of resorption cavities, which are known to change in several metabolic bone diseases and due to treatment, on bone competence.

  19. Effect of LED-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Güray, Enis; Akkuş, Derya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of light-emitting diode-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy (LPT), on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (TM) and orthodontically induced root resorption, in rats. Twenty male 12-week-old Wistar rats were separated into two groups (control and LPT) and 50 cN of force was applied between maxillary left molar and incisor with a coil spring. In the treatment group, LPT was applied with an energy density of 20 mW/cm(2) over a period of 10 consecutive days directly over the movement of the first molar teeth area. The distance between the teeth was measured with a digital caliper on days 0 (T0), 10 (T1), and 21 (T2) on dental cast models. The surface area of root resorption lacunae was measured histomorphometrically using digital photomicrographs. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical evaluation at p resorption, expressed as a percentage, showed that the average relative root resorption affecting the maxillary molars on the TM side was 0.098 ± 0.066 in the LPT group and 0.494 ± 0.224 in the control group. Statistically significant inhibition of root resorption with LPT was determined (p orthodontic tooth movement and inhibitory effects on orthodontically induced resorptive activity.

  20. In vitro degradation and in vivo resorption of dicalcium phosphate cement based grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Zhang, Yu Ling; Grover, Liam; Merle, Géraldine E; Tamimi, Faleh; Barralet, Jake

    2015-10-01

    There are two types of DCP: dihydrated (brushite) and anhydrous (monetite). After implantation, brushite converts to hydroxyapatite (HA) which resorbs very slowly. This conversion is not observed after implantation of monetite cements and result in a greater of resorption. The precise mechanisms of resorption and degradation however of these ceramics remain uncertain. This study was designed to investigate the effect of: porosity, surface area and hydration on in vitro degradation and in vivo resorption of DCP. Brushite and two types of monetite cement based grafts (produced by wet and dry thermal conversion) were aged in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and bovine serum solutions in vitro and were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Here we show that for high relative porosity grafts (50-65%), solubility and surface area does not play a significant role towards in vitro mass loss with disintegration and fragmentation being the main factors dictating mass loss. For grafts having lower relative porosity (35-45%), solubility plays a more crucial role in mass loss during in vitro ageing and in vivo resorption. Also, serum inhibited dissolution and the formation of HA in brushite cements. However, when aged in PBS, brushite undergoes phase conversion to a mixture of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and HA. This phase conversion was not observed for monetite upon ageing (in both serum and PBS) or in subcutaneous implantation. This study provides greater understanding of the degradation and resorption process of DCP based grafts, allowing us to prepare bone replacement materials with more predictable resorption profiles.

  1. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Doto, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pericoronitis (AP) arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A), the proximal surface (B), and distal surface (C) in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.

  2. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  3. Why not to treat the tooth canal to solve external root resorptions? Here are the principles!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto; Bittencourt, Graziella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper aims at exposing the foundations or reasons why, in cases of external tooth resorption, including those of orthodontic origin, one should not perform a root canal to treat it. That should be done only to teeth with contamination or pulp necrosis, to remove the periapical inflammation induced by microbial products. When facing cases of external tooth resorption, one's conduct must always respect the following sequence of steps: first of all, identifying the cause accurately; then, planning the therapeutic approach and, finally, adopting the conducts in a very well-founded way. The situations in which endodontic treatment is recommended for tooth resorptions are those when there are: a) pulp necrosis with microbial contamination, b) aseptic pulp necrosis, c) developing calcific metamorphosis of the pulp and d) diagnosis of internal resorption. It is not possible, through the pulp, to control the resorption process that is taking place in the external part, after all, the causes are acting in the periodontal ligament. There is no evidence that justifies applying endodontic treatment, by means of root canal, to control external resorption processes, when the pulp shows vitality. PMID:28125136

  4. An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

  5. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  6. Why not to treat the tooth canal to solve external root resorptions? Here are the principles!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims at exposing the foundations or reasons why, in cases of external tooth resorption, including those of orthodontic origin, one should not perform a root canal to treat it. That should be done only to teeth with contamination or pulp necrosis, to remove the periapical inflammation induced by microbial products. When facing cases of external tooth resorption, one's conduct must always respect the following sequence of steps: first of all, identifying the cause accurately; then, planning the therapeutic approach and, finally, adopting the conducts in a very well-founded way. The situations in which endodontic treatment is recommended for tooth resorptions are those when there are: a pulp necrosis with microbial contamination, b aseptic pulp necrosis, c developing calcific metamorphosis of the pulp and d diagnosis of internal resorption. It is not possible, through the pulp, to control the resorption process that is taking place in the external part, after all, the causes are acting in the periodontal ligament. There is no evidence that justifies applying endodontic treatment, by means of root canal, to control external resorption processes, when the pulp shows vitality.

  7. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  8. Soil nitrogen affects phosphorus recycling: foliar resorption and plant-soil feedbacks in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Craig R; Yanai, Ruth D; Fisk, Melany C; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew A; Quintero, Brauuo A; Fahey, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have attempted to link foliar resorption of nitrogen and phosphorus to their. respective availabilities in soil, with mixed results. Based on resource optimization theory, we hypothesized that the foliar resorption of one element could be driven by the availability of another element. We tested various measures of soil N and P as predictors of N and P resorption in six tree species in 18 plots across six stands at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. Phosphorus resorption efficiency (P resorption also increased with soil P content, which is difficult to explain basdd on single-element limitation, butfollows from the correlation between soil N and soil P. The expected single-element relationships were evident only in the 0 horizon: P resorption was high where resin-available P was low in the Oe (P resorption was high where potential N mineralization in the Oa was low (P resorption. The striking effect of soil N content on foliar P resorption is the first evidence of multiple-element control on nutrient resorption to be reported from an unmanipulated ecosystem.

  9. Development of the ciliary body: morphological changes in the distal portion of the optic cup in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces-Peña, M D; de la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Vicente, A; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the main events that occur in the development of the ciliary body (CB) in the 5-14th week of development. The CB develops from the distal portion of the optic cup (OC) and the neighboring mesenchyme. During the 5th week of development, 4 zones were observed in the distal portion of the OC: in zone 1, the epithelia of the outer and inner layers of the OC came into contact. This contact coincided with the appearance of mainly apical granule pigments. This zone corresponded to the anlage of the epithelial layers of the CB. In zone 2, the cells surrounded the marginal sinus and contained scarce pigment granules and nuclei in the basal position. This zone corresponded to the anlage of the iris. Zone 3 was triangular in shape and its vertex ran towards the marginal sinus and corresponded to common cell progenitors. Zone 4 corresponded to the retinal pigment epithelium anlage and the neural retina anlage. We determined the onset of the stroma and the ciliary muscle anlage at the end of the 7th week. In the 13-14th week, we observed the anlage of the orbicularis ciliaris (pars plana of the CB) and corona ciliaris (pars plicata of the CB), in addition to the anlage of the ciliary muscle. Our study, therefore, establishes a precise timetable of the development of the CB.

  10. Impacted maxillary canines and root resorption of adjacent teeth: A retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Costanza; Vernucci, Roberto; Vichi, Maurizio; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of impacted maxillary canine is reported to be between 1% and 3%. The lack of monitoring and the delay in the treatment of the impacted canine can cause different complications such as: displacement of adjacent teeth, loss of vitality of neighbouring teeth, shortening of the dental arch, follicular cysts, canine ankylosis, recurrent infections, recurrent pain, internal resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, external resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, combination of these factors. An appropriate diagnosis, accurate predictive analysis and early intervention are likely to prevent such undesirable effects. The objective is to evaluate, by means of a retrospective observational study, the possibility of carrying out a predictive analysis of root resorption adjacent to the impacted canines by means of orthopantomographs, so as to limit the prescription of additional 3D radiography. Material and Methods 120 subjects with unilateral or bilateral maxillary impacted canine were examined and 50 patients with 69 impacted maxillary canine (22 male, 28 female; mean age: 11.7 years) satisfied the inclusion criteria of the study. These patients were subjected to a basic clinical and radiographic investigation (orthopantomographs and computerized tomography). All panoramic films were viewed under standardized conditions for the evaluation of two main variables: maxillary canine angulations (a, b, g angles) and the overlapping between the impacted teeth and the lateral incisor (Analysis of Lindauer). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of resorbed lateral incisors depending on sector location and angle measurements. Results Results indicated that b angle has the greatest influence on the prediction of root resorption (predictive value of b angle = 76%). If β angle resorption is 0.06. Conclusions Evaluation of b angle and superimposition lateral incisor/impacted canine analysed on orthopantomographs could

  11. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of cathepsin K inhibit bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votta, B J; Levy, M A; Badger, A; Bradbeer, J; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Thompson, S; Bossard, M J; Carr, T; Connor, J R; Tomaszek, T A; Szewczuk, L; Drake, F H; Veber, D F; Gowen, M

    1997-09-01

    We have shown previously that cathepsin K, a recently identified member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases, is expressed selectively in osteoclasts and is the predominant cysteine protease in these cells. Based upon its abundant cell type-selective expression, potent endoprotease activity at low pH and cellular localization at the bone interface, cathepsin K has been proposed to play a specialized role in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, we evaluated a series of peptide aldehydes and demonstrated that they are potent cathepsin K inhibitors. These compounds inhibited osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in fetal rat long bone (FRLB) organ cultures in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Selected compounds were also shown to inhibit bone resorption in a human osteoclast-mediated assay in vitro. Chz-Leu-Leu-Leu-H (in vitro enzyme inhibition Ki,app = 1.4 nM) inhibited parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated resorption in the FRLB assay with an IC-50 of 20 nM and inhibited resorption by isolated human osteoclasts cultured on bovine cortical bone slices with an IC-50 of 100 nM. In the adjuvant-arthritic (AA) rat model, in situ hybridization studies demonstrated high levels of cathepsin K expression in osteoclasts at sites of extensive bone loss in the distal tibia. Cbz-Leu-Leu-Leu-H (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) significantly reduced this bone loss, as well as the associated hind paw edema. In the thyroparathyriodectomized rat model, Cbz-Leu-Leu-Leu-H inhibited the increase in blood ionized calcium induced by a 6 h infusion of PTH. These data indicate that inhibitors of cathepsin K are effective at reducing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and may have therapeutic potential in diseases of excessive bone resorption such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoporosis.

  12. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  13. Optic nerve fast axonal transport abnormalities in primates. Occurrence after short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1980-11-01

    Fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate (Aotus trivirgatus) optic nerve were studied in ten eyes at various intervals after occlusion of the lateral short posterior ciliary circulation. Evidence of focal axonal ischemia, as indicated by swelling of mitochondria and dissolution of cytoplasmic detail, was noted as early as one hour after occlusion. Accumulation of mitochondria, microvesicles, and dense bodies, indicating focal interruption of axonal transport mechanisms, was noted in eyes examined at 2, 4, and 6 hours. This accumulation of organelles was limited to the region of the lamina cribrosa. Nerve head abnormalities were not seen in two eyes studied at two weeks.

  14. Treatment of maxillary central incisor with external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: 18 months follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    External cervical resorption is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. This case report demonstrates an external cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor of a 24-year-old male patient. After surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the resorption was subsequently sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The 18 months follow-up demonstrates no pathological changes on clinical...

  15. Chapter 5 : Deciduous Tooth Resorption after Overfilling of Root Canal Filler: Function and Nature of Multinucleated Giant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Hiromasa; ANTOH, MOTOYOSHI; TAKEI, NORIYUYKI; OCHIAI, TAKANAGA

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous reports on physiological root resorption claiming that the root resorption process of primary teeth is regulated in a manner similar to bone remodeling [28]. However, complex histological changes occur under several pathological conditions. Abnormal tooth resorption could be found in primary teeth due to certain causes until the completion of the permanent dentition. In Japan and eastern Asia, calcium hydroxide paste with silicon oil added iodoform is widely used for endodo...

  16. A possible association between early apical resorption of primary teeth and ectodermal characteristics of the permanent dentition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, M L B; Kvetny, M J; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that children with unexpected early apical resorption of the primary teeth are also predisposed to resorption in the permanent dentition. Accordingly, the aim was to perform a longitudinal study focussing on the permanent teeth in children with unexpected early api...... dentition: In all 12 children, dental deviations in the permanent dentition were observed. Additionally, idiopathic external apical resorption of the permanent teeth was seen in three children, two of whom had received orthodontic treatment....

  17. Resorption Rate Tunable Bioceramic: Si, Zn-Modified Tricalcium Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    ''Resorption rate tunable bioceramic: Si and Zn-modified tricalcium phosphate'' was published in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings (the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites - Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites) [5].

  18. Neural crest-mediated bone resorption is a determinant of species-specific jaw length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealba, Erin L; Jheon, Andrew H; Hall, Jane; Curantz, Camille; Butcher, Kristin D; Schneider, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Precise control of jaw length during development is crucial for proper form and function. Previously we have shown that in birds, neural crest mesenchyme (NCM) confers species-specific size and shape to the beak by regulating molecular and histological programs for the induction and deposition of cartilage and bone. Here we reveal that a hitherto unrecognized but similarly essential mechanism for establishing jaw length is the ability of NCM to mediate bone resorption. Osteoclasts are considered the predominant cells that resorb bone, although osteocytes have also been shown to participate in this process. In adults, bone resorption is tightly coupled to bone deposition as a means to maintain skeletal homeostasis. Yet, the role and regulation of bone resorption during growth of the embryonic skeleton have remained relatively unexplored. We compare jaw development in short-beaked quail versus long-billed duck and find that quail have substantially higher levels of enzymes expressed by bone-resorbing cells including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (Mmp13), and Mmp9. Then, we transplant NCM destined to form the jaw skeleton from quail to duck and generate chimeras in which osteocytes arise from quail donor NCM and osteoclasts come exclusively from the duck host. Chimeras develop quail-like jaw skeletons coincident with dramatically elevated expression of TRAP, Mmp13, and Mmp9. To test for a link between bone resorption and jaw length, we block resorption using a bisphosphonate, osteoprotegerin protein, or an MMP13 inhibitor, and this significantly lengthens the jaw. Conversely, activating resorption with RANKL protein shortens the jaw. Finally, we find that higher resorption in quail presages their relatively lower adult jaw bone mineral density (BMD) and that BMD is also NCM-mediated. Thus, our experiments suggest that NCM not only controls bone resorption by its own derivatives but also modulates the activity of mesoderm

  19. The effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontically induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, A Burcu; Bicakci, A Altug; Mutaf, H Ilhan; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, V Sevinc

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive and/or reparative effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) in rats. Thirty rats were divided into four groups (short-term control (SC), short-term laser (SL), long-term control (LC), long-term laser (LL)). In all groups, the left first molar was moved mesially for 11 days. At the end of this period, the rats in groups SC and SL were killed in order to observe the resorption lacunas and to evaluate whether LLLT had any positive effect on root resorption. The groups LC and LL were remained for a healing period of 14 days in order to observe spontaneous repair of the resorption areas and investigate whether LLLT had reparative effects on root resorption. A Ga-Al-As diode laser (Doris, CTL-1106MX, Warsaw, Poland) with a wavelength of 820 nm was used. In SL group, the first molars were irradiated with the dose of 4.8 J/cm2 (50 mW, 12 s, 0.6 J) on every other day during force application. In LL group, the irradiation period was started on the day of appliance removal and the first molars were irradiated with the dose of 4.8 J/cm2 on every other day for the next 14 days. LLLT significantly increased the number of osteoblasts and fibroblasts, and inflammatory response in SL group in comparison with SC group (P = .001). The amount of resorption did not represent any difference between the two groups (P = .16). In LL group, LLLT significantly increased the number of fibroblasts and decreased the amount of resorption in comparison with LC group (P = .001; P = .02). Both parameters indicating the reparative and the resorptive processes were found to be increased by LLLT applied during orthodontic force load. LLLT applied after termination of the orthodontic force significantly alleyed resorption and enhanced/accelerated the healing of OIIRR. LLLT has significant reparative effects on OIIRR while it is not possible to say that it definitely has a

  20. Treatment of maxillary central incisor with external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: 18 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Disha, Saraswathi

    2013-07-09

    External cervical resorption is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. This case report demonstrates an external cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor of a 24-year-old male patient. After surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the resorption was subsequently sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The 18 months follow-up demonstrates no pathological changes on clinical and radiographic examination. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with external cervical resorption.

  1. Surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 with mineral trioxide aggregate: a 6-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rafael; Rincón, Juan G

    2011-11-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a type of external resorption rarely seen as an adverse effect after a guided tissue regeneration procedure for a periodontal condition. This case report summarizes the surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 (Heithersay) with mineral trioxide aggregate, in a mandibular incisor of a 67-year-old man. A 6-year clinical follow-up with radiovisiography and cone-beam computerized tomography revealed complete healing. A surgical endodontic management could promote healing and survival of a tooth with advanced root resorption due to a periodontal condition.

  2. Soil nitrogen drives community-level phosphorus resorption in a co-limited system: evidence from a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, C. R.; Yanai, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fertilization studies in northeastern forests suggest that forest productivity may be co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Foliar nutrient resorption is a crucial conservation mechanism for plants. Resorption controls litterfall nutrient concentration, and litterfall is the largest aboveground nutrient flux in this system. Previous studies have attempted to link the foliar resorption of P to soil P status with mixed results. We propose that in an N and P co-limited system, foliar resorption of P may be linked to N availability. Here we compare the foliar chemistry of six hardwood tree species to soil chemistry across 18 plots in 6 stands in Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Resorption efficiency was calculated by species as the percent difference between green and senesced leaves. We weighted the resorption efficiencies for dominant tree species in each plot by their litterfall mass to create a community-level estimate of resorption for each plot. Estimates of soil N content to 30 centimeters in the mineral soil were strongly correlated with community-level estimates of both P resorption efficiency (p=0.002) and proficiency (p=0.006). At the population level, this trend was observed in four of the six tree species sampled. Neither N nor P resorption was correlated with any of the soil P fractions we examined. If N availability drives biological P conservation, it would provide an important mechanism for the coupled cycling of N and P in co-limited systems.

  3. Longitudinal in vivo imaging of bone formation and resorption using fluorescence molecular tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, F M; Stuker, F; Weigt, C; Kuhn, G; Koch, K; Schulte, F A; Ripoll, J; Rudin, M; Müller, R

    2013-02-01

    Bone research often focuses on anatomical imaging of the bone microstructure, but in order to gain better understanding in how bone remodeling is modulated through interventions also bone formation and resorption processes should be investigated. With this in mind, the purpose of this study was to establish a longitudinal in vivo imaging approach of bone formation and resorption using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). In this study the reproducibility, accuracy and sensitivity of FMT for bone imaging were assessed by performing longitudinal measurements with FMT and comparing it to in vivo micro-computed tomography on a set of control mice, and mice in which load-adaptation was induced in the sixth caudal vertebra. The precision error for FMT measurements, expressed as coefficient of variation, was smaller than 16%, indicating acceptable reproducibility. A correlation was found between bone resorption measured with FMT and bone resorption rate measured with in vivo micro-computed tomography only over the first 14days (R=0.81, pbone formation measured with FMT and bone formation rate measured with in vivo micro-CT. Bone formation measured by FMT was 89-109% greater (pBone resorption was 5-8% lower, but did not reach a significant difference between groups, indicating moderate sensitivity for FMT. In conclusion, in vivo FMT in mouse tail bones is feasible but needs to be optimized for monitoring load adaptation in living mice.

  4. External root resorption with the self-ligating Damon system—a retrospective study

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    Roberta Heiffig Handem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the degree of external apical root resorption (EARR in patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances and with conventional preadjusted appliances. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients, divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with self-ligating Damon appliances, with an initial age of 16.04 years, final age of 18.06 years, and treatment time of 2.02 years. Group 2 consisted of 27 patients, treated with conventional preadjusted appliances, with an initial age of 16.77 years, final age of 18.47 years and treatment time of 1.70 years. The groups were matched regarding the initial and final ages, treatment time, type of malocclusion, and treatment protocol without extractions. Root resorption was evaluated on periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular incisors at the end of orthodontic treatment with the scores of Levander and Malmgren. Intergroup comparisons of root resorption were performed with Mann-Whitney tests. Results No significant difference in the degree of root resorption between the two groups was found. Conclusions Similar degrees of resorption can be expected after non-extraction treatment with Damon self-ligating or conventional preadjusted appliances.

  5. Repair of perforating inflammatory root resorption in a previously traumatized incisor: 36-month follow-up.

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    Cehreli, Zafer C; Guzeler, Irem; Uysal, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a serious complication of dental trauma, which leads to progressive loss of the root structure. The purpose of this report was to present a case of perforating inflammatory root resorption in a previously traumatized young incisor tooth with incomplete root development. A 12-year-old girl, who had suffered a traumatic dental injury 4 years earlier, was referred with symptoms of pain and swelling in a permanent maxillary central incisor. The tooth had been root-filled and had thin dentinal walls and a wide open apex. During retreatment, a perforating resorption site was observed on the root's distal aspect. Because the entire root canal filling could not be removed, the resorption site was repaired with white mineral trioxide aggregate in the presence of the remaining gutta-percha. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was conducted for 36 months, demonstrating arrest of the resorptive process, regeneration of the periradicular tissues, and re-establishment of the periodontal space.

  6. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

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    Antonio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn < 29º. However, the distance between the buccal cortical bone and the central incisor root apex showed no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2; CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that there are no correlations between the proximity of buccal cortical bone, maxillary incisor roots and the root resorption index.

  7. Notch2 signaling promotes osteoclast resorption via activation of PYK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Won Jong; Kim, Bongjun; Kim, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2016-05-01

    Notch signaling plays a central role in various cell fate decisions, including skeletal development. Recently, Notch signaling was implicated in osteoclast differentiation and maturation, including the resorption activity of osteoclasts. However, the specific involvement of notch signaling in resorption activity was not fully investigated. Here, we investigated the roles of Notch signaling in the resorption activity of osteoclasts by use of the gamma-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ). Attenuating Notch signaling by DBZ suppressed the expression of NFATc1, a master transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation. However, overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 did not fully rescue the effects of DBZ. DBZ suppressed the autophosphorylation of PYK2, which is essential for the formation of the podosome belt and sealing zone, with reduced c-Src/PYK2 interaction. We found that RANKL increases PYK2 activation accompanied by increased NICD2 production in osteoclasts. Overexpression of NICD2 in osteoclasts rescued DBZ-mediated suppression of resorption activity with promotion of PYK2 autophosphorylation and microtubule acetylation. Consistent with the in vitro results, DBZ strongly suppressed bone destruction in an interleukin-1-induced bone loss model. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Notch2 in osteoclasts plays a role in the control of resorption activity via the PYK2-c-Src-microtubule signaling pathway.

  8. Conservative management of external root resorption after tooth reimplantation: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionta, Franciny Querobim; de Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina; de Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; Gonçalves, Priscilla Santana Pinto; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Rios, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a 9-year-old patient who suffered external root resorption of the permanent maxillary left lateral incisor following reimplantation of the avulsed left central and lateral incisors. Sixteen days after reimplantation and splinting of the incisors in a hospital emergency department, the patient was brought to the pediatric department of a dental school for further treatment. Root canal access was created in the maxillary left lateral and central incisors, and calcium hydroxide paste was used as intracanal dressing. At the 5-month follow-up, a radiograph revealed extensive external root resorption, a communicating root canal, and a periodontal lesion affecting the left lateral incisor. Management of the root resorption included obturation of the apical third of the canal with gutta percha and the middle third with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). At the 3-year recall examination, the patient was asymptomatic, and no mobility or soft tissue alterations were observed clinically. There was no radiographic sign that resorption had progressed. Despite the success of treatment, observation is still required. The use of MTA may be considered an alternative treatment for external root resorption after tooth reimplantation. The technique may allow tooth preservation in children until skeletal growth and development are completed and implant treatment may be considered.

  9. Resorption of monetite calcium phosphate cement by mouse bone marrow derived osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, M; Karlsson Ott, M; Engqvist, H; Melhus, H; Rasmusson, A J

    2015-01-01

    Recently the interest for monetite based biomaterials as bone grafts has increased; since in vivo studies have demonstrated that they are degradable, osteoconductive and improve bone healing. So far osteoclastic resorption of monetite has received little attention. The current study focuses on the osteoclastic resorption of monetite cement using primary mouse bone marrow macrophages, which have the potential to differentiate into resorbing osteoclasts when treated with receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL). The osteoclast viability and differentiation were analysed on monetite cement and compared to cortical bovine bone discs. After seven days live/dead stain results showed no significant difference in viability between the two materials. However, the differentiation was significantly higher on the bone discs, as shown by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and Cathepsin K gene expression. Moreover monetite samples with differentiated osteoclasts had a 1.4 fold elevated calcium ion concentration in their culture media compared to monetite samples with undifferentiated cells. This indicates active resorption of monetite in the presence of osteoclasts. In conclusion, this study suggests that osteoclasts have a crucial role in the resorption of monetite based biomaterials. It also provides a useful model for studying in vitro resorption of acidic calcium phosphate cements by primary murine cells.

  10. Quantification and visualization of alveolar bone resorption from 3D dental CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Jiro; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Suenaga, Yasuhito [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya (Japan); Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka [Aichi-Gakuin University, School of Dentistry, Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose A computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for quantifying and visualizing alveolar bone resorption caused by periodontitis was developed based on three-dimensional (3D) image processing of dental CT images. Methods The proposed system enables visualization and quantification of resorption of alveolar bone surrounding and between the roots of teeth. It has the following functions: (1) vertical measurement of the depth of resorption surrounding the tooth in 3D images, avoiding physical obstruction; (2) quantification of the amount of resorption in the furcation area; and (3) visualization of quantification results by pseudo-color maps, graphs, and motion pictures. The resorption measurement accuracy in the area surrounding teeth was evaluated by comparing with dentist's recognition on five real patient CT images, giving average absolute difference of 0.87 mm. An artificial image with mathematical truth was also used for measurement evaluation. Results The average absolute difference was 0.36 and 0.10 mm for surrounding and furcation areas, respectively. The system provides an intuitive presentation of the measurement results. Conclusion Computer aided diagnosis of 3D dental CT scans is feasible and the technique is a promising new tool for the quantitative evaluation of periodontal bone loss. (orig.)

  11. The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma

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    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or cause luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs.

  12. Anatomical and histological data on the ciliary ganglion in the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus Desmarest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Elzbieta; Kuder, Tadeusz; Szczurkowski, Aleksander; Kuchinka, Jacek

    2004-08-01

    The morphology and topography of the ciliary ganglion in the Egyptian spiny mouse were studied with use of histochemical and histological techniques. The ciliary ganglion of the Egyptian spiny mouse consisted of between 3 and 4 agglomerations of nerve cells. The largest was situated at the point where the ventral branch of the oculomotor nerve divides into two branches. The next two smaller aggregations were located on the superior and lateral surfaces of the optic nerve where it crossed the oculomotor nerve. From the main agglomerations of neurocytes arose between 3 and 4 intensively stained postganglionic cholinergic fibres. These followed the optic nerve to the eyeball. On the cross-sections of these bundles small agglomerations of neurocytes were observed. These decreased in size to only 2 or 3 cells towards the sclera. The ganglionic neurocytes in the largest ganglion varied from 15 to 30 microm in diameter. They were distributed uniformly over the whole surface of the sections. All the ganglia had connective capsules.

  13. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

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    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces with various forms of sand ridges and inter-ridge valleys. Cholistan Desert presents a complex pattern of alluvial and aeolian depositions. In the present study we evaluated the nutritive value of different accessions of the perennial range grass Cenchrus ciliaris collected from the Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Standard method, Benedict’s quantitative reagent for carbohydrates, crude protein and nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mineral analysis by flame photometer and estimation of crude fiber by using acid base treatment, were utilized. The results suggest that Cenchrus ciliaris has medicinal and nutritional importance, and that it could be a good source of important nutrients for humans, helping to alleviate poverty in poor local communities.

  14. Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding-swimming tradeoff in starfish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, William; Prakash, Vivek N.; Prakash, Manu

    2016-11-01

    Many marine invertebrates have larval stages covered in linear arrays of beating cilia, which propel the animal while simultaneously entraining planktonic prey. These bands are strongly conserved across taxa spanning four major superphyla, and they are responsible for the unusual morphologies of many invertebrates. However, few studies have investigated their underlying hydrodynamics. Here, we study the ciliary bands of starfish larvae, and discover a beautiful pattern of slowly-evolving vortices that surrounds the swimming animals. Closer inspection of the bands reveals unusual ciliary "tangles" analogous to topological defects that break-up and re-form as the animal adjusts its swimming stroke. Quantitative experiments and modeling demonstrate that these vortices create a physical tradeoff between feeding and swimming in heterogenous environments, which manifests as distinct flow patterns or "eigenstrokes" representing each behavior-potentially implicating neuronal control of cilia. This quantitative interplay between larval form and hydrodynamic function generalizes to other invertebrates, and illustrates the potential effects of active boundary conditions in other biological and synthetic systems.

  15. C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone

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    Kim Remans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.

  16. Contact transcleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits: effect of repeated treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisis, Spyridon K; Naoumidi, Irene I; Ginis, Harilaos S; Detorakis, Efstathios T; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the ciliary body (CB) morphology after four consecutive contact transcleral photodynamic treatments of the ciliary body (CB-PDT) with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits. Twenty-two pigmented rabbits underwent CB-PDT (study group), performed once (six rabbits) or repeated for up to four times (16 rabbits). Six additional rabbits received only laser treatment without photosensitizer administration (control group). CB-PDT was performed in one eye in rabbits of the study group, with the fellow eye serving as internal control. Verteporfin dosage was 1 mg kg(-1) as bolus injection and laser settings were 40 mW (600 microm core optical fiber) for 1.5 min per spot, for 10 spots. In repeated CB-PDT, treatments were performed in 4-day intervals. Daily IOP measurements were recorded. Histological studies were performed at selected time points. An IOP reduction, more sustained following repeated treatments, was detected in all treated eyes but not in fellow eyes or in the control group. On the average, the IOP was restored to pretreatment levels 4 days after the last treatment. No serious adverse events were observed and the CB architecture was intact at the end of the experiment. Repeated CB-PDT is safe and results in a short-term reduction of IOP. Induced CB alterations are reversible.

  17. Fetal calf serum-mediated inhibition of neurite growth from ciliary ganglion neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G E; Skaper, S D; Manthorpe, M; Moonen, G; Varon, S

    1984-01-01

    Embryonic chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons cultured in fetal calf serum-containing medium have been previously reported to extend neurites on polyornithine (PORN) substrata precoated with a neurite-promoting factor (PNPF) from rat schwannoma-conditioned medium. On PORN substrata alone, however, no neuritic growth occurred. This was interpreted as evidence that PORN was an incompetent substratum for ciliary neuritic growth. In this study, we now find that an untreated PORN substratum allows neuritic growth in serum-free defined medium. When PNPF was added to PORN, a more rapid and extensive neuritic response occurred. After 5 hr of culture, a 60% neuritic response occurred on PNPF/PORN, whereas no neurons initiated neurites until 10-12 hr on PORN. The inhibitory effect of fetal calf serum noted above on PORN could be obtained in part by pretreating the substratum with serum for 1 hr. Maximal inhibitory effects in the PORN pretreatment were achieved after 30 min and were not further improved by treatments up to 4 hr. Bovine serum albumin was also found to inhibit neurite growth on PORN to about 60% of the inhibition obtained by an equivalent amount of serum protein. Fetal calf serum was shown to cause a 15% reduction in the percentage of neurons bearing neurites after its addition to 18-hr serum-free PORN cultures and to cause statistically significant reductions in neurite lengths measured 2 hr later.

  18. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: potential options for resource-limited countries

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    Nisreen Rumman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disease of ciliary function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently overlooked because the symptoms are nonspecific and the knowledge about the disease in the primary care setting is poor. Additionally, none of the available tests is accurate enough to be used in isolation. These tests are expensive, and need sophisticated equipment and expertise to analyse and interpret results; diagnosis is therefore only available at highly specialised centres. The diagnosis is particularly challenging in countries with limited resources due to the lack of such costly equipment and expertise. In this review, we discuss the importance of early and accurate diagnosis especially for countries where the disease is clinically prevalent but diagnostic tests are lacking. We review the diagnostic tests available in specialised centres (nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and genetics. We then consider modifications that might be considered in less well-resourced countries whilst maintaining acceptable accuracy.

  19. Measurement of ciliary beat frequency using ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

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    Chen, Jason J.; Jing, Joseph C.; Su, Erica; Badger, Christopher; Coughlan, Carolyn A.; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Ciliated epithelial cells populate up to 80% of the surface area of the human airway and are responsible for mucociliary transport, which is the key protective mechanism that provides the first line of defense in the respiratory tract. Cilia beat in a rhythmic pattern and may be easily affected by allergens, pollutants, and pathogens, altering ciliary beat frequency (CBF) subsequently. Diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and primary ciliary dyskinesia may also decrease CBF. CBF is therefore a critical component of respiratory health. The current clinical method of measuring CBF is phase-contrast microscopy, which involves a tissue biopsy obtained via brushing of the nasal cavity. While this method is minimally invasive, the tissue sample must be oriented to display its profile view, making the visualization of a single layer of cilia challenging. In addition, the conventional method requires subjective analysis of CBF, e.g., manually counting by visual inspection. On the contrary, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to study the retina in ophthalmology as well as vasculature in cardiology, and offers higher resolution than conventional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Based on this technology, our lab specifically developed an ultra-high resolution OCT system to image the microstructure of the ciliated epithelial cells. Doppler analysis was also performed to determine CBF. Lastly, we also developed a program that utilizes fast Fourier transform to determine CBF under phase-contrast microscopy, providing a more objective method compared to the current method.

  20. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  1. MTA resorption and periradicular healing in an open-apex incisor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Ehsani, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the periradicular healing and resorption of an unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in an open-apex central incisor. A 22-year old female with a symptomatic open-apex right maxillary central incisor associated with a periradicular lesion was referred for evaluation and treatment. After chemomechanical debridement, the apical third of the root canal was filled with MTA to create an apical plug. Postoperative radiographs showed the extrusion of MTA into the periradicular lesion. The tooth was then restored with a post and crown. At the 2-year follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and radiographs revealed complete healing of the periradicular area. At the 7-year follow-up, complete resorption of the extruded MTA was evident. The results of this case study indicate that complete resorption of extruded MTA is possible in the long term; however, the extrusion of MTA in open-apex tooth should still be avoided.

  2. Intracanal management of a post traumatic perforative invasive cervical root resorption using calcium enriched matrix cement

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    Saeed Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical root resorption (ICR is a consequence of a resorptive soft-tissue penetrating into dentin that starts below the gingival attachment and tends to be asymptomatic unless dental pulp involvement. Prompt diagnosis is the key to retention of the involved tooth. Treatment procedure includes non-surgical elimination of the resorptive soft-tissues and restoration of the cavity. In case of pulp involvement, endodontic treatment is indicated. This is a report of a non-surgical intra canal treatment case in a maxillary central incisor, which involved the pulp and was successfully treated with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Based on favorable long-term treatment outcomes, CEM cement may be a promising biomaterial in treatment of ICR cases.

  3. Treatment of severe inflammatory root resorption in a young permanent incisor with mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeler, Irem; Uysal, Serdar; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a pathologic condition caused by several etiologic factors including traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor affected by severe, perforating inflammatory root resorption. An 11-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary lateral incisor associated with pain, mobility and a sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed a large periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root. After removal of the root canal filling, the tooth was treated with intracanal calcium hydroxide for 2 weeks. The calcium hydroxide dressing was then removed and the entire root canal was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The endodontic access cavity was restored with composite resin. After 1 year, advanced osseous healing of the periradicular region had occurred and no clinical symptoms were apparent.

  4. Aging Leads to a Dysregulation in Mechanically Driven Bone Formation and Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Hajar; Birkhold, Annette I; Weinkamer, Richard; Duda, Georg N; Willie, Bettina M; Checa, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is essential to maintain skeletal mass and structure, but its effect seems to diminish with age. To test the hypothesis that bone becomes less sensitive to mechanical strain with age, we used a combined in vivo/in silico approach. We investigated how maturation and aging influence the mechanical regulation of bone formation and resorption to 2 weeks of noninvasive in vivo controlled loading in mice. Using 3D in vivo morphometrical assessment of longitudinal microcomputed tomography images, we quantified sites in the mouse tibia where bone was deposited or resorbed in response to controlled in vivo loading. We compared the (re)modeling events (formation/resorption/quiescent) to the mechanical strains induced at these sites (predicted using finite element analysis). Mice of all age groups (young, adult, and elderly) responded to loading with increased formation and decreased resorption, preferentially at high strains. Low strains were associated with no anabolic response in adult and elderly mice, whereas young animals showed a strong response. Adult animals showed a clear separation between strain ranges where formation and resorption occurred but without an intermediate quiescent "lazy zone". This strain threshold disappeared in elderly mice, as mechanically induced (re)modeling became dysregulated, apparent in an inability to inhibit resorption or initiate formation. Contrary to what is generally believed until now, aging does not shift the mechanical threshold required to initiate formation or resorption, but rather blurs its specificity. These data suggest that pharmaceutical strategies augmenting physical exercise should consider this dysfunction in the mechanical regulation of bone (re)modeling to more effectively combat age-related bone loss.

  5. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently reduces osteoclast differentiation and resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilleau, Guillaume; Perrot, Rodolphe; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Boni, Sébastien; Flatt, Peter R; Irwin, Nigel; Chappard, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    A role for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in controlling bone resorption has been suspected. However uncertainty remains to identify whether GIP act directly on osteoclasts. The aim of the present study were (i) to identify in different osteoclast differentiation models (human peripheral blood mononuclear cells-PBMC, murine bone marrow macrophage-BMM and murine Raw 264.7 cells) whether GIP was capable of reducing osteoclast formation and resorption; (ii) ascertain whether the highly potent GIP analogue N-AcGIP was capable of inducing a response at lower concentrations and (iii) to decipher the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects. [d-Ala(2)]-GIP dose-dependently reduced osteoclast formation at concentration as low as 1nM in human PBMC and 10nM in murine BMM cultures. Furthermore, [d-Ala(2)]-GIP also reduced the extent of osteoclast resorption at concentration as low as 1nM in human PBMC and murine BMM cultures. The mechanism of action of [d-Ala(2)]-GIP appeared to be mediated by reduction in intracellular calcium concentration and oscillation that subsequently inhibited calcineurin activity and NFATc1 nuclear translocation. The potency of the highly potent N-AcGIP was determined and highlighted an effect on osteoclast formation and resorption at concentration ten times lower than observed with [d-Ala(2)]-GIP in vitro. Furthermore, N-AcGIP was also capable of reducing the number of osteoclast in ovariectomized mice as well as the circulating level of type I collagen C-telopeptide. Pharmacological concentrations required for reducing osteoclast formation and resorption provide the impetus to design and exploit enzymatically stable GIP analogues for the treatment of bone resorption disorders in humans.

  6. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  7. Potential and realized nutrient resorption in serpentine and non-serpentine chaparral shrubs and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E; Koehler, Catherine E; Skelly, Kathryn; Richards, James H

    2013-01-01

    Low-nutrient adapted species have numerous mechanisms that aid in nutrient conservation. Hypothetically, species adapted to nutrient-poor soils should have tighter internal nutrient recycling, as evidenced by greater resorption. However, literature results are mixed. We suggest methodological factors may limit our understanding of this process. We hypothesized that plants adapted to serpentine soils would be more proficient in resorbing N and P than plants adapted to non-serpentine soils, although there would be differences among functional groups within each soil type. For six growing seasons, we sampled senescent leaf tissue from the dominant and co-dominant shrubs and trees found in serpentine and non-serpentine chaparral communities in the California Coast Range. Our study also explicitly included congener pairs found on both soil types. Most species were highly N proficient, but species adapted to serpentine soils were more P proficient. Surprisingly, two of the three potential N-fixing species were also highly N proficient. Evergreen Quercus congeners were more N proficient than their deciduous congener pairs, although there was no difference in P resorption proficiency. Overall, large inter-annual variation was observed among most species sampled, but at least in some years, maximum potential resorption likely was reached. However, climate (temperature and precipitation) was not strongly correlated with either N or P resorption proficiency. Our data suggest that controlling for phylogeny can aid in interpretation of resorption patterns. More importantly, our study clearly shows that resorption patterns can only be discerned through long-term datasets, of which few exist in the literature.

  8. Comparison between two tomographic sections in the diagnosis of external root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Afonso Lermen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of coronal and sagittal CT sections to detect cavities simulating root resorption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 mandibular incisors were embedded in plaster bases, and cavities with 0.6, 1.2 or 1.8 mm in diameter and 0.3, 0.6 or 0.9 mm in depth (small, medium and large cavities were drilled on the buccal surfaces with high-speed round burs with diameters of 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mm to simulate external inflammatory root resorption. Simulations in the cervical, middle and apical thirds of each tooth root were made randomly. The Dental Scan software was used to obtain 1-mm-thick axial images from direct scanning, which were reconstructed in the coronal and sagittal planes using 3D software (Syngo FastView. Each series was loaded into the software. Fourteen images of each tooth were reconstructed in the coronal plane and 14 in the sagittal plane. A total of 1,652 images were obtained for analysis. Series information, tooth number and the plane reconstructed were stored. The images generated were saved on a CD-ROM together with the visualization software (Syngo FastView. Images were analyzed by a previously calibrated blinded, radiologist. Cochran's Q test was conducted separately for each region analyzed followed by pair-wise comparison by the McNemar test (p=0.05. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in the diagnosis of simulated resorption between the apical, middle, and coronal thirds. When the axial plane was assessed separately, diagnoses were statistically different (p0.05 between planes, irrespective of the third in which the resorptions were located. CONCLUSION: When tomographic sections are requested for the diagnosis of buccal or lingual external root resorption, sagittal sections afford the best image characterization of the resorption process.

  9. Bis-enoxacin blocks rat alveolar bone resorption from experimental periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes F Rivera

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, caused by polymicrobial subgingival pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Chronic periodontal infection results in inflammation, destruction of connective tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately tooth loss. Enoxacin and a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin (bis-enoxacin inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption and also contain antibiotic properties. Our study proposes that enoxacin and/or bis-enoxacin may be useful in reducing alveolar bone resorption and possibly bacterial colonization. Rats were infected with 10(9 cells of polymicrobial inoculum consisting of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for twelve weeks. Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxacin (5 mg/kg/day, bis-enoxacin (5, 25 mg/kg/day, alendronate (1, 10 mg/kg/day, or doxycycline (5 mg/day were administered after 6 weeks of polymicrobial infection. Periodontal disease parameters, including bacterial colonization/infection, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and systemic spread, were assessed post-euthanasia. All three periodontal pathogens colonized the rat oral cavity during polymicrobial infection. Polymicrobial infection induced an increase in total alveolar bone resorption, intrabony defects, and gingival inflammation. Treatment with bis-enoxacin significantly decreased alveolar bone resorption more effectively than either alendronate or doxycycline. Histologic examination revealed that treatment with bis-enoxacin and enoxacin reduced gingival inflammation and decreased apical migration of junctional epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that bis-enoxacin and enoxacin may be useful for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  10. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induces inflammatory bone resorption and synergizes with interleukin-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y-J; Choi, Y-J; An, S-J; Lee, H-R; Jun, H-K; Choi, B-K

    2016-08-03

    Tannerella forsythia is a major periodontal pathogen, and T. forsythia GroEL is a molecular chaperone homologous to human heat-shock protein 60. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and several systemic diseases. This study investigated the potential of T. forsythia GroEL to induce inflammatory bone resorption and examined the cooperative effect of IL-17 and T. forsythia GroEL on inflammatory responses. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were stimulated with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. After stimulation of MG63 cells with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17, gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was examined. After subcutaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17 above the calvaria of BALB/c mice, calvarial bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histological examination. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in HGFs and PDL cells, and IL-17 further promoted IL-6 and IL-8 production. Both T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 synergistically increased PGE2 production and inhibited OPG gene expression. Calvarial bone resorption was induced by T. forsythia GroEL injection, and simultaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 further increased bone resorption. These results suggest that T. forsythia GroEL is a novel virulence factor that can contribute to inflammatory bone resorption caused by T. forsythia and synergizes with IL-17 to exacerbate inflammation and bone resorption.

  11. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim; Sørensen, Mette G; Jensen, Vicki K;

    2008-01-01

    is currently not well understood. We used a battery of ion channel inhibitors, human osteoclasts, and their subcellular compartments to perform an unbiased analysis of the importance of the different ion transporters for acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts. CD14(+) monocytes from human...... peripheral blood were isolated, and mature osteoclasts were generated using RANKL and M-CSF. The human osteoclasts were (1) used for acridine orange assays for evaluation of lysosomal acidification, (2) used for bone resorption assays, (3) used for generation of osteoclasts membranes for acid influx...

  12. Glucocorticoid-Induced Changes in the Geometry of Osteoclast Resorption Cavities Affect Trabecular Bone Stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderoost, Jef; Søe, Kent; Merrild, Ditte Marie Horslev;

    2012-01-01

    Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities...... is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures during GC...

  13. Presence of collagen IV in the ciliary zonules of the human eye : An immunohistochemical study by LM and TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM

    2004-01-01

    The ciliary zonules of the eye are composed of fibrillar and non-fibrillar components. Fibrils provide tensile strength and elasticity, whereas non-fibrillar components serve as a coating surrounding the fibrils. This coating behaves as a barrier to macromolecules. The present light and transmission

  14. CCDC151 Mutations Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia by Disruption of the Outer Dynein Arm Docking Complex Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjeij, R.; Onoufriadis, A.; Watson, C.M.; Slagle, C.E.; Klena, N.T.; Dougherty, G.W.; Kurkowiak, M.; Loges, N.T.; Diggle, C.P.; Morante, N.F.; Gabriel, G.C.; Lemke, K.L.; Li, Y.; Pennekamp, P.; Menchen, T.; Konert, F.; Marthin, J.K.; Mans, D.A.; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Werner, C.; Burgoyne, T.; Westermann, C.; Rutman, A.; Carr, I.M.; O'Callaghan, C.; Moya, E.; Chung, E.M.; Consortium, U.K.; Sheridan, E.; Nielsen, K.G.; Roepman, R.; Bartscherer, K.; Burdine, R.D.; Lo, C.W.; Omran, H.; Mitchison, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse family of cytoskeletal dynein motors powers various cellular transport systems, including axonemal dyneins generating the force for ciliary and flagellar beating essential to movement of extracellular fluids and of cells through fluid. Multisubunit outer dynein arm (ODA) motor complexes, p

  15. CCDC151 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disruption of the outer dynein arm docking complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjeij, Rim; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Watson, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    A diverse family of cytoskeletal dynein motors powers various cellular transport systems, including axonemal dyneins generating the force for ciliary and flagellar beating essential to movement of extracellular fluids and of cells through fluid. Multisubunit outer dynein arm (ODA) motor complexes...

  16. The Effect of Root Coating with Titanium on Prevention of Root Resorption in Avulsed Teeth: An Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Azar; Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Badiee, Mohammadreza; Izadi, SeyedSadra; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tooth avulsion is a real dental emergency. If immediate replantation is not performed, the avulsed tooth may be lost due to inflammatory or replacement resorption. This animal study aimed to evaluate the bone response to the titanium coating of the root surface as an artificial barrier, and prevention of resorption of avulsed teeth. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups for assessment at two and eight weeks. Four teeth were extracted in each animal. The root surfaces of the test group were coated with a titanium layer using the Electron Beam Deposition system. After 24 h, replantation of the teeth was performed. Two animals were sacrificed after two weeks and the remaining dogs were killed after eight weeks. The presence of inflammation, inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, periodontal regeneration, periapical granuloma and ankylosis were evaluated through histological analyses. Results: Inflammatory root resorption was not present in any tooth except one tooth in the coated group after eight weeks. Replacement resorption was noted just in three of the non-coated teeth after two weeks and two teeth after eight weeks. The McNemar's test revealed that the frequency of replacement resorption in the non-coated group was significantly higher than the coated group (P=0.031). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems that coating the root surfaces of avulsed teeth with titanium may control the replacement root resorption. PMID:27790261

  17. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  18. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  19. The role of calcium and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) in human osteoclast formation and resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X; Hookway, E S; Kashima, T; Oppermann, U; Galione, A; Athanasou, N A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorbing cells which form by fusion of circulating mononuclear phagocyte precursors. Bone resorption results in the release of large amounts of calcium into the extracellular fluid (ECF), but it is not certain whether changes in extracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]e influence osteoclast formation and resorption. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of [Ca(2+)]e and NAADP, a potent calcium mobilising messenger that induces calcium uptake, on human osteoclast formation and resorption. CD14+ human monocytes were cultured with M-CSF and RANKL in the presence of different concentrations of calcium and NAADP and the effect on osteoclast formation and resorption evaluated. We found that the number of TRAP+ multinucleated cells and the extent of lacunar resorption were reduced when there was an increase in extracellular calcium and NAADP. This was associated with a decrease in RANK mRNA expression by CD14+ cells. At high concentrations (20 mM) of [Ca(2+)]e mature osteoclast resorption activity remained unaltered relative to control cultures. Our findings indicate that osteoclast formation is inhibited by a rise in [Ca(2+)]e and that RANK expression by mononuclear phagocyte osteoclast precursors is also [Ca(2+)]e dependent. Changes in NAADP also influence osteoclast formation, suggesting a role for this molecule in calcium handling. Osteoclasts remained capable of lacunar resorption, even at high ECF [Ca(2+)]e, in keeping with their role in physiological and pathological bone resorption.

  20. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette G; Henriksen, Kim; Sørensen, Mette Guldmann;

    2010-01-01

    Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we...

  1. The effect of infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha, on disc herniation resorption - A randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, Reijo A.; Karppinen, Jaro; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Veeger, Nic; Korhonen, Timo; Hurri, Heikki; Tervonen, Osmo

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized, controlled study. Objective. To evaluate the effect of infliximab on herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) resorption. Summary of Background Data. Although the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on HNP resorption are not fully understood, TNF-alpha appears to be

  2. Bone resorption is decreased postprandially by intestinal factors and glucagon-like peptide-2 is a possible candidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Gottschalck, Ida B

    2007-01-01

    -bowel syndrome (SBS) or total gastrectomy in order to elucidate whether the signal for the meal-induced reduction of bone resorption is initiated from the stomach or the intestine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bone resorption was assessed from the serum concentration of collagen type I C-telopeptide cross-links (s...

  3. Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begrow, Frank; Engelbertz, Jonas; Feistel, Björn; Lehnfeld, Romanus; Bauer, Katrin; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2010-03-01

    Thyme is a herb with broncholytic und secretomotoric effects. Its activity on beta (2) receptors as a possible mechanism of action was demonstrated. Major components are thymol and carvacrol which are claimed to be responsible for its effects and, therefore, used for standardization in the German pharmacopoeia (0.03 % phenols calculated as thymol). Our aim was to investigate the impact of thymol by using thyme extracts with either normal or extremely low thymol concentrations ( 0.038 %). The antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles of the trachea and the ileum and the effect on ciliary activity (respiratory clearance) were investigated. In addition, pure thymol and carvacrol were investigated separately and in spiking experiments. Thymol and carvacrol had a concentration-dependent antispasmodic effect in the rat trachea either being stimulated by acetylcholine, K (+) or Ba (++). The same result was observed with respect to the increase of mucociliary transport in mice. Extracts with very low thymol contents are effective in all models used except acetylcholine-induced rat ileum contraction. When thyme extracts with normal thymol contents or with very low thymol contents were compared, the extract with normal thymol contents was more effective, both as a relaxant (rat ileum) and as an antispasmodic compound (rat trachea contraction induced by either acetylcholine, Ba (++) or K (+)) and in ciliary transport experiments. Thyme extracts with very low thymol contents (practically free of volatile oil) were equally effective with respect to endothelin effects. When an extract with very low thymol contents is spiked with increasing concentrations of thymol, a concentration-dependent increase concerning the antispasmodic effect (Ba (++)-induced trachea contraction) is observed. In conclusion, the data show that in various models of antispasmodic effect (ileum and trachea) and by measuring ciliary activity, thymol (and carvacrol) is (are) active, although other not identified

  4. Novel Use of PRF and PDT in the Management of Trauma Induced Root Resorption and Infrabony Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Yadav, Neha; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur

    2015-05-01

    Root resorption is a common squeal of traumatic injury to the dentition. Its progression can be minimized by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. This case report presents the diagnosis and management of a case of trauma induced trio of apical root resorption, intraradicular root resorption and infrabony defect in maxillary central incisor. The main aim in treating such cases of resorption is to limit the inflammatory response at the periapical region so as to halt the resorptive process. To allow faster regeneration of the periodontal tissues, Platelet rich fibrin (PRF), a second generation platelet concentrate was used as an apical matrix over which MTA plug was given. The periodontal defect was managed with the help of localized antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT).

  5. IgG4-related intraocular inflammation masquerading as ciliary body melanoma in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related diseases affects various tissues and organs of the human body. Orbital, adnexal, and scleral inflammations were already reported in the medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of intraocular IgG4-associated inflammatory mass in the ciliary body mimicking as a melanoma in a 23-year-old female from Northeast India. Characteristic histopathology, immunohistochemistry in the tissue, protein chemistry, and raised serum IgG4 were supportive for the diagnosis. As this newly diagnosed disease has multi-organ affection and little is known about its pathogenesis particularly in eye and adnexa, the present case will open many challenges in clinico-pathological diagnosis and research in the future.

  6. Efficiency optimization and symmetry-breaking in a model of ciliary locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    A variety of swimming microorganisms, called ciliates, exploit the bending of a large number of small and densely-packed organelles, termed cilia, in order to propel themselves in a viscous fluid. We consider a spherical envelope model for such ciliary locomotion where the dynamics of the individual cilia are replaced by that of a continuous overlaying surface allowed to deform tangentially to itself. Employing a variational approach, we determine numerically the time-periodic deformation of such surface which leads to low-Reynolds locomotion with minimum rate of energy dissipation (maximum efficiency). Employing both Lagrangian and Eulerian points of views, we show that in the optimal swimming stroke, individual cilia display weak asymmetric beating, but that a significant symmetry-breaking occurs at the organism level, with the whole surface deforming in a wave-like fashion reminiscent of metachronal waves of biological cilia. This wave motion is analyzed using a formal modal decomposition, is found to occu...

  7. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...... and its impact on pulmonary function and physical ability. Considering fitness as an important outcome and including regular strenuous physical activity in PCD treatment would probably altogether increase pulmonary clearance, lung function, aerobic fitness, and quality of life, and prevent lifestyle......BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...

  8. Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alison J; May-Simera, Helen; Eichers, Erica R; Kai, Masatake; Hill, Josephine; Jagger, Daniel J; Leitch, Carmen C; Chapple, J Paul; Munro, Peter M; Fisher, Shannon; Tan, Perciliz L; Phillips, Helen M; Leroux, Michel R; Henderson, Deborah J; Murdoch, Jennifer N; Copp, Andrew J; Eliot, Marie-Madeleine; Lupski, James R; Kemp, David T; Dollfus, Hélène; Tada, Masazumi; Katsanis, Nicholas; Forge, Andrew; Beales, Philip L

    2005-10-01

    The evolutionarily conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway (or noncanonical Wnt pathway) drives several important cellular processes, including epithelial cell polarization, cell migration and mitotic spindle orientation. In vertebrates, PCP genes have a vital role in polarized convergent extension movements during gastrulation and neurulation. Here we show that mice with mutations in genes involved in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), a disorder associated with ciliary dysfunction, share phenotypes with PCP mutants including open eyelids, neural tube defects and disrupted cochlear stereociliary bundles. Furthermore, we identify genetic interactions between BBS genes and a PCP gene in both mouse (Ltap, also called Vangl2) and zebrafish (vangl2). In zebrafish, the augmented phenotype results from enhanced defective convergent extension movements. We also show that Vangl2 localizes to the basal body and axoneme of ciliated cells, a pattern reminiscent of that of the BBS proteins. These data suggest that cilia are intrinsically involved in PCP processes.

  9. Inhibitory regulation of osteoclast bone resorption by signal regulatory protein alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Beek; T.J. de Vries; L. Mulder; T. Schoenmaker; K.A. Hoeben; T. Matozaki; G.E.J. Langenbach; G. Kraal; V. Everts; T.K. van den Berg

    2009-01-01

    Osteoclasts mediate bone resorption, which is critical for bone development, maintenance, and repair. Proper control of osteoclast development and function is important and deregulation of these processes may lead to bone disease, such as osteoporosis. Previous studies have shown that the cytosolic

  10. Leaf nutrient resorption, leaf lifespan and the retention of nutrients in seagrass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Marbà, N.; Stapel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient nutrient resorption from senescing leaves, and extended leaf life spans are important strategies in order to conserve nutrients for plants in general. Despite the fact that seagrasses often grow in oligotrophic waters, these conservation strategies are not strongly developed in seagrasses.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  12. Orthodontic retraction of autotransplanted premolar to replace ankylosed maxillary incisor with replacement resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Shin, Sujung; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

    2014-04-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult with lip protrusion and a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor that had experienced replacement root resorption. An extracted premolar was transplanted into the incisor space and retracted orthodontically. Autotransplantation was successful with complete root formation and, combined with orthodontic treatment, provided a satisfying esthetic outcome.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF ROOT RESORPTION DEGREE OF INCISORS AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Luchian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main iatrogenic effects associated with orthodontic treatment refer to: influence of orthodontic rings on the periodontal tissue; gum retractions; the effect of the orthodontic treatment on dental root (root resorption; the effect of the orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone height; mobility and pain associated with orthodontic treatment. AIM of the study: To assess the degree of root resorption of incisors, after orthodontic treatment, on a group of 48 adults with dental-maxillary abnormalities. Materials and method: The study included 48 young adult patients, 35 women and 13 men aged 18 to 30 years, who had received fixed orthodontic treatment. To assess the degree of root resorption (changes at root level and apical contour length, apical radiographies were taken in the maxillary incisors and jaw both at the beginning and end of the orthodontic treatment. Results: Out of the 239 incisors examined at the beginning of orthodontic treatment, 163 showed code 0, meaning 88.1%, and 50 showed a slight squash apex (code 1, respectively 10.9%. Only 1% of all incisors assessed presented mild and severe root resorption. Conclusions: The results of the study show that, generally, an adult orthodontic treatment, applied for functional and aesthetic objectives, may have clinically acceptable iatrogenic effects.

  14. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially. Anima

  15. Impairment of osteoclastic bone resorption in rapidly growing female p47phox knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone formation is dependent on the activity and differentiation of osteoblasts; whereas resorption of preexisting mineralized bone matrix by osteoclasts is necessary not only for bone development but also for regeneration and remodeling. Bone remodeling is a process in which osteoblasts and osteocla...

  16. Sinusoidal electromagnetic fields promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Gao, Yu-Hai; Yan, Juan-Li; Shi, Wen-Gui; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone metabolism have not yet been well defined. The present study investigated SEMF effects on bone formation and resorption in rat femur bone tissues in vitro. Cultured femur diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were treated with 50 Hz 1.8 mT SEMFs 1.5 h per day for up to 12 days and treatment effects on bone formation and resorption markers and associated gene expression were examined. Treatment with SEMFs caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity in the femoral diaphyseal or metaphyseal tissues. SEMFs also significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of osterix (OSX), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and ALP in the bone tissues. SEMF treatment decreased glucose content and increased lactic acid contents in the culture conditioned medium. In addition, treatment with SEMFs decreased mRNA expression levels of bone resorption-related genes TRACP, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the cultured bone tissues. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that treatment with 1.8 mT SEMFs at 1.5 h per day promoted bone formation, increased metabolism and inhibited resorption in both metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone tissues in vitro.

  17. Reduction of nocturnal rise in bone resorption by subcutaneous GLP-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Byrjalsen, Inger;

    2004-01-01

    -CTX), a marker of bone resorption. In contrast, GLP-2 was found to have a neutral effect on bone formation, as assessed by serum osteocalcin. Since increased s-CTX levels are normally observed at night, we conducted bedtime studies in healthy postmenopausal women. The objective was to study the effect of GLP-2...

  18. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Liem, Robert S. B.; Stokroos, Ietse; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with contr

  19. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and wom...

  20. Osteoclast resorption of beta-tricalcium phosphate controlled by surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Noel L; ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Luo, Xiaoman; Yuan, Huipin; Everts, Vincent; Barrère-de Groot, Florence; de Bruijn, Joost D

    2014-08-01

    A resorbable bone graft substitute should mimic native bone in its capacity to support bone formation and be remodeled by osteoclasts (OCl) or other multinucleated cells such as foreign body giant cells (FBGC). We hypothesize that by changing the scale of surface architecture of beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), cellular resorption can be influenced. CD14(+) monocyte precursors were isolated from human peripheral blood (n = 4 independent donors) and differentiated into OCl or FBGC on the surface of TCP discs comprising either submicron- or micron-scale surface topographical features (TCPs and TCPb, respectively). On submicrostructured TCPs, OCl survived, fused, differentiated, and extensively resorbed the substrate; however, on microstructured TCPb, OCl survival, TRAP activation, and fusion were attenuated. Importantly, no resorption was observed on microstructured TCPb. By confocal microscopy, OCl formed on TCPs contained numerous actin rings allowing for resorption, but not on TCPb. In comparison, FBGC could not resorb either TCP material, suggesting that osteoclast-specific machinery is necessary to resorb TCP. By tuning surface architecture, it appears possible to control osteoclast resorption of calcium phosphate. This approach presents a useful strategy in the design of resorbable bone graft substitutes.

  1. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Jeppesen, Palle B; Lund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    In healthy subjects, subcutaneous injections of GLP-2 have been shown to elicit dose-related decrease in the bone resorption marker, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and have been proposed for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study investigated the relation between GLP-2...

  2. Localized idiopathic root resorption in the primary dentition: Review of the literature and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Atefeh; Mazhari, Fatemeh; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic root resorption (IRR) is an infrequent condition that is usually found as an accidental finding on radiography. A significant number of cases of IRR in permanent dentition have been presented but are rarely reported in primary dentition. The aim of this case report is to present a case of localized IRR in a 7-year-old boy. The patient was referred because of increased mobility of the left mandibular primary second molar. On radiographic evaluation, severe root resorption of that tooth, and mild root resorption of the right mandibular primary second molar were evident; the patient was caries-free. The left affected tooth was lost, and after placing a band and loop space maintainer, the patient was followed for 18 months. A patient with an abnormal pattern of root resorption, especially in the primary dentition, should alert the clinician to rule out the known important local and systemic factors. The exact causes of and treatments for IRR continue to be discovered.

  3. Effect of gingival fibroblasts and ultrasound on dogs' root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jacqueline; Hassan, Ali H; Saleem, Ali; Felemban, Nayef; Aldaghreer, Saleh; Fawzi, Elham; Farid, Mamdouh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled; Gargoum, Ausama; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of using osteogenic induced gingival fibroblasts (OIGFs) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption lacunae volume and cementum thickness in beagle dogs that received orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: Seven beagle dogs were used, from which gingival cells (GCs) were obtained and were induced osteogenically to produce OIGFs. Each third and fourth premolar was randomly assigned to one of the five groups, namely, LIPUS, OIGFs, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), OIGFs + LIPUS, and control. All groups received 4 weeks of bodily tooth movement, then LIPUS-treated groups received LIPUS for 20 min/day for 4 weeks, and OIGFs groups received an injection of OIGFs near the root apex. Microcomputed tomography analysis was used to calculate root resorption lacunae volume and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the cementum thickness of each root at 3 root levels on compression and tension sides. Results: There was no significant difference in resorption volume between the treatment groups. OIGFs + LIPUS increased cementum thickness (P > 0.05) in third premolars near the apex, and LIPUS increased cementum thickness (P > 0.05) in fourth premolars near the apex. Furthermore, BMP2 increased cementum thickness at the coronal third at the compression side. Conclusion: OIGFs, LIPUS, and BMP-2 can be potential treatments for orthodontically induced root resorption, however, improvements in experimental design and treatment parameters are required to further investigate these repair modalities. PMID:28197400

  4. Greater seasonal cycling of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased parathyroid hormone and bone resorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Gibbs, M A; Gossiel, F; Kantermann, T; Horton, K; Johnsen, S; Berry, J L; Skene, D J; Eastell, R; Vieth, R; Lanham-New, S A

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This analysis assessed whether seasonal change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was associated with bone resorption, as evidenced by serum parathyroid hormone and C-terminal telopeptide concentrations. The main finding was that increased seasonal fluctuation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D was a

  5. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S;

    2015-01-01

    formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  6. Trabecular architecture can remain intact for both disuse and overload enhanced resorption characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.J.M.; Ruimerman, R.; Huiskes, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paradigm that bone metabolic processes are controlled by osteocyte signals have been the subject of investigation in many recent studies. One hypothesis is that osteoblast formation is enhanced by these signals, and that osteoclast resorption is enhanced by the lack of them. Reduced, or absent,

  7. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  8. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times.

  9. Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltha, J.C.; Leeuwen, E.J. van; Dijkman, G.E.H.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. DESIGN: An experimental animal study. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young adul

  10. Combined effects of nitrogen addition and litter manipulation on nutrient resorption of Leymus chinensis in a semi-arid grassland of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Liu, J; Fan, J; Ma, Y; Ding, S; Zhong, Z; Wang, D

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth in semi-arid ecosystems is usually severely limited by soil nutrient availability. Alleviation of these resource stresses by fertiliser application and aboveground litter input may affect plant internal nutrient cycling in such regions. We conducted a 4-year field experiment to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) addition (10 g N·m(-2) ·year(-1)) and plant litter manipulation on nutrient resorption of Leymus chinensis, the dominant native grass in a semi-arid grassland in northern China. Although N addition had no clear effects on N and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiencies in leaves and culms, N fertilisation generally decreased leaf N resorption proficiency by 54%, culm N resorption proficiency by 65%. Moreover, N fertilisation increased leaf P resorption proficiency by 13%, culm P resorption proficiency by 20%. Under ambient or enriched N conditions, litter addition reduced N and P resorption proficiencies in both leaves and culms. The response of P resorption proficiency to litter manipulation was more sensitive than N resorption proficiency: P resorption proficiency in leaves and culms decreased strongly with increasing litter amount under both ambient and enriched N conditions. In contrast, N resorption proficiency was not significantly affected by litter addition, except for leaf N resorption proficiency under ambient N conditions. Furthermore, although litter addition caused a general decrease of leaf and culm nutrient resorption efficiencies under both ambient and enriched N conditions, litter addition effects on nutrient resorption efficiency were much weaker than the effects of litter addition on nutrient resorption proficiency. Taken together, our results show that leaf and non-leaf organs of L. chinensis respond consistently to altered soil N availability. Our study confirms the strong effects of N addition on plant nutrient resorption processes and the potential role of aboveground litter, the most important natural fertiliser in

  11. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  12. DNAH6 and Its Interactions with PCD Genes in Heterotaxy and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Ezenwa Obi; Damerla, Rama Rao; Francis, Richard; Furutani, Yoshiyuki; Tariq, Muhammad; King, Stephen M.; Hendricks, Gregory; Cui, Cheng; Saydmohammed, Manush; Lee, Dong Min; Zahid, Maliha; Sami, Iman; Leatherbury, Linda; Pazour, Gregory J.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Nakanishi, Toshio; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Tsang, Michael; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotaxy, a birth defect involving left-right patterning defects, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a sinopulmonary disease with dyskinetic/immotile cilia in the airway are seemingly disparate diseases. However, they have an overlapping genetic etiology involving mutations in cilia genes, a reflection of the common requirement for motile cilia in left-right patterning and airway clearance. While PCD is a monogenic recessive disorder, heterotaxy has a more complex, largely non-monogenic etiology. In this study, we show mutations in the novel dynein gene DNAH6 can cause heterotaxy and ciliary dysfunction similar to PCD. We provide the first evidence that trans-heterozygous interactions between DNAH6 and other PCD genes potentially can cause heterotaxy. DNAH6 was initially identified as a candidate heterotaxy/PCD gene by filtering exome-sequencing data from 25 heterotaxy patients stratified by whether they have airway motile cilia defects. dnah6 morpholino knockdown in zebrafish disrupted motile cilia in Kupffer’s vesicle required for left-right patterning and caused heterotaxy with abnormal cardiac/gut looping. Similarly DNAH6 shRNA knockdown disrupted motile cilia in human and mouse respiratory epithelia. Notably a heterotaxy patient harboring heterozygous DNAH6 mutation was identified to also carry a rare heterozygous PCD-causing DNAI1 mutation, suggesting a DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interaction. Furthermore, sequencing of 149 additional heterotaxy patients showed 5 of 6 patients with heterozygous DNAH6 mutations also had heterozygous mutations in DNAH5 or other PCD genes. We functionally assayed for DNAH6/DNAH5 and DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interactions using subthreshold double-morpholino knockdown in zebrafish and showed this caused heterotaxy. Similarly, subthreshold siRNA knockdown of Dnah6 in heterozygous Dnah5 or Dnai1 mutant mouse respiratory epithelia disrupted motile cilia function. Together, these findings support an oligogenic disease

  13. DNAH6 and Its Interactions with PCD Genes in Heterotaxy and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy, a birth defect involving left-right patterning defects, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, a sinopulmonary disease with dyskinetic/immotile cilia in the airway are seemingly disparate diseases. However, they have an overlapping genetic etiology involving mutations in cilia genes, a reflection of the common requirement for motile cilia in left-right patterning and airway clearance. While PCD is a monogenic recessive disorder, heterotaxy has a more complex, largely non-monogenic etiology. In this study, we show mutations in the novel dynein gene DNAH6 can cause heterotaxy and ciliary dysfunction similar to PCD. We provide the first evidence that trans-heterozygous interactions between DNAH6 and other PCD genes potentially can cause heterotaxy. DNAH6 was initially identified as a candidate heterotaxy/PCD gene by filtering exome-sequencing data from 25 heterotaxy patients stratified by whether they have airway motile cilia defects. dnah6 morpholino knockdown in zebrafish disrupted motile cilia in Kupffer's vesicle required for left-right patterning and caused heterotaxy with abnormal cardiac/gut looping. Similarly DNAH6 shRNA knockdown disrupted motile cilia in human and mouse respiratory epithelia. Notably a heterotaxy patient harboring heterozygous DNAH6 mutation was identified to also carry a rare heterozygous PCD-causing DNAI1 mutation, suggesting a DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interaction. Furthermore, sequencing of 149 additional heterotaxy patients showed 5 of 6 patients with heterozygous DNAH6 mutations also had heterozygous mutations in DNAH5 or other PCD genes. We functionally assayed for DNAH6/DNAH5 and DNAH6/DNAI1 trans-heterozygous interactions using subthreshold double-morpholino knockdown in zebrafish and showed this caused heterotaxy. Similarly, subthreshold siRNA knockdown of Dnah6 in heterozygous Dnah5 or Dnai1 mutant mouse respiratory epithelia disrupted motile cilia function. Together, these findings support an

  14. Inhibition of bone resorption by the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib is fully reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Y; Gauthier, J-Y; Black, W C; Percival, M D; Duong, L T

    2014-10-01

    The cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) is currently being developed for the treatment of osteoporosis. In clinical trials, efficacy and resolution of effect of ODN treatment on bone turnover biomarkers and accrued bone mass have been demonstrated. Here, we examine the effects of continuing treatment and discontinuation of ODN versus alendronate (ALN) on osteoclast (OC) function. First, accessibility and reversible engagement of active CatK in intracellular vesicles and resorption lacunae of actively resorbing OCs were demonstrated by the selective and reversible CatK inhibitors, BODIPY-L-226 (IC50=39nM) and L-873,724 (IC50=0.5nM). Next, mature human OCs on bone slices were treated with vehicle, ODN, or ALN for 2days, followed by either continuing with the same treatment, or replacement of the inhibitors by vehicle for additional times as specified per experimental conditions. Maintaining OCs on ODN or ALN significantly reduced CTx-I release compared to vehicle controls. However, only the treatment of OCs with ODN resulted in the formation of small shallow discrete resorption pits, retention of intracellular vesicles enriched with CatK and other lysosomal enzymes, increase in 1-CTP release and number of TRAP(+) OCs. Upon discontinuation of ODN treatment, OCs rapidly resumed bone resorption activity, as demonstrated by a return of OC functional markers (CTx-I, 1-CTP), cell number and size, morphology and number of resorption pits, and vesicular secretion of CatK toward the respective vehicle levels. As expected, discontinuation of ALN did not reverse the treatment-related inhibition of OC activity in the time frame of the experiment. In summary, this study demonstrated rapid kinetics of inhibition and reversibility of the effects of ODN on OC bone resorption, that differentiated the cellular mechanism of CatK inhibition from that of the bisphosphate antiresorptive ALN.

  15. The Effect of An Angiogenic Cytokine on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR is an undesirable sequel of tooth movement after sterile necrosis that takes place in periodontal ligament due to blockage of blood vessels following exertion of orthodontic force. This study sought to assess the effect of an angiogenic cytokine on OIIRR in rat model. Materials and Methods In this experimental animal study, 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 each: E10, E100 and E1000 receiving an injection of 10, 100 and 1000 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, respectively, positive control group (CP receiving an orthodontic appliance and injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS and the negative control group (CN receiving only the anesthetic agent. A nickel titanium coil spring was placed between the first molar and the incisor on the right side of maxilla. Twenty-one days later, the rats were sacrificed. Histopathological sections were made to assess the number and area of resorption lacunae, number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD test. Results Number of resorption lacunae and area of resorption lacunae in E1000 (0.97 ± 0.80 and 1. 27 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively were significantly lower than in CP (4.17 ± 0.90 and 2.77 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively, P=0.000. Number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae were significantly higher in E1000 compared to CP (P<0.05. Conclusion Tooth movement as the outcome of bone remodeling is concomitant with the formation of sterile necrosis in the periodontal ligament following blocked blood supply. Thus, bFGF can significantly decrease the risk of root resorption by providing more oxygen and angiogenesis.

  16. Sabot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  17. Deletion of FGFR3 in Osteoclast Lineage Cells Results in Increased Bone Mass in Mice by Inhibiting Osteoclastic Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Li, Xiaogang; Tang, Yubin; Yang, Jing; Wen, Xuan; Guo, Jingyuan; Tang, Junzhou; Du, Xiaolan; Chen, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) participates in bone remodeling. Both Fgfr3 global knockout and activated mice showed decreased bone mass with increased osteoclast formation or bone resorption activity. To clarify the direct effect of FGFR3 on osteoclasts, we specifically deleted Fgfr3 in osteoclast lineage cells. Adult mice with Fgfr3 deficiency in osteoclast lineage cells (mutant [MUT]) showed increased bone mass. In a drilled-hole defect model, the bone remodeling of the holed area in cortical bone was also impaired with delayed resorption of residual woven bone in MUT mice. In vitro assay demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts derived from wild-type and Fgfr3-deficient bone marrow monocytes, suggesting that FGFR3 had no remarkable effect on osteoclast formation. The bone resorption activity of Fgfr3-deficient osteoclasts was markedly decreased accompanying with downregulated expressions of Trap, Ctsk, and Mmp 9. The upregulated activity of osteoclastic bone resorption by FGF2 in vitro was also impaired in Fgfr3-deficient osteoclasts, indicating that FGFR3 may participate in the regulation of bone resorption activity of osteoclasts by FGF2. Reduced adhesion but not migration in osteoclasts with Fgfr3 deficiency may be responsible for the impaired bone resorption activity. Our study for the first time genetically shows the direct positive regulation of FGFR3 on osteoclastic bone resorption. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Alterations in osteoclast function and phenotype induced by different inhibitors of bone resorption - implications for osteoclast quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeming Diana J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal osteoclasts resorb bone by secretion of acid and proteases. Recent studies of patients with loss of function mutations affecting either of these processes have indicated a divergence in osteoclastic phenotypes. These difference in osteoclast phenotypes may directly or indirectly have secondary effects on bone remodeling, a process which is of importance for the pathogenesis of both osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. We treated human osteoclasts with different inhibitors and characterized their resulting function. Methods Human CD14 + monocytes were differentiated into mature osteoclasts using RANKL and M-CSF. The osteoclasts were cultured on bone in the presence or absence of various inhibitors: Inhibitors of acidification (bafilomycin A1, diphyllin, ethoxyzolamide, inhibitors of proteolysis (E64, GM6001, or a bisphosphonate (ibandronate. Osteoclast numbers and bone resorption were monitored by measurements of TRACP activity, the release of calcium, CTX-I and ICTP, as well as by counting resorption pits. Results All inhibitors of acidification were equally potent with respect to inhibition of both organic and inorganic resorption. In contrast, inhibition of proteolysis by E64 potently reduced organic resorption, but only modestly suppressed inorganic resorption. GM6001 alone did not greatly affect bone resorption. However, when GM6001 and E64 were combined, a complete abrogation of organic bone resorption was observed, without a great effect on inorganic resorption. Ibandronate abrogated both organic and inorganic resorption at all concentrations tested [0.3-100 μM], however, this treatment dramatically reduced TRACP activity. Conclusions We present evidence highlighting important differences with respect to osteoclast function, when comparing the different types of osteoclast inhibitors. Each class of osteoclast inhibitors will lead to different alterations in osteoclast quality, which secondarily may lead to different

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar bone resorption by image processing of 3-D dental CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel system that provides total support for assessment of alveolar bone resorption, caused by periodontitis, based on three-dimensional (3-D) dental CT images. In spite of the difficulty in perceiving the complex 3-D shape of resorption, dentists assessing resorption location and severity have been relying on two-dimensional radiography and probing, which merely provides one-dimensional information (depth) about resorption shape. However, there has been little work on assisting assessment of the disease by 3-D image processing and visualization techniques. This work provides quantitative evaluation results and figures for our system that measures the three-dimensional shape and spread of resorption. It has the following functions: (1) measures the depth of resorption by virtually simulating probing in the 3-D CT images, taking advantage of image processing of not suffering obstruction by teeth on the inter-proximal sides and much smaller measurement intervals than the conventional examination; (2) visualizes the disposition of the depth by movies and graphs; (3) produces a quantitative index and intuitive visual representation of the spread of resorption in the inter-radicular region in terms of area; and (4) calculates the volume of resorption as another severity index in the inter-radicular region and the region outside it. Experimental results in two cases of 3-D dental CT images and a comparison of the results with the clinical examination results and experts' measurements of the corresponding patients confirmed that the proposed system gives satisfying results, including 0.1 to 0.6mm of resorption measurement (probing) error and fairly intuitive presentation of measurement and calculation results.

  20. Prosthetic rehabilitation and management of an MTA-treated maxillary central incisor with root perforation and severe internal resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuabara, Allan; Costa, Rogério G; Morais, Eduardo C; Furuse, Adilson Y; Gonzaga, Carla C; Filho, Flares Baratto

    2013-07-01

    Root canal perforation and root resorption are challenging clinical conditions to correctly diagnose and treat, especially when they occur in anterior teeth. This clinical report describes the computed tomography findings, endodontic treatment, prosthetic rehabilitation, and clinical outcome of an iatrogenic root perforation and internal resorption in a maxillary central incisor. The case management consisted of endodontic retreatment, periodontal surgery, and prosthetic rehabilitation. Gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was used to fill the resorption space and seal the perforation. The prosthetic treatment was performed with glass fiber-reinforced dowels and all-ceramic crowns. No signs or symptoms, including discomfort, pain, or esthetic defects were observed in 30 months of follow-up.

  1. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina

    2004-01-01

    formation. This study indicates that chloride channel inhibitors are highly promising for treatment of osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The chloride channel inhibitor, NS3736, blocked osteoclastic acidification and resorption in vitro with an IC50 value of 30 microM. When tested in the rat ovariectomy model......: In conclusion, we show for the first time that chloride channel inhibitors can be used for prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss without impeding bone formation. We speculate that the coupling of bone resorption to bone formation is linked to the acidification of the resorption lacunae, thereby enabling...

  2. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  3. Bovine parathyroid hormone enhances osteoclast bone resorption by modulating V-ATPase through PTH1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangxin; Zhu, Weiping; Li, Sijia; Ma, Jianchao; Zhang, Huitao; Li, Zhonghe; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhuo; Liang, Xinling; Shi, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The vacuolar-type H+ adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in cellular acidification and bone resorption by osteoclasts. However, the direct effect of bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH) on V-ATPase has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bPTH on V-ATPase and osteoclasts. Osteoclasts from bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes of C57BL/6 mice were cultured with or without bPTH. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the V-ATPase a3-subunit and d2-subunit (by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis), V-ATPase activity (using the V type ATPase Activity Assay kit) and the bone resorption function of osteoclasts (by bone resorption assay) were examined following treatment with various concentrations of bPTH (0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ng/ml) alone or with bPTH and its inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. Furthermore, the expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in osteoclasts was also detected. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of V-ATPase a3-subunit and d2-subunit increased in a dose‑dependent manner, paralleling the level of bPTH present. In addition, an increase in the concentration of bPTH was accompanied by the increased resorption capability of osteoclasts, whereas bone resorption was inhibited in the presence of bafilomycin A1. In addition, we confirmed the existence of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) in osteoclasts using three different methods (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining). We found that bPTH enhanced the bone resorption capability of osteoclasts by modulating the expression of V-ATPase subunits, intracellular acidification and V-ATPase activity. Thus, we propose that PTH has a direct effect on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and that this effect is mediated through PTH1R, thus contributing to bone remodeling.

  4. RPGR-containing protein complexes in syndromic and non-syndromic retinal degeneration due to ciliary dysfunction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carlos A. Murga-Zamalloa; Anand Swaroop; Hemant Khanna

    2009-12-01

    Dysfunction of primary cilia due to mutations in cilia-centrosomal proteins is associated with pleiotropic disorders. The primary (or sensory) cilium of photoreceptors mediates polarized trafficking of proteins for efficient phototransduction. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) is a cilia-centrosomal protein mutated in >70% of X-linked RP cases and 10%–20% of simplex RP males. Accumulating evidence indicates that RPGR may facilitate the orchestration of multiple ciliary protein complexes. Disruption of these complexes due to mutations in component proteins is an underlying cause of associated photoreceptor degeneration. Here, we highlight the recent developments in understanding the mechanism of cilia-dependent photoreceptor degeneration due to mutations in RPGR and RPGR-interacting proteins in severe genetic diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Joubert syndrome, and Senior–Loken syndrome, and explore the physiological relevance of photoreceptor ciliary protein complexes.

  5. Clinical value of measurement of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance in the work up of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate and define the general clinical applicability and impact of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance (PRMC) on the work up of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In addition, we wanted to evaluate the accuracy of the reference values...... primarily to results from nasal ciliary function testing, to electron microscopic (EM) examination of the ultrastructure of the cilia, and to the final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 27 ended up with a final clinical diagnosis of definitive PCD. No patients with a PRMC test...... that was normal or otherwise not consistent with PCD ended up with PCD as final clinical diagnosis (though a minority of patients in this group ended up unresolved in regard to PCD). Forty percent of patients with an abnormal PRMC test ended up with PCD as final clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the PRMC test had...

  6. Helkesimastix marina n. sp. (Cercozoa: Sainouroidea superfam. n.) a gliding zooflagellate of novel ultrastructure and unusual ciliary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Lewis, Rhodri; Chao, Ema E; Oates, Brian; Bass, David

    2009-08-01

    Unlike Helkesimastix faecicola and H. major, Helkesimastix marina is marine, ingests bacteria, is probably also a cannibal, and differs in cell cycle ciliary behaviour. Daughter kinetids have mirror symmetry; pre-division cilia beat asymmetrically. We sequenced its 18S rDNA and studied its ultrastructure to clarify its taxonomy. Helkesimastix (Helkesimastigidae fam. n.) differs unexpectedly radically from cercomonads, lacking their complex microtubular ciliary roots, grouping not with them but with Sainouridae within Pansomonadida. Longitudinal cortical microtubules emanate from a dense apical centrosomal plate, where a striated rhizoplast attaches the nucleus, and two very short subparallel centrioles attach by dense fibres. The marginally more posterior centriole, attached to the centrosomal plate by a dense forked fibre, bears the long 9+2 gliding posterior cilium and a microtubular root; the left-side, nucleus-attached, left centriole bears an immotile ciliary stump with abnormal axoneme of nine disorganized mainly singlet microtubules, unlike the sainourid anterior papilla. Both transitional regions have a proximal lattice, the posterior centriole with slender hub. Sainouroidea superfam. n. (Sainouridae; Helkesimastigidae) have homologous cytoskeletal geometry. Dorsal Golgi dictyosome and posterior microbody are attached to the nuclear envelope, which has slender micro-invaginations and probably a cortical lattice. Bacteria are digested posteriorly in association with numerous mitochondria with flat cristae.

  7. Sonic Hedgehog dependent phosphorylation by CK1α and GRK2 is required for ciliary accumulation and activation of smoothened.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the GPCR-like protein Smoothened (Smo, but how vertebrate Smo is activated remains poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hh dependent phosphorylation activates Smo. Whether this is also the case in vertebrates is unclear, owing to the marked sequence divergence between vertebrate and Drosophila Smo (dSmo and the involvement of primary cilia in vertebrate Hh signaling. Here we demonstrate that mammalian Smo (mSmo is activated through multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail by CK1α and GRK2. Phosphorylation of mSmo induces its active conformation and simultaneously promotes its ciliary accumulation. We demonstrate that graded Hh signals induce increasing levels of mSmo phosphorylation that fine-tune its ciliary localization, conformation, and activity. We show that mSmo phosphorylation is induced by its agonists and oncogenic mutations but is blocked by its antagonist cyclopamine, and efficient mSmo phosphorylation depends on the kinesin-II ciliary motor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Hh signaling recruits CK1α to initiate mSmo phosphorylation, and phosphorylation further increases the binding of CK1α and GRK2 to mSmo, forming a positive feedback loop that amplifies and/or sustains mSmo phosphorylation. Hence, despite divergence in their primary sequences and their subcellular trafficking, mSmo and dSmo employ analogous mechanisms for their activation.

  8. Interdisciplinary Approach for Management of Iatrogenic Internal Root Resorption: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Mohsen; Asgary, Saeed; Zarenejad, Nafiseh; Mehrani, Javad

    2016-01-01

    For management of a symptomatic maxillary lateral incisor with dull pain on chewing, suppurative sinus tract, defective metal-ceramic crown and iatrogenic internal root resorption, an interdisciplinary approach was taken. Two-visit nonsurgical treatment with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, replacement of metal-ceramic crown with all-ceramic crown and corrective periodontal plastic surgery were included in the treatment plan. Six-month and one-year follow-ups revealed complete resolution of signs and symptoms and radiographic healing. This case report highlights the importance of adequate cooling during crown preparation to preserve the pulp vitality and prevent internal resorptive lesions and also the profound sealing ability and biocompatibility of CEM cement.

  9. Management of recurrent fracture of central incisor with internal resorption using light transmitting (luminex) post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, V S; Nandlal, B; Srilatha, K T

    2010-01-01

    The normal root canal anatomy may be altered in various pathological processes and making it very difficult and at times impossible to achieve ideal obturation by normal methods. Internal resorption is one among them. There are several treatment protocols advised for this pathological condition. A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and accounts for 5% of all traumatic injuries to the permanent dentition. In anterior teeth, these fractures are usually caused by direct trauma and often complicated in fully erupted teeth. In cases where the fracture line extends down along the long axis of the root, extraction of the tooth is indicated. The purpose of this report is to present the use of light transmitting post system to reinforce the crown root fractured maxillary central incisor due to trauma and internal resorption.

  10. Management of recurrent fracture of central incisor with internal resorption using light transmitting (luminex post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal root canal anatomy may be altered in various pathological processes and making it very difficult and at times impossible to achieve ideal obturation by normal methods. Internal resorption is one among them. There are several treatment protocols advised for this pathological condition. A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and accounts for 5% of all traumatic injuries to the permanent dentition. In anterior teeth, these fractures are usually caused by direct trauma and often complicated in fully erupted teeth. In cases where the fracture line extends down along the long axis of the root, extraction of the tooth is indicated. The purpose of this report is to present the use of light transmitting post system to reinforce the crown root fractured maxillary central incisor due to trauma and internal resorption.

  11. Management of external invasive cervical resorption of tooth with Biodentine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Baranwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR of a tooth is relatively uncommon and the etiology is not very clear. It is sometimes misdiagnosed and can lead to improper management or tooth loss. Correct diagnosis and proper management can result in a successful outcome. The treatment should aim toward the complete suppression of all resorbing tissues and the reconstruction of resorptive defect by the placement of a suitable filling material or some biological systems. One of the most significant developments of the past decade, i.e. the operating microscope used for surgical endodontics, helps the surgeon to assess pathological changes more precisely and to remove pathological lesions with far greater precision, thus minimizing tissue damage. The aim of this article was to show the management of maxillary left central incisor diagnosed with external ICR using Biodentine under dental operatory microscope (DOM.

  12. Does increased local bone resorption secondary to breast and prostate cancer result in increased cartilage degradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer patients often develop lesions of locally high bone turnover, when the primary tumor metastasizes to the bone causing an abnormal high bone resorption at this site. The objective of the present study was to determine whether local increased bone turnover...... in breast and prostate cancer patients is associated with an increase in cartilage degradation and to test in vitro whether osteoclasts or cathepsin K alone generate CTXII from human bone. METHODS: The study included 132 breast and prostate cancer patient, where presence of bone metastases was graded...... according to the Soloway score. Total bone resorption (CTXItotal) and cartilage degradation (CTXII) were determined. RESULTS: Breast and prostate cancer patients with bone metastases revealed significant increased levels of CTXItotal at Soloway scores 1 and higher compared to patients without bone...

  13. CBCT Post-Processing Tools to Manage the Progression of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karla de Faria; de-Azevedo-Vaz, Sergio Lins; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This case report aimed to highlight the usefulness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and its post-processing tools for the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment planning of invasive cervical resorption (ICR). A 16-year-old female patient was referred for periapical radiographic examination, which revealed an irregular but well demarcated radiolucency in the mandibular right central incisor. In addition, CBCT scanning was performed to distinguish between ICR and internal root resorption. After the diagnosis of ICR, the patient was advised to return shortly but did so only six years later. At that time, another CBCT scan was performed and CBCT registration and subtraction were done to document lesion progress. These imaging tools were able to show lesion progress and extent clearly and were fundamental for differential diagnosis and treatment decision.

  14. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  15. Management of external invasive cervical resorption of tooth with Biodentine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Akash Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) of a tooth is relatively uncommon and the etiology is not very clear. It is sometimes misdiagnosed and can lead to improper management or tooth loss. Correct diagnosis and proper management can result in a successful outcome. The treatment should aim toward the complete suppression of all resorbing tissues and the reconstruction of resorptive defect by the placement of a suitable filling material or some biological systems. One of the most significant developments of the past decade, i.e. the operating microscope used for surgical endodontics, helps the surgeon to assess pathological changes more precisely and to remove pathological lesions with far greater precision, thus minimizing tissue damage. The aim of this article was to show the management of maxillary left central incisor diagnosed with external ICR using Biodentine under dental operatory microscope (DOM).

  16. Etiology and prevention of external cervical root resorption associated to teeth bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mendes da SILVA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Esthetic dentistry has been prioritizedand the desire for whiter teeth has been increasingly present in dental offices, since whiter teeth tend to indicate health, beauty, youth and a more attractive smile. Teeth bleaching is a conservative method widely used to restore the original color of darkened teeth. However, possible relations with the external cervical root resorption have concerned many researchers and clinicians. Literature review: There are many mechanisms that can activate the external cervical root resorption, such as: chemical and physical action of the bleaching materials used, morphology of the cementoenamel junction associated to the immune system, material concentration, traumas and bleaching technique used. Conclusion: Therefore, considering many factors that are still not conclusive, preventing deleterious effects on teeth and support structures, care must be taken when choosing bleaching agent and bleaching technique, as well as when selecting each case, beyond a proper restoration after teeth bleaching.

  17. Estrogen directly attenuates human osteoclastogenesis, but has no effect on resorption by mature osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M G; Henriksen, K; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld;

    2006-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency arising with the menopause promotes marked acceleration of bone resorption, which can be restored by hormone replacement therapy. The inhibitory effects of estrogen seem to involve indirect cytokine- mediated effects via supporting bone marrow cells, but direct estrogen......-receptor mediated effects on the bone-resorbing osteoclasts have also been proposed. Little information is available on whether estrogens modulate human osteoclastogenesis or merely inhibit the functional activity of osteoclasts. To clarify whether estrogens directly modulate osteoclastic activities human CD14...... not affect bone resorption or TRACP activity. We investigated expression of the estrogen receptors, using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We found that ER-alpha is expressed in osteoclast precursors, whereas ER- beta is expressed at all stages, indicating that the inhibitory effect of estrogen...

  18. Early resorption of an artificial bone graft made of calcium phosphate for cranioplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco BA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Assumpção de Monaco, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Manoel Jacobsen TeixeiraDivision of Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The treatment of uncomplicated osteoma consists of an en bloc resection, or curettage, of the tumor, followed by cranioplasty. Here, we present a case report of a patient treated for a parietal osteoma, followed by a calcium phosphate cranioplasty, with early resorption after 3 months, which was presented by a sinking flap above the resection area. This case suggests that synthetic cranioplasty should be preferred, even in small skull-gap areas.Keywords: cranioplasty, bone cement, osteoma, calcium phosphate, resorption

  19. [Current possibilities of correcting subchondral bone resorption as a major pathogenetic factor for progressive osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the current pathogenesis, by choosing the actual targets of pharmacotherapy with available drugs. It reflects the cytokine mechanisms responsible for lesion of the synovial membranes, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Particular emphasis is laid on the role of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, vitamin D3 as drugs that affect the key components of pathogenesis, including the volume of resorptive cavities in the subchondral bone.

  20. Morphologic analysis of apical resorption on human teeth with periapical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the presence and extension of cementum and dentin resorption in apexes containing different periapical pathosis. Material and method: 31 teeth were selected for the presence of a proliferative tissue compatible with a periapical pathology. Sections were conducted in periapical lesions which were then dyed by the HE. The periapical pathosis were classified in fibrous connective tissue, granuloma and cysts. The apical root surfaces were submitted ...

  1. External root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a study of contributing factors

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. Materials and Methods This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatme...

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone indirectly inhibits human osteoclastic resorption via activating osteoblastic viability by the MAPK pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-dong; TAO Min-fang; CHENG Wei-wei; LIU Xiao-hua; WAN Xiao-ping; KeMi Cui

    2012-01-01

    Background Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely known for its beneficial effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis,although the underlying mechanisms remain mainly unclear.In this study,we tried to determine the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways during DHEA treatment and the indirect role of osteoblasts (OBs) on osteoclasts under the DHEA treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.@@Methods Primary human OBs and osteoclast-like cells were cultured and,we pretreated OBs with or without U0126 (a highly selective inhibitor of both MEK1 and MEK2).The OBs were treated with DHEA.We then tested the effects of DHEA on human osteoblastic viability,osteoprotegerin production and the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase).In the presence or absence of OBs,the function of osteoclastic resorption upon DHEA treatment was calculated.@@Results DHEA promoted the human osteoblastic proliferation and inhibited the osteoblastic apoptosis within the concentration range of 108-10-6 mol/L (P <0.05,P <0.01,respectively).Within the effective concentration range,the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2 and osteoprotegerin was increased by DHEA and blocked by U0126.In the presence of OBs,DHEA could significantly decrease the number and the area of bone resorption lacuna (P <0.05 and P <0.01,respectively).Without OBs,however,the effects of DHEA on the bone resorption lacuna were almost completely abolished.@@Conclusions DHEA could indirectly inhibit the human osteoclastic resorption through promoting the osteoblastic viability and osteoprotegerin production,which is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathway involving the phosphor-ERK1/2.

  3. The Effect of An Angiogenic Cytokine on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Lotfi, Ali; Badiee, Mohammad Reza; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Amdjadi, Parisa; Bargrizan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is an undesirable sequel of tooth movement after sterile necrosis that takes place in periodontal ligament due to blockage of blood vessels following exertion of orthodontic force. This study sought to assess the effect of an angiogenic cytokine on OIIRR in rat model. Materials and Methods In this experimental animal study, 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 each: E10, E100 and E1000 receiving an injection of 10, 100 and 1000 ng of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), respectively, positive control group (CP) receiving an orthodontic appliance and injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the negative control group (CN) receiving only the anesthetic agent. A nickel titanium coil spring was placed between the first molar and the incisor on the right side of maxilla. Twenty-one days later, the rats were sacrificed. Histopathological sections were made to assess the number and area of resorption lacunae, number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) test. Results Number of resorption lacunae and area of resorption lacunae in E1000 (0.97 ± 0.80 and 1. 27 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively) were significantly lower than in CP (4.17 ± 0.90 and 2.77 ± 0.01×10-3, respectively, P=0.000). Number of blood vessels, osteoclasts and Howship’s lacunae were significantly higher in E1000 compared to CP (Presorption by providing more oxygen and angiogenesis. PMID:27551674

  4. [Effects of stand density on Oligostachyum lubricum leaf carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry and nutrient resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Qing-Ping; Li, Ying-chun

    2013-04-01

    Taking pure Oligostachyum lubricum forest as test object, this paper studied the matured and withered leaves carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and N and P resorption patterns of 1-3 years old stands at the densities of 24600-29800 stem hm-2 (D, ), 37500-42600 stem hm-2 (D2 ), 46500 - 52800 stem hm-2 (D3), and 76500 - 85500 stem hm-2 (D4). With increasing stand density, the matured leaves C, N, and P contents and withered leaves C and P contents had an overall decrease, the withered leaves N content decreased after an initial increase, and the matured leaves C content at density )4 decreased dramatically. The leaf C/N and C/P ratio increased with increasing stand density, whereas the leaf N/P ratio increased first but decreased then. At stand densities D3 and D4, the leaf N and P utilization efficiencies were significantly higher than those at D, and D2. With increasing stand density, the leaf N resorption capacity increased after an initial decrease, while the leaf P resorption capacity increased steadily. At stand densities D,-D3, the matured leaves N/P ratio was 16.24-19.37, suggesting that the P limitation occurred, leaf establishment increased, and population increase and expansion enhanced. At density D4, the matured leaves N/P ratio was 13.42-15.74, implying that the N limitation strengthened, leaf withering and defoliation increased, and population increase inhibited. All the results indicated that O. lubricum could regulate its leaf C, N and P contents and stoichiometry and enhance the leaf N and P utilization efficiency and resorption capacity to adapt to the severe competition of environment resources at high stand density. In our experimental condition, 46500-52800 stem hm-2 could be the appropriate stand density for O. lubricum management.

  5. Effect of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Socket Preservation on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. Results The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). Conclusion The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®. PMID:25685742

  6. Spontaneous resorption of calcification at the long head of the biceps tendon

    OpenAIRE

    Amri, Adriansyah; Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Hara, Michiharu; Yamanaka, Issei; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Calcific tendinitis of the long head of the biceps tendon is a rare cause of shoulder pain. Calcium deposits are often spontaneously resorbed or reduced in size in the rotator cuff tendons, which represent the most common sites of calcific tendinitis around the shoulder. To our knowledge, no case of spontaneous resorption of calcification in the long head of the biceps tendon has been reported in the literature. Here, we report one such case and describe its successful treatment using a conse...

  7. Dump assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  8. Pulp-dentine complex changes and root resorption during intrusive orthodontic tooth movement in patients prescribed nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Paula A; Oberti, Giovanni; Moncada, Cesar A; Vasseur, Olga; Jaramillo, Alejandro; Tobón, Diego; Agudelo, Jaime A

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain may be experienced during orthodontic movement. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been suggested to control these changes. The purpose of this study was to observe pulp-dentinal reactions, root resorption, tooth pain, and tooth movement after the application of a 4-ounce intrusive orthodontic force to human maxillary first premolars in patients given the NSAID nabumetone. Thirty-four maxillary first premolars were evaluated. A placebo was prescribed to 17 patients after an intrusive force was activated and reactivated for an 8-week period on the right side. The same procedure was repeated on the left side after patients were given nabumetone. Pulp-dentinal reactions and external root resorption were evaluated by histology. Pain and movement were also evaluated. Nabumetone was found to be useful in reducing pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain caused by intrusive orthodontic movement, without altering tooth movement in response to the application of orthodontic force.

  9. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  10. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  11. Management of an internal root resorption on a permanent tooth. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Maldonado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal root resorption (IRR is a rare pulp disease. Its etiology involves late pulpal inflammations and trauma, among others. IRR may also show some symptoms, and is usually detected by X-rays. However, its diagnosis is significantly improved by the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. The objective of this case report was to account for the diagnosis and management of an internal root resorption without perforation. The patient, a 26-year-old male, went to the School of Dentistry at Universidad Andres Bello, Concepción, without having symptoms in the tooth 1.1. Anamnesis revealed the presence of previous symptoms. CBCT examination showed absence of bowl-shaped calcified dentin tissue on the inner walls of the root canal with apical lesion but without perforation of surrounding tissues. Endodontic treatment was performed using the following methods: irrigation of the root canal with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX using a Max-i-probe cannula and simultaneous cavitation of the irrigant Then calcium hydroxide (CH was applied as intracanal medication for a week and Schilder’s technique for vertical compaction was used. The patient was checked after one week and then after six months. He did not have any symptoms. Early diagnosis using modern imaging equipment, appropriate use of ultrasound for chemomechanical debridement and thermoplastic filling techniques contribute to a more favorable prognosis of patients with internal root resorption.

  12. [Decoronation: treatment protocol for ankylotic root resorption as a consequence of dental trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S; Fuss, Z; Wigler, R; Karawani, M; Ashkenazi, M

    2013-10-01

    Severe dental traumatic injuries, such as the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket (Avulsion) or the displacement of a tooth within its socket (Intrusive Luxation), may result in extensive injury to the root surface. As a result, the root surface injury heals without cementum and there is fusion between the alveolar bone and the exposed dentin or anorganic exposed cementum, without any attachment apparatus between them. This phenomenon is known as "dento-alveolar ankylosis" and is accompanied by ankylotic resorption of the root. In a process that results subsequent to the ankylosis, the root surface resorbs, and this is part of the remodeling of the alveolar bone (ankylotic resorption). When the traumatic injury occurs at a young age, lateral and apical growth of the alveolar bone continues without continued physiological eruption of the tooth. As a result, the position of the ankylotic tooth does not change, and with time thetooth appears infra-occluded resulting in severe esthetic and functional consequences. Extraction of the ankylotic tooth is difficult and sometimes even impossible due to the rigid fusion between the bone and the tooth. In addition, attempted extraction of the ankylotic tooth may lead to fracture of the buccal plate and resorption of the alveolar bone. Retention of the ankylotic tooth may lead to damage in bone deposition in the verticaldimension, leading to difficulties in future prosthodonticrehabilitation, research-based information has been incorporated

  13. Double 'pink tooth' associated with extensive internal root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Frank F; Nunes, Eduardo; Soares, Janir A; Ferreira, Cynthia L; Rotstein, Ilan

    2009-06-01

    Advanced internal resorption affecting the crown of teeth may result in the appearance of a 'pink tooth', which, when located in the root canal, can perforate the external root surface. Therapeutically, this condition represents a clinical challenge and normally requires a combined endodontic and surgical focus. Presented herein are cases of double 'pink tooth' which appeared at different times after orthodontic treatment. In the most severe case, upon radiographic examination and computed tomography, the maxillary right central incisor presented an internal resorption, extending from the pulp chamber to the root middle third. After pulp removal, the debridement of the defect was performed using a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution, a #80 Kerr file, and an ultrasonic tip ST-17, aided by a surgical microscope. During the cleaning process, various sites of periodontal communication were identified. Upon controlling the hemorrhaging, the root canal was completely filled with White mineral trioxide aggregate. Within the 3-month follow-up treatment, a pink spot appeared on the maxillary left central incisor, which received conventional root canal therapy. Clinically and radiographically, over 18 months of follow up, both cases responded favorably to the proposed treatments. Therefore, it is important to monitor the patient due to the fact that pulp and periodontal sequelae can develop at varied moments after orthodontic treatment. Furthermore, with the current technology and biomaterials, it is possible to resolve cases with extensive internal perforating resorption through endodontic treatment.

  14. Management-related outcomes and radiographic findings of idiopathic condylar resorption: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansare, K; Raghav, M; Mallya, S M; Karjodkar, F

    2015-02-01

    Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) is progressive resorption of the condyle of unknown aetiology. There is no consensus on the approaches for diagnostic imaging and management of this disease. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the best practices for imaging and to appraise the success of surgical and non-surgical therapy of ICR. Eleven search engines were queried via explicit literature searches for studies describing ICR, published until 2012. Two authors independently extracted data using predetermined characteristics. Studies that identified patients as having either ICR or progressive condylar resorption and that described the radiographic findings or treatment options were included. Seventeen studies contributing 178 cases met the eligibility criteria. The major radiographic findings, as assessed mostly by two-dimensional imaging, included decreased ramus height, decreased condylar height, altered volume of the condyle, decreased SNB angle and mandibular plane angle, and a retrognathic profile. Treatments included occlusal splints with orthodontic treatment, condylectomy with costochondral graft, and other surgical approaches. This systematic review was limited by the lack of meta-analysis. Nevertheless, we identified the need for future investigations: characterization of findings on three-dimensional imaging and its contribution to treatment planning, outcomes of non-surgical and pharmacological management of ICR, and randomized trials and comparative studies with longer follow-up periods.

  15. Effects of Cu2+ and Ph on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Cu2+ and pH on osteoclastic bone resorption lacunae are studied by culturing Japanese white rabbit osteoclasts on bone slices. The number and surface area of bone resorption lacunae are measured by photomicrography and image analysis. Concentration of calcium ion in the supernatant is measured by atomic absorption spectrometry to evaluate the activity of osteoclasts. The morphology of the lacunae is observed under a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that Cu2+ at concentration of 1.00×10-6 mol/L and 1.00×10-7 mol/L inhibits osteoclastic activity and causes a dose-dependent reduction in the number and surface area of the lacunae. While the number of lanunae is increased and osteoclastic bone resorbing function is significantly improved at Cu2+ concentration of 1.00×10-8 mol/L. It is suggested that the effect of Cu2+ on osteoclastic bone resorption depends on Cu2+ concentration. pH had no significant effect on osteoclastic function in the near neutral range.

  16. Tibolone inhibits bone resorption without secondary positive effects on cartilage degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrjalsen I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and increased cartilage degradation in the subchondral bone and joint. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestogenic properties, would have similar dual actions on both bone and cartilage turnover, as reported previously with some SERMS and HRT. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of ninety-one healthy postmenopausal women aged 52–75 yrs entered a 2-yr double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of treatment with either 1.25 mg/day (n = 36, or 2.5 mg/day Tibolone (n = 35, or placebo (n = 20, (J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jul;81(7:2419–22 Second void morning urine samples were collected at baseline, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Urine CrossLaps® ELISA (CTX-I and Urine CartiLaps® ELISA (CTX-II was investigated as markers of bone resorption and cartilage degradation, respectively. Results Tibolone significantly (P Conclusion These data suggest uncoupling of the bone and cartilage effects of the synthetic steroid, Tibolone. Bone resorption was significantly decreased, whereas cartilage degradation was unchanged. These effects are in contrast to those observed some SERMs with effects on both bone and cartilage degradation. These effects may in part be described by the complicated pharmacology of Tibolone on testosterone, estrogen and progesterone receptors.

  17. OCLI-023, a Novel Pyrimidine Compound, Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Alveolar Bone Resorption In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Ang; Lee, Doohyun; Kim, Nam Doo; Shin, Hong-In; Bae, Yong Chul; Park, Eui Kyun

    2017-01-01

    An abnormal increase in osteoclast differentiation and activation results in various bone-resorptive diseases, including periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis. Chemical compounds containing pyrimidine ring have been shown to regulate a variety of biological processes. Therefore, in order to identify an antiresorptive agent, we synthesized a series of pyrimidine ring-containing chemical compounds, and found that OCLI-023 suppressed the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts in vitro. OCLI-023 directly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of bone marrow macrophages into osteoclasts, without a cytotoxic response. OCLI-023 also downregulated the RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast markers as well as inhibited the formation of actin rings and resorption pits. OCLI-023 attenuated the RANKL-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell signaling pathways. In a mouse model of periodontitis, ligature induced an increase of distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and alveolar bone crest (ABC) in the second molar, and OCLI-023 significantly reduced it. Histological analysis showed ligature-induced increase of osteoclast numbers was also significantly reduced by OCLI-023. These data demonstrated the inhibitory effect of OCLI-023 on osteoclast differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in vitro, as well as on ligature-induced bone loss in vivo, and OCLI-023 can be proposed as a novel anti-resorptive compound. PMID:28085946

  18. Passive and active in vitro resorption of calcium and magnesium phosphate cements by osteoclastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossardt, Christian; Ewald, Andrea; Grover, Liam M; Barralet, Jake E; Gbureck, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Biocements are clinically applied materials for bone replacement in non-load-bearing defects. Depending on their final composition, cements can be either resorbed or remain stable at the implantation site. Degradation can occur by two different mechanisms, by simple dissolution (passive) or after osteoclastic bone remodeling (active). This study investigated both the passive and active in vitro resorption behavior of brushite (CaHPO₄ · 2H₂O), monetite (CaHPO₄), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA; Ca₉(PO₄)₅HPO₄OH), and struvite (MgNH₄PO₄ · 6H₂O) cements. Passive resorption was measured by incubating the cement samples in a cell culture medium, whereas active resorption was determined during the surface culture of multinuclear osteoclastic cells derived from RAW 264.7 macrophages. Osteoclast formation was confirmed by showing tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity on CDHA, brushite, and monetite surfaces, as well as by measuring calcitonin receptor (CT-R) expression as an osteoclast-specific protein by Western blot analysis for struvite ceramics. An absence of passive degradation and only marginally active degradation of struvite cement was the most degradable with a passive (active) release of 9.26 (2.92) Mg²+ ions and a total weight loss of 4.7% over 13 days of the study.

  19. Osteoclast-specific inactivation of the Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) inhibits bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Tanya; Arabian, Alice; Windle, Jolene J.; Dedhar, Shoukat; Teitelbaum, Steven L.; Ross, F. Patrick; Roodman, G. David; St-Arnaud, René

    2014-01-01

    Bone resorption requires the adhesion of osteoclasts to extracellular matrix (ECM) components, a process mediated by the αvβ3 integrin. Following engagement with the ECM, integrin receptors signal via multiple downstream effectors, including the Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK). In order to characterize the physiological role of ILK in bone resorption, we generated mice with an osteoclast-specific Ilk gene ablation by mating mice with a floxed Ilk allele with TRAP-Cre transgenic mice. The TRAP-Cre mice specifically excised floxed alleles in osteoclasts, as revealed by crossing them with the ROSA26R reporter strain. Osteoclast-specific Ilk mutant mice appeared phenotypically normal, but histomorphometric analysis of the proximal tibia revealed an increase in bone volume and trabecular thickness. Osteoclast-specific Ilk ablation was associated with an increase in osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mutant osteoclasts displayed a decrease in resorption activity as assessed by reduced pit formation on dentin slices in vitro and decreased serum concentrations of the C-terminal telopeptide of collagen in vivo. Interestingly, compound heterozygous mice in which one allele of Ilk and one allele of the β3 integrin gene were inactivated (ILK+/−; β3+/−) also had increased trabecular thickness, confirming that β3 integrin and Ilk form part of the same genetic cascade. Our results show that ILK is important for the function, but not the differentiation, of osteoclasts. PMID:20564195

  20. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  1. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Ouyang, Zhengxiao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha (China); Wu, Chuanlong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Guangwang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xuzhou, Affiliated Hospital of Medical Collage of Southeast University, Xuzhou (China); Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qin, An, E-mail: dr.qinan@gmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Dai, Kerong, E-mail: krdai@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  2. Ectopic maxillary canines and root resorption of adjacent incisors. Does computed tomography (CT) influence decision-making by orthodontists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklin, Krister; Bondemark, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether access to computed tomography (CT) influences orthodontists' decision-making about management of incisor root resorption due to ectopic maxillary canines. The study base comprised orthodontic specialists and active members of the Swedish Orthodontic Society: 182 orthodontists under 65 years of age, who had been registered specialists for at least one year and were providing specialist treatment for regular orthodontic patients. A questionnaire was sent out, comprising 8 questions about management and decision-making in cases of ectopic maxillary canines with root resorption of adjacent incisors and 7 questions about practice profile. The orthodontists were asked whether they altered their treatment decisions when CT was available as a diagnostic tool. The response rate was high, 86%. Sixty of the orthodontists had access to CT. Sixty-one percent of the 97 orthodontists without access to CT stated that, in cases with space deficiency, they seldom or never considered extraction of a lateral incisor with suspected root resorption if the resorption was not discernible on intra-oral or panoramic radiographs. It was evident that even in cases of root resorption of lateral incisors due to ectopic canines,the orthodontists' management decisions were not particularly influenced by availability of CT diagnostic data. In the extraction cases 55% of the orthodontists considered extraction of the affected incisor first when root resorption was severe, i.e. involving the pulp and 37% when the resorption reached half way to the pulp. In cases without space deficiency 82% preferred to extract these resorbed lateral incisors not until the resorption reached the pulp.

  3. Morphological characteristics of frontal sinus and nasal bone focusing on bone resorption and apposition in hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, H; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, Liselotte;

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls.......To characterize the size and the morphology of the frontal sinus (i.e., structure evolved by bone resorption) and the nasal bone (i.e., structure evolved by bone formation) in adults with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls....

  4. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. Materials and Methods A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors w...

  5. Analysis of ependymal ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency using high speed imaging: comparison with the photomultiplier and photodiode methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Callaghan Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare beat frequency measurements of ependymal cilia made by digital high speed imaging to those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode techniques. Using high speed video analysis the relationship of the power and recover strokes was also determined. Methods Ciliated strips of ependyma attached to slices from the brain of Wistar rats were incubated at 30°C and observed using a ×50 water immersion lens. Ciliary beat frequency was measured using each of the three techniques: the high speed video, photodiode and photomultiplier. Readings were repeated after 30 minutes incubation at 37°C. Ependymal cilia were observed in slow motion and the precise movement of cilia during the recovery stroke relative to the path travelled during the power stroke was measured. Results The mean (95% confidence intervals beat frequencies determined by the high speed video, photomultiplier and photodiode at 30°C were 27.7 (26.6 to 28.8, 25.5 (24.4 to 26.6 and 20.8 (20.4 to 21.3 Hz, respectively. The mean (95% confidence intervals beat frequencies determined by the high speed video, photomultiplier and photodiode at 37°C were 36.4 (34 to 39.5, 38.4 (36.8 to 39.9 and 18.8 (16.9 to 20.5 Hz. The inter and intra observer reliability for measurement of ciliary beat frequency was 3.8% and 1%, respectively. Ependymal cilia were observed to move in a planar fashion during the power and recovery strokes with a maximum deviation to the right of the midline of 12.1(11.8 to 13.0° during the power stroke and 12.6(11.6 to 13.6° to the left of the midline during the recovery stroke. Conclusion The photodiode technique greatly underestimates ciliary beat frequency and should not be used to measure ependymal ciliary beat frequency at the temperatures studied. Ciliary beat frequency from the high speed video and photomultiplier techniques cannot be used interchangeably. Ependymal cilia had minimal deviation to

  6. Bone resorption facilitates osteoblastic bone metastatic colonization by cooperation of insulin-like growth factor and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takuya; Aikawa, Tomoya; Yasuda, Hisataka; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2014-05-01

    Bone metastasis is a multistep process that includes cancer cell dissemination, colonization, and metastatic growth. Furthermore, this process involves complex, reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. Bone resorption is known to be involved in both osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis. However, the precise roles of the bone resorption in the multistep process of osteoblastic bone metastasis remain unidentified. In this study, we show that bone resorption plays important roles in cancer cell colonization during the initial stage of osteoblastic bone metastasis. We applied bioluminescence/X-ray computed tomography multimodal imaging that allows us to spatiotemporally analyze metastasized cancer cells and bone status in osteoblastic bone metastasis models. We found that treatment with receptor activator of factor-κB ligand (RANKL) increased osteoblastic bone metastasis when given at the same time as intracardiac injection of cancer cells, but failed to increase metastasis when given 4 days after cancer cell injection, suggesting that RANKL-induced bone resorption facilitates growth of cancer cells colonized in the bone. We show that insulin-like growth factor-1 released from the bone during bone resorption and hypoxia-inducible factor activity in cancer cells cooperatively promoted survival and proliferation of cancer cells in bone marrow. These results suggest a mechanism that bone resorption and hypoxic stress in the bone microenvironment cooperatively play an important role in establishing osteoblastic metastasis.

  7. A theory for bone resorption based on the local rupture of osteocytes cells connections: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridha, Hambli; Almitani, Khalid H; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Toumi, Hechmi; Tavares, Joao Manuel R S

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a bone damage resorption finite element model based on the disruption of the inhibitory signal transmitted between osteocytes cells in bone due to damage accumulation is developed and discussed. A strain-based stimulus function coupled to a damage-dependent spatial function is proposed to represent the connection between two osteocytes embedded in the bone tissue. The signal is transmitted to the bone surface to activate bone resorption. The proposed model is based on the idea that the osteocyte signal reduction is not related to the reduction of the stimulus sensed locally by osteocytes due to damage, but to the difficulties for the signal in travelling along a disrupted area due to microcracks that can destroy connections of the intercellular network between osteocytes and bone-lining cells. To check the potential of the proposed model to predict the damage resorption process, two bone resorption mechano-regulation rules corresponding to two mechanotransduction approaches have been implemented and tested: (1) Bone resorption based on a coupled strain-damage stimulus function without ruptured osteocyte connections (NROC); and (2) Bone resorption based on a strain stimulus function with ruptured osteocyte connections (ROC). The comparison between the results obtained by both models, shows that the proposed model based on ruptured osteocytes connections predicts realistic results in conformity with previously published findings concerning the fatigue damage repair in bone.

  8. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Jean A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  9. Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption in vitro and in vivo by a prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from hops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zeng, Li; Xie, Juan; Yue, Zhiying; Deng, Huayun; Ma, Xueyun; Zheng, Chunbing; Wu, Xiushan; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-12-01

    Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca(2+)/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. In-vivo effect of andrographolide on alveolar bone resorption induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and its relation with antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.

  11. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The calvaria of 5-to-6-day-old mice treated with 1 x 10 to the -8th M of 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro for 48 hours are examined in order to study the function of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption. Calcium concentrations in the culture were measured to assess bone resorption. It is observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively stimulates bone resorption in vitro and the resorption is dose-dependent. The effects of azetazolamide on 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption are investigated. The data reveal that 1,25(OH)2D3-induced calcium release is associated with an increase in the carbonic anhydrase activity of bone, and bone alkaline phosphatase activity is decreased and acid phosphatase activity is increased in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. A two-fold mechanism for 1,25(OH)2D3-induced bone resorption is proposed; the first mechanism is an indirect activation of osteoclasts and the second involves an interaction between hormone and osteoclast precursors.

  12. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-12-23

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  13. Preservation and Observation of Amterior Ciliary Vessels in Rectus Muscles during Strabismus Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanghuanMai; JianhuaYan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To observe the form and number of the anterior ciliary vessels(ACV)in rectus muscles.To train technician in preservation an d obsevation of ACV,so preservation can be done in caes with a rish of anterior segment ischemia(ASI).Methods:Curved foreign knife,iris hook,plastic rubber band and standard operat-ing loupes(3x)or microscope were used in the surgery on 34cases of comitant strabismus and 18cases of paralytic strabismus.Results:The ACVs per muscle in medial,lateral,superior,inferior rectus were3.08,3.26,3.50and3.50respectively in 89muscles of 52surgical strabismus cas-es.All ACVs in 16rectus muscles and 90out of 220ACVs in 73rectus muscles were too small ortoo short to be dissected.The sucess rate of ACV preservation was91.5%(119/130).105out of 130vessels were saved using loupe magnifica-tion and 14pit pf130vessels were saved under operating microscope.Conclusions:The number of ACVinrectus muscles are more than 2in our obser-vation cases.The ACVpreservation has the clinical value of allowing us toper-form muscle sugery on three or more rectus muscles simultaneously and get fonal surgical results more earlier after acv in each muscle are dissected and preserved otherwinse staged surgery are needed.The each strabismus surgeon must knov this technique.

  14. Expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor after induction of ocular hypertension in the retina of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; ZHANG Min; SONG Bei-wen; LU Bin; HU Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is mainly characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is believed to stimulate the regeneration of axons of retinal ganglion cells. The objective of our study was to detect the expression of CNTF in the retina of a rat glaucoma model with increased intraocular pressure (lOP).Methods The rat glaucoma model was set up by electrocoagulating at least three episcleral and limbal veins. The location and the expression level of CNTF were detected at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-surgery by immunohistochemistry, semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis.Results The rat glaucoma model with chronic, moderately elevated lOP was successfully produced. A minimum expression of CNTF was found in the ganglion cell layer of the retinas of the control group, and temporally increased expression and intensity of CNTF were found in the experimental retinas.Conclusion The expression of endogenous CNTF in the rat retina was found altered after the induction of ocular hypertension.

  15. Brain Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF and hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacher Claire-Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play an important role in energy-balance regulation. Notably leptin, an adipocyte-secreted cytokine, regulates the activity of hypothalamic neurons that are involved in the modulation of appetite. Leptin decreases appetite and stimulates weight loss in rodents. Unfortunately, numerous forms of obesity in humans seem to be resistant to leptin action. The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF is a neurocytokine that belongs to the same family as leptin and that was originally characterized as a neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of a broad spectrum of neuronal cell types and that enhances neurogenesis in adult rodents. It presents the advantage of stimulating weight loss in humans, despite the leptin resistance. Moreover, the weight loss persists several weeks after the cessation of treatment. Hence, CNTF has been considered as a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of obesity and has prompted intense research aimed at identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its potent anorexigenic properties. It has been found that CNTF shares signaling pathways with leptin and is expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, a key hypothalamic region controlling food intake. Endogenous CNTF may also participate in the control of energy balance. Indeed, its expression in the ARC is inversely correlated to body weight in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Thus hypothalamic CNTF may act, in some individuals, as a protective factor against weight gain during hypercaloric diet and could account for individual differences in the susceptibility to obesity.

  16. Using myc genes to search for stem cells in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao Yan; Harris, William A

    2012-04-01

    The ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of fish and frog retinas contains cells that proliferate throughout postembryonic development as the retina grows with increasing body size, indicating the presence of stem cells in this region. However, neither the location nor the molecular identity of retinal stem cells has been identified. Here, we show in Xenopus that c-myc and n-myc are sequentially expressed both during development and in the post-embryonic retina. The c-myc+/n-myc- cells near the extreme periphery of the CMZ cycle more slowly and preferentially retain DNA label compared to their more central cmyc+/n-myc+ neighbors which cycle rapidly and preferentially dilute DNA label. During retinal development c-myc is functionally required earlier than n-myc, and n-myc expression depends on earlier c-myc expression. The expression of c-myc but not n-myc in the CMZ depends on growth factor signaling. Our results suggest that c-myc+/n-myc- cells in the far peripheral CMZ are candidates for a niche-dependent population of retinal stem cells that give rise to more centrally located and rapidly dividing n-myc+ progenitors of more limited proliferative potential. Analysis of homologues of these genes in the zebrafish CMZ suggests that the transition from c-myc to n-myc expression might be conserved in other lower vertebrates whose retinas growth throughout life.

  17. Physiological Flow of Jeffrey Six Constant Fluid Model due to Ciliary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, A.; Hussain, S.; Nadeem, S.

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this article is to present a mathematical model of ciliary motion in an annulus. In this analysis, the peristaltic motion of non-Newtonian Jeffrey six constant fluid is observed in an annulus with ciliated tips in the presence of heat and mass transfer. The effects of viscous dissipation are also considered. The flow equations of non-Newtonian fluid for the two-dimensional tube in cylindrical coordinates are simplified using the low Reynolds number and long wave-length approximations. The main equations for Jeffrey six constant fluid are considered in cylindrical coordinates system. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved using the regular perturbation technique in terms of a variant of small dimensionless parameter α. The results of the solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration field are presented graphically. Bk is Brinkman number, ST is soret number, and SH is the Schmidth number. Outcome for the longitudinal velocity, pressure rise, pressure gradient and stream lines are represented through graphs. in the history, the viscous-dissipation effect is usually represented by the Brinkman number.

  18. The ciliary margin zone of the mammalian retina generates retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286

  19. The international primary ciliary dyskinesia cohort (iPCD Cohort): methods and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Maurer, Elisabeth; Halbeisen, Florian S.; Amirav, Israel; Barbato, Angelo; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Haarman, Eric; Hogg, Claire; Karadag, Bulent; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G.; Omran, Heymut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Scigliano, Sergio; Werner, Claudius; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Zivkovic, Zorica; Lucas, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) epidemiology is scarce and published studies are characterised by low numbers. In the framework of the European Union project BESTCILIA we aimed to combine all available datasets in a retrospective international PCD cohort (iPCD Cohort). We identified eligible datasets by performing a systematic review of published studies containing clinical information on PCD, and by contacting members of past and current European Respiratory Society Task Forces on PCD. We compared the contents of the datasets, clarified definitions and pooled them in a standardised format. As of April 2016 the iPCD Cohort includes data on 3013 patients from 18 countries. It includes data on diagnostic evaluations, symptoms, lung function, growth and treatments. Longitudinal data are currently available for 542 patients. The extent of clinical details per patient varies between centres. More than 50% of patients have a definite PCD diagnosis based on recent guidelines. Children aged 10–19 years are the largest age group, followed by younger children (≤9 years) and young adults (20–29 years). This is the largest observational PCD dataset available to date. It will allow us to answer pertinent questions on clinical phenotype, disease severity, prognosis and effect of treatments, and to investigate genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:28052956

  20. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  1. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  2. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  3. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  4. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss in the tibia following transient muscle paralysis are spatiotemporally distinct resorption events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausk, Brandon J; Huber, Philippe; Srinivasan, Sundar; Bain, Steven D; Kwon, Ronald Y; McNamara, Erin A; Poliachik, Sandra L; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Gross, Ted S

    2013-12-01

    When the skeleton is catabolically challenged, there is great variability in the timing and extent of bone resorption observed at cancellous and cortical bone sites. It remains unclear whether this resorptive heterogeneity, which is often evident within a single bone, arises from increased permissiveness of specific sites to bone resorption or localized resorptive events of varied robustness. To explore this question, we used the mouse model of calf paralysis induced bone loss, which results in metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption of different timing and magnitude. Given this phenotypic pattern of resorption, we hypothesized that bone loss in the proximal tibia metaphysis and diaphysis occurs through resorption events that are spatially and temporally distinct. To test this hypothesis, we undertook three complimentary in vivo/μCT imaging studies. Specifically, we defined spatiotemporal variations in endocortical bone resorption during the 3weeks following calf paralysis, applied a novel image registration approach to determine the location where bone resorption initiates within the proximal tibia metaphysis, and explored the role of varied basal osteoclast activity on the magnitude of bone loss initiation in the metaphysis using μCT based bone resorption parameters. A differential response of metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption was observed throughout each study. Acute endocortical bone loss following muscle paralysis occurred almost exclusively within the metaphyseal compartment (96.5% of total endocortical bone loss within 6days). Using our trabecular image registration approach, we further resolved the initiation of metaphyseal bone loss to a focused region of significant basal osteoclast function (0.03mm(3)) adjacent to the growth plate. This correlative observation of paralysis induced bone loss mediated by basal growth plate cell dynamics was supported by the acute metaphyseal osteoclastic response of 5-week vs. 13-month-old mice. Specifically

  5. External Root Resorption During Standardised Orthodontic Tooth Movement In Young And Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-jin; JC. Maltha; AM Kuijpers-Jagtman

    2004-01-01

    目的:比较研究幼鼠和成年鼠正畸牙齿移动过程中的牙根吸收.方法:本研究包括两组大鼠,其中幼鼠30只(年龄约6周),成年鼠30只(年龄约9~12个月).大鼠上颌牙一侧用于实验侧,另一侧用于对照.实验侧的三颗磨牙用结扎丝颌粘接剂固为一个整体,在超弹性拉簧作用下(力值为0.1牛顿)向切牙侧移动.1,2,4,8和12周时给予大鼠过量麻醉剂,材料用于组织学研究.上颌第一磨牙的近中颊侧根为根吸收研究对象.压力侧和张力侧的牙根吸收程度在显微镜下进行长度测量.实验侧与对照侧,压力侧与张力侧,幼鼠与成年鼠之间的牙根吸收程度分别以实验时间为参照,在统计学手段下进行了组间和组内分析和比较,以探讨牙齿移动时间和年龄因素对于牙根吸收的影响.结果:实验侧的牙根吸收在幼鼠与成年鼠之间在1,2,4,8周时均没有统计学差异.而在第12周时,成年鼠实验侧牙根吸收大于幼鼠 (P<0.05).成年鼠实验组压力侧的牙根吸收明显大于对照组压力侧,而在幼鼠组没有发现这一差异.两组年龄幼鼠的实验组其压力侧和张力侧的牙根吸收均高度相关.结论:相对于对照侧,正畸牙齿移动并没有在幼鼠的实验侧诱发更多的牙根吸收.在成年鼠,长期的正畸作用力倾向于诱发更多的牙根吸收.这些研究结果表明对于正畸成年病人的后期治疗要更加注意防止牙根吸收.%Objective: To evaluate root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in young and adult rats. Material and Methods: Standardised orthodontic tooth movement was performed in two groups of 30 male rats; a juvenile group aged 6 wks and an adult group aged 9-12 months. A split mouth design was chosen. The three maxillary molars at the experimental sides were moved as one unit mesially by a Sentalloy coil spring delivering a force of 10 cN over a long range of activation. The contra-lateral molars served as

  6. N and P resorption in a pioneer shrub (Artemisia halodendron) inhabiting severely desertified lands of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLin LI; Chen JING; Wei MAO; Duo CUI; XinYuan WANG; XueYong ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient resorption is an important conservation mechanism for plants to overcome nutrient limitation in the less fertile area of desertified land. In the semi-arid Horqin Sandy Land of Northern China, the shrub Artemisia halodendron usually colonizes into the bare ground of severely desertified land as a pioneer species. It is, therefore, expected that A. halodendron will be less dependent on current nutrient uptake through efficient and proficient re-sorption of nutrients. In this study, we found that averaged nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in se-nesced leaves significantly varied from 12.3 and 1.2 mg/g in the shifting sand dune to 15.9 and 1.9 mg/g in the fixed sand dune, respectively, suggesting that foliar N and P resorption of A. halodendron were more proficient in the shifting sand dune. In particular, positive relationships between nutrient concentrations in senesced leaves and soil nutrient availability indicate that A. halodendron in infertile habitats is more likely to manage with a low level of nu-trients in senesced leaves, giving this species an advantage in infertile soil. Moreover, foliar N- and P-resorption efficiencies and proficiencies showed limited inter-annual variability although annual precipitation varied greatly among 2007-2009. However, N and P resorption of A. halodendron were not more efficient and proficient than those previously reported for other shrubs, indicating that the pioneer shrub in sand dune environments does not rely more heavily than other plants on the process of resorption to conserve nutrients. Incomplete resorption of nutrients in A. halodendron suggests that senesced-leaf fall would return litter with high quality to the soil, and thereby would indirectly improve soil nutrient availability. The restoration of desertified land, therefore, may be ac-celerated after A. halodendron pioneers into shifting sand dunes.

  7. Experimental Study on the Prevention of Anterior Segment Ischemia by Preservation of Anterior Ciliary Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanna Li; Guanghuan Mai; Zhijian Wang; Xinping Yu; Huanyun Yu; Yan Guo; Xiaoming Lin; Daming Deng; Ying Kang

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of preserving anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) on anteriorsegments of rabbit eyes undergoing tenotomy of extraocular muscles.Methods: Thirty-two adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups.Same procedures were done in both eyes in each group except that left eyes underwentpreservation of ACVs. In the first group medial and lateral recti, in the second group,superior and inferior recti, in the third group, medial, lateral and superior or inferior rectiand in the fourth group, all four recti, underwent tenotomy. Slit-lamp examination,intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, total protein and lactic acid quantification inaqueous humor were done in all eyes pre- and post-operatively. By four weeks afteroperation, the eyes were enucleated for histological examination and electron microscopy.All data were analyzed using SPSS version 10.Results: In the left eyes of both group 1 and group 2, no inflammatory response wasobserved. In the left eyes of group 3 and 4, we observed mild inflammatory response withslit-lamp examination, which disappeared in one wk. However, we did not findsignificant changes in IOP, total protein and lactic acid of aqueous humor, histology andelectron microscopic examination in these groups. In the right eyes in group 2, 3 and 4,we observed moderate to severe inflammatory changes, a few even developed anteriorsegment ischemia, appeared as decreased IOP, increased total protein and lactic acid inaqueous humor, along with pathological and electron-microscopic changes.Conclusion: Simultaneous tenotomy of three or four recti or two vertical recti on one eyemay decrease anterior segment blood flow even lead to ischemia. ACVs preservation mayprotect the blood circulation in anterior segment. Our study suggests that ACVspreservation in strabismus surgeries especially those involving multi-recti tenotomies mayprevent potential anterior segment ischemia.

  8. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ciliary body (CB of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE and pigmented (PE neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. METHODS: We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (NPE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma.

  9. Nasal nitric oxide screening for primary ciliary dyskinesia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel A; Gove, Kerry; Walker, Woolf; Lucas, Jane S A

    2014-12-01

    Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) concentrations are low in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) providing a noninvasive screening test. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the utility of nNO in screening for PCD, in particular 1) different respiratory manoeuvres during sampling (velum closure, tidal breathing, etc.), 2) accuracy in screening young/uncooperative children, 3) stationary versus portable analysers, and 4) nNO in "atypical" PCD. 96 papers were assessed according to modified PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria and 22 were included in this review. Meta-analysis of 11 studies comparing nNO during a velum closure breath hold gave a mean±SD nNO of 19.4±18.6 nL·min(-1) in PCD (n = 478) and 265.0±118.9 nL·min(-1) in healthy controls (n = 338). Weighted mean difference for PCD versus healthy controls was 231.1 nL·min(-1) (95% CI 193.3-268.9; n = 338) and 114.1 nL·min(-1) (95% CI 101.5-126.8; n = 415) for PCD versus cystic fibrosis. Five studies of nNO measurement during tidal breathing demonstrated that this is an acceptable manoeuvre in young children where velum closure is not possible, but the discriminatory value was reduced. Four small studies of portable NO analysers suggest these are reliable tools for screening for PCD. However, nNO must be interpreted alongside clinical suspicion. Future studies should focus on standardising sampling techniques and reporting.

  10. A radiographic analysis of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors during active orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandesan, Hooman; Ravanmehr, Hossein; Valaei, Nasser

    2007-04-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is an undesirable consequence of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of EARR and to examine its clinical significance in maxillary incisors, during a 12-month active treatment period. A further aim was to examine the contribution of gender, treatment technique, treatment duration, and extraction of maxillary first premolars to EARR. The sample comprised 151 maxillary incisor teeth in 40 patients (16 males, 24 females) aged 12-22 years, with different malocclusions. Standard periapical radiographs, using the long-cone paralleling technique, were obtained before and 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. Quantitative measurements for 80 central and 71 lateral maxillary incisors were performed separately and corrected for image distortion. Root length reduction was calculated in millimetres and in terms of the percentage of the original root length. Resorption of more than 1 mm at 12 months of active treatment was considered to be clinically significant. On average, the degree of EARR for the maxillary central incisors was 0.77 +/- 0.42 and 1.67 +/- 0.64 mm, respectively, during the 6- and 12-month follow-up (P incisors, the degree of EARR was 0.88 +/- 0.51 and 1.79 +/- 0.66 mm, respectively (P resorption was found for 74 per cent of the centrals and 82 per cent of the laterals. No significant correlation was observed between EARR and treatment technique. EARR was found to be correlated with gender for the lateral incisors. The effect of treatment duration (P < 0.001) and premolar extraction (P < 0.001) was statistically significant for both tooth groups.

  11. Obesity phenotypes and resorption percentage after breast autologous fat grafting: Rule of low-grade inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Sarlo, Francesca; De Angelis, Barbara; De Lorenzo, Antonio; Cervelli, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main reasons why the breast fat grafting was questioned is that there may be lipofilling resorption. In the literature, the resorption rate reported over the 1st year is highly variable (20–90%). Objective: The aim of this work was to identify the biochemical and clinical parameters, which increase fat graft maintenance in breast reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A sample of 19 patients was treated with fat grafting mixed with platelet-rich plasma. A complete screening of anthropometry, body composition, and blood biochemical parameters was assessed using the standardized equipment. Pre- and post-operative evaluation was performed, which included a complete clinical examination, photographic assessment, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the soft tissue, and ultrasound. The follow-up period was 2 years. Results: The authors divided the results into two types of patients: “responder” and “not a responder.” In the “responder” group patients with normal weight, gynoid fat distribution, obese, with normal blood biochemical parameters, and atherogenic indices but with high preoperative values of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (174.49) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (2.65) showed a greater increase of fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months after the last lipofilling session. In the “not responder group” patients with overweight, android fat distribution, obese, high values of atherogenic indices, but with normal preoperative NLR and PLR ratios showed a lower fat graft maintenance at 6 and 12 months. Conclusion: We assume, the problem of fat resorption may be resolved by analysis of body composition and by examine the predictive role of preoperative markers of low-grade inflammation. PMID:27656603

  12. USE OF PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHS FOR EVALUATION OF MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR RESIDUAL RIDGE RESORPTION: IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Progressive ridge resorption is one of the main causes of loss of stability and retention of mandibular complete dentures. The location of the mental foramen can be identified easily on panoramic radiographs, and radiographic examinations are considered an important component of Prosthodontics diagnostic and treatment planning. Also the location of maxillary landmark is important to known how much resorption is there. Aim: To determine the average ratio of bone height with nearest constant anatomical landmarks in maxilla and in mandible. OBJECTIVE: To find out the association between radiographic findings & prosthodontics, such as measurements of the amount of resorption and the variation in the treatment planning of edentulous patients. METHODS: The subjects OPG was taken using standard radiographic procedural parameters. The measurement was done for distance ‘c’, ‘a’, ‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’. Then the calculations from measurements were done to calculate the ratio of c/a, to calculate the ratio of x/y, to calculate the ratio of x/z. RESULT: The descriptive statistics was done. The C/a ratio mean is 2.71 ± 0.31. The X/Y ratio mean is 1.49 ± 0.34 and the X/Z ratio mean is 1.51 ± 0.24. CONCLUSION: This ratio can be assessed in edentulous patients and then there further treatment plan can be decided according to the ratio. The implant placement can be assessed by using the measurements in this study.

  13. Bone balance within a cortical BMU: local controls of bone resorption and formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Smith

    Full Text Available Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the 'integration of information' occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable

  14. Bone balance within a cortical BMU: local controls of bone resorption and formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Dunstan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the 'integration of information' occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable BMU behaviors.

  15. The ciliary proteins Meckelin and Jouberin are required for retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sveva; Illi, Barbara; De Mori, Roberta; Savino, Mauro; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria

    2014-01-01

    The dysfunction of the primary cilium, a complex, evolutionarily conserved, organelle playing an important role in sensing and transducing cell signals, is the unifying pathogenetic mechanism of a growing number of diseases collectively termed "ciliopathies", typically characterized by multiorgan involvement. Developmental defects of the central nervous system (CNS) characterize a subset of ciliopathies showing clinical and genetic overlap, such as Joubert syndrome (JS) and Meckel syndrome (MS). Although several knock-out mice lacking a variety of ciliary proteins have shown the importance of primary cilia in the development of the brain and CNS-derived structures, developmental in vitro studies, extremely useful to unravel the role of primary cilia along the course of neural differentiation, are still missing. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have been recently proven to mimic brain development, giving the unique opportunity to dissect the CNS differentiation process along its sequential steps. In the present study we show that mESCs express the ciliary proteins Meckelin and Jouberin in a developmentally-regulated manner, and that these proteins co-localize with acetylated tubulin labeled cilia located at the outer embryonic layer. Further, mESCs differentiating along the neuronal lineage activate the cilia-dependent sonic hedgehog signaling machinery, which is impaired in Meckelin knock-out cells but results unaffected in Jouberin-deficient mESCs. However, both lose the ability to acquire a neuronal phenotype. Altogether, these results demonstrate a pivotal role of Meckelin and Jouberin during embryonic neural specification and indicate mESCs as a suitable tool to investigate the developmental impact of ciliary proteins dysfunction.

  16. Reduced ciliary polycystin-2 in induced pluripotent stem cells from polycystic kidney disease patients with PKD1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin S; Lam, Albert Q; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Iatrino, Rossella; Su, Xuefeng; Koon, Sarah J; Wu, Maoqing; Daheron, Laurence; Harris, Peter C; Zhou, Jing; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2013-10-01

    Heterozygous mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively, cause autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), whereas mutations in PKHD1, which encodes fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), cause autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). However, the relationship between these proteins and the pathogenesis of PKD remains unclear. To model PKD in human cells, we established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines from fibroblasts of three ADPKD and two ARPKD patients. Genetic sequencing revealed unique heterozygous mutations in PKD1 of the parental ADPKD fibroblasts but no pathogenic mutations in PKD2. Undifferentiated PKD iPS cells, control iPS cells, and embryonic stem cells elaborated primary cilia and expressed PC1, PC2, and FPC at similar levels, and PKD and control iPS cells exhibited comparable rates of proliferation, apoptosis, and ciliogenesis. However, ADPKD iPS cells as well as somatic epithelial cells and hepatoblasts/biliary precursors differentiated from these cells expressed lower levels of PC2 at the cilium. Additional sequencing confirmed the retention of PKD1 heterozygous mutations in iPS cell lines from two patients but identified possible loss of heterozygosity in iPS cell lines from one patient. Furthermore, ectopic expression of wild-type PC1 in ADPKD iPS-derived hepatoblasts rescued ciliary PC2 protein expression levels, and overexpression of PC1 but not a carboxy-terminal truncation mutant increased ciliary PC2 expression levels in mouse kidney cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PC1 regulates ciliary PC2 protein expression levels and support the use of PKD iPS cells for investigating disease pathophysiology.

  17. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  18. External resorption presenting as an intracoronal radiolucent lesion in a pre-eruptive tooth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1997-09-01

    A large intracoronal radiolucent lesion in an unerupted permanent molar was found during the routine assessment of a young male Caucasian prior to orthodontic treatment. The tooth was extracted. Histological examination indicated the lesion was caused by external resorption. The defect extended widely into the enamel and dentine, and was repaired in part by bone. The pulp chamber was not involved. The aetiology of these lesions is often obscure but in this case it appeared to have originated in the floor of two developmental pits on the occlusal surface of the tooth.

  19. Condylar resorptions and orthodontic-surgical treatment: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Joël; Nicot, Romain; Maes, Jean-Michel; Raoul, Gwénael; Lauwers, Ludovic

    2016-12-01

    Resorption of the mandibular condyle [RMC] is a disease of the temporomandibular joints, with multifactorial origins. The clinical manifestations take the form essentially of joint pain and occlusal disorders, depending on the rate at which the condyle is affected. X-ray imaging shows that the condyle is reduced in volume, flattened and displaced backwards, with loss of cortical substance in advanced forms. The aim of this article is to recall some pathophysiological features and then to review all the diagnostic and etiological factors and discuss possible modes of management.

  20. Influence of Baicalin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rat Experimental Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Zhi-Fen; YANG, Lian-Jia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the effects of baicalin – a flavonoid purified from Scutellaria baicalensis. Georgi, Scutellaria L. – on alveolar bone resorption in rat experimental periodontitis were examined. Method: 12 Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly divided into four groups: Group A1, A2, B and C. Except for Group C – the control group–, Group A1, A2 and B were used to establish the rat periodontitis model by repeat injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). At the same time, Group A1 a...

  1. Resorption of bone graft after maxillary sinus grafting and simultaneous implant placement

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Su-Gwan; Kim, Bum-Su; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sinus bone graft resorption over 3 years after two-stage implant placement. Materials and Methods The subjects for this study included 30 patients whose maxillary posterior ridges were too atrophic for implants. Bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation was used in 15 maxillary sinuses, while the bone graft by lateral approach technique was used in 25 maxillary sinuses. The height from the top of the fixture to the sinus floor was esti...

  2. Severe root resorption associated with ectopically erupting teeth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Hatsue; Sone, Shinya; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Tanaka, Mitsuro

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year-old Japanese boy had ectopic eruption of the permanent maxillary canines and permanent mandibular second molars accompanied by root resorption of the adjacent permanent teeth. The permanent maxillary lateral incisors were extracted, and fenestration traction treatment was performed for the ectopically erupting canines. They were moved to the occlusal position orthodontically using a lingual arch appliance and sectional arch wire. The mandibular second molars were moved distally with an appliance designed to minimize the load on the teeth. The treatment is discussed with consideration of the diagnosis and appliances.

  3. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Høiby, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and bacterial sinusitis are ubiquitous in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). From the sinuses, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can infect the lungs. METHODS: We studied the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on symptoms of CRS and lower airway...... patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated...

  4. Rrespuesta fisiológica del pasto buffel (cenchrus ciliaris l.) a diferentes alturas de defoliación

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beltrán López; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Edmundo García Moya; José G. Herrera Haro

    2002-01-01

    El conocimiento de la capacidad de las especies forrajeras para recuperarse después de una defoliación, es esencial para un mejor manejo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta del pasto buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) a cuatro alturas de defoliación: 5, 10 y 20 cm y un testigo (sin corte) en invernadero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: rendimiento acumulado de materia seca (MS), densidad de tallos, crecimiento fol...

  5. The position of maxillary canine impactions and the influenced factors to adjacent root resorption in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoojun; Hyun, Hong-Keun; Jang, Ki-Taeg

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and aspects of maxillary canine impactions in the Korean population and investigate its comparison with the previous reports, while aiding in the establishment of diagnosis and treatment planning by revealing the influential factors of root resorption associated with such impactions. The subjects of this study consisted of 186 teeth from 148 patients, who had visited Seoul National University Dental Hospital due to impacted canines and had taken computerized tomographic images and panorama radiographic images. As a result, maxillary canine impaction in the Korean population occurred 1.5 times more often in females (F:M = 89:59) than males. Regarding the position of impaction, there were three times more buccal impactions (B:P = 140:46) than palatal impactions. The occurrence of root resorption was as high as 49.5 per cent. In evaluating the influential factors affecting adjacent root resorption, the significance of the impacted angulation was insufficient (P = 0.652). However, the buccopalatal position (P resorption caused by impacted maxillary canines can be stated to exhibit a greater amount of resorption as the positional proximity of the canine crown and lateral incisor root increases.

  6. Management of trauma-induced inflammatory root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: two-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeler, Irem; Uysal, Serdar; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2010-12-01

    Inflammatory root resorption is a serious complication of dental trauma, which leads to progressive loss of the root structure. This report describes the treatment a previously traumatized young maxillary lateral incisor, severely affected by inflammatory root resorption. An 11-year-old boy presented with pain and mobility in his maxillary incisors which experienced fall trauma 2 years earlier. Radiographic examination revealed incomplete root development of the right central incisor, associated with advanced inflammatory root resorption and a periapical lesion. Following removal of a prior long-term calcium hydroxide dressing, the root canal was submitted to a 2-week irrigation regimen involving 1.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Thereafter, the entire root was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The radiographic follow up at 6 months showed arrest of root resorption and initiation of periapical healing in the absence of clinical symptoms and mobility. This was followed by advanced osseous regeneration and re-establishment of the periodontal space at 12 and 24 months. From the present case, it can be concluded that mineral trioxide aggregate obturation can be a viable option that can improve the healing outcomes in cases of severe inflammatory root resorption in young permanent teeth.

  7. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Letícia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosário de Arruda Moura; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. Materials and Methods A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. Results The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. Conclusion A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment. PMID:27051635

  8. Urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and clinical usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baris Simsek; (O)zgul Karacaer; inci Karaca

    2004-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review the urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline. Data Related researches published in 1985 -2000 were systematically reviewed. Results Bone markers could be used for early diagnosis of bone metabolic diseases. Biochemical markers of bone resorption that reflect osteoclast activity and/or collagen degradation provide a new and potentially important clinical tool for the assessment and monitoring of bone metabolism. Assessment of bone resorption can be achieved with measurement of urinary hydroxylysine glycosides, urinary excretion of the collagen pyridinium cross-links, urinary excretion of type I collagen telopeptide breakdown products (cross-linked telopeptides) and urinary hydroxyproline. Conclusion Urinary hydroxyproline has been in use as a marker of bone resorption, but it lacks sensitivity and specificity. It is a modified aminoacid that is a metabolic product of collagen breakdown.Hydroxyproline may be released either free or with fragments of the collagen molecule attached during bone resorption, and it is also liberated by the breakdown of complement and nonskeletal collagen.

  9. Inhibition of TNF-α Reverses the Pathological Resorption Pit Profile of Osteoclasts from Patients with Acute Charcot Osteoarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L. Petrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesised that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α may enhance receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand- (RANKL- mediated osteoclastogenesis in acute Charcot osteoarthropathy. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from 10 acute Charcot patients, 8 diabetic patients, and 9 healthy control subjects and cultured in vitro on plastic and bone discs. Osteoclast formation and resorption were assessed after treatment with (1 macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF and RANKL and (2 M-CSF, RANKL, and neutralising antibody to TNF-α (anti-TNF-α. Resorption was measured on the surface of bone discs by image analysis and under the surface using surface profilometry. Although osteoclast formation was similar in M-CSF + RANKL-treated cultures between the groups (p>0.05, there was a significant increase in the area of resorption on the surface (p<0.01 and under the surface (p<0.01 in Charcot patients compared with diabetic patients and control subjects. The addition of anti-TNF-α resulted in a significant reduction in the area of resorption on the surface (p<0.05 and under the surface (p<0.05 only in Charcot patients as well as a normalisation of the aberrant erosion profile. We conclude that TNF-α modulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastic resorption in vitro in patients with acute Charcot osteoarthropathy.

  10. A posterior registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs for the evaluation of external apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreich, Eliane Maria; Chibinski, Ana Claudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Leticia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosaio De Arruda Moura [School of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Parana (Brazil); De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Moraes, Luiz Cesar [Dept. of Dental Radiology, School of Dentistry, State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment.

  11. Acid Phosphatase Activity May Affect the Tuber Swelling by Partially Regulating Sucrose-mediated Sugar Resorption in Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Yong Lian; De-Wei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    APase activity is involved in regulating many physiological and developmental events by affecting the resorption process.In this study, we investigate the role of APase activity in tuber development in potato. APase activities were mainly localized in cytoplasm, gaps among cells and stroma of amyloplasts of parenchyma cells at the stage of tuber swelling. AP1, encoding a putative APase, was also highly expressed in swelling tubers and a low level of expression was observed in elongated stolons and matured tubers. Inhibition of APase activity by applying Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of APase production and secretion, significantly suppressed the tuber swelling and moderately affected the stolon elongation and the tuberization frequency. During tuber development, sucrose serves as the main soluble sugar for long-distance transportation and resorption. Moreover, Inhibition of APase activity by Brefeldin A markedly reduced the sucrose content in tubers and further decreased the starch accumulation, suggesting that the function of APase in regulating the tuber swelling might be at least artially mediated by the sugar resorption. Exogenous sucrose treatments further indicate the important role of sucrose-mediated sugar resorption in tuber swelling. These results suggest that the APase activity might affect the tuber swelling by partially regulating the sucrose-mediated sugar resorption.

  12. A case report of primary ciliary dyskinesia, laterality defects and developmental delay caused by the co-existence of a single gene and chromosome disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  13. Effects of medications and laser on induced tooth movement and associated root resorption: four key points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The following four fundamental points on the use of experimental models will be described to ensure an accurate evaluation of the effects of medication and laser therapy on induced tooth movement and associated root resorption: (1 If the objective is to check the effect on root resorption, the forces experimentally applied must produce a lesion on the cementoblast layer in all specimens; (2 If the objective is to optimize induced tooth movement and reduce treatment time without side effects, the forces experimentally applied should not produce a lesion in the cementoblast layer in any specimen; (3 The laser therapy operator, the person administering medication and the person that places appliances should not know which animals will effectively receive the test treatment, and the control groups should receive placebo treatments; (4 CT and microscopic analysis of the specimens should be random, and the group to which the specimen belongs should not be identified to ensure that the person reading images and the pathologists are not influenced in their evaluation of phenomena. These measures will ensure that results are more reliable and easier to extrapolate to orthodontic clinical practice.

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone Inhibited the Bone Resorption through the Upregulation of OPG/RANKL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudong Wang; Ling Wang; Dajin Li; Wenjun Wang

    2006-01-01

    The plasma level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is decreases gradually along with aging. The beneficial effects of DHEA as an anti-aging steroid, such as the stimulatory effect on immune system, anti-diabetes mellitus,anti-atherosclerosis, anti-dementia, anti-obesity and anti-osteoporosis have been demonstrated in experiment both in vitro and in vivo. It is important to investigate the effective mechanism of DHEA in therapeutics for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Having isolated and cultured osteoblasts (Obs) and osteoclasts (Ocs), we analysed the effect of DHEA on osteoblastic viability, regulation of DHEA on the expression of osteoprotegerin(OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA in Obs, and then observed the action of DHEA on bone resorption of Ocs in the presence or absence of Obs. The results showed that DHEA improved viability of Obs within the concentration range of 10-8-10-6 M, especially at the concentration of 10-7 M. DHEA could apparently increase the ratio of OPG/RANKL mRNA in Obs. In the presence of Obs, DHEA could decrease the number and area of absorption lacuna of specula. We concluded, therefore, only in the presence of Obs, DHEA could inhibit the bone resorption of Ocs, which may be mediated by OPG/RANKL of Obs.

  15. Study on bone resorption behavior of osteoclast under drug effect using {sup 41}Ca tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Kejun [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Lu Liyan [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); CNNC Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Haiyan 314300 (China); He Ming; Ouyang Yinggen; Xue Yan; Li Chaoli; Wu Shaoyong [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Wang Xianggao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Shen Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Gao Jianjun [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang Wei [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing 100822 (China); Chen Dafu; Xing Yonggang [Beijing Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Beijing 100035 (China); Jian, Yuan [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang Shan, E-mail: jiangs@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in Osteoporosis (OP) patients are poorly known. Understanding the changes of Osteoclasts (OC) during this dynamic transition is important to prevent and cure OP. The exploration of long-lived {sup 41}Ca (T{sub 1/2} = 1.04 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} years) tracer combined with AMS measurements leads to the possibility of monitoring the bone resorption behavior of OC in OP patients. In this work, the behavior of OC with the administration of Strontium Ranelate (SR), a drug for OP, was studied by using {sup 41}Ca labeled hydroxyapatite (HAP) to simulate the bone. AMS on the HI-13 tandem accelerator at CIAE was used to determine trace amounts of {sup 41}Ca. The results show that the technique of {sup 41}Ca tracing with AMS can be used to quantitatively monitor the behavior of OC in bone resorption under the effects of drugs. Experimental details and preliminary results will be presented.

  16. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  17. Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances alveolar bone resorption via upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunxia; Ji, Yaoting; Liu, Shengbo; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced alveolar bone resorption was mediated by a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme related mechanism. Experimental periodontitis was induced in bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats, some of which were injected with triptorelin, an FSH inhibitor. After mandibles were collected, we performed micro-computed tomography to evaluate alveolar bone loss and immunohistochemical staining to assess COX-2 expression. As well, human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were treated with FSH (30 ng/ml), and the COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that FSH significantly increased alveolar bone resorption and the expression of COX-2 in the bilateral OVX + Ligatured rats compared with the other treatment groups. FSH also increased the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.01) in human PDLCs. Further, the analysis of signaling pathways revealed the activation of COX-2-mediated pathways including Erk, p38, and Akt. These data suggest that FSH aggravates alveolar bone loss via a COX-2-upregulation mechanism and that the Erk, p38, and Akt pathways are involved in this pathological process. PMID:27725865

  18. Influences of Fucoxanthin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Induced Periodontitis in Rat Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

  19. Effects of Neuropeptides and Mechanical Loading on Bone Cell Resorption in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP are present in nerve fibers of bone tissues and have been suggested to potentially regulate bone remodeling. Oscillatory fluid flow (OFF-induced shear stress is a potent signal in mechanotransduction that is capable of regulating both anabolic and catabolic bone remodeling. However, the interaction between neuropeptides and mechanical induction in bone remodeling is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to quantify the effects of combined neuropeptides and mechanical stimuli on mRNA and protein expression related to bone resorption. Neuropeptides (VIP or CGRP and/or OFF-induced shear stress were applied to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells and changes in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG mRNA and protein levels were quantified. Neuropeptides and OFF-induced shear stress similarly decreased RANKL and increased OPG levels compared to control. Changes were not further enhanced with combined neuropeptides and OFF-induced shear stress. These results suggest that neuropeptides CGRP and VIP have an important role in suppressing bone resorptive activities through RANKL/OPG pathway, similar to mechanical loading.

  20. Resorption of the element zinc from spermatozoa by the epididymal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, R; Baldauf, C; Schill, W-B

    2003-04-01

    In this study, elimination of the element zinc from spermatozoa during epididymal maturation was investigated. Testes and epididymides from 40 bulls were collected; epididymal fluid was flushed, pooled, labelled with 0.5 MBq 65Zn2+ per sample and proteins were separated on a Sephacryl S-200 HR and zinc chelate column chromatography. To follow the resorption of zinc in the epididymal epithelial lining, an autometallographic technique (AMG) was performed in tissue from caput, corpus, cauda and vas deferens. The results showed a zinc-binding protein fraction with an apparent molecular weight of 150-160 kDa, which was enriched after chelate column chromatography. Specific labelling of 65Zn was about five times higher in the caput than in the cauda epididymidis. AMG revealed no detectable zinc in the caput, but a significant increase of zinc resorption from the corpus to the cauda and vas deferens. Controls showed that the detectable zinc was located within the principal cells. In conclusion, our study proves that zinc present in the sperm flagellum starts to be mobilized in the caput epididymidis and is resorbed by the epididymal epithelium as from the corpus. This zinc elimination is a mandatory step in sperm maturation to obtain motility.

  1. Accuracy of digital peripical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography in detecting external root resorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, Adriana Gabriela [Division of Dental Diagnostic Science, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark (United States); Geha, Hassem; Sankar, Vidya; Mcmahan, Clyde Alex; Noujeim, Marcel [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); Teixeira, Fabrico B. [Dept. of Endodontics, University of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in diagnosing simulated small external root resorption cavities. Cavities were drilled in 159 roots using a small spherical bur at different root levels and on all surfaces. The teeth were imaged both with intraoral digital radiography using image plates and with CBCT. Two sets of intraoral images were acquired per tooth: orthogonal (PA) which was the conventional periapical radiograph and mesioangulated (SET). Four readers were asked to rate their confidence level in detecting and locating the lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of each modality in detecting the presence of lesions, the affected surface, and the affected level. Analysis of variation was used to compare the results and kappa analysis was used to evaluate interobserver agreement. A significant difference in the area under the ROC curves was found among the three modalities (P=0.0002), with CBCT (0.81) having a significantly higher value than PA (0.71) or SET (0.71). PA was slightly more accurate than SET, but the difference was not statistically significant. CBCT was also superior in locating the affected surface and level. CBCT has already proven its superiority in detecting multiple dental conditions, and this study shows it to likewise be superior in detecting and locating incipient external root resorption.

  2. Effects of epidermal growth factor on bone formation and resorption in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, P.J.; Hott, M.; Perheentupa, J. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris (France))

    1990-02-01

    The effects of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) on bone formation and resorption were examined in male mice. EGF administration (2-200 ng.g-1.day-1 ip for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent rise in plasma EGF levels that remained within physiological range. Histomorphometric analysis of caudal vertebrae showed that EGF (20 and 200 ng.g-1.day-1) reduced the endosteal matrix and mineral appositional rates after 5 days of treatment as measured by double (3H)proline labeling and double tetracycline labeling, respectively. This effect was transitory and was not observed after 7 days of EGF administration. EGF administered for 7 days induced a dose-dependent increase in the periosteal osteoblastic and tetracycline double-labeled surfaces. At high dosage (200 ng.g-1.day-1) EGF administration increased the osteoclastic surface and the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, although plasma calcium remained normal. The results show that EGF administration at physiological doses induces distinct effects on endosteal and periosteal bone formation and that the effects are dependent on EGF dosage and duration of treatment. This study indicates that EGF at physiological dosage stimulates periosteal bone formation and increases endosteal bone resorption in the growing mouse.

  3. Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughis Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca and deoxypyridinoline (DPD excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden. Methods 155 schoolchildren from 2 elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan were included. Urinary Cd was measured as an index of lifetime exposure. We assessed the multivariate-adjusted association of exposure with markers of bone resorption, urinary DPD as well as with Ca excretion. Results Urinary Cd averaged 0.50 nmol/mmol creatinine and was not influenced by age, height, weight and socio-economic status (SES. Independent of gender, age, height, weight and SES a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a 1.72 times (p Conclusions Even in young children, low-level environmental exposure to cadmium is associated with evidence of bone resorption, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect with increased calciuria. These findings might have clinical relevance at older age.

  4. Bilateral severe root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines: details on diagnosis and treatment plan – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Scapini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are the second most frequently impacted teeth in the dental arch. Root resorptions are often found in teeth adjacent to an impacted maxillary canine (IMC and may potentially lead to tooth loss. The treatment is often complicated when diagnosis is established at a later stage. Computed tomography (CT has been proven to be superior in determining the presence and degree of root resorption in teeth adjacent to IMC to support treatment plans and clinical decisions. This report describes the case of a patient with bilaterally impacted maxillary canines associated with severe root resorption of the right fi rst premolar and the left lateral incisor and focuses on the importance of CT imaging for diagnosis and treatment plan.

  5. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Nephrocystin-5, a ciliary IQ domain protein, is mutated in Senior-Loken syndrome and interacts with RPGR and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Edgar A; Loeys, Bart; Khanna, Hemant; Hellemans, Jan; Sudbrak, Ralf; Fan, Shuling; Muerb, Ulla; O'Toole, John F; Helou, Juliana; Attanasio, Massimo; Utsch, Boris; Sayer, John A; Lillo, Concepcion; Jimeno, David; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne; Reinhardt, Richard; Klages, Sven; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kawakami, Isao; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Omran, Heymut; Imm, Anita; Tippens, Melissa; Raymond, Pamela A; Hill, Jo; Beales, Phil; He, Shirley; Kispert, Andreas; Margolis, Benjamin; Williams, David S; Swaroop, Anand; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2005-03-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in children. Identification of four genes mutated in NPHP subtypes 1-4 (refs. 4-9) has linked the pathogenesis of NPHP to ciliary functions. Ten percent of affected individuals have retinitis pigmentosa, constituting the renal-retinal Senior-Loken syndrome (SLSN). Here we identify, by positional cloning, mutations in an evolutionarily conserved gene, IQCB1 (also called NPHP5), as the most frequent cause of SLSN. IQCB1 encodes an IQ-domain protein, nephrocystin-5. All individuals with IQCB1 mutations have retinitis pigmentosa. Hence, we examined the interaction of nephrocystin-5 with RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator), which is expressed in photoreceptor cilia and associated with 10-20% of retinitis pigmentosa. We show that nephrocystin-5, RPGR and calmodulin can be coimmunoprecipitated from retinal extracts, and that these proteins localize to connecting cilia of photoreceptors and to primary cilia of renal epithelial cells. Our studies emphasize the central role of ciliary dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SLSN.

  7. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, Gian Carlo; Aruta, Claudia; Comitato, Antonella; De Marzo, Anna; Marigo, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells. PMID:22432014

  8. Functional and molecular characterization of rod-like cells from retinal stem cells derived from the adult ciliary epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Demontis

    Full Text Available In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells.

  9. Axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene (DNAI1) mutations result in situs inversus and primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, C; Harricane, M C; Lafitte, J J; Godard, P; Zaegel, M; Tack, V; Lalau, G; Bouvagnet, P

    2001-04-01

    Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a trilogy of symptoms (nasal polyps, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus totalis) that is associated with ultrastructural anomalies of cilia of epithelial cells covering the upper and lower respiratory tracts and spermatozoa flagellae. The axonemal dynein intermediate-chain gene 1 (DNAI1), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for a case of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) without situs inversus, was screened for mutation in a series of 34 patients with KS. We identified compound heterozygous DNAI1 gene defects in three independent patients and in two of their siblings who presented with PCD and situs solitus (i.e., normal position of inner organs). Strikingly, these five patients share one mutant allele (splice defect), which is identical to one of the mutant DNAI1 alleles found in the patient with PCD, reported elsewhere. Finally, this study demonstrates a link between ciliary function and situs determination, since compound mutation heterozygosity in DNAI1 results in PCD with situs solitus or situs inversus (KS).

  10. Resorption of Lateral Incisors during Canine Eruption: Two Clinical Cases with Focus on Root Lengths and Heredity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Zargham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth. This is a pilot study aimed to improve diagnostics for avoiding the resorption of lateral maxillary incisors by pressure from erupting canines. Case Report: The first reported case is of a girl who was 11 years and 7 months old when radiographs showed severe resorption of the lateral incisors, along with malformed central incisors and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated several short roots. The second reported case is of a girl who was 9 years and 5 months old when radiographs demonstrated nearly complete resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general could be a phenotypic trait, which should be diagnosed early for preventing severe resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption.

  11. Novel use of a Dektak 150 surface profiler unmasks differences in resorption pit profiles between control and Charcot patient osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Nina L; Petrov, Peter K; Edmonds, Michael E; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that newly formed osteoclasts from patients with acute Charcot osteoarthropathy can resorb surfaces of bone more extensively compared with controls. Peripheral blood monocytes, isolated from eight Charcot patients and nine controls, were cultured in vitro on 24-well plates and bovine bone discs in duplicate with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast formation was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining (TRAcP) at day 17. Resorption was measured at day 21 after toluidine blue staining by two methods: (1) area of resorption at the surface by image analysis (%) and (2) area of resorption under the surface (μm(2)) measured by a Dektak 150 Surface Profiler. Ten 1,000 μm-long scans were performed per disc. Pits were classified as unidented, bidented, and multidented according to their shape. Although the number of newly formed TRAcP positive multinucleated cells (>3 nuclei) was similar in M-CSF + RANKL-treated cultures between controls and Charcot patients, the latter exhibited increased resorbing activity. The area of resorption on the surface by image analysis was significantly greater in Charcot patients compared with controls (21.1 % [14.5-26.2] vs. 40.8 % [35.4-46.0], median [25-75th percentile], p Charcot patients pits were deeper and wider and more frequently presented as multidented pits. This application of the Dektak 150 Surface Profiler revealed novel differences in resorption pit profile from osteoclasts derived from Charcot patients compared with controls. Resorption in Charcot patients was mediated by highly aggressive newly formed osteoclasts from monocytes eroding large and deep areas of bone.

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  13. Effect of primary iris and ciliary body cyst on anterior chamber angle in patients with shallow anterior chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-hong WANG; Yu-feng YAO

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of primary iris and/or ciliary body cysts in eyes with shallow anterior chamber and their effect on the narrowing of the anterior chamber angle.Methods:Among the general physical check-up population,subjects with shallow anterior chambers,as judged by van Herick technique,were recruited for further investigation.Ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was used to detect and measure the cysts located in the iris and/or ciliary body,the anterior chamber depth (ACD),the angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500),and the trabecular-iris angle (TIA).A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure the ocular biometry,including lens thickness,axial length,lens/axial length factor (LAF),and relative lens position (RLP).The effect of the cyst on narrowing the corresponding anterior chamber angle and the entire angle was evaluated by the UBM images,ocular biometry,and gonioscopic grading.The eye with unilateral cyst was compared with the eye without the cyst for further analysis.Results:Among the 727 subjects with shallow anterior chamber,primary iris and ciliary body cysts were detected in 250 (34.4%) patients; among them 96 (38.4%) patients showed unilateral single cyst,21 (8.4%) patients had unilateral double cysts,and 42 (16.8%) patients manifested unilateral multiple and multi-quadrants cysts.Plateau iris configuration was found in 140 of 361 (38.8%) eyes with cysts.The mean size of total cysts was (0.6547±0.2319) mm.In evaluation of the effect of the cyst size and location on narrowing the corresponding angle to their position,the proportion of the cysts causing corresponding angle narrowing or closure among the cysts larger than 0.8 mm (113/121,93.4%) was found to be significantly higher than that of the cysts smaller than 0.8 mm (373/801,46.6%),and a significant higher proportion was also found in the cysts located at iridociliary sulcus (354/437,81.0%) than in that at the pars plicata (131/484,27.1%).In evaluating the effect

  14. Pulpectomy in hyperemic pulp and accelerated root resorption in primary teeth: a review with associated case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Persistent hemorrhage after complete amputation of coronal pulp is a common clinical finding during pulpotomy procedure in primary teeth. These teeth are best managed with pulpectomy, but they have hyperemic pulp with some remaining vital tissue. Good chemico-biomechanical preparation of primary canals cannot guarantee complete removal of this vital tissue from inaccessible areas. Use of Ca(OH) ₂ containing root filling pastes in vital pulp tissue can cause accelerated resorption of primary roots. The possible mechanism behind such extensive root resorption is discussed with review of literature. A case report of a child with 30 months follow-up is presented and discussed.

  15. Pulpectomy in hyperemic pulp and accelerated root resorption in primary teeth: A review with associated case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Walia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent hemorrhage after complete amputation of coronal pulp is a common clinical finding during pulpotomy procedure in primary teeth. These teeth are best managed with pulpectomy, but they have hyperemic pulp with some remaining vital tissue. Good chemico-biomechanical preparation of primary canals cannot guarantee complete removal of this vital tissue from inaccessible areas. Use of Ca(OH 2 containing root filling pastes in vital pulp tissue can cause accelerated resorption of primary roots. The possible mechanism behind such extensive root resorption is discussed with review of literature. A case report of a child with 30 months follow-up is presented and discussed.

  16. Effect of RGD-insulin on activities of bone resorption and the possible mechanism in human osteoclast-like cells in vitro.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we explored the mechanism of anti-bone resorption of RGD-insulin using osteoclastlike cells(OLCs) from giant cell tumor of bone as an in vitro model. Methods: The function of bone resorption was observed and the staining for tartrate-resistant acid

  17. Hand-held tidal breathing nasal nitric oxide measurement--a promising targeted case-finding tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming increa...

  18. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption by using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Toshiya; Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2011-10-01

    This case report presents the endodontic treatment of a maxillary right lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption in a 50-year-old woman. Radiographically, internal resorption appears as a fairly uniform, radiolucent enlargement of the pulp canal and distortion of the original root canal outline. The use of cone beam computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. After cleaning the root canal space and the resorptive defect by mechanic instrumentation, irrigation, and interim calcium hydroxide dressing, the apical third canal was filled with a gutta-percha point by lateral condensation. The resorptive defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Follow-up radiographs at 3 years showed adequate repair of the resorption, and the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  19. Probe tip heating assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  20. Calcium-41 as a long-term biological tracer for bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, David; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.; Sacco-Gibson, Nancy; Peterson, David P.

    1990-12-01

    The use of 41Ca (half-life 1 × 10 5 yr) as a tracer for studying calcium metabolism in living systems is compared to the shorter-lived radionuclides 45Ca (165 d) and 47Ca (45 d) and the stable isotopes 42Ca and 44Ca. The feasibility of using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 41Ca for studying multi-year calcium resorption in humans was tested as part of a companion study that used 45Ca to measure the effects of dietary cadmium on calcium metabolism in dogs. It was shown that Ca resorbed from prelabeled bones correlates well with 45Ca for a period of 28 weeks. The advantage of 41Ca is that, even with a negligible radiation dose, it can be measured by AMS long after the 45Ca becomes unmeasurable.