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Sample records for ciliaris haw aloeaceae

  1. Caracterización morfoanatómica comparativa entre Aloe vera (L. Burm. F., Aloe arborescens Mill., Aloe saponaria Haw. y Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Aloeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Carpano

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (L. Burm. F. (= Aloe barbadensis Miller conhecida como "a planta da imortalidade" no antigo Egito é utilizada em fitoterapia como humectante, antibacteriana, antifúngica, antiviral e antioxidante. Com a finalidade de contribuir para identificação da droga vegetal, foram realizados estudos morfoanatômicos da folha. A utilização de plantas com características terapêuticas reconhecidas determina que, por analogia, popularmente sejam utilizadas com a mesma finalidade outras espécies do mesmo gênero. Isto é o que ocorre com três espécies de Aloe spp., que se cultivam ou crescem acidentalmente na Argentina: A. arborescens Mill., A. saponaria Haw. e A. ciliaris Haw. (Aloaceae. Estabeleceram-se os caracteres morfoanatômicos de diagnóstico por microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (apresentam-se desenhos e fotomicrografias dos mesmos. Obtiveram-se valores numéricos dos elementos histológicos de diagnóstico: magnitudes lineares e proporcionais. Realizaram-se reações histoquímicas de identificação dos princípios ativos para sua localização "in situ".

  2. Caracterización morfoanatómica comparativa entre Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F., Aloe arborescens Mill., Aloe saponaria Haw. y Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Aloeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carpano, Stella Maris; Castro, María Teresa; Spegazzini, Etile Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (= Aloe barbadensis Miller) conhecida como "a planta da imortalidade" no antigo Egito é utilizada em fitoterapia como humectante, antibacteriana, antifúngica, antiviral e antioxidante. Com a finalidade de contribuir para identificação da droga vegetal, foram realizados estudos morfoanatômicos da folha. A utilização de plantas com características terapêuticas reconhecidas determina que, por analogia, popularmente sejam utilizadas com a mesma finalidade outras espécies d...

  3. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  4. Experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1993-12-01

    This data report is the eighth of a series intended to document the data obtained from the HAW in situ experiment (at Asse) and to make these data available to potential users. During this experiment a considerable number of thermocouples was damaged so that their signals are lost. In some cases it resulted in plots with no signal but empty frames. In the previous report we tried to change our procedure and remove these frames from the report. This action was not completely successful because, as it turned out, also some of the not empty plots were removed wrongly as well. (orig.)

  5. Experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1993-04-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from January 1st, 1992 to June 30th, 1992. (orig.)

  6. Experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1992-12-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from July 1st, 1991 to December 31th, 1991. (orig.)

  7. Performance of CASTORR HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR R HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR R HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR R HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR R HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out as well. GNS long-term CASTOR R

  8. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  9. High-active waste (HAW) data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement trans-ducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from July 1st, 1990 to December 31, 1990. (author). 4 refs.; 100 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. Ciliary dysfunction and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.

  11. Performance of CASTOR{sup R} HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, D-45127 Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR{sup R} HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out

  12. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed by a team comprising experts in glass chemistry, glass technology, and statistics at both SRTC and PNNL. This joint effort combined the strengths of each discipline and site to quickly develop a glass formulation for specific INEEL HAW

  13. 27 CFR 9.214 - Haw River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... significance. (b) Approved maps. The two United States Geological Survey 1:100,000-scale metric topographic...) Greensboro, North Carolina, 1984; and (2) Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1984. (c) Boundary. The Haw River... line southeast 2 miles to the intersection of North Carolina State Highway 49 and an unnamed, light...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: primary ciliary dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections ... likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes. Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ...

  15. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  16. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  17. Physics of the mechanical toy Gee-Haw Whammy Diddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Martin; Badin, Matej; Plesch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    Gee-Haw Whammy Diddle is a seemingly simple mechanical toy consisting of a wooden stick and a second stick that is made up of a series of notches with a propeller at its end. When the wooden stick is pulled over the notches, the propeller starts to rotate. Despite its simplicity, physical principles governing the motion of the stick and the propeller are rather complicated and interesting. Here we provide a thorough analysis of the system and parameters influencing the motion. We show that contrary to the results published on this topic so far, neither elliptic motion of the stick nor frequency synchronization is needed for starting a stable motion of the propeller.

  18. High active waste (HAW) data report January-June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1992-04-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from January 1st, 1991 to June 30, 1991. (author). 4 refs.; 43 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Performance of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW cask cold trials for loading, Transport and storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With over 30 years of experience in the design, manufacturing, assembly and loading of CASTOR {sup registered} casks, GNS is one of the worldwide leading suppliers of casks for the transport and storage of spent fuel assemblies as well as for canisters with vitrified high active wastes (meanwhile over 1.000 casks loaded and stored and more than 1.500 ordered). GNS's products are used at around 30 sites worldwide for a wide range of inventories from pressurised and boiling water reactor fuels (PWR, VVER and BWR, RBMK), thorium high-temperature reactor fuels (THTR) and research reactor fuels (MTR) to vitrified high active wastes (HAW) from reprocessing plants. GNS is responsible for all nuclear wastes resulting from German Nuclear Power Plants and assists and/or performs in the loading and dispatch of CASTOR {sup registered} casks as well as their transport to and storage at central interim storage facilities and local interim storage areas. (orig.)

  20. The effects of an instant haw beverage on lipid levels, antioxidant enzyme and immune function in hyperlipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  1. Sample preparation for the HAW project and experimental results from the HFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Celma, A.; Wees, H. van; Miralles, L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the preparation and analysis of samples, during the period May 1989-November 1989, for the High-Active Waste (HAW) project, a large-scale in situ test being performed underground in the Asse salt mine, Remlingen FRG. The development of the technical procedures required, and the scientific results, which regard mostly characterization of Potasas del Llobregat sample, are reported. Prior to using the samples in both the H.A.W. and the H.F.R. experiments they have to be machined to fit their holders. Technical improvements for machining samples of salt are reported. (H.W.). 9 refs.; 68 figs.; 10 tabs

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  3. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddab, S; Hidayat, A; Tabbara, K F

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal. Images PMID:2310725

  4. Photoreceptor Sensory Cilium: Traversing the Ciliary Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Khanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are antenna-like extensions of the plasma membrane found in nearly all cell types. In the retina of the eye, photoreceptors develop unique sensory cilia. Not much was known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and function of photoreceptor cilia, largely because of technical limitations and the specific structural and functional modifications that cannot be modeled in vitro. With recent advances in microscopy techniques and molecular and biochemical approaches, we are now beginning to understand the molecular basis of photoreceptor ciliary architecture, ciliary function and its involvement in human diseases. Here, I will discuss the studies that have revealed new knowledge of how photoreceptor cilia regulate their identity and function while coping with high metabolic and trafficking demands associated with processing light signal.

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-01-01

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) foll...

  6. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  7. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  8. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the interim report 1988-89 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 20 refs.; 92 figs.; 14 tabs

  9. Petrogenesis and geochemical characterisation of ultramafic cumulate rocks from Hawes Head, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daczko, N.R.; Emami, S.; Allibone, A.H.; Turnbull, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Early Cretaceous parts of the western Median Batholith (Western Fiordland Orthogneiss) represent the exposed root of a magmatic arc of dioritic to monzodioritic composition (SiO 2 = 51-55 wt%; Na 2 O/K 2 O = 3.7-8.8 in this study). We characterise for the first time the field relationships, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of ultramafic and mafic cumulates at Hawes Head, the largest exposure of ultramafic rocks in western Fiordland. We distinguish three related rock types at Hawes Head: hornblende peridotite (MgO = 21-35 wt%); hornblendite (MgO = 15-16 wt%); and pyroxenite (MgO = 21 wt%). Petrogenetic relationships between the ultramafic rocks and the surrounding Misty Pluton of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss are demonstrated by: (i) mutually cross-cutting relationships; (ii) similar mafic phases (e.g. pyroxene and amphibole) with elevated Mg-numbers (e.g. olivine Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.77-0.82); (iii) fractionation trends in mineral geochemistry; and (iv) shared depleted heavy rare earth element patterns. In addition, the application of solid/liquid partition coefficients indicates that olivine in the ultramafic rocks at Hawes Head crystallised from a magma with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.54-0.57. The olivine grains therefore represent a plausible early crystallising phase of the adjacent Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.51-0.55). (author). 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is rare. Its diagnosis requires experienced specialists and expensive infrastructure. Its prognosis is variable. Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron microscope. Methods: Covering a period of ...

  11. The Pediatric Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jamal, Rana'a T; Cassoux, Nathalie; Desjardins, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To collect comprehensive data on choroidal and ciliary body melanoma (CCBM) in children and to validate hypotheses regarding pediatric CCBM: children younger than 18 years, males, and those without ciliary body involvement (CBI) have more favorable survival prognosis than young adults 18...

  12. Manipulation technology optimization for the interim storage of HAW transport and storage containers; Optimierung der Handhabungstechnik zur Zwischenlagerung von HAW-Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmrich, Uwe; Krueger, Michael; Schulze, Hartmut [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The handling of high-level radioactive waste transport and storage containers from reprocessing plants is determined by the cask configuration and the radiation protection measures with respect to the safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory and shielding of gamma and neutron radiation. The new of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M was designed for higher radioactive inventories, the heat generation is has rarely been changed with respect to the former design. The essential structural modifications are shock absorbers that have to be demounted before storage in the interim storage facility Gorleben. Due to public acceptance forcings the ALARA principle is not the only basis for manipulation technology optimizations, the minimization of dose rate for the operational personnel is of increasing importance. The authors describe the optimizations and the resulting dose reductions.

  13. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Bonface, Jean-Michael

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  14. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Bonface, Jean-Michael [TN International, Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  15. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  16. An international registry for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Claudius; Lablans, Martin; Ataian, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder leading to chronic upper and lower airway disease. Fundamental data on epidemiology, clinical presentation, course and treatment strategies are lacking in PCD. We have established an international PCD registry to realise...... an unmet need for an international platform to systematically collect data on incidence, clinical presentation, treatment and disease course.The registry was launched in January 2014. We used internet technology to ensure easy online access using a web browser under www.pcdregistry.eu. Data from 201...... methods in addition to classical clinical symptoms. Preliminary analysis of lung function data demonstrated a mean annual decline of percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 0.59% (95% CI 0.98-0.22).Here, we present the development of an international PCD registry as a new promising tool...

  17. Negative regulation of ciliary length by ciliary male germ cell-associated kinase (Mak) is required for retinal photoreceptor survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Chaya, Taro; Katoh, Kimiko; Kajimura, Naoko; Sato, Shigeru; Muraoka, Koichiro; Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Mineo; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2010-12-28

    Cilia function as cell sensors in many organs, and their disorders are referred to as "ciliopathies." Although ciliary components and transport machinery have been well studied, regulatory mechanisms of ciliary formation and maintenance are poorly understood. Here we show that male germ cell-associated kinase (Mak) regulates retinal photoreceptor ciliary length and subcompartmentalization. Mak was localized both in the connecting cilia and outer-segment axonemes of photoreceptor cells. In the Mak-null retina, photoreceptors exhibit elongated cilia and progressive degeneration. We observed accumulation of intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88) and IFT57, expansion of kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a), and acetylated α-tubulin signals in the Mak-null photoreceptor cilia. We found abnormal rhodopsin accumulation in the Mak-null photoreceptor cell bodies at postnatal day 14. In addition, overexpression of retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1), a microtubule-associated protein localized in outer-segment axonemes, induced ciliary elongation, and Mak coexpression rescued excessive ciliary elongation by RP1. The RP1 N-terminal portion induces ciliary elongation and increased intensity of acetylated α-tubulin labeling in the cells and is phosphorylated by Mak. These results suggest that Mak is essential for the regulation of ciliary length and is required for the long-term survival of photoreceptors.

  18. [Regeneration of the ciliary beat of human ciliated cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G; Koidl, B; Pelzmann, B

    1991-10-01

    The influence of an isotonic, alkaline saline solution (diluted "Emser Sole" or brine from the spa of Bad Ems) on the ciliary beat of isolated cultured human ciliated cells of the upper respiratory tract was investigated. The ciliary beat was observed via an inverted phase contrast microscope (Zeiss Axiomat IDPC) and measured microphotometrically under physiological conditions and after the damaging influence of 1% propanal solution. Under physiological conditions the saline solution had a positive, although statistically not significant influence on the frequency of the ciliary beat. After damage of the cultivated cells by 1% propanal solution, the saline solution had a significant better influence on the regeneration of the cultured cells than a physiological sodium chloride solution. It is concluded that diluted brine from Bad Ems has a positive effect on the ciliary beat of the respiratory epithelium and accelerates its regeneration after damage by viral and bacterial infections, surgery or inhaled noxae.

  19. HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.; Stippler, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in an one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. The project is funded by the BMFT and the CEC and carrier out in close co-operation with the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

  20. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  1. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  2. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    Preliminary glass formulation work has been initiated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to support immobilization efforts of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high activity waste (HAW). Based on current pretreatment flow sheet assumptions, several glasses were fabricated and tested using an average 'All Blend' waste stream composition which is dominated by the presence of ZrO 2 (i.e., approximately 80 wt percent). The results of this initial work show that immobilization via vitrification is a viable option for a specific INEEL HAW waste stream. Waste loadings of at least 19 wt percent can be achieved for the 'All Blend' stream while maintaining targeted processing and product performance criteria. This waste loading translates into a ZrO 2 content in excess of 15 wt percent in the final glass waste form. Frits developed for this work are based in the alkali borosilicate system. Although the results indicate that vitrification can be used to immobilize the 'All Blend' waste stream, the glass compositions are by no means optimized

  3. Response of Opuntia stricta Haw micropropagated plants in acclimatization and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Medeiros de Araújo Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forage palm (Opuntia stricta Haw. is a great important crop for the semi-arid region of Brasil. It has been propagated through in vitro culture, by areole activation. This work aimed to determine the response of Opuntia stricta Haw. variety ‘Oreja de Elefante Mexicana’ micropropagated plants during its acclimatization and field planting. Plants were acclimatized in tubes and plastic bags with a mixture of soil and manure, and it were kept in greenhouse for 130 days. Later, the plants kept in tubes were divided into nine treatments, according to their size (between 6 to 14 cm, and transfer to the field. The use of tubes provided a higher survival, height, fresh and dry mass of the cladodes. There was no significant differences between the recipients used for root development. At the end of acclimatization it was observed that plants did not have a uniform development, presenting size variation. After the first 15 days in the field, the majority of the plants with primary shoots were larger than 10 cm. At 60 days the survival was 100%, and all plants presented shoots, even the smallest. However, is recommended that plants larger than 10 cm will be used, due to the better establishment to field conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility in the use of micropropagated plants for the establishment of forage palm fields. Keywords: cladodes, forage palm, in vitro culture, semi-arid region

  4. The HAW Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Mueller-Lyda, I.; Raynal, M.; Major, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive canisters is planned in the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty canisters containing the radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwith of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800-m-level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuously surveyed in respect of the thermomechanical and geochemical response of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and successfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field measuring systems consisting of ionization chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. 70 refs

  5. Spanish participation in the Haw Project: Laboratory investigations on Gamma irradiation effects in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C. de las; Miralles, L.; Teixidor, P.; Garcia Veigas, J.; Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Pueyo, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt rock, a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive radiation sources is planned in the Asse salt mine, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty radiation sources consist of steel canisters containing the vitrified radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwidth of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW. The radiation sources will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800 m level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuosly surveyed in respect of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and succesfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Part of this programme has been carried out since 1988 at the University of Barcelona, basically what refers to colloidal sodium determinations by light absorption measurements and microstructural studies on irradiated salt samples. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field, measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field

  6. Phase transformations in lithium bearing sodiumborosilicate base glass melts for the solidification of HAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettlicher, J.

    1994-10-01

    Metastable phase separation has been observed in the Li-bearing basic glass SM58. This observation gave rise to examine the exsolution behaviour in model glasses by chemical substitution. It is impossible to produce metastable phase separation in the Li-free HAW-glasses VG98/12 and VG98/12.2. However, one can't exclude textural changes of Li-bearing glasses, because in a HAW-container the central temperature remains at about 300 C for more than 50 years. For the first time it has been tried to find a relationship between glass textures and structural parameters by combining textural investigations (electron microscopy) with structural determinations (NMR, WAXS). Modell glasses belong to the system (Li, Na) 2 O.B 2 O 3 , (Al 2 O 3 ).n(TO 2 ), with T=Si, Ge and n=2, 4, 6. Furthermore glasses from the KfK and from Mol (PAMELA) were investigated. A newly built apparatus was used to prepare glasses by replica technique (PtIrC oblique shadowing) for TEM investigations. This method turned out to be well suited to study glass textures with features down to 5 nm. Sometimes direct examinations of ion-thinned glasses showed that their textures were affected by radiation damage, caused by accelerated electrons. LVSE-(Low Voltage Scanning Electron)- and AF-(Atomic Force)- microscopy seems to be a promising method for studying glass surfaces and their textures directly. (orig./MM) [de

  7. Commentary - Physiological variation and phenotypic plasticity: a response to 'Platicity in arthropod cryotypes' by Hawes and Bale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chown, S.L.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Sinclair, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent publication, Hawes and Bale provide an extended discussion of phenotypic plasticity in the context of low temperature responses of animals. They argue that phenotypic plasticity may be partitioned phylogenetically at several levels and go on to explore these levels, and cold hardiness...

  8. Ciliary and non-ciliary expression and function of PACRG during vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumberger Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Park2-co-regulated gene (PACRG is evolutionarily highly conserved from green algae to mammals. In Chlamydomonas and trypanosomes, the PACRG protein associates with flagella. Loss of PACRG results in shortened or absent flagella. In mouse the PACRG protein is required for spermatogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze (1 the expression patterns of PACRG during vertebrate embryogenesis, and (2 whether the PACRG protein was required for left-right (LR axis specification through cilia-driven leftward flow in Xenopus laevis. Methods PACRG cDNAs were cloned and expression was analyzed during early embryonic development of Xenopus, mouse, rabbit and zebrafish. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO mediated gene knockdown was applied in Xenopus to investigate LR development at the level of tissue morphology, leftward flow and asymmetric marker gene expression, using timelapse videography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and whole-mount in situ hybridization. Results were statistically evaluated using Wilcoxon paired and χ2 tests. Results PACRG mRNA expression was found in cells and tissues harboring cilia throughout the vertebrates. Highly localized expression was also detected in the brain. During early development, PACRG was specifically localized to epithelia where leftward flow arises, that is, the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP in Xenopus, the posterior notochord (PNC in mammals and Kupffer’s vesicle (KV in zebrafish. Besides its association with ciliary axonemes, subcellular localization of PACRG protein was found around the nucleus and in a spotty pattern in the cytoplasm. A green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion construct preferentially labeled cilia, rendering PACRG a versatile marker for live imaging. Loss-of-function in the frog resulted dose dependently in LR, neural tube closure and gastrulation defects, representing ciliary and non-ciliary functions of PACRG. Conclusions The PACRG protein is a novel

  9. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-09-15

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) following intravenous injection; CNTF fever was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. The fever induced by CNTF was not due to contaminating endotoxins. Increasing doses of CNTF resulted in prolongation of the fever, suggesting the subsequent induction of additional endogenous pyrogenic activity. After passive transfer of plasma obtained during CNTF-induced fever, endogenous pyrogen activity was not present in the circulation; CNTF also did not induce the endogenous pyrogens interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin 6 in vitro. Nevertheless, a second endogenous pyrogen may originate within the central nervous system following the systemic injection of CNTF. Of the four endogenous pyrogens described to date (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin 6), CNTF, like interleukin 6, utilizes the cell-surface gp 130 signal-transduction apparatus.

  10. CCDC103 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disrupting assembly of ciliary dynein arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Becker-Heck, Anita; Castleman, Victoria H.; Al-Mutairi, Dalal; Liu, Yan; Loges, Niki T.; Pathak, Narendra; Austin-Tse, Christina; Sheridan, Eamonn; Schmidts, Miriam; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Häffner, Karsten; Hellman, Nathan; Chodhari, Rahul; Gupta, Amar; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Olale, Felix; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Schier, Alexander F.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie MK; Reinhardt, Richard; Mitchison, Hannah M.; King, Stephen M.; Omran, Heymut; Drummond, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. PMID:22581229

  11. Amylase production by endophytic fungi Cylindrocephalum sp. isolated from medicinal plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Sunitha.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are among the most important enzymes used in modern biotechnology particularly in the process involving starch hydrolysis. Fungal amylase has large applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Considering these facts, endophytic fungi isolated from the plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe were screened for amylolytic activity on glucose yeast extract peptone agar (GYP medium. Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi, isolate number seven identified as Cylindrocephalum sp. (Ac-7 showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study. Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. The maximal amylase production was found to be at 30ºC and at pH 7.0 of the growth medium. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1.5% and Sodium nitrate at 0.3% respectively gave optimum amylase production.

  12. Finite element analyses of a heater-interruption in the HAW test field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, B.A. van den.

    1991-09-01

    In this report the results of two finite element analyses of the HAW field are presented. The determination of the influence of a heater-interruption on the tube load as well as the differences in the evaluation of the tube load for both types of boreholes (type A and type B) are the main objectives of this report. Axisymmetric models are made for both type of boreholes in order to simulate this heater-interruption. It appeared that a heater-interruption of 4 hours leads to a temperature drop of 17.2deg C at the borehole wall and to a maximum reduction of the tube load of 1.76 MPa. About 20 days after reparation of the heaters of the heaters the evolution of the maximum temperature and the maximum tube load will be rehabilitated; the difference with the corresponding evolutions due to an uninterrupted heat-production are negligible. (author). 9 refs.; 25 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

  14. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution July-December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from July 1st, 1993 to December 31th, 1993. (orig.).

  15. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution January - June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from January 1st, 1993 to June 30th, 1993. (orig.).

  16. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution July-December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from July 1st, 1993 to December 31th, 1993. (orig.)

  17. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution January - June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from January 1st, 1993 to June 30th, 1993. (orig.)

  18. Irradiation effects on the rock-salt HAW-Asse Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palut, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1988 ANDRA is involved in the HAW project, a test disposal of high level radioactive canisters in a salt dome, at Asse in FRG. ANDRA is responsible of in situ measurements, laboratory analyses and predictive calculations. Thus are delayed in situ dose measurements. Two methods have been developed, one is based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and measure an integrated dose, the other uses ionization chambers and gives a dose rate. Specific equipments had to be developed: manufacturing and testing. Geomechanics is also concerned by in situ measurement, especially rocksalt deformation, induced by the heat production of the canisters. Three groups of tiltmeters have been installed, providing informations on both natural creeping of rocksalt and effect of electrical heating in two boreholes. Laboratory studies consist in analyzing gases released by Asse salt samples irradiated under various conditions. Most of the 150 sample irradiations are completed. The last topic to the project intends to predict gamma ray flux and spectrum in the HAW test field using computer models. The work carried out and discussed includes digitalization of test data (sources, borehole lining, rocksalt), Bremsstrahlung sensitivity analysis, and calculation of both energy deposited and dose rate around the sources. This calculation was performed for 50 points, requiring 400 runs of Mercure-5 models. Interpolation functions are also provided in order to give values between these 50 points. The next step aim to determine gamma spectrum in salt and also energy deposited at various locations in the dummy canister where samples are intended to be emplaced. TRIPOLI-2 Model will be used for these purposes [fr

  19. CASTOR registered HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B.

    2004-01-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR registered HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR registered HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR registered HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be considered. For the CASTOR

  20. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  1. Clinical care of children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Jane S; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Collins, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal recessive condition but X-linked inheritance is also described. Abnormal ciliary function in childhood leads to neonatal respiratory distress in term infants, persistent wet cough...... is inappropriate since differences in pathophysiology, morbidity and prognosis risk treatment failure and lack of adherence. Areas covered: Review authors searched PubMed and Cochrane databases for publications relating to management of children with PCD. Because of the paucity of data, we emphasise the need...

  2. Factors influencing bank geomorphology and erosion of the Haw River, a high order river in North Carolina, since European settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfall, Janet; Robinette, Paul; Welch, David

    2014-01-01

    The Haw River, a high order river in the southeastern United States, is characterized by severe bank erosion and geomorphic change from historical conditions of clear waters and connected floodplains. In 2014 it was named one of the 10 most threatened rivers in the United States by American Rivers. Like many developed areas, the region has a history of disturbance including extensive upland soil loss from agriculture, dams, and upstream urbanization. The primary objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms controlling channel form and erosion of the Haw River. Field measurements including bank height, bankfull height, bank angle, root depth and density, riparian land cover and slope, surface protection, river width, and bank retreat were collected at 87 sites along 43.5 km of river. A Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) was calculated for each study site. Mean bank height was 11.8 m, mean width was 84.3 m, and bank retreat for 2005/2007-2011/2013 was 2.3 m. The greatest bank heights, BEHI values, and bank retreat were adjacent to riparian areas with low slope (<2). This is in contrast to previous studies which identify high slope as a risk factor for erosion. Most of the soils in low slope riparian areas were alluvial, suggesting sediment deposition from upland row crop agriculture and/or flooding. Bank retreat was not correlated to bank heights or BEHI values. Historical dams (1.2-3 m height) were not a significant factor. Erosion of the Haw River in the study section of the river (25% of the river length) contributed 205,320 m3 of sediment and 3759 kg of P annually. Concentration of suspended solids in the river increased with discharge. In conclusion, the Haw River is an unstable system, with river bank erosion and geomodification potential influenced by riparian slope and varied flows.

  3. Long-term outcome of Tunisian children with primary ciliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the long-term outcome of PCD in Tunisian children with ciliary ultra-structure defects detected by electron .... The middle lobe was as much affected as the right up- .... distress syndrome (ARDS) after one and four years of.

  4. Effect of air pollutants on ciliary activity of respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omachi, S; Kita, H

    1974-12-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, and formaldehyde on the ciliary activity of an excised specimen of the trachea of a guinea pig was investigated. The influence of these gases is determined by the Half Reduction Time of the ciliary activity, which is the time lapse from the beginning of the gas exposure at a certain concentration to the point of which the activity is reduced by half. The Half Reduction Time of the ciliary activity by each gas at the concentration of 50 ppM is SO/sub 2/, 4 min; HCHO, 5 min; NO/sub 2/, 10 min; NO, 14 min; and O/sub 3/, 20 min. The influence of the easily water soluble gases such as SO/sub 2/ and HCHO on the ciliary activity is severe compared with the less water soluble ones, NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, which pass over the mucous surface of the upper airway without dissolving to the mucous layer.

  5. Multicavitary ciliary body melanoma presenting as a cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyst-like cavities in uveal melanoma occur rarely and can simulate a benign intraocular cystic lesion resulting in delayed diagnosis and inappropriate management. Herein, we describe a 66-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a "cystic" ciliary body mass in the right eye oculus dexter (OD. Slit lamp examination OD showed anterior bulging of the iris temporally from an underlying pigmented ciliary body mass and transillumination disclosed slight shadow from the tumor. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed multiple cyst-like cavities within a tumor, lined by "thick walls" of at least 200 μm and occupying 80% of the tumor volume. A clinical diagnosis of multi-cavitary ciliary body melanoma was suspected and partial lamellar sclero iridocyclectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of low-grade spindle melanoma of the ciliary body with multiple empty and fluid filled cyst-like cavities without epithelial lining. UBM is an important diagnostic tool in the differentiation of "thick walled" cavitary melanoma from "thin walled" benign pigment epithelial cyst.

  6. HAW simulation experiments with cobalt-60 radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The report describes the experimental work and the measured data of the joint German-American project for the HAW simulation experiment with cobalt-60 radiation sources in the Asse salt mine, covering the period up to the end of the third quarter 1986. The experiment is intended to yield information on the synergistic effects of heat and ionizing radiation on the salt rock under representative waste repository conditions. The investigations aim at the migration, release, and radiolytic decomposition of the water and gas components in the rock salt, and at the thermally induced strain and deformation processes. In addition, corrosion tests are planned to be made on various container test materials, and analyses of salt rock core samples for assessing the effect of heat and radiation on the rock. The report in hand presents all data obtained during the experiment. The results of the subsequent evaluation and verification studies will be presented in another report, the programme being given in an annex to the report in hand. (orig./RB) [de

  7. Dynamic of biochemical soil properties in rainfed agave angustifolia haw. fields in semiard zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A. B.; Cervantes, T. L.; Pacheco, R. P.; Martinez, M. D. L. R.; Perez, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined (a) the activity of the selected enzymes of C (invertase and cellulase), N (urease), P (acid phosphatase, AcP and alkaline phosphatase, AlkP) cycling, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) in the rhizosphere of Agave angustifolia Haw. (maguey espadin) cultivated in valley, hill and mountain soils in Tlacolula, Oaxaca (Mexico), and (b) changes in selected biochemical soil properties associated with seasonality and plant age. Three maguey espadin plantations with two replicates per topography were selected. Rhizosphere soil sampling was carried out for one year. AcP and urease activities were highest in mountain sites. AlkP and cellulase activities were highest in hill and mountain sites. Invertase activity and SMBC were not different among sites. Phosphatase activity showed no temporal changes. Cellulase and invertase activities were highest in December; maximum urease activity was in October and February. SMBC was highest in August. AcP activity was highest in 0-2 years old plants. AlkP activity and SMBC were highest in 2.1-4 years old plants. Urease, cellulase and invertase activity was not affected by plant age. Significant effects for the site*seasonality*plant age interaction suggest that biochemical soil properties were influenced by site. Mountain soils displayed the highest enzyme activity, which can accelerate soil organic matter turnover and contribute to the longterm sustainability of maguey espadin cropping under rainfed conditions. (author)

  8. Prebiotic Potential of Agave angustifolia Haw Fructans with Different Degrees of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodolfo Velázquez-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1 and β-(2→6 linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3–60 fructose units, medium (2–40 and low (2–22 DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD, which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions.

  9. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the growth of Agave angustifolia Haw (Maguey Espadin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.B.; Gutierrez, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth of maguey espadin (Agave angustifolia Haw.). A total of nine strains of PSB, previously isolated in the maguey rhizosphere and identified as PSBVa, PSBVb, PSBVf, PSBHa, PSBHc, PSBHd, PSBMg, PSBMh and PSBMi were tested on maguey plants grown in phosphorus-deficient sterilized and unsterilized soils of three sites where maguey is grown (valley, hill and mountain) under greenhouse conditions. Aerial dry weight and the total weight of maguey plants inoculated with PSBMh in unsterile mountain soil increased by 12.14% and 10.99% respectively, compared with the uninoculated control. Total root dry weight increased by 17.85% with PSBMh in sterile mountain soils and by 11.64% with PSBMg in unsterile mountain soils, with respect to the uninoculated sterile and unsterile control respectively. Plant stem diameter increased by 13.61% with PSBVb in unsterile valley soil, compared to the uninoculated control. Root length was 56.84% higher with PSBMi in unsterile mountain soils than the uninoculated control. Plant leaf number increased by 35% with PSBHd in unsterile hill soil, with respect to the uninoculated control. In all treatments, the available phosphorus at harvest was higher than pre-planting levels. This study suggests that isolated PSBMh, PSBMg and PSBMi are the most efficient biofertilizers for maguey espadin cultivation. (author)

  10. Nonlinear models applied to seed germination of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Aparecida Guedes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis was to fit germination data of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw seeds to the Weibull model with three parameters using Frequentist and Bayesian methods. Five parameterizations were compared using the Bayesian analysis to fit a prior distribution. The parameter estimates from the Frequentist method were similar to the Bayesian responses considering the following non-informative a priori distribution for the parameter vectors: gamma (10³, 10³ in the model M1, normal (0, 106 in the model M2, uniform (0, Lsup in the model M3, exp (μ in the model M4 and Lnormal (μ, 106 in the model M5. However, to achieve the convergence in the models M4 and M5, we applied the μ from the estimates of the Frequentist approach. The best models fitted by the Bayesian method were the M1 and M3. The adequacy of these models was based on the advantages over the Frequentist method such as the reduced computational efforts and the possibility of comparison.

  11. Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) Role in Ciliary Assembly, Resorption and Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Rosenbaum, Joel L

    2008-01-01

    Cilia and flagella have attracted tremendous attention in recent years as research demonstrated crucial roles for these organelles in coordinating a number of physiologically and developmentally important signaling pathways, including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) alpha, Sonic...... hedgehog, polycystin, and Wnt pathways. In addition, the realization that defective assembly or function of cilia can cause a plethora of diseases and developmental defects ("ciliopathies") has increased focus on the mechanisms by which these antenna-like, microtubular structures assemble. Ciliogenesis...... mechanisms and functions of IFT. In addition to a general, up-to-date description of IFT, we discuss mechanisms by which proteins are selectively targeted to the ciliary compartment, with special focus on the ciliary transition zone. Finally, we briefly review the role of IFT in cilia-mediated signaling...

  12. Melanocytoma of the ciliary body misdiagnosed as iridodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Moosang Kim, Seung-Jun LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: A 62-year-old female presented to our institution with dimness of vision in her right eye. On examination, her best corrected visual acuity was 20/100 in the right eye. The intraocular pressures were 14 mmHg in both eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed nuclear sclerotic cataracts bilaterally and iridodialysis in her right eye. Seven days after the first visit, cataract surgery was performed without any complications. One year later, she presented to our institution with acute visual loss and ocular pain in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was light perception and the intraocular pressure was 44 mmHg. Slit-lamp examination revealed a ciliary body mass with widespread pigment dispersion in the anterior segment. Due to no useful vision and uncontrolled pain, enucleation of the right eye was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed a melanocytoma of the ciliary body.Keywords: ciliary body, iridodialysis, melanocytoma

  13. The Haw in-situ test at Asse - its conception and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Hinsch, H.; Monig, J.

    1989-01-01

    The HAW-disposal test is a demonstration and a R and D test utilizing nearly full-size waste canisters with vitrified Cs-137 and Sr-90 as heat and radiation sources in a repository-like setting. It is, however, not intended as an in-situ experiment for testing the glass product of the vitrified waste. The entire test field comprises two separate rooms, A and B, each having four boreholes. The maximum salt temperatures are planned to be 250 0 C (electric heating) and 250/200/200 0 C (γ radiative heating), with essentially the same maximum dose rates for two pairs of boreholes (∼5·10 5 rad/h). The loaded test canisters are now available and do not completely meet the intended specification. Heat loadings as well as dose rates are, for several reasons, lower than planned by about 30%. The designs of the emplacement boreholes in each of the two test rooms are basically the same. For retrievability reasons, all boreholes will have a liner. The only significant difference will be, that the room A-boreholes will have a backfilling of inert alumina pebbles between liner and the salt, whereas these in room B will have a free annulus that allows the salt to converge freely onto the liner surfaces, thus simulating the salt converging onto canisters in an actual repository. Gas sampling from the boreholes will mainly be done in the annular regions. A special dosimetry program, as well as an extensive radiolytic effects program, both in situ and laboratory, are under preparation. A special radiation effects study will be performed with Dummy canisters located at the top of the canister stacks. The entire test is a joint European project with the financial contribution of the CEC and the close cooperation with ECN, ANDRA and ENRESA

  14. Involvement of arginine-vasopressin in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Caroline Calixto; Uchida, Denise Thiemi; Canzi, Karina Natally; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Laverde, Antonio

    2012-10-31

    Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), popularly known as "ora-pro-nobis" is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as a diuretic agent, although no scientific data have been published to support this effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diuretic and hypotensive activities of the infusion (INFPG) and the ethanol extract (HEPG) of Pereskia grandifolia and possible mechanism of action. The infusions (2.5-10%) and the HEPG (3-100 mg/kg) were orally administered in a single dose or daily (for seven days) to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. In collected serum samples the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated. The involvement of V(2) vasopressin receptor in the diuretic activity and the hypotensive effect of HEPG were also determined. Water excretion rate was significantly increased by HEPG, while the urinary K(+) and Cl(-) excretion was significantly reduced in acute and prolonged treatment. The oral administration of the HEPG (30mg/kg) significantly reduced serum levels of vasopressin and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive rats. All other evaluated parameters have not been affected by any treatment. The results showed that HEPG could present compound(s) responsible for aquaretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and this effect could involve a reduction in the arginine-vasopressin release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Culture of primary ciliary dyskinesia epithelial cells at air-liquid interface can alter ciliary phenotype but remains a robust and informative diagnostic aid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Hirst

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns.We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n  111 was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture.Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced.The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia.

  16. Value of transmission electron microscopy for primary ciliary dyskinesia diagnosis in the era of molecular medicine: Genetic defects with normal and non-diagnostic ciliary ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Leigh, Margaret W

    2017-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder causing chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease. No single diagnostic test will detect all PCD cases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of respiratory cilia was previously considered the gold standard diagnostic test for PCD, but 30% of all PCD cases have either normal ciliary ultrastructure or subtle changes which are non-diagnostic. These cases are identified through alternate diagnostic tests, including nasal nitric oxide measurement, high-speed videomicroscopy analysis, immunofluorescent staining of axonemal proteins, and/or mutation analysis of various PCD causing genes. Autosomal recessive mutations in DNAH11 and HYDIN produce normal TEM ciliary ultrastructure, while mutations in genes encoding for radial spoke head proteins result in some cross-sections with non-diagnostic alterations in the central apparatus interspersed with normal ciliary cross-sections. Mutations in nexin link and dynein regulatory complex genes lead to a collection of different ciliary ultrastructures; mutations in CCDC65, CCDC164, and GAS8 produce normal ciliary ultrastructure, while mutations in CCDC39 and CCDC40 cause absent inner dynein arms and microtubule disorganization in some ciliary cross-sections. Mutations in CCNO and MCIDAS cause near complete absence of respiratory cilia due to defects in generation of multiple cellular basal bodies; however, the scant cilia generated may have normal ultrastructure. Lastly, a syndromic form of PCD with retinal degeneration results in normal ciliary ultrastructure through mutations in the RPGR gene. Clinicians must be aware of these genetic causes of PCD resulting in non-diagnostic TEM ciliary ultrastructure and refrain from using TEM of respiratory cilia as a test to rule out PCD.

  17. Physiological differences and changes in global DNA methylation levels in Agave angustifolia Haw. albino variant somaclones during the micropropagation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Aké, Fátima; Castillo-Castro, Eduardo; Pool, Felipe Barredo; Espadas, Francisco; Santamaría, Jorge M; Robert, Manuel L; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2016-12-01

    Global DNA methylation changes caused by in vitro conditions are associated with the subculturing and phenotypic variation in Agave angustifolia Haw. While the relationship between the development of albinism and in vitro culture is well documented, the role of epigenetic processes in this development leaves some important questions unanswered. During the micropropagation of Agave angustifolia Haw., we found three different phenotypes, green (G), variegated (V) and albino (A). To understand the physiological and epigenetic differences among the somaclones, we analyzed several morphophysiological parameters and changes in the DNA methylation patterns in the three phenotypes during their in vitro development. We found that under in vitro conditions, the V plantlets maintained their CAM photosynthetic capacity, while the A variant showed no pigments and lost its CAM photosynthetic ability. Epigenetic analysis revealed that global DNA methylation increased in the G phenotype during the first two subcultures. However, after that time, DNA methylation levels declined. This hypomethylation correlated with the appearance of V shoots in the G plantlets. A similar correlation occurred in the V phenotype, where an increase of 2 % in the global DNA methylation levels was correlated with the generation of A shoots in the V plantlets. This suggests that an "epigenetic stress memory" during in vitro conditions causes a chromatin shift that favors the generation of variegated and albino shoots.

  18. Preparation and characterization of an improved borosilicate glass matrix for the incorporation of high level radioactive waste (HAW). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guber, W.; Hussain, M.; Kahl, L.; Ondracek, G.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.

    1979-08-01

    On the basis of laboratory and technical experience with the preparation and the characterization of borosilicate glasses as solidification matrix for high level radioactive waste solution (HAW), a borosilicate glass composition with optimum properties has been developed. Keeping in view the technical and final storage requirements, a number of glass compositions with varying proportions of influential components as Al, Mg, Na were prepared and thoroughly investigated for certain parameters as specific gravity, thermal conductivity, impact resistance, thermal expansion, viscosity, characteristic temperature points, specific heat, evaporation losses from the melt, electrical conductivity, leach resistance, tendency toward recrystallization and second phase formation. All the compositions (some with different amounts of Gd 2 O 3 , an expected neutron poision) contained 15 wt. % simulated HAW oxides. Samples for investigation were fabricated very close to the actual process conditions of vitrification. Two glass products GP12 and GP26 (3.7% Gd 2 O 3 ) have been selected out of 25 glasses as the optimised products for further thorough investigations. Leach resistance, viscosity at 1420 K, tendency towards recrystallization and second phase formation were the most important deciding factors. (orig.) [de

  19. In situ-experiments on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HAW) at the Asse salt mine Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1989-01-01

    Deep geological salt formations are considered as being the most suitable medium for the disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This paper reports how, in order to develop and to prove the necessary disposal techniques, the Asse Salt Mine in the northern part of Germany is being used as a national R and D facility for the execution of representative in situ-tests. Besides the test-wise disposal of low-and medium-level radioactive waste, a series of in situ experiments was performed on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW). The so-called HAW repository is being performed from 1983 through 1994 will be the most important pilot test for the HAW repository in the FRG. During this experiment, 30 vitrified high-level radioactive heat and radiation sources will be emplaced in six underground boreholes. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. In addition to the investigations of the interactions of the heat and radiation sources and the host rock, a complete handling system for HAW-canisters is being developed and proved

  20. Verification of Vitrified High-Activity Waste Stored in a CASTOR HAW 20/28 CG Cask by Simulated Baseline Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, A.; Arenas-Carrasco, J.; Dratschmidt, H.; De-Baere, P.; Af Ekenstam, G.; Lebrun, A.

    2010-01-01

    The verification process for the vitrification of high-activity waste (HAW) focuses on maintaining the continuity-of-knowledge of special nuclear material (SNM) as it traverses a vitrification facility. However, the inaccessible nature of a vitrification facility presents an obstacle to the deployment of conventional safeguards, albeit the process area of a vitrification facility is effectively a hot cell. The employment of remotely operated NDA hardware/DA sample equipment inside the process area would be problematic-at-best and the alternative of continuous monitoring would draw heavily on the critical resource of inspector time. In response to the aforementioned constraints, the IAEA and Euratom opted to develop a new method which focuses on the verification of SNM after the vitrified HAW has been sealed in storage casks. The new method verifies the presence of the vitrified HAW through the comparison of total neutron count rates collected at points around a cask with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes a dual N50 neutron slab detector (custom design by Euratom) and a CASTOR HAW 20/28 CG storage cask configured with the operator declared contents. By comparison of the simulated neutron emission pattern and field measurements, the displacement of Pu and U is evident from a detectable neutron signal defect. Because the spontaneous fission of 244 Cm is the dominant neutron source in vitrified HAW, the 244 Cm/Pu and 244 Cm/U mass ratios must be known in order to relate the neutron signal outside the cask to the amounts of Pu and U stored inside. These mass ratios can be determined from HAW samples collected by the inspectorates from the accountability tanks and analyzed by DA. The absence of separation of SNM from the HAW is verified by other measures. To ensure the validity of the simulation, sources of uncertainty were systematically addressed and quantified. This new verification method effectively removes the need for NDA equipment

  1. Ventilation inhomogeneity in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik F; Marthin, June Kehlet

    2012-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) test reflects global ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. It is more sensitive than forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for detecting abnormal airway function and correlates closely with structural lung...... damage in children with cystic fibrosis, which shares features with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Normalised phase III slope indices S(cond) and S(acin) reflect function of the small conducting and acinar airways, respectively. The involvement of the peripheral airways assessed by MBW tests has...

  2. An autocrine ATP release mechanism regulates basal ciliary activity in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Carreño, Daniela V; Navarrete, Camilo; Fuentes, Christian; Villalón, Manuel; Barrera, Nelson P

    2017-07-15

    Extracellular ATP, in association with [Ca 2+ ] i regulation, is required to maintain basal ciliary beat frequency. Increasing extracellular ATP levels increases ciliary beating in airway epithelial cells, maintaining a sustained response by inducing the release of additional ATP. Extracellular ATP levels in the millimolar range, previously associated with pathophysiological conditions of the airway epithelium, produce a transient arrest of ciliary activity. The regulation of ciliary beat frequency is dependent on ATP release by hemichannels (connexin/pannexin) and P2X receptor activation, the blockage of which may even stop ciliary movement. The force exerted by cilia, measured by atomic force microscopy, is reduced following extracellular ATP hydrolysis. This result complements the current understanding of the ciliary beating regulatory mechanism, with special relevance to inflammatory diseases of the airway epithelium that affect mucociliary clearance. Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, are locally released by the airway epithelium and stimulate ciliary activity in a [Ca 2+ ] i -dependent manner after mechanical stimulation of ciliated cells. However, it is unclear whether the ATP released is involved in regulating basal ciliary activity and mediating changes in ciliary activity in response to chemical stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ciliary beating forces in primary cultures from mouse tracheal epithelium, using videomicroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Extracellular ATP levels and [Ca 2+ ] i were measured by luminometric and fluorimetric assays, respectively. Uptake of ethidium bromide was measured to evaluate hemichannel functionality. We show that hydrolysis of constitutive extracellular ATP levels with apyrase (50 U ml -1 ) reduced basal CBF by 45% and ciliary force by 67%. The apyrase effect on CBF was potentiated by carbenoxolone, a hemichannel inhibitor, and oxidized ATP, an

  3. Oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body: a unique case report and the review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qing; Hao, Jie; Sun, Shou bin; Xu, Shou ping; Yang, Qian; Guo, Qi liang; Cui, Guo dong

    2010-01-01

    To date, there is no report in the international literature of an oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body, nor is there an analysis of the possible origins of this lesion. Here we report on a 52-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a ciliary body tumor revealed by clinical examination and ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies. Following enucleation, pathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Postoperative histopathological staining results included OLIGO-2(+) and GFAP(-), leading to a pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body in the right eye (WHO grade II). Since malignant gliomas derive from transformed neural stem cells, the presence of oligodendroglioma in the ciliary body supports the hypothesis that gliomas can occur wherever neural stem cells exist. Tumors of the ciliary body derived from oligodendrocytes are difficult to diagnose; pathological analyses are essential

  4. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  5. Methods for Studying Ciliary-Mediated Chemoresponse in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Megan Smith; Van Houten, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    Paramecium is a useful model organism for the study of ciliary-mediated chemical sensing and response. Here we describe ways to take advantage of Paramecium to study chemoresponse.Unicellular organisms like the ciliated protozoan Paramecium sense and respond to chemicals in their environment (Van Houten, Ann Rev Physiol 54:639-663, 1992; Van Houten, Trends Neurosci 17:62-71, 1994). A thousand or more cilia that cover Paramecium cells serve as antennae for chemical signals, similar to ciliary function in a large variety of metazoan cell types that have primary or motile cilia (Berbari et al., Curr Biol 19(13):R526-R535, 2009; Singla V, Reiter J, Science 313:629-633, 2006). The Paramecium cilia also produce the motor output of the detection of chemical cues by controlling swimming behavior. Therefore, in Paramecium the cilia serve multiple roles of detection and response.We present this chapter in three sections to describe the methods for (1) assaying populations of cells for their behavioral responses to chemicals (attraction and repulsion), (2) characterization of the chemoreceptors and associated channels of the cilia using proteomics and binding assays, and (3) electrophysiological analysis of individual cells' responses to chemicals. These methods are applied to wild type cells, mutants, transformed cells that express tagged proteins, and cells depleted of gene products by RNA Interference (RNAi).

  6. Propagação por sementes de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (flor-de-maio em diferentes substratos = Propagation by seeds of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (florde- maio in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Soares Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, conhecida como flor-demaio, é uma espécie herbácea epífita, nativa no Brasil, muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas flores. Esta espécie multiplica-se por sementes, mas comercialmente é propagada por estacas e enxertia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de quatro variedades de cores desta espécie (rosa, vermelha, branca e amarela em cinco substratos (vermiculita de granulometria média, xaxim desfibrado, areia, substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras e mistura de 50% do substrato comercial Rendmax®Floreiras + 50% xaxim desfibrado. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie pode ser reproduzida com facilidade por sementes. O substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras proporcionou os melhores resultados.Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, known as “flor-de-maio”, is a Brazilian endogenous herbaceous epiphytic species, muchappreciated as ornamental for the beauty of its flowers. This species is multiplied by seeds, but commercially it is propagated by cuttings and grafting. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination of four varieties of colors of this species (pink, red, white and yellow in five substrates (vermiculite, de-fibered tree ferns, sand, commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras and a mixture of 50% of the commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% tree ferns. The results showed that this species can be easily reproduced by seeds. The commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras provided the best germination result.

  7. CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH/GNB, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be

  8. High-frequency ultrasound measurements of the normal ciliary body and iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julian P S; Spielberg, Leigh; Finger, Paul T

    2011-01-01

    To determine the normal ultrasonographic thickness of the iris and ciliary body. This prospective 35-MHz ultrasonographic study included 80 normal eyes of 40 healthy volunteers. The images were obtained at the 12-, 3-, 6-, and 9-o'clock radial meridians, measured at three locations along the radial length of the iris and at the thickest section of the ciliary body. Mixed model was used to estimate eye site-adjusted means and standard errors and to test the statistical difference of adjusted results. Parameters included mean thickness, standard deviation, and range. Mean thicknesses at the iris root, midway along the radial length of the iris, and at the juxtapupillary margin were 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.5 ± 0.1, and 0.6 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. Those of the ciliary body, ciliary processes, and ciliary body + ciliary processes were 0.7 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. This study provides standard, normative thickness data for the iris and ciliary body in healthy adults using ultrasonographic imaging. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Airway ciliary dysfunction and respiratory symptoms in patients with transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Maliha; Bais, Abha; Tian, Xin; Devine, William; Lee, Dong Ming; Yau, Cyrus; Sonnenberg, Daniel; Beerman, Lee; Khalifa, Omar; Lo, Cecilia W

    2018-01-01

    Our prior work on congenital heart disease (CHD) with heterotaxy, a birth defect involving randomized left-right patterning, has shown an association of a high prevalence of airway ciliary dysfunction (CD; 18/43 or 42%) with increased respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, heterotaxy patients with ciliary dysfunction were shown to have more postsurgical pulmonary morbidities. These findings are likely a reflection of the common role of motile cilia in both airway clearance and left-right patterning. As CHD comprising transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is commonly thought to involve disturbance of left-right patterning, especially L-TGA with left-right ventricular inversion, we hypothesize CHD patients with transposition of great arteries (TGA) may have high prevalence of airway CD with increased respiratory symptoms. We recruited 75 CHD patients with isolated TGA, 28% L and 72% D-TGA. Patients were assessed using two tests typically used for evaluating airway ciliary dysfunction in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a recessive sinopulmonary disease caused by respiratory ciliary dysfunction. This entailed the measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO), which is typically low with PCD. We also obtained nasal scrapes and conducted videomicroscopy to assess respiratory ciliary motion (CM). We observed low nNO in 29% of the patients, and abnormal CM in 57%, with 22% showing both low nNO and abnormal CM. No difference was observed for the prevalence of either low nNO or abnormal ciliary motion between patients with D vs. L-TGA. Respiratory symptoms were increased with abnormal CM, but not low nNO. Sequencing analysis showed no compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in 39 genes known to cause PCD, nor in CFTR, gene causing cystic fibrosis. As both are recessive disorders, these results indicate TGA patients with ciliary dysfunction do not have PCD or cystic fibrosis (which can cause low nNO or abnormal ciliary motion). TGA patients have high

  10. Measurement of ciliary beat frequency using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Bryan T; Chen, Jason J; Jing, Joseph; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2015-11-01

    Measuring ciliary beat frequency (CBF) is a technical challenge and difficult to perform in vivo. Doppler optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a mesoscopic noncontact imaging modality that provides high-resolution tomographic images and detects micromotion simultaneously in living tissues. In this work we used D-OCT to measure CBF in ex vivo tissue as the first step toward translating this technology to clinical use. Fresh ex vivo samples of rabbit tracheal mucosa were imaged using both D-OCT and phase-contrast microscopy (n = 5). The D-OCT system was designed and built to specification in our lab (1310-nm swept source vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser [VCSEL], 6-μm axial resolution). The samples were placed in culture and incubated at 37°C. A fast Fourier transform was performed on the D-OCT signal recorded on the surface of the samples to gauge CBF. High-speed digital video of the epithelium recorded via phase-contrast microscopy was analyzed to confirm the CBF measurements. The D-OCT system detected Doppler signal at the epithelial layer of ex vivo rabbit tracheal samples suggestive of ciliary motion. CBF was measured at 9.36 ± 1.22 Hz using D-OCT and 9.08 ± 0.48 Hz using phase-contrast microscopy. No significant differences were found between the 2 methods (p > 0.05). D-OCT allows for the quantitative measurement of CBF without the need to resolve individual cilia. Furthermore, D-OCT technology can be incorporated into endoscopic platforms that allow clinicians to readily measure CBF in the office and provide a direct measurement of mucosal health. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  12. Loading, transport and storage of casks of the type CASTOR registered HAW28M in the frame of vitrified high-level waste repatriation from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Gosch-Warning, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Until 2005 the German nuclear power plant operators have contracts with AREVA NC (former COGEMA) and NDA (former BNFL) concerning the reprocessing of spent fuel elements. The reprocessed and vitrified radioactive waste has to be repatriated to Germany. Due to the reprocessing of spent fuel elements with increased burnup and the repatriation after shorter cooling time the total activity and the Cm-244 content of the high-level-waste coquilles have increased since 2008. Consequently the heat output has increased to 2 kW/coquille. Therefore the new transport cask type CASTOR registered HAW28M was developed. The authors describe the design of the casks, the licensing according to the German transport regulations, loading procedures, radiation measurements and shipment completion. In autumn 2011 the repatriation of vitrified high-level waste from France is supposed to be completed with the transport of eleven CASTOR registered HAW28M.

  13. Simultaneous sinus and lung infections in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Aanaes, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sinuses should be considered as a bacterial reservoir and a target for surgery and antibiotic treatment in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The observed decrease in serum precipitating antibodies (precipitins) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa may indicate a beneficial...

  14. Circumferential Ciliary Body Cysts Presenting as Acute Pigment Dispersion and Ocular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıgül Sezenöz, Almila; Güngör, Sirel Gür; Kıratlı, Hayyam; Akman, Ahmet

    2017-09-15

    To report a case of circumferential neuroepithelial cyst of the ciliary body presenting with pigment dispersion (PD) and ocular hypertension. 48-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of pain in the left eye. On examination, visual acuity of the left eye was 0.9, and the intraocular pressure was 48 mmHg. Biomicroscopic anterior segment examination of the left eye revealed 4+ pigmented cells in the anterior chamber. Active PD from the pupillary region at 11 o'clock was noticed at the time of the examination. Ultrasound biomicroscopy demonstrated 360º cystic lesions of the ciliary body in the left eye. The patient was diagnosed as neuroepithelial cyst of the ciliary body. Our case is unique as it is the first case of circumferential neuroepithelial ciliary body cyst presenting with acute PD and ocular hypertension.

  15. ICK is essential for cell type-specific ciliogenesis and the regulation of ciliary transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Omori, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2014-06-02

    Cilia and flagella are formed and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT) and play important roles in sensing and moving across species. At the distal tip of the cilia/flagella, IFT complexes turn around to switch from anterograde to retrograde transport; however, the underlying regulatory mechanism is unclear. Here, we identified ICK localization at the tip of cilia as a regulator of ciliary transport. In ICK-deficient mice, we found ciliary defects in neuronal progenitor cells with Hedgehog signal defects. ICK-deficient cells formed cilia with mislocalized Hedgehog signaling components. Loss of ICK caused the accumulation of IFT-A, IFT-B, and BBSome components at the ciliary tips. In contrast, overexpression of ICK induced the strong accumulation of IFT-B, but not IFT-A or BBSome components at ciliary tips. In addition, ICK directly phosphorylated Kif3a, while inhibition of this Kif3a phosphorylation affected ciliary formation. Our results suggest that ICK is a Kif3a kinase and essential for proper ciliogenesis in development by regulating ciliary transport at the tip of cilia. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Bio-inspired ciliary force sensor for robotic platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ribeiro, Pedro

    2017-01-20

    The detection of small forces is of great interest in any robotic application that involves interaction with the environment (e.g., objects manipulation, physical human-robot interaction, minimally invasive surgery), since it allows the robot to detect the contacts early on and to act accordingly. In this letter, we present a sensor design inspired by the ciliary structure frequently found in nature, consisting of an array of permanently magnetized cylinders (cilia) patterned over a giant magnetoresistance sensor (GMR). When these cylinders are deformed in shape due to applied forces, the stray magnetic field variation will change the GMR sensor resistivity, thus enabling the electrical measurement of the applied force. In this letter, we present two 3 mm × 3 mm prototypes composed of an array of five cilia with 1 mm of height and 120 and 200 μm of diameter for each prototype. A minimum force of 333 μN was measured. A simulation model for determining the magnetized cylinders average stray magnetic field is also presented.

  17. Bio-inspired ciliary force sensor for robotic platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen; Franco, Fernando; Cardoso, Susana; Bernardino, Alexandre; Schmitz, Alexander; Santos-Victor, Jose; Jamone, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The detection of small forces is of great interest in any robotic application that involves interaction with the environment (e.g., objects manipulation, physical human-robot interaction, minimally invasive surgery), since it allows the robot to detect the contacts early on and to act accordingly. In this letter, we present a sensor design inspired by the ciliary structure frequently found in nature, consisting of an array of permanently magnetized cylinders (cilia) patterned over a giant magnetoresistance sensor (GMR). When these cylinders are deformed in shape due to applied forces, the stray magnetic field variation will change the GMR sensor resistivity, thus enabling the electrical measurement of the applied force. In this letter, we present two 3 mm × 3 mm prototypes composed of an array of five cilia with 1 mm of height and 120 and 200 μm of diameter for each prototype. A minimum force of 333 μN was measured. A simulation model for determining the magnetized cylinders average stray magnetic field is also presented.

  18. Hearing loss in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreicher, Kathryn L; Schopper, Heather K; Naik, Akash N; Hatch, Jonathan L; Meyer, Ted A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the type and severity of hearing impairment in pediatric patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and relate these measures to patient demographics, treatment options, and other otologic factors. A retrospective analysis of children with a diagnosis of PCD, Kartagener's syndrome, or situs inversus in the AudGen Database was conducted. Audiograms were analyzed for type of hearing loss (HL), severity, laterality, and progression. Medical charts were reviewed to identify factors that influence severity and progression of hearing loss. 56 patients met inclusion criteria and 42 patients had HL. 66.6% had bilateral and 33.3% had unilateral loss (70 total ears with HL). Conductive hearing loss (CHL) was the most common type of HL, though 30% of children had some sensorineural component to their hearing loss. 92.9% of children with HL received at least one diagnosis of otitis media, but HL did not improve in the majority (77.8%) of ears in our study regardless of ear tube placement. Slight to mild CHL and all types of otitis media are prevalent among patients with PCD, and some of these children have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). All patients diagnosed with situs inversus at birth should be evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inactivation of Ca2+-induced ciliary reversal by high-salt extraction in the cilia of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutomi, Osamu; Seki, Makoto; Nakamura, Shogo; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Munenori

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) induces ciliary reversal and backward swimming in Paramecium. However, it is not known how the Ca(2+) signal controls the motor machinery to induce ciliary reversal. We found that demembranated cilia on the ciliated cortical sheets from Paramecium caudatum lost the ability to undergo ciliary reversal after brief extraction with a solution containing 0.5 M KCl. KNO(3), which is similar to KCl with respect to chaotropic effect; it had the same effect as that of KCl on ciliary response. Cyclic AMP antagonizes Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal. Limited trypsin digestion prevents endogenous A-kinase and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of an outer arm dynein light chain and induces ciliary reversal. However, the trypsin digestion prior to the high-salt extraction did not affect the inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal caused by the high-salt extraction. Furthermore, during the course of the high-salt extraction, some axonemal proteins were extracted from ciliary axonemes, suggesting that they may be responsible for Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal.

  20. cAMP Stimulates Transepithelial Short-Circuit Current and Fluid Transport Across Porcine Ciliary Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Angela King-Wah; Civan, Mortimer M; To, Chi-Ho; Do, Chi-Wai

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cAMP on transepithelial electrical parameters and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium. Transepithelial electrical parameters were determined by mounting freshly isolated porcine ciliary epithelium in a modified Ussing chamber. Similarly, fluid movement across intact ciliary body was measured with a custom-made fluid flow chamber. Addition of 1, 10, and 100 μM 8-Br-cAMP (cAMP) to the aqueous side (nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, NPE) induced a sustained increase in short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of niflumic acid (NFA) to the aqueous surface effectively blocked the cAMP-induced Isc stimulation. The administration of cAMP to the stromal side (pigmented ciliary epithelium, PE) triggered a significant stimulation of Isc only at 100 μM. No additive effect was observed with bilateral application of cAMP. Likewise, forskolin caused a significant stimulation of Isc when applied to the aqueous side. Concomitantly, cAMP and forskolin increased fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium, and this stimulation was effectively inhibited by aqueous NFA. Depleting Cl- in the bathing solution abolished the baseline Isc and inhibited the subsequent stimulation by cAMP. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) blockers (H89/KT5720) significantly inhibited the cAMP- and forskolin-induced Isc responses. Our results suggest that cAMP triggers a sustained stimulation of Cl- and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium; Cl- channels in the NPE cells are potentially a cellular site for this PKA-sensitive cAMP-mediated response.

  1. Ciliary body toxicities of systemic oxcarbazepine and valproic acid treatments: electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktaş, Güleser; Aktaş, Zeynep; Erdoğan, Deniz; Seymen, Cemile Merve; Karaca, Emine Esra; Cansu, Ali; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe; Kaplanoğlu, Gülnur Take

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary body is responsible for humour aqueous production in posterior chamber. Valproic acid (VPA) has been widely used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric diseases such as bipolar disease and major depression. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is a new anti-epileptic agent that has been used recently for childhood epilepsies such as VPA. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of VPA and OXC treatments used as antiepileptic in ciliary body by electron microscopy. In our study, 40 Wistar rats (21 days old) were divided equally into four groups which were applied saline (group 1), VPA (group 2), OXC (group 3) and VPA + OXC (group 4). The as-prepared ocular tissues were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique in scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM-TEM) (Carl Zeiss EVO LS10). The results confirmed that VPA caused dense ciliary body degeneration. Additionally, ciliary body degeneration in group 4 was supposed to be due to VPA treatment. Ciliary body damage and secondary outcomes should be considered in patients with long-term VPA therapy.

  2. Arf4 is required for Mammalian development but dispensable for ciliary assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Follit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at the Golgi complex and deemed a key regulator of ciliary protein trafficking. In this work, we show that Arf4 binds to the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS of fibrocystin. Knockdown of Arf4 indicates that it is not absolutely required for trafficking of the fibrocystin CTS to cilia as steady-state CTS levels are unaffected. However, we did observe a delay in delivery of newly synthesized CTS from the Golgi complex to the cilium when Arf4 was reduced. Arf4 mutant mice are embryonic lethal and die at mid-gestation shortly after node formation. Nodal cilia appeared normal and functioned properly to break left-right symmetry in Arf4 mutant embryos. At this stage of development Arf4 expression is highest in the visceral endoderm but we did not detect cilia on these cells. In the visceral endoderm, the lack of Arf4 caused defects in cell structure and apical protein localization. This work suggests that while Arf4 is not required for ciliary assembly, it is important for the efficient transport of fibrocystin to cilia, and also plays critical roles in non-ciliary processes.

  3. Rapid diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: cell culture and soft computing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Montemurro, Francesca; Pioggia, Giovanni; Piras, Martina; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Chinellato, Iolanda; Cangiotti, Angela M; Boner, Attilio L

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) sometimes requires repeated nasal brushing to exclude secondary ciliary alterations. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of a new method of nasal epithelial cell culture can speed PCD diagnosis in doubtful cases and to identify which are the most informative parameters by means of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). A cross-sectional study was performed in patients with suspected PCD. All patients underwent nasal brushing for ciliary motion analysis, ultrastructural assessment and evaluation of ciliary function after ciliogenesis in culture by ANN. 151 subjects were studied. A diagnostic suspension cell culture was obtained in 117 nasal brushings. A diagnosis of PCD was made in 36 subjects (29 of whom were children). In nine out of the 36 patients the diagnosis was made only after a second brushing, because of equivocal results of both tests at first examination. In each of these subjects diagnosis of PCD was confirmed by cell culture results. Cell culture in suspension evaluated by means of ANN allows the separation of PCD from secondary ciliary dyskinesia patients after only 5 days of culture and allows diagnosis to be reached in doubtful cases, thus avoiding the necessity of a second sample.

  4. Downstream collecting in ciliary suspension feeders: the catch-up principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Nielsen, Claus; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2000-01-01

    -size retention spectrum, the lower limit depends on spacing between cilia in phase, while the upper end depends on cilia length which may or may not allow particles to enter the ciliary region. On the basis of fluid mechanical considerations and literature descriptions of structure and function of the ciliary......Based on observations of feeding structures and currents in the polychaete Spirorbis tridentatus, the entoproct Loxosoma pectinaricola and the cycliophore Symbion pandora, which all possess compound cilia, it is hypothesized that their capture mechanism is based on the catch-up principle. According...... to this principle, the compound cilia constitute the pump which generates a flow with suspended particles that enters the ciliary region. In this region the same cilia, during their power stroke, catch up with suspended particles and transfer the particles to a food groove, or a mouth cavity. In the particle...

  5. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the human nasal ciliary activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafanger, G; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent, but the clinical and pharmacological effects of NAC are still unclear. It has recently been claimed in animal studies that NAC will stimulate ciliary beating frequency at low concentrations, while inhibiting beating at higher concentrati......N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent, but the clinical and pharmacological effects of NAC are still unclear. It has recently been claimed in animal studies that NAC will stimulate ciliary beating frequency at low concentrations, while inhibiting beating at higher...... concentrations. Using a microphoto-oscillographic method combined with microperfusion technique, we studied the direct effect of NAC on human nasal cilia. NAC caused a direct dose- and time-related decrease in ciliary beating frequency, which was detectable at 2 mg/ml and reached statistically significant levels...

  6. Cyanide levels found in infected cystic fibrosis sputum inhibit airway ciliary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Chandrika; Shoemark, Amelia; Chan, Mario; Ollosson, Sarah; Dixon, Mellissa; Hogg, Claire; Alton, Eric W F W; Davies, Jane C; Williams, Huw D

    2014-11-01

    We have previously reported cyanide at concentrations of up to 150 μM in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a negative correlation with lung function. Our aim was to investigate possible mechanisms for this association, focusing on the effect of pathophysiologically relevant cyanide levels on human respiratory cell function. Ciliary beat frequency measurements were performed on nasal brushings and nasal air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures obtained from healthy volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients. Potassium cyanide decreased ciliary beat frequency in healthy nasal brushings (n = 6) after 60 min (150 μM: 47% fall, pcyanide as a key component inhibiting the ciliary beat frequency. If cyanide production similarly impairs mucocilliary clearance in vivo, it could explain the link with increased disease severity observed in cystic fibrosis patients with detectable cyanide in their airway. ©ERS 2014.

  7. The HAW-Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Cuevas, C. de las; Donker, H.; Feddersen, H.K.; Garcia-Celma, A.; Gies, H.; Goreychi, M.; Graefe, V.; Heijdra, J.; Hente, B.; Jockwer, N.; LeMeur, R.; Moenig, J.; Mueller, K.; Prij, J.; Regulla, D.; Smailos, E.; Staupendahl, G.; Till, E.; Zankl, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the final concept for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in boreholes drilled into salt formation plans were developed a couple of years ago for a full scale testing of the complete technical system of an underground repository. To satisfy the test objectives, thirty highly radioactive radiation sources were planned to be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800-m-level in the Asse salt mine. A duration of testing of approximately five years was envisaged. Because of licensing uncertainties the German Federal Government decided on December 3rd, 1992 to stop all activities for the preparation of the test disposal immediately. In the course of the preparation of the test disposal, however, a system, necessary for handling of the radiation sources was developed and installed in the Asse salt mine and two non-radioactive reference tests with electrical heaters were started in November 1988. These tests served for the investigation of thermal effects in comparison to the planned radioactive tests. An accompanying scientific investigation programme performed in situ and in the laboratory comprises the estimation and observation of the thermal, radiation-induced, and mechanical interaction between the rock salt and the electrical heaters and the radiation sources, respectively. The laboratory investigations are carried out at Braunschweig (FRG), Petten (NL), Saclay (F) and Barcelona (E). As a consequence of the premature termination of the project the working programme was revised. The new programme agreed to by the project partners included a controlled shutdown of the heater tests in 1993 and a continuation of the laboratory activities until the end of 1994. (orig.)

  8. Bacteriology and treatment of infections in the upper and lower airways in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is lined with motile cilia that transport respiratory mucus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic genetic disease caused by mutations in genes responsible for ciliary structure and function. Non-functional airway cilia impair the mucociliary clearance (MCC), causing...

  9. A novel ICK mutation causes ciliary disruption and lethal endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Machteld M; Bonnard, Carine; Mans, Dorus A; Altunoglu, Umut; Tohari, Sumanty; Ng, Alvin Yu Jin; Eskin, Ascia; Lee, Hane; Rupar, C Anthony; de Wagenaar, Nathalie P; Wu, Ka Man; Lahiry, Piya; Pazour, Gregory J; Nelson, Stanley F; Hegele, Robert A; Roepman, Ronald; Kayserili, Hülya; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Siu, Victoria M; Reversade, Bruno; Arts, Heleen H

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome [MIM:612651] caused by a recessive mutation (p.R272Q) in Intestinal cell kinase (ICK) shows significant clinical overlap with ciliary disorders. Similarities are strongest between ECO syndrome, the Majewski and Mohr-Majewski short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with polydactyly syndromes, and hydrolethalus syndrome. In this study, we present a novel homozygous ICK mutation in a fetus with ECO syndrome and compare the effect of this mutation with the previously reported ICK variant on ciliogenesis and cilium morphology. Through homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a second variant (c.358G > T; p.G120C) in ICK in a Turkish fetus presenting with ECO syndrome. In vitro studies of wild-type and mutant mRFP-ICK (p.G120C and p.R272Q) revealed that, in contrast to the wild-type protein that localizes along the ciliary axoneme and/or is present in the ciliary base, mutant proteins rather enrich in the ciliary tip. In addition, immunocytochemistry revealed a decreased number of cilia in ICK p.R272Q-affected cells. Through identification of a novel ICK mutation, we confirm that disruption of ICK causes ECO syndrome, which clinically overlaps with the spectrum of ciliopathies. Expression of ICK-mutated proteins result in an abnormal ciliary localization compared to wild-type protein. Primary fibroblasts derived from an individual with ECO syndrome display ciliogenesis defects. In aggregate, our findings are consistent with recent reports that show that ICK regulates ciliary biology in vitro and in mice, confirming that ECO syndrome is a severe ciliopathy.

  10. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelte Lena; Falk Rolf; Lindström Maria; Philipson Klas; Svartengren Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasi...

  11. Mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, cause Leber congenital amaurosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Koenekoop, R.K.; Mohamed, M.D.; Arts, H.H.; Boldt, K.; Towns, K.V.; Sedmak, T.; Beer, M. de; Nagel-Wolfrum, K.; McKibbin, M.; Dharmaraj, S.; Lopez, I.; Ivings, L.; Williams, G.A.; Springell, K.; Woods, C.G.; Jafri, H.; Rashid, Y.; Strom, T.M.; Zwaag, B. van der; Gosens, I.; Kersten, F.F.J.; Wijk, E. van; Veltman, J.A.; Zonneveld, M.N.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Maumenee, I.H.; Wolfrum, U.; Cheetham, M.E.; Ueffing, M.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Roepman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) causes blindness or severe visual impairment at or within a few months of birth. Here we show, using homozygosity mapping, that the LCA5 gene on chromosome 6q14, which encodes the previously unknown ciliary protein lebercilin, is associated with this disease. We

  12. A longitudinal evaluation of hearing and ventilation tube insertion in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Nicolai; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, which primarily manifests with oto-sino-pulmonary symptoms. Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common from early childhood. The existing literature on OME management in PCD is conflicting. The goals of the ...

  13. ZMYND10 is mutated in primary ciliary dyskinesia and interacts with LRRC6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zariwala, Maimoona A; Gee, Heon Yung; Kurkowiak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Defects of motile cilia cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by recurrent respiratory infections and male infertility. Using whole-exome resequencing and high-throughput mutation analysis, we identified recessive biallelic mutations in ZMYND10 in 14 families and mutations in the ...

  14. Target recognition and synapse formation by ciliary-ganglion neurons in tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, W.F.; Slaaf, D.W.; Hooisma, J.; Magchielse, T.; Meeter, E.

    1978-01-01

    A less complicated source of neurons suitable for this type of studies is the parasympathetic ciliary ganglion. In the pigeon and in the chick this ganglion is known to contain only two classes of neurons, both of which are cholinoceptive and cholinergic and that innervate the muscle fibres of the

  15. Multicenter analysis of body mass index, lung function, and sputum microbiology in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglione, Marco; Bush, Andrew; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies longitudinally, simultaneously assessed body mass index (BMI) and spirometry in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). METHODS: We determined BMI and spirometry in 158 PCD children and adolescents from London, UK (n = 75), Naples, Italy (n = 23) and Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 60) ...

  16. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular

  17. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mendes Maia

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are organelles essential for motility and sensing of environmental stimuli. Depending on the cell type, cilia acquire a defined set of functions and, accordingly, are built with an appropriate length and molecular composition. Several ciliary proteins display a high degree of conservation throughout evolution and mutations in ciliary genes are associated with various diseases such as ciliopathies and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the highly conserved ciliary protein, Bug22, in Drosophila. Previous studies in unicellular organisms have shown that Bug22 is required for proper cilia function, but its exact role in ciliogenesis has not been investigated yet. Null Bug22 mutant flies display cilia-associated phenotypes and nervous system defects. Furthermore, sperm differentiation is blocked at the individualization stage, due to impaired migration of the individualization machinery. Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs such as polyglycylation, polyglutamylation or acetylation, are determinants of microtubule (MT functions and stability in centrioles, cilia and neurons. We found defects in the timely incorporation of polyglycylation in sperm axonemal MTs of Bug22 mutants. In addition, we found that depletion of human Bug22 in RPE1 cells resulted in the appearance of longer cilia and reduced axonemal polyglutamylation. Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme.

  18. Growth of the crabgrass species Digitaria ciliaris and Digitaria nuda Crescimento das espécies de capim-colchão Digitaria ciliaris e Digitaria nuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper was to compare the growth of D. ciliaris and D. nuda crabgrass species under non-competitive conditions. To this end, two experiments were conducted, one from March - July 2010 and the other from February - June 2011. The experimental design of both trials was completely randomized making a factorial (2 seasons x 2 species crabgrass x 12 evaluation periods with four replications. Assessments began at 15 days after sowing (DAS, and repeated weekly until 92 DAS. The variables evaluated were total dry matter (roots+leaves+stems, leaf area, leaf number and tiller. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and leaf area ratio were calculated using the means, which were adjusted regression models. The crabgrass species were significantly different in leaf area, leaf number, tiller number and dry matter per plant. D. ciliaris for all variables was statistically higher than D. nuda. Regarding the speed at which the growth of the species occurred, the absolute growth rate and relative growth rate of D. ciliaris was also greater than D. nuda. In addition, D. ciliaris also had a lower leaf area ratio indicating greater efficiency in converting light energy into carbohydrates. It can be concluded that D. ciliaris has a higher growth rate in conditions where there is no limitation of nutrients and water availability in relation to D. nuda, mainly due to D. ciliaris have greater leaf area, number of leaves and dry matter accumulation per plant.O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi comparar o crescimento das espécies de capim colchão D. ciliaris e D. nuda, em condições não-competitivas. Para isso, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um de março a julho de 2010 e outro de fevereiro a junho de 2011. O delineamento experimental de ambos os ensaios foi inteiramente casualizado, perfazendo um esquema fatorial (2 épocas x 2 espécies de capim colchão x 12 períodos de

  19. Regulation of anterior chamber drainage by bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase in the ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2011-12-02

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (C(t)). Modulation of "inflow" and "outflow" pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in C(t) with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and C(t) is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or C(t) in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate C(t) and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure.

  20. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-yi; Ma, Ning; Hu, Qian-qian

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current, Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change. In an Ussing-type chamber system, the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed. The involvement of Cl(-) component in the bath solution was investigated. The effect of Cl(-) channel (10 µmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)), K(+) channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)), or Na(+) channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied. Dose-dependently, 8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 µmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 µmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue. Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side. When the tissue was bathed in low Cl(-) solutions, the Isc increase was significantly inhibited. Finally, niflumic acid and DIDS, but not TEA or amiloride, significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP. cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes. Chloride is likely to be among the ions, the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP, suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  1. Considerations on the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Frank; Droste, Bernhard; Zencker, Uwe; Komann, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM. The test procedures are based on the recommendations of the IAEA and the respective national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. BAM is performing mechanical and thermal tests to investigate the safety of the containers in case of a severe accident. The radionuclide release has to be restricted to a defined limiting value, the radiation shielding and the nuclear safety have to be ensured. The component test is performed using prototypes of model containers combined with calculations or transferability considerations. The safety evaluation is usually based on experimental tests and numerical analyses.

  2. Protein Interaction Analysis Provides a Map of the Spatial and Temporal Organization of the Ciliary Gating Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Daisuke; Wang, Liang; Boss, Allison; Verhey, Kristen J

    2017-08-07

    The motility and signaling functions of the primary cilium require a unique protein and lipid composition that is determined by gating mechanisms localized at the base of the cilium. Several protein complexes localize to the gating zone and may regulate ciliary protein composition; however, the mechanisms of ciliary gating and the dynamics of the gating components are largely unknown. Here, we used the BiFC (bimolecular fluorescence complementation) assay and report for the first time on the protein-protein interactions that occur between ciliary gating components and transiting cargoes during ciliary entry. We find that the nucleoporin Nup62 and the C termini of the nephronophthisis (NPHP) proteins NPHP4 and NPHP5 interact with the axoneme-associated kinesin-2 motor KIF17 and thus spatially map to the inner region of the ciliary gating zone. Nup62 and NPHP4 exhibit rapid turnover at the transition zone and thus define dynamic components of the gate. We find that B9D1, AHI1, and the N termini of NPHP4 and NPHP5 interact with the transmembrane protein SSTR3 and thus spatially map to the outer region of the ciliary gating zone. B9D1, AHI1, and NPHP5 exhibit little to no turnover at the transition zone and thus define components of a stable gating structure. These data provide the first comprehensive map of the molecular orientations of gating zone components along the inner-to-outer axis of the ciliary gating zone. These results advance our understanding of the functional roles of gating zone components in regulating ciliary protein composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The HAW project. Test storage of high-level radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Documentation and assessment of the storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1994-01-01

    The HAW project aimed primarily at studying the interaction between high-level radioactive waste moulds and rock salt as the respository medium. Another priority was the prototype development and testing of a technical system for the emplacement of high-level radioactive moulds in deep storage boreholes. To simulate real high-level radioactive wastes, special high-level radiation sources (Cs-137, Sr-90) were produced in the United States of America under a German-American cooperation contract, for carrying out the tests at the Asse salt mine. The components of the storage system are described, their position and task within the entire handling procedure explained. Questions of radiation protection and accident protection, of functioning and operating reliability, of quality assurance and examination of documents, materials, of manufacture and functioning, and of documentation are dealt with in detail. With a view to the planning of storage techniques for a mine respository, the experience of development and operation is recorded, and recommendation of further developments are given. Problems which arose during work on the HAW project were partly due to test-specific reasons and will not or not in this form occur in a mine respository. It was planned to start the test emplacement in 1987, and it could have been executed in 1993 after appropriate preparation and approval of the storage system by the mining authority and the Hanover TUEV in 1991. In December 1992, however, the Federal Government decided to give up to the project due to the uncertain licensing situation, and to immediately stop all preparatory work. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Longitudinal study of lung function in a cohort of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellerman, A; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) have pronounced stasis of their respiratory secretions and therefore recurrent lower airway infections, which raises concerns for the development of lung function. Twenty four patients with PCD have been studied prospectively with a standardized regime...... patients entering as children (forced vital capacity (FVC) 70 versus 85% predicted; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 59 versus 72% pred). The lung damage did not relate to the type of ciliary dyskinesia. During the subsequent surveillance of the groups for a median of 14 and 7 yrs...... in our clinic for 2-16 yrs with clinic visits, including spirometry 2-4 times per year, daily physiotherapy and monthly sputum cultures with subsequent specific antibiotic treatment. Lung function was significantly lower in the 12 PCD patients entering the cohort as adults when compared to the PCD...

  5. Ultrastructural alterations in ciliary cells exposed to ionizing radiation. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldetorp, L; Mecklenburg, C v; Haakansson, C H [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Hospital; Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology)

    1977-01-01

    Early effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in an experimental in vitro system using the ciliary cells of the tracheal mucous membrane of the rabbit, irradiated at 30/sup 0/C and at more than 90% humidity. The changes in physiological activities of the ciliary cells caused by irradation were continously registered during the irradation. The specimens were examined immediately after irradiation electron microscopically. The morphological changes in irradiated material after 10-70 Gy are compared with normal material. After 40-70 Gy, scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of vesicles on cilia, and club-like protrusions and adhesion of their tips. After 30-70 Gy, a swelling of mitochondrial membranes and cristae was apparent transmission electron microscopically. The membrane alterations caused by irradiation are assumed to disturb the permeability and flow of ATP from the mitochondria, which in turn leads to the recorded changes in the activity of the ciliated cells.

  6. Species variation in biology and physiology of the ciliary epithelium: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Chi Wai; Civan, Mortimer M

    2009-04-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only strategy documented to delay the appearance and retard the progression of vision loss. One major approach for lowering IOP is to slow the rate of aqueous humor formation by the ciliary epithelium. As discussed in the present review, the transport basis for this secretion is largely understood. However, several substantive issues are yet to be resolved, including the integrated regulation of secretion, the functional topography of the ciliary epithelium, and the degree and significance of species variation in aqueous humor inflow. This review discusses species differences in net secretion, particularly of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) secretion. Identifying animal models most accurately mimicking aqueous humor formation in the human will facilitate development of future novel initiatives to lower IOP.

  7. Continued administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor protects mice from inflammatory pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a surv......Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described...... it was withdrawn. After cessation of CNTF treatment, inflammation and symptoms returned to control levels. However, slight but significantly higher numbers of oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells, axons, and neurons were observed in mice that had been treated with high concentrations of CNTF. Our results show...

  8. Paramecium swimming and ciliary beating patterns: a study on four RNA interference mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funfak, Anette; Fisch, Cathy; Abdel Motaal, Hatem T; Diener, Julien; Combettes, Laurent; Baroud, Charles N; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium cells swim and feed by beating their thousands of cilia in coordinated patterns. The organization of these patterns and its relationship with cell motility has been the subject of a large body of work, particularly as a model for ciliary beating in human organs where similar organization is seen. However the rapid motion of the cells makes quantitative measurements very challenging. Here we provide detailed measurements of the swimming of Paramecium cells from high-speed video at high magnification, as they move in microfluidic channels. An image analysis protocol allows us to decouple the cell movement from the motion of the cilia, thus allowing us to measure the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and the spatio-temporal organization into metachronal waves along the cell periphery. Two distinct values of the CBF appear at different regions of the cell: most of the cilia beat in the range of 15 to 45 Hz, while the cilia in the peristomal region beat at almost double the frequency. The body and peristomal CBF display a nearly linear relation with the swimming velocity. Moreover the measurements do not display a measurable correlation between the swimming velocity and the metachronal wave velocity on the cell periphery. These measurements are repeated for four RNAi silenced mutants, where proteins specific to the cilia or to their connection to the cell base are depleted. We find that the mutants whose ciliary structure is affected display similar swimming to the control cells albeit with a reduced efficiency, while the mutations that affect the cilia's anchoring to the cell lead to strongly reduced ability to swim. This reduction in motility can be related to a loss of coordination between the ciliary beating in different parts of the cell.

  9. Impact of the Smoothened inhibitor, IPI-926, on smoothened ciliary localization and Hedgehog pathway activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa O Peluso

    Full Text Available A requisite step for canonical Hedgehog (Hh pathway activation by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh ligand is accumulation of Smoothened (Smo to the primary cilium (PC. Activation of the Hh pathway has been implicated in a broad range of cancers, and several Smo antagonists are being assessed clinically, one of which is approved for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Recent reports demonstrate that various Smo antagonists differentially impact Smo localization to the PC while still exerting inhibitory activity. In contrast to other synthetic small molecule Smo antagonists, the natural product cyclopamine binds to and promotes ciliary accumulation of Smo and "primes" cells for Hh pathway hyper-responsiveness after compound withdrawal. We compared the properties of IPI-926, a semi-synthetic cyclopamine analog, to cyclopamine with regard to potency, ciliary Smo accumulation, and Hh pathway activity after compound withdrawal. Like cyclopamine, IPI-926 promoted accumulation of Smo to the PC. However, in contrast to cyclopamine, IPI-926 treatment did not prime cells for hyper-responsiveness to Shh stimulation after compound withdrawal, but instead demonstrated continuous inhibition of signaling. By comparing the levels of drug-induced ciliary Smo accumulation with the degree of Hh pathway activity after compound withdrawal, we propose that a critical threshold of ciliary Smo is necessary for "priming" activity to occur. This "priming" appears achievable with cyclopamine, but not IPI-926, and is cell-line dependent. Additionally, IPI-926 activity was evaluated in a murine tumor xenograft model and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship was examined to assess for in vivo evidence of Hh pathway hyper-responsiveness. Plasma concentrations of IPI-926 correlated with the degree and duration of Hh pathway suppression, and pathway activity did not exceed baseline levels out to 96 hours post dose. The overall findings suggest that IPI-926 possesses

  10. Particulate matter in cigarette smoke increases ciliary axoneme beating through mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrette, Chelsea R; Sisson, Joseph H; Nance, Elizabeth; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Hanes, Justin; Wyatt, Todd A

    2012-06-01

    The lung's ability to trap and clear foreign particles via the mucociliary elevator is an important mechanism for protecting the lung against respirable irritants and microorganisms. Although cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and particulate inhalation are known to alter mucociliary clearance, little is known about how CS and nanoparticles (NPs) modify cilia beating at the cytoskeletal infrastructure, or axonemal, level. We used a cell-free model to introduce cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and NPs with variant size and surface chemistry to isolated axonemes and measured changes in ciliary motility. We hypothesized that CSE would alter cilia beating and that alterations in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) due to particulate matter would be size- and surface chemistry-dependent. Demembranated axonemes were isolated from ciliated bovine tracheas and exposed to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to initiate motility. CBF was measured in response to 5% CSE, CSE filtrate, and carboxyl-modified (COOH), sulphate (SO(4))-modified (sulfonated), or PEG-coated polystyrene (PS) latex NPs ranging in size from 40 nm to 500 nm. CSE concentrations as low as 5% resulted in rapid, significant stimulation of CBF (pIntroduction of sulphate-modified PS beads ~300 nm in diameter resulted in a similar increase in CBF above baseline ATP levels. Uncharged, PEG-coated beads had no effect on CBF regardless of size. Similarly, COOH-coated particles less than 200 nm in diameter did not alter ciliary motility. However, COOH-coated PS particles larger than 300 nm increased CBF significantly and increased the number of motile points. These data show that NPs, including those found in CSE, mechanically stimulate axonemes in a size- and surface chemistry-dependent manner. Alterations in ciliary motility due to physicochemical properties of NPs may be important for inhalational lung injury and efficient drug delivery of respirable particles.

  11. STOCHASTIC SIMULATION FOR BUFFELGRASS (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) PASTURES IN MARIN, N. L., MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    José Romualdo Martínez-López; Erasmo Gutierrez-Ornelas; Miguel Angel Barrera-Silva; Rafael Retes-López

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was constructed to determine the response of net primary production of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and its dry matter intake by cattle, in Marín, NL, México. Buffelgrass is very important for extensive livestock industry in arid and semiarid areas of northeastern Mexico. To evaluate the behavior of the model by comparing the model results with those reported in the literature was the objective in this experiment. Model simulates the monthly production of...

  12. Bug22p, a Conserved Centrosomal/Ciliary Protein Also Present in Higher Plants, Is Required for an Effective Ciliary Stroke in Paramecium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C.; Klotz, C.; Garreau de Loubresse, N.; Lemullois, M.; Hori, M.; Laurent, F. X.; Papon, J. F.; Louis, B.; Cohen, J.; Koll, F.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate. PMID:20118210

  13. Bug22p, a conserved centrosomal/ciliary protein also present in higher plants, is required for an effective ciliary stroke in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C; Klotz, C; de Loubresse, N Garreau; Lemullois, M; Hori, M; Laurent, F X; Papon, J F; Louis, B; Cohen, J; Koll, F

    2010-04-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate.

  14. Influence of essential and fatty oils on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Andreas; Gstöttner, Michaela; Thaurer, Michael; Augustijns, Patrick; Reinelt, Monika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In alternative and complementary medicine, the use of essential and fatty oils has become more and more popular. In addition to conventional medical therapies, self-medication is showing increasing popularity, using agents with unclear compounds and poorly controlled dosages. Among other disorders, these alternative treatments are used in bronchitis and rhinitis, including some topical applications. Thus, the influence on ciliated epithelia should be evaluated, because a disturbance of the ciliary function can lead to recurrent sinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim of this study was to test the influence of fatty and essential oils on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of nasal mucosa in vivo. The influence of sesame oil, soy oil, peanut oil, Miglyol 840, thyme oil, lavender oil, eucalyptus oil, and menthol on the ciliary activity of nasal brushings was evaluated by digital high-speed imaging. The presence of most fatty oils resulted in an increase in CBF, the effect being highest for peanut oil. Miglyol 840 had no significant influence on CBF. The essential oils were tested at a concentration of 0.2 and 2%. Thyme oil did not affect CBF, whereas the presence of all other essentials oils resulted in an increase in CBF; the effect was higher at 0.2% than at 2%. Except thyme oil and Miglyol 840, all tested oils caused an increase in CBF. Interestingly, the 0.2% concentrations of essential oils resulted in stronger effects when compared with the 2% concentrations.

  15. Loss and gain of cone types in vertebrate ciliary photoreceptor evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jacob M; Arendt, Detlev

    2017-11-01

    Ciliary photoreceptors are a diverse cell type family that comprises the rods and cones of the retina and other related cell types such as pineal photoreceptors. Ciliary photoreceptor evolution has been dynamic during vertebrate evolution with numerous gains and losses of opsin and phototransduction genes, and changes in their expression. For example, early mammals lost all but two cone opsins, indicating loss of cone receptor types in response to nocturnal lifestyle. Our review focuses on the comparison of specifying transcription factors and cell type-specific transcriptome data in vertebrate retinae to build and test hypotheses on ciliary photoreceptor evolution. Regarding cones, recent data reveal that a combination of factors specific for long-wavelength sensitive opsin (Lws)- cones in non-mammalian vertebrates (Thrb and Rxrg) is found across all differentiating cone photoreceptors in mice. This suggests that mammalian ancestors lost all but one ancestral cone type, the Lws-cone. We test this hypothesis by a correlation analysis of cone transcriptomes in mouse and chick, and find that, indeed, transcriptomes of all mouse cones are most highly correlated to avian Lws-cones. These findings underscore the importance of specifying transcription factors in tracking cell type evolution, and shed new light on the mechanisms of cell type loss and gain in retina evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LRRC6 mutation causes primary ciliary dyskinesia with dynein arm defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Horani

    Full Text Available Despite recent progress in defining the ciliome, the genetic basis for many cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD remains elusive. We evaluated five children from two unrelated, consanguineous Palestinian families who had PCD with typical clinical features, reduced nasal nitric oxide concentrations, and absent dynein arms. Linkage analyses revealed a single common homozygous region on chromosome 8 and one candidate was conserved in organisms with motile cilia. Sequencing revealed a single novel mutation in LRRC6 (Leucine-rich repeat containing protein 6 that fit the model of autosomal recessive genetic transmission, leading to a change of a highly conserved amino acid from aspartic acid to histidine (Asp146His. LRRC6 was localized to the cytoplasm and was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in human airway epithelial cells in a Foxj1-dependent fashion. Nasal epithelial cells isolated from affected individuals and shRNA-mediated silencing in human airway epithelial cells, showed reduced LRRC6 expression, absent dynein arms, and slowed cilia beat frequency. Dynein arm proteins were either absent or mislocalized to the cytoplasm in airway epithelial cells from a primary ciliary dyskinesia subject. These findings suggest that LRRC6 plays a role in dynein arm assembly or trafficking and when mutated leads to primary ciliary dyskinesia with laterality defects.

  17. Comparative responses of the Savanna grasses Cenchrus ciliaris and Themeda triandra to defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, K C; Ludlow, M M; Mott, J J; Baruch, Z

    1989-04-01

    Two perennial tussock grasses of savannas were compared in a glasshouse study to determine why they differed in their ability to withstand frequent, heavy grazing; Cenchrus ciliaris is tolerant and Themeda triandra is intolerant of heavy grazing. Frequent defoliation at weekly intervals for six weeks reduced shoot biomass production over a subsequent 42 day regrowth period compared with previously undefoliated plants (infrequent) in T. triandra, but not in C. ciliaris. Leaf area of T. triandra expanded rapidly following defoliation but high initial relative growth rates of shoots were not sustained after 14 days of regrowth because of reducing light utilising efficiency of leaves. Frequently defoliated plants were slower in rate of leaf area expansion and this was associated with reduced photosynthetic capacity of newly formed leaves, lower allocation of photosynthate to leaves but not lower tiller numbers. T. triandra appears well adapted to a regime where defoliation is sufficiently infrequent to allow carbon to be fixed to replace that used in initial leaf area expansion. In contrast, C. ciliaris is better adapted to frequent defoliation than is T. triandra, because horizontally orientated nodal tillers are produced below the defoliation level. This morphological adaptation resulted in a 10-fold higher leaf area remaining after defoliation compared with similarly defoliated T. triandra, which together with the maintenance of moderate levels of light utilising efficiency, contributed to the higher leaf area and shoot weight throughout the regrowth period.

  18. HEATR2 plays a conserved role in assembly of the ciliary motile apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P Diggle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD. Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme.

  19. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  20. Palladium-103 plaque radiation therapy for ciliary body melanoma through a functioning glaucoma filtering bleb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Arif H K; Barash, Alexander; Tena, Lawrence B; Finger, Paul T

    2018-01-01

    To provide a clinical description of the long-term outcome of a 103 Pd plaque-irradiated ciliary body melanoma with extrascleral extension while attempting to preserve a subadjacent glaucoma filtering bleb. A 75-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma for 17 years, 16 years status post argon laser trabeculoplasty, and 15 years status post trabeculectomy in the left eye, was diagnosed with an ipsilateral ciliary body melanoma with visible extrascleral extension. Treatment involved insertion of a 103 Pd radioactive plaque over the functioning trabeculectomy, with removal 7 days later. At plaque insertion, amniotic membrane grafts were used to cover the plaque and protect the filtering site. The tumor was successfully treated without clinical evidence of harm to the filtering bleb, with resultant stable intraocular pressure. However, the patient developed blebitis 1.5 years later. Though it resolved with topical antibiotic therapy, the bleb became less succulent. Two years postoperatively, she developed a spontaneous hyphema that resolved after one injection of transscleral bevacizumab 1.25 mg. Her tumor continually regressed in thickness. Without additional glaucoma surgery, her intraocular pressure remained well-controlled on topical medications for 6 years. Ciliary body melanoma with minimal extrascleral extension beneath a functioning filtering bleb can be treated using radioactive plaque therapy. In this case, we were able to achieve both tumor regression and glaucoma control by covering the plaque with an amniotic membrane graft.

  1. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by a mini-symposium on Tuesday May 22, with one featured speaker and presentation of nine abstracts covering a range of research topics. Mattias Salathe (University of Miami, USA and Stephen Brody (Washington University, St Louis, USA chaired the symposium session. Presentations focused on the clinical spectrum of PCD, the genetics of PCD, a proteomics approach to detail the structure of cilia, the role of cilia in the embryology of situs laterality, and airway epithelial cell biology. The mini-symposium was chaired by Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina, USA and Malcolm King (University of Alberta, USA and included presentations on the use of PCD as a human disease model, accurate definition of the phenotype using clinical and cell biologic markers, and molecular studies. The latter reports ranged from isolation of a protein involved in ciliary structure and function to genetic studies using linkage analysis and the candidate gene approach. Clinicians and scientists alike displayed considerable interest at both sessions, and there were several lively question–answer sessions.

  2. Asymmetric wavefront aberrations and pupillary shapes induced by electrical stimulation of ciliary nerve in cats measured with compact wavefront aberrometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Miyagawa

    Full Text Available To investigate the changes in the wavefront aberrations and pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. Seven eyes of seven cats were studied under general anesthesia. Trains of monophasic pulses (current, 0.1 to 1.0 mA; duration, 0.5 ms/phase; frequency, 5 to 40 Hz were applied to the lateral or medial branch of the short ciliary nerve near the posterior pole of the eye. A pair of electrodes was hooked onto one or both branch of the short ciliary nerve. The electrodes were placed about 5 mm from the scleral surface. The wavefront aberrations were recorded continuously for 2 seconds before, 8 seconds during, and for 20 seconds after the electrical stimulation. The pupillary images were simultaneously recorded during the stimulation period. Both the wavefront aberrations and the pupillary images were obtained 10 times/sec with a custom-built wavefront aberrometer. The maximum accommodative amplitude was 1.19 diopters (D produced by electrical stimulation of the short ciliary nerves. The latency of the accommodative changes was very short, and the accommodative level gradually increased up to 4 seconds and reached a plateau. When only one branch of the ciliary nerve was stimulated, the pupil dilated asymmetrically, and the oblique astigmatism and one of the asymmetrical wavefront terms was also altered. Our results showed that the wavefront aberrations and pupillary dilations can be measured simultaneously and serially with a compact wavefront aberrometer. The asymmetric pupil dilation and asymmetric changes of the wavefront aberrations suggest that each branch of the ciliary nerve innervates specific segments of the ciliary muscle and dilator muscle of the pupil.

  3. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with tube insertion through the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic/aphakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Yadolla; Mohammadi, Massood; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Moghimi, Sasan

    2014-02-01

    To report the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) insertion into the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic/aphakic patients. A chart review was done on patients with uncontrolled glaucoma, who underwent AGV implantation with tube inserted into the ciliary sulcus. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of medications were compared with that of postoperative follow-up visits. Surgical success was defined as last IOP glaucoma control, and without loss of light perception. Postoperative complications were recorded. Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients were recruited with the mean follow-up of 9 months (range, 3 to 24 mo). The mean (SD) age of patients was 49.9 (16.9) years (range, 22 to 80 years). The mean (SD) IOP (mm Hg) was reduced from 37.9 (12.4) before surgery to 16.2 (3.6) at the last follow-up visit (P<0.001). The mean (SD) number of medications was reduced from 3.3 (0.9) preoperatively to 1 (1.1) at the last follow-up (P<0.001). Success rate was 18/23 (78.6%). Complications included endophthalmitis in 1 eye, tube exposure in 1 diabetic patient, and vitreous tube occlusion in 1 eye. No case of corneal decompensation or graft failure was seen during follow-up. Ciliary sulcus placement of the tube of AGV effectively reduces IOP and medication use in short term. It has the potential to lower corneal complications of anterior chamber tube insertion and avoids the need for pars plana vitrectomy and tube insertion in patients at higher risk of corneal decompensation.

  4. Flagellar Synchronization Is a Simple Alternative to Cell Cycle Synchronization for Ciliary and Flagellar Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumita; Avasthi, Prachee

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of cell volumes. We also found that long- and short-flagella mutants that regenerate normally require longer and shorter synchronization times, respectively. By minimizing flagellar length variability using a simple method requiring only hours and no changes in media, flagellar synchronization facilitates the detection of small changes in flagellar length resulting from both chemical and genetic perturbations in Chlamydomonas . This method increases our ability to probe the basic biology of ciliary size regulation and related disease etiologies. IMPORTANCE Cilia and flagella are highly conserved antenna-like organelles that found in nearly all mammalian cell types. They perform sensory and motile functions contributing to numerous physiological and developmental processes. Defects in their assembly and function are implicated in a wide range of human diseases ranging from retinal degeneration to cancer. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an algal model system for studying mammalian cilium formation and function. Here, we report a simple synchronization method that allows detection of small

  5. IFT20 modulates ciliary PDGFRα signaling by regulating the stability of Cbl E3 ubiquitin ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Fabian Marc; Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Vilhelm, Martin Juel

    2018-01-01

    ciliogenesis, and ciliary localization of the receptor is required for its appropriate ligand-mediated activation by PDGF-AA. However, the mechanisms regulating sorting of PDGFRα and feedback inhibition of PDGFRα signaling at the cilium are unknown. Here, we provide evidence that intraflagellar transport...... protein 20 (IFT20) interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligases c-Cbl and Cbl-b and is required for Cbl-mediated ubiquitination and internalization of PDGFRα for feedback inhibition of receptor signaling. In wild-type cells treated with PDGF-AA, c-Cbl becomes enriched in the cilium, and the receptor...

  6. Mucous flow and ciliary activity in the trachea of rats exposed to pulmonary irritant gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhamm, T; Rhodin, J

    1956-01-01

    Tracheal mucous secretion was increased in rats exposed to 10 ppM SO/sub 2/, 6 hr/day for 10 weeks. Mucous transport was decreased from 13.5 to 5 mm/min although ciliary beat remained a constant 1320 beats/min. The mucous layer was 5 times as thick as the normal ..mu..m. Histologically, cilia were generally unaffected whereas tracheal epithelium was irregular with deep crypts, and the lamina propria showed severe edema, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and profuse vascularization with blood escaping perivascularly.

  7. Mutations in DZIP1L, which encodes a ciliary transition zone protein, cause autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Galeano, Maria C. Rondón; Ott, Elisabeth; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Kausalya, P. Jaya; Kramer, Carina; Ortiz-Brüchle, Nadina; Hilger, Nadescha; Metzis, Vicki; Hiersche, Milan; Tay, Shang Yew; Tunningley, Robert; Vij, Shubha; Courtney, Andrew D.; Whittle, Belinda; Wühl, Elke; Vester, Udo; Hartleben, Björn; Neuber, Steffen; Frank, Valeska; Little, Melissa H.; Epting, Daniel; Papathanasiou, Peter; Perkins, Andrew C.; Wright, Graham D.; Hunziker, Walter; Gee, Heon Yung; Otto, Edgar A.; Zerres, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Roy, Sudipto; Wicking, Carol; Bergmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), usually considered to be a genetically homogeneous disease caused by mutations in PKHD1, has been associated with ciliary dysfunction. Here, we describe mutations in the DAZ interacting protein 1-like (DZIP1L) gene in patients with ARPKD, findings we have further validated by loss-of-function studies in mice and zebrafish. DZIP1L localizes to centrioles and at the distal end of basal bodies, and interacts with septin2, a protein implicated in maintenance of the periciliary diffusion barrier at the ciliary transition zone. Consistent with a defect in the diffusion barrier, we found that the ciliary membrane translocation of the PKD proteins, polycystin-1 and −2, is compromised in DZIP1L mutant cells. Together, these data provide the first conclusive evidence that ARPKD is not a homogeneous disorder, and establishes DZIP1L as a second gene involved in its pathogenesis. PMID:28530676

  8. Mutations in DZIP1L, which encodes a ciliary-transition-zone protein, cause autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Galeano, Maria C Rondón; Ott, Elisabeth; Kaeslin, Geraldine; Kausalya, P Jaya; Kramer, Carina; Ortiz-Brüchle, Nadina; Hilger, Nadescha; Metzis, Vicki; Hiersche, Milan; Tay, Shang Yew; Tunningley, Robert; Vij, Shubha; Courtney, Andrew D; Whittle, Belinda; Wühl, Elke; Vester, Udo; Hartleben, Björn; Neuber, Steffen; Frank, Valeska; Little, Melissa H; Epting, Daniel; Papathanasiou, Peter; Perkins, Andrew C; Wright, Graham D; Hunziker, Walter; Gee, Heon Yung; Otto, Edgar A; Zerres, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Roy, Sudipto; Wicking, Carol; Bergmann, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), usually considered to be a genetically homogeneous disease caused by mutations in PKHD1, has been associated with ciliary dysfunction. Here, we describe mutations in DZIP1L, which encodes DAZ interacting protein 1-like, in patients with ARPKD. We further validated these findings through loss-of-function studies in mice and zebrafish. DZIP1L localizes to centrioles and to the distal ends of basal bodies, and interacts with septin2, a protein implicated in maintenance of the periciliary diffusion barrier at the ciliary transition zone. In agreement with a defect in the diffusion barrier, we found that the ciliary-membrane translocation of the PKD proteins polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 is compromised in DZIP1L-mutant cells. Together, these data provide what is, to our knowledge, the first conclusive evidence that ARPKD is not a homogeneous disorder and further establish DZIP1L as a second gene involved in ARPKD pathogenesis.

  9. Surgical treatment of iris and ciliary body melanoma: follow-up of a 25-year series of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, Stefan; Jensen, Peter K; Prause, Jan U

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome of surgical resection of iris and irido-ciliary melanomas. Method: Retrospective analysis of all cases treated in Denmark 1975-1999 with clinical follow-up in 2002 and death certificate analysis in 2008. A quality of life questionnaire was completed at follow-up. Resu......Purpose: To evaluate outcome of surgical resection of iris and irido-ciliary melanomas. Method: Retrospective analysis of all cases treated in Denmark 1975-1999 with clinical follow-up in 2002 and death certificate analysis in 2008. A quality of life questionnaire was completed at follow...... time. However, none had changed job as a consequence of the surgical treatment. Only two patients were emotionally affected by the diagnosis of iris melanoma. Conclusion: Resection of small iris and irido-ciliary melanomas is a safe and efficient procedure, provided that strict diagnostic and surgical...

  10. Propagação por sementes de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (flor-de-maio em diferentes substratos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.480 Propagation by seeds of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (florde- maio in different substrates - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.480

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biondi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, conhecida como flor-demaio, é uma espécie herbácea epífita, nativa no Brasil, muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas flores. Esta espécie multiplica-se por sementes, mas comercialmente é propagada por estacas e enxertia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de quatro variedades de cores desta espécie (rosa, vermelha, branca e amarela em cinco substratos (vermiculita de granulometria média, xaxim desfibrado, areia, substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras e mistura de 50% do substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% xaxim desfibrado. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie pode ser reproduzida com facilidade por sementes. O substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras proporcionou os melhores resultados.Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, known as “flor-de-maio”, is a Brazilian endogenous herbaceous epiphytic species, much appreciated as ornamental for the beauty of its flowers. This species is multiplied by seeds, but commercially it is propagated by cuttings and grafting. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination of four varieties of colors of this species (pink, red, white and yellow in five substrates (vermiculite, de-fibered tree ferns, sand, commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras and a mixture of 50% of the commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% tree ferns. The results showed that this species can be easily reproduced by seeds. The commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras provided the best germination result.

  11. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin

  12. Dispersão zoocórica e hidrocórica marítima de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p47 Adaptações evolutivas na morfologia e fisiologia das cactáceas têm sido associadas aos seus mecanismos de dispersão e colonização. Os mecanismos e modos de dispersão de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae foram caracterizados em duas praias de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Um marsupial do gênero Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae foi o único frugívoro e, portanto, dispersor de frutos, apresentando locais específicos para alimentação. A hidrocoria marítima ocorreu após a invasão marinha sobre a vegetação de restinga, caracterizando-se pela dispersão de cladódios e frutos em várias épocas do ano. Descreve-se pela primeira vez a ação do mar como potencial dispersor para uma espécie de cactos.

  13. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: potential options for resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Rumman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disease of ciliary function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently overlooked because the symptoms are nonspecific and the knowledge about the disease in the primary care setting is poor. Additionally, none of the available tests is accurate enough to be used in isolation. These tests are expensive, and need sophisticated equipment and expertise to analyse and interpret results; diagnosis is therefore only available at highly specialised centres. The diagnosis is particularly challenging in countries with limited resources due to the lack of such costly equipment and expertise. In this review, we discuss the importance of early and accurate diagnosis especially for countries where the disease is clinically prevalent but diagnostic tests are lacking. We review the diagnostic tests available in specialised centres (nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and genetics. We then consider modifications that might be considered in less well-resourced countries whilst maintaining acceptable accuracy.

  14. C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Remans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.

  15. Genotypic variation in response to salinity in a new sexual germplasm of Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Mariana; Tommasino, Exequiel; Griffa, Sabrina; Ribotta, Andrea; Colomba, Eliana López; Carloni, Edgardo; Grunberg, Karina

    2016-05-01

    As part of a breeding program for new salt-tolerant sexual genotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris L., here we evaluated the salt-stress response of two new sexual hybrids, obtained by controlled crosses, at seedling and germination stages. A seedling hydroponic experiment with 300 mM NaCl was performed and physiological variables and growth components were evaluated. While salt-treated sexual material did not show a decrease in productivity with respect to control plants, a differential response in some physiological characteristics was observed. Sexual hybrid 1-9-1 did not suffer oxidative damage and its proline content did not differ from that of control treatment. By contrast, sexual hybrid 1-7-11 suffered oxidative damage and accumulated proline, maintaining its growth under saline stress. At the germination stage, sexual hybrid 1-9-1 presented the highest Germination Rate Index at the maximum NaCl concentration assayed, suggesting an ecological advantage in this genotype. These new sexual resources are promising maternal parental with differential response to salt and could be incorporated in a breeding program of C. ciliaris in the search of new genotypes tolerant to salinity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion Caused by Hyaluronic Acid Injections Into the Forehead: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiu Zhuo; Hu, Jun Yan; Wu, Peng Sen; Yu, Sheng Bo; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Although cosmetic facial soft tissue fillers are generally safe and effective, improper injections can lead to devastating and irreversible consequences. We represent the first known case of posterior ciliary artery occlusion caused by hyaluronic acid. A 41-year-old female presented with right visual loss 7 hours after receiving cosmetic hyaluronic acid injections into her forehead. Examination revealed no light perception in the right eye and multiple dark ischemic area of injection over the forehead and nose. The right fundus revealed a pink retina with optic nerve edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed several filling defects in the choroidal circulation and late hyperfluorescence in the choroid. A right posterior ciliary artery occlusion and embolic occlusion of facial artery braches was diagnosed. With hyaluronidase injection, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oral aspirin, oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone venotransfuse treatment, the patient's forehead and nasal skin improved and vision recovered to hand movements. With proper technique, vascular occlusion is rare following facial filler injection. Vision consequences can be severe if filler emboli enter the ocular circulation. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect, recognize its presentation, and be knowledgeable of effective management.

  17. Convergent evolution of RFX transcription factors and ciliary genes predated the origin of metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nansheng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraflagellar transport (IFT genes, which are critical for the development and function of cilia and flagella in metazoans, are tightly regulated by the Regulatory Factor X (RFX transcription factors (TFs. However, how and when their evolutionary relationship was established remains unknown. Results We have identified evidence suggesting that RFX TFs and IFT genes evolved independently and their evolution converged before the first appearance of metazoans. Both ciliary genes and RFX TFs exist in all metazoans as well as some unicellular eukaryotes. However, while RFX TFs and IFT genes are found simultaneously in all sequenced metazoan genomes, RFX TFs do not co-exist with IFT genes in most pre-metazoans and thus do not regulate them in these organisms. For example, neither the budding yeast nor the fission yeast possesses cilia although both have well-defined RFX TFs. Conversely, most unicellular eukaryotes, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, have typical cilia and well conserved IFT genes but lack RFX TFs. Outside of metazoans, RFX TFs and IFT genes co-exist only in choanoflagellates including M. brevicollis, and only one fungus Allomyces macrogynus of the 51 sequenced fungus genomes. M. brevicollis has two putative RFX genes and a full complement of ciliary genes. Conclusions The evolution of RFX TFs and IFT genes were independent in pre-metazoans. We propose that their convergence in evolution, or the acquired transcriptional regulation of IFT genes by RFX TFs, played a pivotal role in the establishment of metazoan.

  18. Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narematsu, Naoki; Quek, Raymond; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2015-12-01

    Ciliary movements in protozoa exhibit metachronal wave-like coordination, in which a constant phase difference is maintained between adjacent cilia. It is at present generally thought that metachronal waves require hydrodynamic coupling between adjacent cilia and the extracellular fluid. To test this hypothesis, we aspirated a Paramecium cell using a micropipette which completely sealed the surface of the cell such that no fluid could pass through the micropipette. Thus, the anterior and the posterior regions of the cell were hydrodynamically decoupled. Nevertheless, we still observed that metachronal waves continued to propagate from the anterior to the posterior ends of the cell, suggesting that in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, there are other mechanisms that can also transmit the metachronal waves. Such transmission was also observed in computational modeling where the fluid was fully decoupled between two partitions of a beating ciliary array. We also imposed cyclic stretching on the surface of live Paramecium cells and found that metachronal waves persisted in the presence of cyclic stretching. This demonstrated that, in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, a compliant substrate can also play a critical role in mediating the propagation of metachronal waves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on tracheal ciliary beating frequency in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Eriko; Nakahari, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Harada, Kouji H.; Inoue, Kayoko; Koizumi, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one of the emerging persistent organic pollutants, ubiquitously found in the global environment, even in human serum. PFOS has been reported to perturb Ca 2+ homeostasis in Paramecium, cardiomyocytes and neurons. Since ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in the trachea is known to be increased by cytoplasmic Ca 2+ elevation, the effects of PFOS on CBF were evaluated in a slice preparation using video-enhanced contrast microscopy. PFOS increased CBF by 11% (P 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in mouse tracheal ciliary cells. In Ca 2+ -free solution, PFOS at 100 μM failed to increase CBF (0.96-fold of vehicle control). The addition of Gd 3+ (1 μM), a store-operated Ca 2+ channel blocker, did not prevent the increase in CBF (1.09-fold (P + concentration (50 mM), which causes depolarization of the plasma membrane potential and a transient increase in [Ca 2+ ] i , increased CBF by 20% (P 2+ channels (VDCCs) in stimulation of CBF. Nifedipine (30 μM), a selective VDCC blocker, antagonized the effects of high K + (0.92-fold of high K + solution) and PFOS (0.96-fold of vehicle control) on CBF. In cells from peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-null mice, PFOS still increased CBF (1.12-fold (P 2+ through VDCC

  20. Primary ciliary dyskinesia-causing mutations in Amish and Mennonite communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkol, Thomas W; Puffenberger, Erik G; Lie, Hauw; Helms, Cynthia; Strauss, Kevin A; Bowcock, Anne; Carson, John L; Hazucha, Milan; Morton, D Holmes; Patel, Anand C; Leigh, Margaret W; Knowles, Michael R; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) from unrelated Amish and Mennonite families harbor a single and unique founder mutation. Subjects from Amish and Mennonite communities in several states were enrolled in the study. All subjects were clinically characterized, and nasal nitric oxide levels were measured. Nasal epithelial scrapings were collected from several subjects for ciliary ultrastructural analyses. DNA was isolated from patients with PCD and their unaffected first- and second-degree relatives. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping, linkage analyses, targeted mutation analyses, and exome sequencing were performed. All subjects from Old-Order Amish communities from Pennsylvania were homozygous for a nonsense mutant DNAH5 allele, c.4348C>T (p.Q1450X). Two affected siblings from an unrelated Mennonite family in Arkansas were homozygous for the same nonsense DNAH5 mutation. Children with PCD from an Amish family from Wisconsin had biallelic DNAH5 mutations, c.4348C>T (p.Q1450X) and c.10815delT (p.P3606HfsX23), and mutations in other genes associated with PCD were also identified in this community. The Amish and Mennonite subjects from geographically dispersed and socially isolated communities had the same founder DNAH5 mutation, owing to the common heritage of these populations. However, disease-causing mutations in other PCD-associated genes were also found in affected individuals in these communities, illustrating the genetic heterogeneity in this consanguineous population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin synthesis in the human ciliary body triggered by TRPV4 activation: Involvement of AANAT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Perez de Lara, María J; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin is a substance synthesized in the pineal gland as well as in other organs. This substance is involved in many ocular functions, giving its synthesis in numerous eye structures. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin through two enzymes, the first limiting step into the synthesis of melatonin being aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this current study, AANAT phosphorylation after the activation of TRPV4 was studied using human non-pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells. Firstly, it was necessary to determine the adequate time and dose of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A to reach the maximal phosphorylation of AANAT. An increase of 72% was observed after 5 min incubation with 10 nM GSK (**p melatonin synthesis. The involvement of a TRPV4 channel in melatonin synthesis was verified by antagonist and siRNA studies as a previous step to studying intracellular signalling. Studies performed on the second messengers involved in GSK induced AANAT phosphorylation were carried out by inhibiting several pathways. In conclusion, the activation of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II was confirmed, as shown by the cascade seen in AANAT phosphorylation (***p melatonin levels. In conclusion, the activation of a TRPV4 present in human ciliary body epithelial cells produced an increase in AANAT phosphorylation and a further melatonin increase by a mechanism in which Ca-calmodulin and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. hemingway is required for sperm flagella assembly and ciliary motility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulavie, Fabien; Piepenbrock, David; Thomas, Joëlle; Vieillard, Jennifer; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Cortier, Elisabeth; Laurençon, Anne; Göpfert, Martin C; Durand, Bénédicte

    2014-04-01

    Cilia play major functions in physiology and development, and ciliary dysfunctions are responsible for several diseases in humans called ciliopathies. Cilia motility is required for cell and fluid propulsion in organisms. In humans, cilia motility deficiencies lead to primary ciliary dyskinesia, with upper-airways recurrent infections, left-right asymmetry perturbations, and fertility defects. In Drosophila, we identified hemingway (hmw) as a novel component required for motile cilia function. hmw encodes a 604-amino acid protein characterized by a highly conserved coiled-coil domain also found in the human orthologue, KIAA1430. We show that HMW is conserved in species with motile cilia and that, in Drosophila, hmw is expressed in ciliated sensory neurons and spermatozoa. We created hmw-knockout flies and found that they are hearing impaired and male sterile. hmw is implicated in the motility of ciliated auditory sensory neurons and, in the testis, is required for elongation and maintenance of sperm flagella. Because HMW is absent from mature flagella, we propose that HMW is not a structural component of the motile axoneme but is required for proper acquisition of motile properties. This identifies HMW as a novel, evolutionarily conserved component necessary for motile cilium function and flagella assembly.

  3. Central Retinal and Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion After Intralesional Injection of Sclerosant to Glabellar Subcutaneous Hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe vision loss caused by central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery occlusion as a consequence of sclerotherapy with a polidocanol injection to a glabellar hemangioma. An 18-year-old man underwent direct injection with a 23-gauge needle of 1 mL of a polidocanol-carbon dioxide emulsion into the glabellar subcutaneous hemangioma under ultrasound visualization of the needle tip by radiologists. He developed lid swelling the next day, and 3 days later at referral, the visual acuity in the left eye was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed central retinal artery occlusion and fluorescein angiography disclosed no perfusion at all in the left fundus, indicating concurrent posterior ciliary artery occlusion. The patient also showed mydriasis, blepharoptosis, and total external ophthalmoplegia on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the swollen medial rectus muscle. In a month, blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia resolved but the visual acuity remained no light perception. Sclerosing therapy for facial hemangioma may develop a severe complication such as permanent visual loss.

  4. [3H]acetylcholine synthesis in cultured ciliary ganglion neurons: effects of myotube membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.B.; Tuttle, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Avian ciliary ganglion neurons in cell culture were examined for the capacity to synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) from the exogenously supplied precursor, choline. Relevant kinetic parameters of the ACh synthetic system in cultured neurons were found to be virtually the same as those of the ganglionic terminals in the intact iris. Neurons were cultured in the presence of and allowed to innervate pectoral muscle; this results in an capacity for ACh synthesis. In particular, the ability to increase ACh synthesis upon demand after stimulation is affected by interaction with the target. This effect is shown to be an acceleration of the maturation of the cultured neurons. Lysed and washed membrane remnants of the muscle target were able to duplicate, in part, this effect of live target tissue on neuronal transmitter metabolism. Culture medium conditioned by muscle, and by the membrane remnants of muscle, was without significant effect. Thus, substances secreted into the medium do not play a major role in this interaction. Neurons cultured with either muscle or muscle membrane remnants formed large, elongate structures on the target membrane surface. These were not seen in the absence of the target at the times examined. This morphological difference in terminal-like structures may parallel the developmental increases in size and vesicular content of ciliary ganglion nerve terminals in the chick iris, and may relate to the increased ACh synthetic activity. The results suggest that direct contact with an appropriate target membrane has a profound, retrograde influence upon neuronal metabolic and morphological maturation

  5. CCDC151 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disruption of the outer dynein arm docking complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjeij, Rim; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Watson, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    disorder of ciliary and flagellar dysmotility characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory infections and defects in laterality. Here, by combined high-throughput mapping and sequencing, we identified CCDC151 loss-of-function mutations in five affected individuals from three independent families...

  6. X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia due to mutations in the cytoplasmic axonemal dynein assembly factor PIH1D3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olcese, C.; Patel, M.P.; Shoemark, A.; Kiviluoto, S.; Legendre, M.; Williams, H.J.; Vaughan, C.K.; Hayward, J.; Goldenberg, A.; Emes, R.D.; Munye, M.M.; Dyer, L.; Cahill, T.; Bevillard, J.; Gehrig, C.; Guipponi, M.; Chantot, S.; Duquesnoy, P.; Thomas, L.; Jeanson, L.; Copin, B.; Tamalet, A.; Thauvin-Robinet, C.; Papon, J.F.; Garin, A.; Pin, I.; Vera, G.; Aurora, P.; Fassad, M.R.; Jenkins, L.; Boustred, C.; Cullup, T.; Dixon, M.; Onoufriadis, A.; Bush, A.; Chung, E.M.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Loebinger, M.R.; Wilson, R.; Armengot, M.; Escudier, E.; Hogg, C.; Amselem, S.; Sun, Z.; Bartoloni, L.; Blouin, J.L.; Mitchison, H.M.; Schmidts, M.; et al.,

    2017-01-01

    By moving essential body fluids and molecules, motile cilia and flagella govern respiratory mucociliary clearance, laterality determination and the transport of gametes and cerebrospinal fluid. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder frequently caused by non-assembly of

  7. CCDC151 Mutations Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia by Disruption of the Outer Dynein Arm Docking Complex Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjeij, R.; Onoufriadis, A.; Watson, C.M.; Slagle, C.E.; Klena, N.T.; Dougherty, G.W.; Kurkowiak, M.; Loges, N.T.; Diggle, C.P.; Morante, N.F.; Gabriel, G.C.; Lemke, K.L.; Li, Y.; Pennekamp, P.; Menchen, T.; Konert, F.; Marthin, J.K.; Mans, D.A.; Letteboer, S.J.F.; Werner, C.; Burgoyne, T.; Westermann, C.; Rutman, A.; Carr, I.M.; O'Callaghan, C.; Moya, E.; Chung, E.M.; Consortium, U.K.; Sheridan, E.; Nielsen, K.G.; Roepman, R.; Bartscherer, K.; Burdine, R.D.; Lo, C.W.; Omran, H.; Mitchison, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse family of cytoskeletal dynein motors powers various cellular transport systems, including axonemal dyneins generating the force for ciliary and flagellar beating essential to movement of extracellular fluids and of cells through fluid. Multisubunit outer dynein arm (ODA) motor complexes,

  8. Recombination within the apospory specific genomic region leads to the uncoupling of apomixis components in Cenchrus ciliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A; Gunawan, Gunawati; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2013-07-01

    Apomixis enables the clonal propagation of maternal genotypes through seed. If apomixis could be harnessed via genetic engineering or introgression, it would have a major economic impact for agricultural crops. In the grass species Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn. P. ciliare), apomixis is controlled by a single dominant "locus", the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). For P. squamulatum, 18 published sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers have been identified which always co-segregate with apospory. Six of these markers are conserved SCARs in the closely related species, C. ciliaris and co-segregate with the trait. A screen of progeny from a cross of sexual × apomictic C. ciliaris genotypes identified a plant, A8, retaining two of the six ASGR-linked SCAR markers. Additional and newly identified ASGR-linked markers were generated to help identify the extent of recombination within the ASGR. Based on analysis of missing markers, the A8 recombinant plant has lost a significant portion of the ASGR but continues to form aposporous embryo sacs. Seedlings produced from aposporous embryo sacs are 6× in ploidy level and hence the A8 recombinant does not express parthenogenesis. The recombinant A8 plant represents a step forward in reducing the complexity of the ASGR locus to determine the factor(s) required for aposporous embryo sac formation and documents the separation of expression of the two components of apomixis in C. ciliaris.

  9. Regulation of protein phosphorylation of the intermediate-sized filament vimentin in the ciliary epithelium of the mammalian eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coca-Prados, M.

    1985-01-01

    The intermediate-sized filaments of vimentin-type (Mr = 57,000) have been identified biochemically and immunochemically as a major cytoskeleton component in the ciliary epithelium of the mammalian eye. When human or rabbit ciliary processes, or cultured ciliary epithelial-derived cells were incubated in serum-free medium containing [ 32 P]orthophosphate and any of the following agents: 1) beta-adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol or epinephrine), 2) direct activators of adenylate cyclase (cholera toxin or forskolin), 3) analogs of cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), or 4) prostaglandin E1, the phosphorylation of vimentin was significantly enhanced. The maximal enhancement ranged, in vivo and in vitro, from about 3-fold in human to 5-fold in rabbit, with either 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP or 0.1 microM forskolin. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody, anti-vimentin, allowed the localization of vimentin filaments in cultured ciliary epithelial cells. Treatment of these cells in culture with the catecholamine hormone, isoproterenol (1 microM), resulted in a profound reorganization of vimentin filaments. This may be correlated with the enhanced levels of phosphorylated vimentin observed upon increasing cellular cyclic AMP

  10. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Fontan Patients With and Without Isomerism (Heterotaxy) as Compared to Patients With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Subjects With Structurally Normal Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Danduran, Michael; Nielsen, Kim G

    2017-01-01

    with and without isomerism. We have now compared these finding with those from patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia, as many patients with isomerism have ciliary dyskinesia. We identified patients having the Fontan circulation with and without isomerism who had undergone cardiopulmonary exercise testing......, comparing the findings from healthy individuals undergoing exercise, and a comparable number of individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia but no congenital heart disease. We were able to include a total of 68 patients in our study, with 17 in each of the four groups. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing...

  11. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...... multiple breath inert gas washout (N2 MBW) were assessed in a cross-sectional, single-occasion study of clinically stable children and young adults with PCD. We used a questionnaire including self-reported physical limitations in everyday life or in vigorous activities, and estimation of weekly hours...... patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...

  12. Safety assessment of thiolated polymers: effect on ciliary beat frequency in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Augustijns, Patrick; Vetter, Anja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nasal safety of gel formulations of thiolated polymers (thiomers) by assessing their effect on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in human nasal epithelial cells. Poly(acrylic acid) 450 kDa-cysteine (PAA-cys) and alginate-cysteine (alg-cys) were synthesized by covalent attachment of L-cysteine to the polymeric backbone. The cationic polymer chitosan-thiobutylamidine (chito-TBA) was synthesized by attaching iminothiolane to chitosan. CBF using was measured by a photometric system. CBF was measured before incubating the cells with test gels, during incubation and after washing out the polymeric test gels to evaluate reversibility of cilio-inhibition. The influence of viscosity on CBF was determined by using hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-gels of various concentrations. Ciliary beating was observed to be affected by viscosity, but cilia were still beating in the presence of a HEC-gel displaying an apparent viscosity of 25 Pa.s. In case of thiolated polymers and their unmodified control, a concentration-dependent decrease in CBF could be observed. PAA-cys, alg-cys, chito-TBA and their corresponding unmodified controls exhibited a moderate cilio-inhibitory effect, followed by a partial recovery of CBF when used at a concentration of 1%. Alg-cys 2% and chito-TBA 2% (m/v) gels exhibited severe cilio-inhibition, which was partially reversible. L-cysteine and reduced glutathione led to mild cilio-inhibition at concentrations of 3% (m/v). Taking into account that dilution after application and cilio-modifying effects is usually more pronounced under in vitro conditions, thiomers can be considered as suitable excipients for nasal drug delivery systems.

  13. Studies on bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; C-H, To; Pelis, Ryan M.; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Bicarbonate transport plays a role in aqueous humor (AH) secretion. Here, we examined bicarbonate transport mechanisms and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE). Methods Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) was measured in cultured porcine NPE loaded with BCECF. Anion exchanger (AE), sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and CA were examined by RT-PCR and immunolocalization. AH secretion was measured in the intact porcine eye using a fluorescein dilution technique. Results Anion exchanger AE2, CAII and CAIV were abundant in the NPE layer. In cultured NPE superfused with a CO2/HCO3− free HEPES buffer, exposure to a CO2/HCO3−-containing buffer caused a rapid acidification followed by a gradual pHi increase. Subsequent removal of CO2/HCO3− with HEPES buffer caused rapid alkalinization followed by gradual pHi decrease. The rate of gradual alkalinization after addition of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by sodium-free conditions, DIDS, CA inhibitors acetazolamide and methazolamide but not by Na-H exchange inhibitor dimethylamiloride or low chloride buffer. The phase of gradual acidification after removal of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by DIDS, acetazolamide, methazolamide and by low chloride buffer. DIDS reduced baseline pHi. In the intact eye, DIDS and acetazolamide reduced AH secretion by 25% and 44% respectively. Conclusion The results suggest the NPE uses a Na+-HCO3− cotransporter to import bicarbonate and a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger to export bicarbonate. CA influences the rate of bicarbonate transport. AE2, CAII and CAIV are enriched in the NPE layer of the ciliary body and their coordinated function may contribute to AH secretion by effecting bicarbonate transport into the eye. PMID:19011010

  14. Induction of Functional 3D Ciliary Epithelium-Like Structure From Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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    Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Jun; Mandai, Michiko; Kitaoka, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    To generate ciliary epithelium (CE) from mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Recently, a protocol for self-organizing optic cup morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture was reported, and it was suggested that ocular tissue derived from neural ectoderm could be differentiated. We demonstrated that a CE-like double-layered structure could be induced in simple culture by using a modified Eiraku differentiation protocol. Differentiation of a CE-like double-layered structure could be promoted by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor. Connexin43 and aquaporin1 were expressed in both thin layers, and induced CE-like cells expressed ciliary marker genes, such as cyclinD2, zic1, tgfb2, aldh1a3, wfdc1, otx1, BMP4, and BMP7. Increases in cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin in aggregates of the CE-like double-layered structure were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, tankyrase inhibitor prevented the induction of the CE-like double-layered structure by GSK-3β inhibitor. Dye movement from pigmented cells to nonpigmented cells in the mouse iPS cell-derived CE-like structure was observed in a fluid movement experiment, consistent with the physiological function of CE in vivo. We could differentiate CE from mouse iPS cells in the present study. In the future, we hope that this CE-like complex will become useful as a graft for transplantation therapy in pathologic ocular hypotension due to CE dysfunction, and as a screening tool for the development of drugs for diseases associated with CE function.

  15. Disruption of a Ciliary B9 Protein Complex Causes Meckel Syndrome

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    Dowdle, William E.; Robinson, Jon F.; Kneist, Andreas; Sirerol-Piquer, M. Salomé; Frints, Suzanna G.M.; Corbit, Kevin C.; Zaghloul, Norran A.; van Lijnschoten, Gesina; Mulders, Leon; Verver, Dideke E.; Zerres, Klaus; Reed, Randall R.; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Johnson, Colin A.; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Katsanis, Nicholas; Bergmann, Carsten; Reiter, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly every ciliated organism possesses three B9 domain-containing proteins: MKS1, B9D1, and B9D2. Mutations in human MKS1 cause Meckel syndrome (MKS), a severe ciliopathy characterized by occipital encephalocele, liver ductal plate malformations, polydactyly, and kidney cysts. Mouse mutations in either Mks1 or B9d2 compromise ciliogenesis and result in phenotypes similar to those of MKS. Given the importance of these two B9 proteins to ciliogenesis, we examined the role of the third B9 protein, B9d1. Mice lacking B9d1 displayed polydactyly, kidney cysts, ductal plate malformations, and abnormal patterning of the neural tube, concomitant with compromised ciliogenesis, ciliary protein localization, and Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction. These data prompted us to screen MKS patients for mutations in B9D1 and B9D2. We identified a homozygous c.301A>C (p.Ser101Arg) B9D2 mutation that segregates with MKS, affects an evolutionarily conserved residue, and is absent from controls. Unlike wild-type B9D2 mRNA, the p.Ser101Arg mutation failed to rescue zebrafish phenotypes induced by the suppression of b9d2. With coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analyses, we found that Mks1, B9d1, and B9d2 interact physically, but that the p.Ser101Arg mutation abrogates the ability of B9d2 to interact with Mks1, further suggesting that the mutation compromises B9d2 function. Our data indicate that B9d1 is required for normal Hh signaling, ciliogenesis, and ciliary protein localization and that B9d1 and B9d2 are essential components of a B9 protein complex, disruption of which causes MKS. PMID:21763481

  16. No evidence of cholesteatoma in untreated otitis media with effusion in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedia, Reshma; Ahmed, Jahangir; Navaratnam, Annakan; Harcourt, Jonny

    2018-02-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) describes a group of inherited disorders that result in abnormal ciliary motion leading to mucous stasis. Clinical features include almost universally otitis media with effusion (OME), particularly in infants. PCD patients provide us with a cohort of patients with OME that is not treated with ventilatory tube (VT) insertion as these have been shown to result in frequent complications including chronic otorrhoea, early extrusion and persistent perforation without significant improvement to hearing in the long term. This cohort was used to investigate whether children with PCD and OME not treated with VT were predisposed to cholesteatoma formation in the setting of a paediatric quaternary referral centre. A retrospective chart review was performed of all the children attending a multi-disciplinary PCD clinic at a national quaternary referral centre with a diagnosis of OME. We reviewed otoscopic findings, and audiometry and tympanometry results. We assessed the children in four groups: Watchful waiting, hearing aids, VT, and VT and hearing aids. One-hundred-and-one of 107 patients included in the study had a diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. No child with OME and PCD was diagnosed with a cholesteatoma during the follow up period. The only children who had insertion of a ventilatory tube were those who had the procedure prior to the formal diagnosis of PCD. We found a significant complication rate in the children with VT insertion. Hearing improved over time. The prevalence of retraction pockets in untreated OME was 1.72% (3 out of 174 ears). In children with PCD, OME is an almost universal finding in younger children, but not in adolescents. The study supports the current preference to avoid VT insertion in children with PCD as it confers a significantly higher rate of complications. No cases of cholesteatoma were found in this cohort of PCD children with OME managed without VTs. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B

  17. Localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, Ryan M; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sikha; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Wright, Stephen H; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-05-01

    The nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) of the ciliary body represents an important component of the blood-aqueous barrier of the eye. Many therapeutic drugs penetrate poorly across the NPE into the aqueous humor of the eye interior. Several of these therapeutic drugs, such as methotrexate, vincristine, and etoposide, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Abundant MRP2 protein was detected by Western blot in homogenates of human ciliary body and freshly dissected porcine NPE. In cultured porcine NPE, the intracellular accumulation of the MRP2 substrates calcein (1.8-fold), 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (22.1-fold), and doxorubicin (1.9-fold) was significantly increased in the presence of 50 microM MK571 ((E)-3-[[[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)-ethenyl]phenyl]-[[3-dimethylamino)-3-oxopropyl]thio]methyl]thio]-propanoic acid), an MRP inhibitor. In addition, the intracellular accumulation of the MRP2 substrate glutathione methylfluorescein was increased by 50 microM MK571 (4.3-fold), 500 microM indomethacin (2.6-fold), and 50 microM cyclosporin A (2.1-fold) but not by 500 microM sulfinpyrazone. These data are consistent with MRP2-mediated transport activity in cultured NPE, and MRP2 mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein (Western blot) were detected in the cultured cells. Immunolocalization studies in native human and porcine eyes showed MRP2 protein at the apical interface of the NPE and pigmented cell layers. Close examination of MRP2 immunoreactivity supported the conclusion that MRP2 is localized in the apical membrane of the NPE. MRP2 at the apical membrane of NPE cells may be involved in protecting intraocular tissues from exposure to potentially harmful toxins.

  18. Synergism between sulfur dioxide and carbon particles. Studies on adsorption and on ciliary movements in the rabbit trachea in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhamn, T; Strandberg, L

    1963-01-01

    Various types of carbon were shown to absorb gaseous SO/sub 2/ (about 75% at equilibrium in one case), which was rapidly converted to sulfuric acid (30% of that adsorbed in one case). However, carbon did not act synergistically with SO/sub 2/ in reducing rabbit trachea ciliary beat; carbon had no effect by itself and had no additional effect when administered with SO/sub 2/. 74 to 134 ppM SO/sub 2/ reduced ciliary beat from 1265 to 1091 beats/min after 45 min, and 175 to 239 ppM SO/sub 2/ reduced it from 1200 to 891 beats/min after 45 min.

  19. Clinical value of measurement of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance in the work up of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Mortensen, Jann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate and define the general clinical applicability and impact of pulmonary radioaerosol mucociliary clearance (PRMC) on the work up of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). In addition, we wanted to evaluate the accuracy of the reference values...... primarily to results from nasal ciliary function testing, to electron microscopic (EM) examination of the ultrastructure of the cilia, and to the final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 27 ended up with a final clinical diagnosis of definitive PCD. No patients with a PRMC test...... of the entire lung. Its greatest strength is its ability to reject a suspected PCD diagnosis with great certainty. In our material, this accounted for 2/3 of referred patients. In addition, the test has a high rate of conclusive results. According to our analyses, reference equations on children would benefit...

  20. Long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses in children: An ultrasound biomicroscopy study.

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    Yun-E Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the long-term outcomes of ciliary sulcus versus capsular bag fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs in children after pediatric cataract surgery.IOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes of 14 children, and in the capsular bag in 19 eyes of 12 children for the treatment of pediatric cataract in an institutional setting. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was performed. Main outcome measures included IOL decentration, IOL tilt, anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500, trabecular-iris angle (TIA, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, and incidence of postoperative complications.The mean follow-up period was 6.81 ± 1.82 years. Comparing to the capsular bag fixation group, the ciliary sulcus fixation group had higher vertical IOL decentration, horizontal IOL tilt, and vertical IOL tilt (p = 0.02, 0.01,0.01, respectively, higher incidence of iris-IOL contact and peripheral anterior synechia (p = 0.001, 0.03, respectively, smaller ACD, AOD500, and TIA (p = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, respectively, higher mean IOP (17.10 ±6.06 mmHg vs.14.15± 4.74 mmHg, p = 0.01, and higher incidence of secondary glaucoma (28.57% vs. 10.53%, p = 0.007.There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the BCVA, refractive errors, incidence of myopic shift, nystagmus, strabismus, and visual axis opacity.Ciliary sulcus fixation of IOLs in pediatric eyes may increase IOL malposition and crowding of the anterior segment, and may associate with a higher risk of secondary glaucoma compared to capsular bag fixation of IOLs.

  1. Localization of a guanylyl cyclase to chemosensory cilia requires the novel ciliary MYND domain protein DAF-25.

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    Victor L Jensen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In harsh conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans arrests development to enter a non-aging, resistant diapause state called the dauer larva. Olfactory sensation modulates the TGF-β and insulin signaling pathways to control this developmental decision. Four mutant alleles of daf-25 (abnormal DAuer Formation were isolated from screens for mutants exhibiting constitutive dauer formation and found to be defective in olfaction. The daf-25 dauer phenotype is suppressed by daf-10/IFT122 mutations (which disrupt ciliogenesis, but not by daf-6/PTCHD3 mutations (which prevent environmental exposure of sensory cilia, implying that DAF-25 functions in the cilia themselves. daf-25 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian Ankmy2, a MYND domain protein of unknown function. Disruption of DAF-25, which localizes to sensory cilia, produces no apparent cilia structure anomalies, as determined by light and electron microscopy. Hinting at its potential function, the dauer phenotype, epistatic order, and expression profile of daf-25 are similar to daf-11, which encodes a cilium-localized guanylyl cyclase. Indeed, we demonstrate that DAF-25 is required for proper DAF-11 ciliary localization. Furthermore, the functional interaction is evolutionarily conserved, as mouse Ankmy2 interacts with guanylyl cyclase GC1 from ciliary photoreceptors. The interaction may be specific because daf-25 mutants have normally-localized OSM-9/TRPV4, TAX-4/CNGA1, CHE-2/IFT80, CHE-11/IFT140, CHE-13/IFT57, BBS-8, OSM-5/IFT88, and XBX-1/D2LIC in the cilia. Intraflagellar transport (IFT (required to build cilia is not defective in daf-25 mutants, although the ciliary localization of DAF-25 itself is influenced in che-11 mutants, which are defective in retrograde IFT. In summary, we have discovered a novel ciliary protein that plays an important role in cGMP signaling by localizing a guanylyl cyclase to the sensory organelle.

  2. Sonic Hedgehog dependent phosphorylation by CK1α and GRK2 is required for ciliary accumulation and activation of smoothened.

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    Yongbin Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the GPCR-like protein Smoothened (Smo, but how vertebrate Smo is activated remains poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hh dependent phosphorylation activates Smo. Whether this is also the case in vertebrates is unclear, owing to the marked sequence divergence between vertebrate and Drosophila Smo (dSmo and the involvement of primary cilia in vertebrate Hh signaling. Here we demonstrate that mammalian Smo (mSmo is activated through multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail by CK1α and GRK2. Phosphorylation of mSmo induces its active conformation and simultaneously promotes its ciliary accumulation. We demonstrate that graded Hh signals induce increasing levels of mSmo phosphorylation that fine-tune its ciliary localization, conformation, and activity. We show that mSmo phosphorylation is induced by its agonists and oncogenic mutations but is blocked by its antagonist cyclopamine, and efficient mSmo phosphorylation depends on the kinesin-II ciliary motor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Hh signaling recruits CK1α to initiate mSmo phosphorylation, and phosphorylation further increases the binding of CK1α and GRK2 to mSmo, forming a positive feedback loop that amplifies and/or sustains mSmo phosphorylation. Hence, despite divergence in their primary sequences and their subcellular trafficking, mSmo and dSmo employ analogous mechanisms for their activation.

  3. Short Communication: An apospory-specific genomic region is conserved between Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche; Cong; Chen; Hanna; Gustine; Sherwood; Ozias-Akins

    1999-07-01

    Twelve molecular markers linked to pseudogamous apospory, a form of gametophytic apomixis, were previously isolated from Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen. No recombination between these markers was found in a segregating population of 397 individuals (Ozias-Akins et al. 1998, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 5127-5132). The objective of the present study was to test if these markers were also linked to the aposporous mode of reproduction in two small segregating populations of Cenchrus ciliaris (= Pennisetum ciliare (L.)Link), another apomictic grass species. Among 12 markers (sequence characterized amplified regions, SCARs), six were scored as dominant markers between aposporous and sexual C. ciliaris genotypes (presence/absence, respectively). Five were always linked to apospory and one showed a low level of recombination in 84 progenies. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were observed between sexual and apomictic phenotypes for three of the six remaining SCARs from P. squamulatum when used as probes. No recombination was observed in the F1 progenies. Preliminary data from megabase DNA analysis and sequencing in both species indicate that an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) is highly conserved between the two species. Although C. ciliaris has a smaller genome size to P. squamulatum, a higher copy number for markers linked to apospory found in the former may impair the progress of positional cloning of gene(s) for apomixis in this species.

  4. (/sup 3/H)ouabain localization of Na-K ATPase in the epithelium of rabbit ciliary body pars plicata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usukura, J.; Fain, G.L.; Bok, D.

    1988-04-01

    The secretion of the aqueous humor has been proposed to occur as the result of active Na+ transport by a ouabain-sensitive Na-K ATPase. We have examined the localization of this enzyme in the epithelium of rabbit ciliary body pars plicata using (3H)ouabain autoradiography. Single ciliary processes were isolated and incubated in Ringer containing (3H)ouabain. Processes were then rapidly frozen, freezedried, sectioned and exposed for autoradiography. In the light microscope, silver grains were found predominantly over the nonpigmented epithelial cells. In the electron microscope, grains could be localized for the most part to the interdigitations of the nonpigmented cell basolateral membrane. Label could also be observed at a much lower density above other membranes and above the pigmented and nonpigmented cell cytoplasm. No label was found in sections of control tissue which had been incubated in (3H)ouabain with an excess of cold ouabain. To show that the (3H)ouabain had free access to all of the membrane surfaces within the epithelium, in parallel experiments we incubated isolated processes in horseradish peroxidase. Our experiments suggest that most of the active Na+ transport in ciliary body epithelium occurs across the basolateral membrane of nonpigmented cells into the posterior chamber. Furthermore, the placement of the Na-K ATPase within the narrow membrane infoldings of the interdigitations is consistent with a role for this enzyme in water transport and the production of the aqueous.

  5. OFD1, as a Ciliary Protein, Exhibits Neuroprotective Function in Photoreceptor Degeneration Models.

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    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available Ofd1 is a newly identified causative gene for Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a photoreceptor degenerative disease. This study aimed to examine Ofd1 localization in retina and further to investigate its function in photoreceptor degeneration models. Ofd1 localization in rat retina was examined using immunofluorescence. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU-induced rats and Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rats were used as photoreceptor degeneration models. The expression pattern of Ofd1, other ciliary associated genes and Wnt signaling pathway genes were examined in rat models. Furthermore, pEGFP-Ofd1-CDS and pSUPER-Ofd1-shRNA were constructed to overexpress and knockdown the expression level in 661W and R28 cells. MNU was also used to induce cell death. Cilia formation was observed using immunocytochemistry (ICC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS were detected using the 2', 7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA assay. Apoptosis genes expression was examined using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Ofd1 localized to outer segments of rat retina photoreceptors. Ofd1 and other ciliary proteins expression levels increased from the 1st and 4th postnatal weeks and decreased until the 6th week in the RCS rats, while their expression consistently decreased from the 1st and 7th day in the MNU rats. Moreover, Wnt signaling pathway proteins expression was significantly up-regulated in both rat models. Knockdown of Ofd1 expression resulted in a smaller population, shorter length of cell cilia, and lower cell viability. Ofd1 overexpression partially attenuated MNU toxic effects by reducing ROS levels and mitigating apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating Ofd1 localization and its function in rat retina and in retinal degeneration rat models. Ofd1 plays a role in controlling photoreceptor cilium length and number. Importantly, it demonstrates a neuroprotective function by protecting the photoreceptor

  6. Acute versus chronic loss of mammalian Azi1/Cep131 results in distinct ciliary phenotypes.

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    Emma A Hall

    Full Text Available Defects in cilium and centrosome function result in a spectrum of clinically-related disorders, known as ciliopathies. However, the complex molecular composition of these structures confounds functional dissection of what any individual gene product is doing under normal and disease conditions. As part of an siRNA screen for genes involved in mammalian ciliogenesis, we and others have identified the conserved centrosomal protein Azi1/Cep131 as required for cilia formation, supporting previous Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster mutant studies. Acute loss of Azi1 by knock-down in mouse fibroblasts leads to a robust reduction in ciliogenesis, which we rescue by expressing siRNA-resistant Azi1-GFP. Localisation studies show Azi1 localises to centriolar satellites, and traffics along microtubules becoming enriched around the basal body. Azi1 also localises to the transition zone, a structure important for regulating traffic into the ciliary compartment. To study the requirement of Azi1 during development and tissue homeostasis, Azi1 null mice were generated (Azi1(Gt/Gt. Surprisingly, Azi1(Gt/Gt MEFs have no discernible ciliary phenotype and moreover are resistant to Azi1 siRNA knock-down, demonstrating that a compensation mechanism exists to allow ciliogenesis to proceed despite the lack of Azi1. Cilia throughout Azi1 null mice are functionally normal, as embryonic patterning and adult homeostasis are grossly unaffected. However, in the highly specialised sperm flagella, the loss of Azi1 is not compensated, leading to striking microtubule-based trafficking defects in both the manchette and the flagella, resulting in male infertility. Our analysis of Azi1 knock-down (acute loss versus gene deletion (chronic loss suggests that Azi1 plays a conserved, but non-essential trafficking role in ciliogenesis. Importantly, our in vivo analysis reveals Azi1 mediates novel trafficking functions necessary for flagellogenesis. Our study highlights the

  7. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

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    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the Neks reveals early diversification of ciliary-cell cycle kinases.

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    Jeremy D K Parker

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available NIMA-related kinases (Neks have been studied in diverse eukaryotes, including the fungus Aspergillus and the ciliate Tetrahymena. In the former, a single Nek plays an essential role in cell cycle regulation; in the latter, which has more than 30 Neks in its genome, multiple Neks regulate ciliary length. Mammalian genomes encode an intermediate number of Neks, several of which are reported to play roles in cell cycle regulation and/or localize to centrosomes. Previously, we reported that organisms with cilia typically have more Neks than organisms without cilia, but were unable to establish the evolutionary history of the gene family.We have performed a large-scale analysis of the Nek family using Bayesian techniques, including tests of alternate topologies. We find that the Nek family had already expanded in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes, a ciliated cell which likely expressed at least five Neks. We suggest that Neks played an important role in the common ancestor in regulating cilia, centrioles, and centrosomes with respect to mitotic entry, and that this role continues today in organisms with cilia. Organisms that lack cilia generally show a reduction in the number of Nek clades represented, sometimes associated with lineage specific expansion of a single clade, as has occurred in the plants.This is the first rigorous phylogenetic analysis of a kinase family across a broad array of phyla. Our findings provide a coherent framework for the study of Neks and their roles in coordinating cilia and cell cycle progression.

  9. The ciliary margin zone of the mammalian retina generates retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286

  10. Up-regulation of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes by Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Sendtner, Michael; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), but not NF-κB, by aspirin, the abrogation of aspirin-induced expression of CNTF by siRNA knockdown of CREB, the presence of a consensus cAMP-response element in the promoter of CNTF, and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by aspirin suggest that aspirin increases the expression of the Cntf gene via the activation of CREB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that aspirin-induced astroglial CNTF was also functionally active and that supernatants of aspirin-treated astrocytes of wild type, but not Cntf null, mice increased myelin-associated proteins in oligodendrocytes and protected oligodendrocytes from TNF-α insult. These results highlight a new and novel myelinogenic property of aspirin, which may be of benefit for multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:23653362

  11. Neural stem cells in the adult ciliary epithelium express GFAP and are regulated by Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ani V.; Zhao Xing; James, Jackson; Kim, Min; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    The identification of neural stem cells with retinal potential in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult mammals is of considerable interest because of their potential for replacing or rescuing degenerating retinal neurons in disease or injury. The evaluation of such a potential requires characterization of these cells with regard to their phenotypic properties, potential, and regulatory mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that rat CE stem cells/progenitors in neurosphere culture display astrocytic nature in terms of expressing glial intermediate neurofilament protein, GFAP. The GFAP-expressing CE stem cells/progenitors form neurospheres in proliferating conditions and generate neurons when shifted to differentiating conditions. These cells express components of the canonical Wnt pathway and its activation promotes their proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway influences neuronal differentiation of CE stem cells/progenitors in a context dependent manner. Our observations suggest that CE stem cells/progenitors share phenotypic properties and regulatory mechanism(s) with neural stem cells elsewhere in the adult CNS

  12. Intraocular gene transfer of ciliary neurotrophic factor rescues photoreceptor degeneration in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Ping; Lin, Po-Kang; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Khor, Chin-Ni; Lee, Yih-Jing

    2004-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is known as an important factor in the regulation of retinal cell growth. We used both recombinant CNTF and an adenovirus carrying the CNTF gene to regulate retinal photoreceptor expression in a retinal degenerative animal, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae from recombinant-CNTF-treated, adenoviral-CNTF-treated, saline-operated, and contralateral untreated preparations were examined for those exhibiting CNTF photoreceptor protective effects. Cell apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae was also detected. It was found that CNTF had a potent effect on delaying the photoreceptor degeneration process in RCS rats. Furthermore, adenovirus CNTF gene transfer was proven to be better at rescuing photoreceptors than that when using recombinant CNTF, since adenoviral CNTF prolonged the photoreceptor protection effect. The function of the photoreceptors was also examined by taking electroretinograms of different animals. Adenoviral-CNTF-treated eyes showed better retinal function than did the contralateral control eyes. This study indicates that adenoviral CNTF effectively rescues degenerating photoreceptors in RCS rats. Copyright 2004 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Cakmak, Aslihan; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Ozcelik, Hayriye Ugur; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Kiper, Nural; Arikan, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study. What is Known: • Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power. • Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function. What is New: • The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages. • Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.

  14. Apparent X-linked primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with retinitis pigmentosa and a hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyński, Maciej R; Dmeńska, Hanna; Witt, Michał

    2004-01-01

    Three brothers, one 10-year-old and a pair of 14-year-old dizygotic twins--expressed the classical, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with typical ophthalmoscopic findings, night blindness, visual field constricted to 10 degrees and flat ERG response. All three brothers were also diagnosed with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and had recurrent respiratory infections, chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis. In all of them, resection of the middle lobe of the right lung was performed. A similar clinical picture of coexisting RP and PCD was noted in the brother of the probands' mother. All probands displayed situs solitus. Consistent with the X-linked mode of RP inheritance, there were also three obligatory female carriers of the disorder in this family: the mother of the affected boys, her mother and a daughter of her brother. In all of them, retinitis pigmentosa "sine pigmento" was found with milder but clinically significant symptoms (mild night blindness, visual field constricted to 30 degrees, and scotopic and photopic ERG responses reduced to 30-60%). No extraocular symptoms were detected in any of the heterozygous female carriers. This family presents an example of two rare phenomena: X-linked dominant retinitis pigmentosa (with milder expression in females) and a rare combination of RP with recurrent respiratory infections due to PCD.

  15. Exogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reduces synaptic depression during repetitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has trophic and maintenance effects on several types of peripheral and central neurons, glia, and cells outside the nervous system. Both CNTF and its receptor, CNTF-Rα, are expressed in the muscle. We use confocal immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic cytokine and its receptor are present in the pre- and post-synaptic sites of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Applied CNTF (7.5-200 ng/ml, 60 min-3 h) does not acutely affect spontaneous potentials (size or frequency) or quantal content of the evoked acetylcholine release from post-natal (in weak or strong axonal inputs on dually innervated end plates or in the most mature singly innervated synapses at P6) or adult (P30) NMJ of Levator auris longus muscle of the mice. However, CNTF reduces roughly 50% the depression produced by repetitive stimulation (40 Hz, 2 min) on the adult NMJs. Our findings indicate that, unlike neurotrophins, exogenous CNTF does not acutely modulate transmitter release locally at the mammalian neuromuscular synapse but can protect mature end plates from activity-induced synaptic depression. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  16. STOCHASTIC SIMULATION FOR BUFFELGRASS (Cenchrus ciliaris L. PASTURES IN MARIN, N. L., MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Romualdo Martínez-López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic simulation model was constructed to determine the response of net primary production of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. and its dry matter intake by cattle, in Marín, NL, México. Buffelgrass is very important for extensive livestock industry in arid and semiarid areas of northeastern Mexico. To evaluate the behavior of the model by comparing the model results with those reported in the literature was the objective in this experiment. Model simulates the monthly production of dry matter of green grass, as well as its conversion to senescence and dry grass and eventually to mulch, depending on precipitation and temperature. Model also simulates consumption of green and dry grass for cattle. The stocking rate used in the model simulation was 2 hectares per animal unit. Annual production ranged from 4.5 to 10.2 t of dry matter per hectare with annual rainfall of 300 to 704 mm, respectively. Total annual intake required per animal unit was estimated at 3.6 ton. Simulated net primary production coincides with reports in the literature, so the model was evaluated successfully.

  17. The effects of the stem cell on ciliary regeneration of injured rabbit sinonasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuzlu, Ali; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Karagöz, Tuğba; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Tatar, İlkan; Bayır, Ömer; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-08-01

    Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus of the subjects was peeled off bilaterally. No additional procedure was applied to the subjects in Group 1. In Group 2, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell was implanted on the wound edges of the subjects. In Group 3, a stem cell sheet of three layers was laid onto the defect area. All subjects were killed after 3 weeks. The presence of the stem cell stained with bromo-deoxyuridine was assessed with a light microscope, whereas cilia density, ciliated orientation and cilia structure were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Ciliary densities in Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically superior compared to the control group (p stem cell increased the healing of the injured maxillary sinus mucosa of the rabbits in terms of cilia presence, density and morphology regardless of the implementation technique. Level of evidence NA.

  18. Central retinal and posterior ciliary artery occlusion after particle embolization of the external carotid artery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mames, R N; Snady-McCoy, L; Guy, J

    1991-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy underwent neuroradiologic embolization of the left internal maxillary artery with polyvinyl alcohol to stop traumatic epistaxis after failure of surgical clipping and nasal packing. Selective catheterization of the external carotid artery before embolization showed a faint choroidal blush. Although the procedure provided hemostasis, embolization to the central retinal artery and ciliary arteries resulted in loss of vision. The route of the emboli to the eye was via the anastomotic network of the lacrimal artery supplied by the external carotid artery system. Neuroradiologic embolization of the external carotid artery is an effective mode of therapy for dural-cavernous fistulas when fed by the external carotid artery system. Because the blood flow to the brain and eye is predominantly supplied by the internal carotid artery, embolization of the external carotid artery is considered relatively safe. The authors document the importance of recognition of the choroidal blush during selective external carotid artery angiography as a sign of collateral blood flow to the eye. Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of blindness as a complication of external carotid artery embolization when this sign is present.

  19. Functional short- and long-term effects of nasal CPAP with and without humidification on the ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, J Ulrich; Kraus, Marius; Birk, Richard; Schultz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2014-03-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but its impact on ciliary function is unclear to date. Furthermore, CPAP is associated with numerous side effects related to the nose and upper airway. Humidified CPAP is used to relieve these symptoms, but again, little is known regarding its effect on ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 31 patients with OSA (AHI >15/h) were randomized to two treatment arms: nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) with humidification or nCPAP without humidification for one night in each modality to assess short-term effects of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and mucus transport time (MTT) and consecutively for 8 weeks in each modality to assess long-term effects in a crossover fashion. The baseline CBF was 4.8 ± 0.6 Hz, and baseline MTT was 540 ± 221 s. After one night of CPAP with and without humidification, ciliary function increased moderately yet with statistical significance (p humidification did not differ statistically significant. Regarding long-term effects of CPAP, a statistically significant increase in ciliary function above the baseline level and above the short-term level was shown without humidification (7.2 ± 0.4 Hz; 402 ± 176 s; p humidification (9.3 ± 0.7 Hz; 313 ± 95 s; p humidification, nCPAP has moderate effects on short-term ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. However, a significant increase in ciliary function-both in terms of an increased CBF and a decreased MTT-was detected after long-term use. The effect was more pronounced when humidification was used during nCPAP.

  20. Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw.) spineless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Ten Girolando cows, 500 ± 51.6 kg bodyweight, were distributed in a double ... agronomic characteristics, such as being tolerant to hydric stress, and .... 4 Assayed with a heat-stable amylase and corrected for ash and protein ...

  1. Actual Situation and Further Development of Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Highly Active Waste (HAW) from the View of the Competent Authority in the Field of section 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastl, Christoph; Drobniewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    According to the German atomic law the storage of nuclear material has to be licensed following section 6 by the competent authority in this field, which is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Interim storage in its actual form started in 2002 in the interim storage facility next to the NPP Lingen. Since this time each NPP erected its own storage facilities and three central storage facilities have been built. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the vitrified high level waste (HAW) will be stored there until final disposal. The time span from now on to the point of opening of a final disposal facility shall be presented from a regulators point of view, divided into different phase which could spread from years to decades. Special attention shall be drawn on the different aspects influencing the licensing process and its duration at the moment and in future including the capabilities of the competent authority. (authors)

  2. An Automated Measurement of Ciliary Beating Frequency using a Combined Optical Flow and Peak Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woojae; Han, Tae Hwa; Kim, Hyun Jun; Park, Man Young; Kim, Ku Sang; Park, Rae Woong

    2011-06-01

    The mucociliary transport system is a major defense mechanism of the respiratory tract. The performance of mucous transportation in the nasal cavity can be represented by a ciliary beating frequency (CBF). This study proposes a novel method to measure CBF by using optical flow. To obtain objective estimates of CBF from video images, an automated computer-based image processing technique is developed. This study proposes a new method based on optical flow for image processing and peak detection for signal processing. We compare the measuring accuracy of the method in various combinations of image processing (optical flow versus difference image) and signal processing (fast Fourier transform [FFT] vs. peak detection [PD]). The digital high-speed video method with a manual count of CBF in slow motion video play, is the gold-standard in CBF measurement. We obtained a total of fifty recorded ciliated sinonasal epithelium images to measure CBF from the Department of Otolaryngology. The ciliated sinonasal epithelium images were recorded at 50-100 frames per second using a charge coupled device camera with an inverted microscope at a magnification of ×1,000. The mean square errors and variance for each method were 1.24, 0.84 Hz; 11.8, 2.63 Hz; 3.22, 1.46 Hz; and 3.82, 1.53 Hz for optical flow (OF) + PD, OF + FFT, difference image [DI] + PD, and DI + FFT, respectively. Of the four methods, PD using optical flow showed the best performance for measuring the CBF of nasal mucosa. The proposed method was able to measure CBF more objectively and efficiently than what is currently possible.

  3. Proteomic analysis of isolated chlamydomonas centrioles reveals orthologs of ciliary-disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lani C; Romijn, Edwin P; Zamora, Ivan; Yates, John R; Marshall, Wallace F

    2005-06-21

    The centriole is one of the most enigmatic organelles in the cell. Centrioles are cylindrical, microtubule-based barrels found in the core of the centrosome. Centrioles also act as basal bodies during interphase to nucleate the assembly of cilia and flagella. There are currently only a handful of known centriole proteins. We used mass-spectrometry-based MudPIT (multidimensional protein identification technology) to identify the protein composition of basal bodies (centrioles) isolated from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This analysis detected the majority of known centriole proteins, including centrin, epsilon tubulin, and the cartwheel protein BLD10p. By combining proteomic data with information about gene expression and comparative genomics, we identified 45 cross-validated centriole candidate proteins in two classes. Members of the first class of proteins (BUG1-BUG27) are encoded by genes whose expression correlates with flagellar assembly and which therefore may play a role in ciliogenesis-related functions of basal bodies. Members of the second class (POC1-POC18) are implicated by comparative-genomics and -proteomics studies to be conserved components of the centriole. We confirmed centriolar localization for the human homologs of four candidate proteins. Three of the cross-validated centriole candidate proteins are encoded by orthologs of genes (OFD1, NPHP-4, and PACRG) implicated in mammalian ciliary function and disease, suggesting that oral-facial-digital syndrome and nephronophthisis may involve a dysfunction of centrioles and/or basal bodies. By analyzing isolated Chlamydomonas basal bodies, we have been able to obtain the first reported proteomic analysis of the centriole.

  4. Evaluation of pulmonary disease using static lung volumes in primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Pioggia, Giovanni; Caramella, Davide; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Zangani, Marta; Chinellato, Iolanda; Maggi, Fabrizio; Tezza, Giovanna; Macchia, Pierantonio; Boner, Attilio

    2012-11-01

    In primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) lung damage is usually evaluated by high-resolution CT (HRCT). To evaluate whether HRCT abnormalities and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were better predicted by spirometry or plethysmography. A cross-sectional study performed in consecutive patients with PCD who underwent sputum culture, spirometry, plethysmography and HRCT within 48 h. Principal component analysis and soft computing were used for data evaluation. Fifty patients (26 children) were studied. P aeruginosa infection was found in 40% of the patients and bronchiectasis in 88%. There was a correlation between infection with P aeruginosa and extent of bronchiectasis (p=0.009; r =0.367) and air-trapping (p=0.03; r =0.315). Moreover, there was an association between infection with P aeruginosa and residual volume (RV) values >150% (p=0.04) and RV/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio >140% (p=0.001), but not between infection with P aeruginosa and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))<80%, or forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEF(25-75%))<70% or FEV(1)/FVC<70% (<80% in children). Severity of the total lung impairment on chest HRCT directly correlated with RV when expressed as per cent predicted (p=0.003; r =0.423), and RV/TLC (p<0.001; r =0.513) or when expressed as z scores (p=0.002, r =0.451 and p<0.001, r =0.536 respectively). Principal component analysis on plethysmographic but not on spirometry data allowed recognition of different severities of focal air trapping, atelectasis and extent of bronchiectasis. Plethysmography better predicts HRCT abnormalities than spirometry. Whether it might be a useful test to define populations of patients with PCD who should or should not have HRCT scans requires further longitudinal studies.

  5. Clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve in anterior chamber versus ciliary sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, A; Önol, M

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube insertion through the anterior chamber angle (ACA) or through the ciliary sulcus (CS).Patients and methodsIn this case-control study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive glaucoma patients who had undergone AGV implantation either through the ACA or the CS between March 2009 and December 2014. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications prescribed, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), glaucoma type, success rate, complications, and survival ratios. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS.ResultsThere were 68 eyes in the ACA group and 35 eyes in the CS group. There were no significant differences between the groups for age, sex, laterality, IOP, preoperative glaucoma medication number, BCVA or glaucoma type (P>0.05). The postoperative follow-up period was 27.2±16.5 months and 30.2±17.7 months for the ACA and the CS groups (P=0.28); IOP values were significantly reduced at the last visit to 16.4±7.2 mm Hg and 14.4±6.8 mm Hg. The difference in the last-visit IOP between the groups was not significant (P=0.06), but the IOP reduction ratio was higher in the CS group (P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the number of postoperative medications (P=0.18). Postoperative complications were similar, but the incidence of flat anterior chamber was higher in the ACA group (P=0.05).ConclusionsThe use of an AGV can control IOP in the majority of cases whether placed in the ACA or the CS. The IOP reduction ratio seemed to be higher in the CS group.

  6. In vitro assessment of TAT — Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor therapeutic potential for peripheral nerve regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbon, Silvia; Stocco, Elena; Negro, Alessandro; Dalzoppo, Daniele; Borgio, Luca; Rajendran, Senthilkumar; Grandi, Francesca; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In regenerative neurobiology, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is raising high interest as a multifunctional neurocytokine, playing a key role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Despite its promising trophic and regulatory activity, its clinical application is limited by the onset of severe side effects, due to the lack of efficient intracellular trafficking after administration. In this study, recombinant CNTF linked to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) was investigated in vitro and found to be an optimized fusion protein which preserves neurotrophic activity, besides enhancing cellular uptake for therapeutic advantage. Moreover, a compelling protein delivery method was defined, in the future perspective of improving nerve regeneration strategies. Following determination of TAT-CNTF molecular weight and concentration, its specific effect on neural SH-SY5Y and PC12 cultures was assessed. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the fusion protein triggers PC12 cell growth within 6 h of stimulation. At the same time, the activation of signal transduction pathway and enhancement of cellular trafficking were found to be accomplished in both neural cell lines after specific treatment with TAT-CNTF. Finally, the recombinant growth factor was successfully loaded on oxidized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds, and more efficiently released when polymer oxidation rate increased. Taken together, our results highlight that the TAT domain addiction to the protein sequence preserves CNTF specific neurotrophic activity in vitro, besides improving cellular uptake. Moreover, oxidized PVA could represent an ideal biomaterial for the development of nerve conduits loaded with the fusion protein to be delivered to the site of nerve injury. - Highlights: • TAT-CNTF is an optimized fusion protein that preserves neurotrophic activity. • In neural cell lines, TAT-CNTF triggers the activation of signal transduction. • Fast cellular uptake of TAT-CNTF was

  7. In vitro assessment of TAT — Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor therapeutic potential for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.barbon@yahoo.it [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Foundation for Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Signaling (TES) ONLUS, Via De Sanctis 10, Caselle di Selvazzano Dentro, 35030 Padua (Italy); Stocco, Elena, E-mail: elena.stocco@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Foundation for Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Signaling (TES) ONLUS, Via De Sanctis 10, Caselle di Selvazzano Dentro, 35030 Padua (Italy); Negro, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.negro@unipd.it [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Colombo 3, 35121 Padua (Italy); Dalzoppo, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.dalzoppo@unipd.it [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Borgio, Luca, E-mail: borgio.luca@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Rajendran, Senthilkumar, E-mail: senthilstem@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padua (Italy); Grandi, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.grandi7825@gmail.com [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Pediatric Surgery, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35121 Padua (Italy); Porzionato, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.porzionato@unipd.it [Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Gabelli 65, 35121 Padua (Italy); Macchi, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.macchi@unipd.it [Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Gabelli 65, 35121 Padua (Italy); De Caro, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.decaro@unipd.it [Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Via Gabelli 65, 35121 Padua (Italy); and others

    2016-10-15

    In regenerative neurobiology, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) is raising high interest as a multifunctional neurocytokine, playing a key role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Despite its promising trophic and regulatory activity, its clinical application is limited by the onset of severe side effects, due to the lack of efficient intracellular trafficking after administration. In this study, recombinant CNTF linked to the transactivator transduction domain (TAT) was investigated in vitro and found to be an optimized fusion protein which preserves neurotrophic activity, besides enhancing cellular uptake for therapeutic advantage. Moreover, a compelling protein delivery method was defined, in the future perspective of improving nerve regeneration strategies. Following determination of TAT-CNTF molecular weight and concentration, its specific effect on neural SH-SY5Y and PC12 cultures was assessed. Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the fusion protein triggers PC12 cell growth within 6 h of stimulation. At the same time, the activation of signal transduction pathway and enhancement of cellular trafficking were found to be accomplished in both neural cell lines after specific treatment with TAT-CNTF. Finally, the recombinant growth factor was successfully loaded on oxidized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds, and more efficiently released when polymer oxidation rate increased. Taken together, our results highlight that the TAT domain addiction to the protein sequence preserves CNTF specific neurotrophic activity in vitro, besides improving cellular uptake. Moreover, oxidized PVA could represent an ideal biomaterial for the development of nerve conduits loaded with the fusion protein to be delivered to the site of nerve injury. - Highlights: • TAT-CNTF is an optimized fusion protein that preserves neurotrophic activity. • In neural cell lines, TAT-CNTF triggers the activation of signal transduction. • Fast cellular uptake of TAT-CNTF was

  8. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ciliary body (CB of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE and pigmented (PE neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. METHODS: We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (NPE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma.

  9. The role of hair cells, cilia and ciliary motility in otolith formation in the zebrafish otic vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooke-Vaughan, Georgina A; Huang, Peng; Hammond, Katherine L; Schier, Alexander F; Whitfield, Tanya T

    2012-05-01

    Otoliths are biomineralised structures required for the sensation of gravity, linear acceleration and sound in the zebrafish ear. Otolith precursor particles, initially distributed throughout the otic vesicle lumen, become tethered to the tips of hair cell kinocilia (tether cilia) at the otic vesicle poles, forming two otoliths. We have used high-speed video microscopy to investigate the role of cilia and ciliary motility in otolith formation. In wild-type ears, groups of motile cilia are present at the otic vesicle poles, surrounding the immotile tether cilia. A few motile cilia are also found on the medial wall, but most cilia (92-98%) in the otic vesicle are immotile. In mutants with defective cilia (iguana) or ciliary motility (lrrc50), otoliths are frequently ectopic, untethered or fused. Nevertheless, neither cilia nor ciliary motility are absolutely required for otolith tethering: a mutant that lacks cilia completely (MZovl) is still capable of tethering otoliths at the otic vesicle poles. In embryos with attenuated Notch signalling [mindbomb mutant or Su(H) morphant], supernumerary hair cells develop and otolith precursor particles bind to the tips of all kinocilia, or bind directly to the hair cells' apical surface if cilia are absent [MZovl injected with a Su(H)1+2 morpholino]. However, if the first hair cells are missing (atoh1b morphant), otolith formation is severely disrupted and delayed. Our data support a model in which hair cells produce an otolith precursor-binding factor, normally localised to tether cell kinocilia. We also show that embryonic movement plays a minor role in the formation of normal otoliths.

  10. SURGICAL INTERVENTION AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES: I. CENTRIPETAL CILIARY BODY, CAPSULE AND LENS MOVEMENT IN RHESUS MONKEYS OF VARYING AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Mary Ann; Mcdonald, Jared P.; James, Rebecca J.; Heatley, Gregg A.; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine how surgically altering the normal relationship between the lens and the ciliary body in rhesus monkeys affects centripetal ciliary body and lens movement. Methods In 18 rhesus monkey eyes (aged 6–27 years), accommodation was induced before and after surgery by electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (E–W) nucleus. Accommodative amplitude was measured by coincidence refractometry. Goniovideography was performed before and after intra- and extra-capsular lens extraction (ICLE, ECLE) and anterior regional zonulolysis. Centripetal lens/capsule movements, centripetal ciliary process (CP) movements, and circumlental space were measured by computerized image analysis of the goniovideography images. Results Centripetal accommodative CP and capsule movement increased in velocity and amplitude post-ECLE compared to pre-ECLE regardless of age (n=5). The presence of the lens substance retarded capsule movement by ~21% in the young eyes and by ~62% in the older eyes. Post-ICLE compared to pre-ICLE centripetal accommodative CP movement was dampened in all eyes in which the anterior vitreous was disturbed (n=7), but not in eyes in which the anterior vitreous was left intact (n=2). Following anterior regional zonulolysis (n=4), lens position shifted toward the lysed quadrant during accommodation. Conclusions The presence of the lens substance, capsule zonular attachments, and Wiegers ligament may play a role in centripetal CP movement. The capsule is still capable of centripetal movement in the older eye (although at a reduced capacity) and may have the ability to produce ~6 diopters of accommodation in the presence of a normal young crystalline lens or a similar surrogate. PMID:18552393

  11. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required.

  12. A case report of primary ciliary dyskinesia, laterality defects and developmental delay caused by the co-existence of a single gene and chromosome disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  13. Lung structure and function similarities between primary ciliary dyskinesia and mild cystic fibrosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Marco; Montella, Silvia; Mollica, Carmine; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Iacotucci, Paola; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Cervasio, Mariarosaria; Raia, Valeria; Santamaria, Francesca

    2017-04-12

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are increasingly compared. There are no chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative studies of PCD and CF. We assessed clinical, functional, microbiological and MRI findings in PCD and mild CF patients in order to evaluate different expression of lung disease. Twenty PCD (15.1 years) and 20 CF subjects with mild respiratory impairment (16 years, 70% with pancreatic insufficiency) underwent MRI, spirometry, and sputum cultures when clinically stable. MRI was scored using the modified Helbich system. PCD was diagnosed later than CF (9.9 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.03), despite earlier symptoms (0.1 versus 0.6 years, p = 0.02). In the year preceding the study, patients from both groups underwent two systemic antibiotic courses (p = 0.48). MRI total scores were 11.6 ± 0.7 and 9.1 ± 1 in PCD and CF, respectively. FEV 1 and FVC Z-scores were -1.75 (range, -4.6-0.7) and -0.6 (-3.9-1.8) in PCD, and -0.9 (range, -5.4-2.3) and -0.3 (-3.4-2.5) in CF, respectively. No difference was found between lung function or structure, despite a higher MRI subscore of collapse/consolidation in PCD versus CF (1.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). These findings were confirmed after data-control for diagnostic delay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were more frequent in CF than in PCD (p = 0.05 and p = 0.003, respectively). MRI is a valuable radiation-free tool for comparative PCD and CF lung disease assessment. Patients with PCD may exhibit similar MRI and lung function changes as CF subjects with mild pulmonary disease. Delay in PCD diagnosis is unlikely the only determinant of similarities.

  14. Does the disruption of horizontal anterior ciliary vessels affect the blood-aqueous barrier function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Meihua; Yang, Mei; Xie, Renyi; Zhao, Zhimin; Huang, Xingxing

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the significance of the anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) preservation during the conventional horizontal strabismus surgery. Patients (≥ 8 years) with horizontal strabismus were randomly allocated into group 1 (with ACV preservation) and group 2 (without ACV preservation). The surgical eyes in group 1 were further divided into group A (one rectus muscle operated) and group B (two rectus muscles operated). Similarly, eyes in group 2 were divided into group C (one rectus muscle operated) and group D (two rectus muscles operated). The success rate of ACV preservation was calculated. The anterior chamber flare measurements of each eye by laser flare photometry were recorded on the day prior to and after operation. The flare values between groups and between pre- and post-operation in each group were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test respectively. In groups A and B, the success rate of ACV preservation was 82% (27/33) and 70% (28/40)respectively, and the flare values between pre- and post-operation showed no significant differences(4.378 ± 1.527, 4.544 ± 1.452, P = 0.526; 4.625 ± 1.090, 4.989 ± 1.468, P = 0.101 respectively). However, the postoperative values were significantly increased in group C and group D(4.661 ± 1.031, 5.039 ± 1.310, P = 0.025; 4.933 ± 1.691, 5.502 ± 1.430, P = 0.000 respectively). The postoperative flare readings of group D were significantly higher than group B, while group A and group C had no significant variation. ACV preservation probably has clinical significance in reducing the undesirable influence on the blood-aqueous barrier.

  15. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Control of ciliary motility by Ca2+: Integration of Ca2+-dependent functions and targets for Ca2+ action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca 2+ -induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca 2+ current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca 2+ current from Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca 2+ -dependent K + and Ca 2+ -dependent Na + currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca 2+ action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a 125 I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed

  17. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  18. Mutations in ZMYND10, a gene essential for proper axonemal assembly of inner and outer dynein arms in humans and flies, cause primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Daniel J; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Shoemark, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a ciliopathy characterized by airway disease, infertility, and laterality defects, often caused by dual loss of the inner dynein arms (IDAs) and outer dynein arms (ODAs), which power cilia and flagella beating. Using whole-exome and candidate-gene Sanger resequ...

  19. CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merveille, Anne-Christine; Davis, Erica E; Becker-Heck, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory c...

  20. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  1. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup...

  2. Long-term follow-up of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) receiving intraocular ciliary neurotrophic factor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David G.; Bennett, Lea D.; Duncan, Jacque L.; Weleber, Richard G.; Pennesi, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy of ciliary neurotrophic factor delivered via an intraocular encapsulated cell implant for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Design Long-term follow up of a multicenter, sham-controlled study. Methods Thirty-six patients at three CNTF4 sites were randomly assigned to receive a high- or low- dose implant in one eye and sham surgery in the fellow eye. The primary endpoint (change in visual field sensitivity at 12 months) has been reported previously.1 Here we report long-term visual acuity, visual field and optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes in 24 patients either retaining or explanting the device at 24 months relative to sham-treated eyes. Results Eyes retaining the implant showed significantly greater visual field loss from baseline than either explanted eyes or sham eyes through 42 months. By 60 months and continuing through 96 months, visual field loss was comparable among sham-treated eyes, eyes retaining the implant and explanted eyes, as was visual acuity and OCT macular volume. Conclusions Over the short term, ciliary neurotrophic factor released continuously from an intra-vitreal implant lead to loss of total visual field sensitivity that was greater than the natural progression in the sham-treated eye. This additional loss of sensitivity related to the active implant was reversible when the implant was removed. Over the long term (60 – 96 months), there was no evidence of efficacy for visual acuity, visual field sensitivity or OCT measures of retinal structure. PMID:27457255

  3. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: heterochrony in polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae. We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements.

  4. Natural hybrids in the genus of Aloe (Aloeaceae) in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural hybrids can arise in the genus Aloe because their chief pollinators, sunbirds, are not species-specific when feeding on nectar. From literature and the observations of the writer and others, 16 cases of known or suspected natural interspecific hybrids in East Africa are recorded. Journal of East African Natural History ...

  5. Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Leads to Persistent Inflammation and Tissue Damage Following Uveitis Due to Reduced Levels of Ciliary Body Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU in diabetic streptozotocin (STZ-hyperglycemic rats. STZ-hyperglycemic rats had impaired levels of the enzyme HO-1 within the ciliary bodies if compared with the nondiabetic rats. STZ-hyperglycemic rats also predisposed the eye to produce high levels of both the cytokines IL-1 β and CXCL8. Subsequent EIU further and significantly P<.01 increased the cytokines production, an effect partly prevented by hemin treatment. Most importantly, hemin, an inducer of heme oxygenase expression and activity, recovered the huge number of infiltrated polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMN within the ciliary bodies associated with STZ-hyperglycemic state and EIU damage. Impairment of the stress-sensitive enzyme HO-1 in STZ-hyperglycemic rats increases and prolongs the inflammatory response to EIU.

  6. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  7. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural properties of the larval ciliary band-associated strand in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katow, Hideki; Katow, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Uemura, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The swimming activity of sea urchin larvae is dependent on the ciliary band (CB) on the larval surface and is regulated by several neurotransmitters, including serotonin (5HT), dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However, the CB signal transmission mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the structural relationship between the CB and external signal receptors by immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic analyses of sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, larvae. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; GABA synthetase) was detected in a strand of multiple cells along the circumoral CB in 6-arm plutei. The GAD-expressing strand was closely associated with the CB on the oral ectoderm side. The ciliary band-associated strand (CBAS) also expressed the 5HT receptor (5HThpr) and encephalopsin (ECPN) throughout the cytoplasm and comprised 1- to 2-μm diameter axon-like long stretched regions and sporadic 6- to 7-μm diameter bulbous nucleated regions (perikarya) that protruded into the oral ectoderm side. Besides the laterally polarized morphology of the CBAS cells, Epith-2, which is the epithelial lateral cell surface-specific protein of the sea urchin embryo and larva, was expressed exclusively by perikarya but not by the axon-like regions. The CBAS exposed its narrow apical surface on the larval epithelium between the CB and squamous cells and formed adherens junctions (AJs) on the apical side between them. Despite the presence of the CBAS axon-like regions, tubulins, such as α-, β-, and acetylated α-tubulins, were not detected. However, the neuroendocrine cell marker protein synaptophysin was detected in the axon-like regions and in bouton-like protrusions that contained numerous small ultrastructural vesicles. The unique morphology of the CBAS in the sea urchin larva epithelium had not been reported. The CBAS expresses a remarkable number of receptors to environmental stimuli and proteins that are probably involved in signal

  8. The ciliary marginal zone of the zebrafish retina: clonal and time-lapse analysis of a continuously growing tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yinan; Almeida, Alexandra D; Rulands, Steffen; Chalour, Naima; Muresan, Leila; Wu, Yunmin; Simons, Benjamin D; He, Jie; Harris, William A

    2016-04-01

    Clonal analysis is helping us understand the dynamics of cell replacement in homeostatic adult tissues (Simons and Clevers, 2011). Such an analysis, however, has not yet been achieved for continuously growing adult tissues, but is essential if we wish to understand the architecture of adult organs. The retinas of lower vertebrates grow throughout life from retinal stem cells (RSCs) and retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) at the rim of the retina, called the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Here, we show that RSCs reside in a niche at the extreme periphery of the CMZ and divide asymmetrically along a radial (peripheral to central) axis, leaving one daughter in the peripheral RSC niche and the other more central where it becomes an RPC. We also show that RPCs of the CMZ have clonal sizes and compositions that are statistically similar to progenitor cells of the embryonic retina and fit the same stochastic model of proliferation. These results link embryonic and postembryonic cell behaviour, and help to explain the constancy of tissue architecture that has been generated over a lifetime. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identified a Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutation of LRRC6 in a Chinese Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a clinical rare peculiar disorder, mainly featured by respiratory infection, tympanitis, nasosinusitis, and male infertility. Previous study demonstrated it is an autosomal recessive disease and by 2017 almost 40 pathologic genes have been identified. Among them are the leucine-rich repeat- (LRR- containing 6 (LRRC6 codes for a 463-amino-acid cytoplasmic protein, expressed distinctively in motile cilia cells, including the testis cells and the respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we applied whole-exome sequencing combined with PCD-known genes filtering to explore the genetic lesion of a PCD patient. A novel compound heterozygous mutation in LRRC6 (c.183T>G/p.N61K; c.179-1G>A was identified and coseparated in this family. The missense mutation (c.183T>G/p.N61K may lead to a substitution of asparagine by lysine at position 61 in exon 3 of LRRC6. The splice site mutation (c.179-1G>A may cause a premature stop codon in exon 4 and decrease the mRNA levels of LRRC6. Both mutations were not present in our 200 local controls, dbSNP, and 1000 genomes. Three bioinformatics programs also predicted that both mutations are deleterious. Our study not only further supported the importance of LRRC6 in PCD, but also expanded the spectrum of LRRC6 mutations and will contribute to the genetic diagnosis and counseling of PCD patients.

  10. Segmental allotetraploidy and allelic interactions in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.) as revealed by genome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, R W; Burson, B L; Burow, O; Wang, Y W; Chang, C; Li, Z; Paterson, A H; Hussey, M A

    2003-04-01

    Linkage analyses increasingly complement cytological and traditional plant breeding techniques by providing valuable information regarding genome organization and transmission genetics of complex polyploid species. This study reports a genome map of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.). Maternal and paternal maps were constructed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) segregating in 87 F1 progeny from an intraspecific cross between two heterozygous genotypes. A survey of 862 heterologous cDNAs and gDNAs from across the Poaceae, as well as 443 buffelgrass cDNAs, yielded 100 and 360 polymorphic probes, respectively. The maternal map included 322 RFLPs, 47 linkage groups, and 3464 cM, whereas the paternal map contained 245 RFLPs, 42 linkage groups, and 2757 cM. Approximately 70 to 80% of the buffelgrass genome was covered, and the average marker spacing was 10.8 and 11.3 cM on the respective maps. Preferential pairing was indicated between many linkage groups, which supports cytological reports that buffelgrass is a segmental allotetraploid. More preferential pairing (disomy) was found in the maternal than paternal parent across linkage groups (55 vs. 38%) and loci (48 vs. 15%). Comparison of interval lengths in 15 allelic bridges indicated significantly less meiotic recombination in paternal gametes. Allelic interactions were detected in four regions of the maternal map and were absent in the paternal map.

  11. A Low-Cost Method of Ciliary Beat Frequency Measurement Using iPhone and MATLAB: Rabbit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason J; Lemieux, Bryan T; Wong, Brian J F

    2016-08-01

    (1) To determine ciliary beat frequency (CBF) using a consumer-grade cellphone camera and MATLAB and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Prospective animal study. Academic otolaryngology department research laboratory. Five ex vivo tracheal samples were extracted from 3 freshly euthanized (MATLAB programming, the video of the 23°C sample was downsampled to 120, 60, and 30 fps, and Fourier analysis was performed on videos of all frame rates and conditions to determine CBF. CBF of the 23°C sample was also calculated manually frame by frame for verification. Recorded at 240 fps, the CBF at 23°C was 5.03 ± 0.4 Hz, and the CBF at 37°C was 9.08 ± 0.49 Hz (P .05). There is no significant difference between CBF measured via visual inspection and that analyzed by the developed program. Furthermore, all tested acquisition rates are shown to be effective, providing a fast and inexpensive alternative to current CBF measurement protocols. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. Effects of glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A; Kahook, Malik Y

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the potential cytotoxicity of various topical ophthalmic glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell lines. We tested 0.004% travoprost preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), sofZia or 0.001% Polyquad (PQ); and 0.005% latanoprost preserved with 0.020% BAK. We also tested a range of BAK concentrations in balanced salt solution (BSS). TM cells were treated for 10 min at 37°C with solutions diluted 1:10 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. Viability was determined by the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM (n = 6). BAK solutions (diluted 1:10) demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in both cell types (TM and NPCE). With a 1:10 dilution of 0.020% BAK, there were significantly more living NPCE cells (89 ± 6%) than TM cells (57 ± 6%; p < 0.001). In TM cells, travoprost + BAK had statistically fewer live cells (83 ± 5%) than both travoprost + sofZia (97 ± 5%) and travoprost + PQ (97 ± 6%; p < 0.05). Compared with BSS-treated NPCE cells, travoprost had statistically fewer live cells (p < 0.05) when preserved with BAK (85 ± 16%), sofZia (91 ± 6%) or PQ (94 ± 2%). These results demonstrate that substitution of BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater viability of cultured TM cells, the cells involved in the conventional outflow pathway. Cultured NPCE, responsible for aqueous inflow, appear more resilient to BAK.

  13. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  14. Influence of Maternal Undernutrition and Overfeeding on Cardiac Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor and Ventricular Size in Fetal Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Ford, Stephen P.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine nutrition status is reported to correlate with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Either under- or over-nutrition during early to mid gestation contributes to altered fetal growth and ventricular geometry. This study was designed to examine myocardial expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CTNFRα) and its down-stream mediator signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on maternal under- or over-nutrition-induced changes in fetal heart weight. Multiparous ewes were fed with 50% (nutrient-restricted, NR), 100% (control) or 150% (overfed, OF) of NRC requirements from 28 to 78 days of gestation (dG; Term 148 dG). Ewes were euthanized on day 78, and the gravid uteri and fetuses recovered. Ventricular protein expression of CTNFRα, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were quantitated using western blot. Plasma cortisol levels were higher in both NR and OF fetuses whereas plasma IGF-1 levels were lower and higher, in NR and OF fetuses. Fetal weights were reduced by 29.9% in NR ewes and were increased by 22.2% in fetuses from OF ewes compared to control group. Nutrient restriction did not affect fetal heart or ventricular weights whereas overfeeding increased heart and ventricular weights. Protein expression of CTNFRα in fetal ventricular tissue was reduced in OF group whereas STAT3 and pSTAT3 levels were reduced in both NR and OF groups. Expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP3 was unaffected in either NR or OF group. These data suggested that compared with maternal undernutrition, intrauterine overfeeding during early to mid gestation is associated with increases fetal blood concentrations of cortisol and IGF-1 in association with ventricular hypertrophy where reduced expression of CNTFRα and STAT3 may play a role. PMID:17869083

  15. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  16. Vicks VapoRub induces mucin secretion, decreases ciliary beat frequency, and increases tracheal mucus transport in the ferret trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanses, Juan Carlos; Arima, Shinobu; Rubin, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) [Proctor and Gamble; Cincinnati, OH] is often used to relieve symptoms of chest congestion. We cared for a toddler in whom severe respiratory distress developed after VVR was applied directly under her nose. We hypothesized that VVR induced inflammation and adversely affected mucociliary function, and tested this hypothesis in an animal model of airway inflammation. [1] Trachea specimens excised from 15 healthy ferrets were incubated in culture plates lined with 200 mg of VVR, and the mucin secretion was compared to those from controls without VVR. Tracheal mucociliary transport velocity (MCTV) was measured by timing the movement of 4 microL of mucus across the trachea. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using video microscopy. [2] Anesthetized and intubated ferrets inhaled a placebo or VVR that was placed at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube. We evaluated both healthy ferrets and animals in which we first induced tracheal inflammation with bacterial endotoxin (a lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Mucin secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay, and lung water was measured by wet/dry weight ratios. [1] Mucin secretion was increased by 63% over the controls in the VVR in vitro group (p < 0.01). CBF was decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the VVR group. [2] Neither LPS nor VVR increased lung water, but LPS decreased MCTV in both normal airways (31%) and VVR-exposed airways (30%; p = 0.03), and VVR increased MCTV by 34% in LPS-inflamed airways (p = 0.002). VVR stimulates mucin secretion and MCTV in the LPS-inflamed ferret airway. This set of findings is similar to the acute inflammatory stimulation observed with exposure to irritants, and may lead to mucus obstruction of small airways and increased nasal resistance.

  17. The Meckel syndrome- associated protein MKS1 functionally interacts with components of the BBSome and IFT complexes to mediate ciliary trafficking and hedgehog signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Chloe L.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The importance of primary cilia in human health is underscored by the link between ciliary dysfunction and a group of primarily recessive genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features, now known as ciliopathies. Many of the proteins encoded by ciliopathy-associated genes are components of a handful of multi-protein complexes important for the transport of cargo to the basal body and/or into the cilium. A key question is whether different complexes cooperate in cilia formation, and whether they participate in cilium assembly in conjunction with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins. To examine how ciliopathy protein complexes might function together, we have analyzed double mutants of an allele of the Meckel syndrome (MKS) complex protein MKS1 and the BBSome protein BBS4. We find that Mks1; Bbs4 double mutant mouse embryos exhibit exacerbated defects in Hedgehog (Hh) dependent patterning compared to either single mutant, and die by E14.5. Cells from double mutant embryos exhibit a defect in the trafficking of ARL13B, a ciliary membrane protein, resulting in disrupted ciliary structure and signaling. We also examined the relationship between the MKS complex and IFT proteins by analyzing double mutant between Mks1 and a hypomorphic allele of the IFTB component Ift172. Despite each single mutant surviving until around birth, Mks1; Ift172avc1 double mutants die at mid-gestation, and exhibit a dramatic failure of cilia formation. We also find that Mks1 interacts genetically with an allele of Dync2h1, the IFT retrograde motor. Thus, we have demonstrated that the MKS transition zone complex cooperates with the BBSome to mediate trafficking of specific trans-membrane receptors to the cilium. Moreover, the genetic interaction of Mks1 with components of IFT machinery suggests that the transition zone complex facilitates IFT to promote cilium assembly and structure. PMID:28291807

  18. The Meckel syndrome- associated protein MKS1 functionally interacts with components of the BBSome and IFT complexes to mediate ciliary trafficking and hedgehog signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Goetz

    Full Text Available The importance of primary cilia in human health is underscored by the link between ciliary dysfunction and a group of primarily recessive genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features, now known as ciliopathies. Many of the proteins encoded by ciliopathy-associated genes are components of a handful of multi-protein complexes important for the transport of cargo to the basal body and/or into the cilium. A key question is whether different complexes cooperate in cilia formation, and whether they participate in cilium assembly in conjunction with intraflagellar transport (IFT proteins. To examine how ciliopathy protein complexes might function together, we have analyzed double mutants of an allele of the Meckel syndrome (MKS complex protein MKS1 and the BBSome protein BBS4. We find that Mks1; Bbs4 double mutant mouse embryos exhibit exacerbated defects in Hedgehog (Hh dependent patterning compared to either single mutant, and die by E14.5. Cells from double mutant embryos exhibit a defect in the trafficking of ARL13B, a ciliary membrane protein, resulting in disrupted ciliary structure and signaling. We also examined the relationship between the MKS complex and IFT proteins by analyzing double mutant between Mks1 and a hypomorphic allele of the IFTB component Ift172. Despite each single mutant surviving until around birth, Mks1; Ift172avc1 double mutants die at mid-gestation, and exhibit a dramatic failure of cilia formation. We also find that Mks1 interacts genetically with an allele of Dync2h1, the IFT retrograde motor. Thus, we have demonstrated that the MKS transition zone complex cooperates with the BBSome to mediate trafficking of specific trans-membrane receptors to the cilium. Moreover, the genetic interaction of Mks1 with components of IFT machinery suggests that the transition zone complex facilitates IFT to promote cilium assembly and structure.

  19. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about...... cells of mature seminiferous epithelium, but present in Sertoli cell-only tubules in Klinefelter syndrome testis. Peritubular cells in atrophic testis produce overly long cilia. Furthermore cultures of growth-arrested immature mouse Leydig cells express primary cilia that are enriched in components...

  20. Use of a novel cell adhesion method and digital measurement to show stimulus-dependent variation in somatic and oral ciliary beat frequency in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Wade E; Hallworth, Richard; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    When Paramecium encounters positive stimuli, the membrane hyperpolarizes and ciliary beat frequency increases. We adapted an established immobilization protocol using a biological adhesive and a novel digital analysis system to quantify beat frequency in immobilized Paramecium. Cells showed low mortality and demonstrated beat frequencies consistent with previous studies. Chemoattractant molecules, reduction in external potassium, and posterior stimulation all increased somatic beat frequency. In all cases, the oral groove cilia maintained a higher beat frequency than mid-body cilia, but only oral cilia from cells stimulated with chemoattactants showed an increase from basal levels. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  1. Validation of a health-related quality of life instrument for primary ciliary dyskinesia (QOL-PCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Laura; Leigh, Margaret W; Dell, Sharon D; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Quittner, Alexandra L; Lucas, Jane S

    2017-09-01

    Quality of life (QOL)-primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is the first disease-specific, health-related QOL instrument for PCD. Psychometric validation of QOL-PCD assesses the performance of this measure in adults, including its reliability, validity and responsiveness to change. Seventy-two adults (mean (range) age: 33 years (18-79 years); mean (range) FEV 1 % predicted: 68 (26-115)) with PCD completed the 49-item QOL-PCD and generic QOL measures: Short-Form 36 Health Survey, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20) and St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)-C. Thirty-five participants repeated QOL-PCD 10-14 days later to measure stability or reproducibility of the measure. Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate how the items loaded on 10 hypothesised scales: physical, emotional, role and social functioning, treatment burden, vitality, health perceptions, upper respiratory symptoms, lower respiratory symptoms and ears and hearing symptoms. This analysis of item-to-total correlations led to 9 items being dropped; the validated measure now comprises 40 items. Each scale had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.74 to 0.94). Two-week test-retest demonstrated stability for all scales (intraclass coefficients 0.73 to 0.96). Significant correlations were obtained between QOL-PCD scores and age and FEV 1 . Strong relationships were also found between QOL-PCD scales and similar constructs on generic questionnaires, for example, lower respiratory symptoms and SGRQ-C (r=0.72, pmeasures of different constructs. QOL-PCD has demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity. QOL-PCD offers a promising tool for evaluating new therapies and for measuring symptoms, functioning and QOL during routine care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Ciliary derived neurotrophic factor protects oligodendrocytes against radiation induced damage in vitro by a mechanism independent of a proliferative effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew J.; Mabie, Peter C.; Kessler, Jack A.; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system in the from of myelopathy is a dose-limiting complication in the treatment of tumors situated in or close to the spinal cord. The target cell for this damage is not definitively identified, but demyelination due to oligodendrocyte damage is strongly implicated. Multiple neurotrophic factors have recently been identified which demonstrate a survival effect on oligodendrocytes. We investigated the effect of Ciliary Derived Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) on the radiosensitivity of oligodendrocytes in vitro to determine if this may ameliorate radiation damage, as a model for reducing myelopathy in vivo. Materials and Methods: Mature oligodendrocytes were cultured from the cortex of newborn Sprague-Dawley white rats and maintained on poly-d-lysine plates. The experimental arm was exposed to CNTF (0.01-100ng/ml), NGF (100ng/ml) or NT-3 (20ng/ml) for 24 hours prior to radiation, and control and experimental arms radiated using a cobalt 60 irradiator at a dose rate of .87 Gy/min with doses from 2 Gy to 10 Gy. Oligodendrocytes were identified using an O4 antibody, assessed for viability at 5 days using an MTT assay and counted using a phase contrast microscope. Combination studies of CNTF and NT-3 were also performed. BrdU studies were performed to determine if the various neurotrophins induced proliferation, with BrdU added for the 24 hour period prior to radiation only, for the 5 day period following radiation only, or for both periods combined. Results: The proportion of mature oligodendrocytes surviving 5 days after irradiation was not significantly increased by NGF, and was only modestly increased by NT-3. However, CNTF significantly increased the surviving proportion at all doses The addition of NT-3 to CNTF did not further increase the proportion of oligodendrocytes surviving. CNTF dose escalation studies confirmed 20ng/ml as an optimal dose. Brd

  3. [Lens exchange for subluxation of posterior chamber lenses implanted in the capsular bag or in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, J

    2013-04-01

    There are an increasing number of patients with decreased vision due to dislocated posterior chamber lenses, with pseudoexfoliation being the main risk factor. Various techniques for refixation of the subluxated posterior chamber IOL have been described. Experience with our technique of IOL-explantation, anterior vitrectomy and implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens are presented. In a retrospective study design all lens exchanges with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens performed between 2003 and 2012 are analyzed. The study included 65 eyes of 61 patients (age 79.6 ± 9.2 years: 43-98). The majority of eyes (46/65; 70.8%) had Sundown Syndrome (late in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation), in 19 eyes the posterior chamber lens was implanted primary or secondary into the ciliary sulcus. In the 46 eyes with Sundown Syndrome cataract surgery with implantation of a posterior chamber lens in the capsular bag was performed 7.4 ± 3.7 (1-22) years before subluxation within the bag. Pseudoexfoliation was the main risk factor in 42/46 (91.2%) of these eyes. A capsular tension ring (CTR) was implanted during cataract surgery in 34/46 (73.9%) eyes. The 34 IOLs with a CTR luxated significantly earlier (p IOLs without a CTR (6.6 ± 3.6 years; median 5.8 vs. 9.4 ± 3.1 years; median 9.2). The average visual gain was 0.2 logMAR in the group of luxated capsular bag lenses and 0.12 logMAR in the group of luxated sulcus lenses. Postoperative IOP decompensation was seen in 17/65 (26.2%) eyes (requiring IOP-lowering surgery in 8 eyes), 7 eyes developed corneal decompensation, 5 eyes had central retinal vein occlusion and one eye developed postoperative endophthalmitis. Lens exchange with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens has become a routine procedure to improve vision in patients with subluxated IOLs. Postoperative IOP decompensation and vascular problems are the major complications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danihelka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 85-87 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alien species * Czech Republic * neophyte Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made to help with CPT, such as: An electric chest clapper, known as a mechanical percussor. An ... your child spends time, including the home and car. Encourage your child to never start smoking. For ...

  6. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 1. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Waerme entwickelnde Abfaelle. T. 1. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponiertechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-03-15

    A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrievability of the heat-generating high-radioactive waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  7. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 2. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hoch radioaktive Waerme entwickelnde Weg Abfaelle. T. 2. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponietechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-04-15

    A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat generating high radio active waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  8. Hand-held tidal breathing nasal nitric oxide measurement--a promising targeted case-finding tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming...... increasingly widespread for asthma management. Therefore, we chose to assess whether hand-held TB-nNO measurements reliably discriminate between PCD, and Healthy Subjects (HS) and included Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients as a disease control group known to have intermediate nNO levels. METHODS: In this cross...... sectional, single centre, single occasion, proof-of-concept study in children and adults with PCD and CF, and in HS we compared feasibility, success rates, discriminatory capacity, repeatability and agreement between a hand-held electrochemical device equipped with a nNO software application sampling...

  9. Expression and prognostic value of putative cancer stem cell markers CD117 and CD15 in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenda, Adrian; Dotlic, Snjezana; Vukojevic, Nenad; Saric, Borna; Vranic, Semir; Zarkovic, Kamelija

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to immunohistochemically investigate the expression and prognostic significance of putative cancer stem cell markers CD117 (c-kit), CD34, CD20 and CD15 in a cohort of patients with primary choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. The immunohistochemical expression of these markers was evaluated using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) and 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) chromogens on paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 40 patients who underwent enucleation in the period from 1985 through 2000. Thirty-one patients had adequate tissue specimens for the analysis. CD117 overexpression was observed in 12 of the 31 samples (39%) when AEC chromogen was used and in 14 of 26 (54%) samples when DAB was used. CD15 positivity was seen in three out of 30 (10%) samples with AEC and in six out of 26 (23%) samples with DAB. CD20 and CD34 exhibited no positivity in the tested samples. During the average follow-up time of 8.7 years (range 0.5-22 years), 17 patients (55%) died due to metastatic disease. The Kaplan-Meier plots showed a significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival in CD117-positive patients when the AEC chromogen was used. CD15 expression was not associated with patients' survival. In multivariate analysis, patients expressing the CD117 AEC had 4.13 times higher risk of lethal outcome in comparison with CD117 AEC negative patients. Our retrospective cohort study has for the first time demonstrated a small proportion of CD15-positive uveal melanomas. CD117 AEC overexpression was associated with a worse outcome in patients with choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Further studies should confirm the validity of these observations and their potential for targeted treatment modalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Non-invasive measurements of the dynamic changes in the ciliary muscle, crystalline lens morphology, and anterior chamber during accommodation with a high-resolution OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-invasively the changes in the anterior chamber eye, crystalline lens morphology, and ciliary muscle during accommodation by means of an anterior chamber optical coherence tomographer (OCT), and correlate them with vergence. Twenty-five eyes of twenty-five healthy subjects, whose mean age was 29.9±7.1 years, were included and measured with an anterior chamber OCT. The central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior crystalline lens radius of curvature (ALRC), crystalline lens thickness (CLT), and ciliary muscle area (CMA) were measured for each participant at 0, -1, -2, and -3 D of target vergence. A linear model was used to assess the correlation of each eye parameter with the vergence demand. The mean CCT showed no change for all the accommodative stimuli. The mean ACD and ALRC decreased with the vergence, about 4.5 and 30 % at -3 D, respectively. On the contrary, the CLT and CMA showed an opposite tendency, where the mean CLT was increased by 4.0 % and the mean CMA was done by 26% at -3 D. Statistical significant differences (p < 0.001) were obtained among all vergences for each eye metric, except for the CCT (p = 0.76). The ACD and ALRC decreased about 2 and 10 % per dioptre of accommodation, respectively; whereas the CLT and CMA increased about 2 and 9 %, respectively. These results add knowledge regarding the understanding of accommodation and give new perspectives for biomechanics and biometry.

  11. Um caso raro de discinesia ciliar primária associada a heterotaxia A rare case of primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Quintela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A discinesia ciliar primária é uma doença autossómica recessiva caracterizada pela história de infecções de repetição do aparelho respiratório superior e inferior, rinossinusite e bronquite associada a situs inversus completo ou parcial. Os autores apresentam um doente de 78 anos, eurocaucasiano, com rinossinusites, bronquite crónica e dispneia, otite média com défices auditivos, infertilidade, seguido em consulta de gastrenterologia por dispepsia e obstipação há vários anos. Realizou vários exames que mostraram: agenesia frontal direita, espessamento brônquico, bronquiectasias, cego e cólon ascendente localizados na fossa ilíaca esquerda. Excluiu-se imunodeficiência, alergias, fibrose quística e outros. No decurso da investigação concluímos que se tratava de um caso de discinesia ciliar primária. Pela raridade deste caso, decidimos apresentá-lo.Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disease with a clinical history of upper and lowers respiratory infections, rhinosinusitis and bronquitis associated with complete or partial situs inversus. The authors present a 78-year-old male caucasian patient with rhinosinusitis, lower respiratory tract infection and dyspnea, chronic otitis with hearing deficit and infertility followed in Gastroenterology for dyspepsia and constipation. The radiological studies revealed agenesis of right frontal sinus; bronchial wall thickening; bronchiectasis; cecum and ascending colon located on the left and small bowel occupies right side of abdomen. He had no immunodeficiency, allergies, cystic fibrosis and others. We concluded primary ciliary dyskinesia with heterotaxy. For the rarity of this case we decided to present it.

  12. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, P D; Anderson, K D; Sleeman, M W; Wong, V; Tan, J; Hijarunguru, A; Corcoran, T L; Murray, J D; Thabet, K E; Yancopoulos, G D; Wiegand, S J

    2001-04-10

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain.

  13. Long-term Results of the UCSF-LBNL Randomized Trial: Charged Particle With Helium Ion Versus Iodine-125 Plaque Therapy for Choroidal and Ciliary Body Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: Kavita.mishra@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Daftari, Inder K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia B. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Patel, Kishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Relevant clinical data are needed given the increasing national interest in charged particle radiation therapy (CPT) programs. Here we report long-term outcomes from the only randomized, stratified trial comparing CPT with iodine-125 plaque therapy for choroidal and ciliary body melanoma. Methods and Materials: From 1985 to 1991, 184 patients met eligibility criteria and were randomized to receive particle (86 patients) or plaque therapy (98 patients). Patients were stratified by tumor diameter, thickness, distance to disc/fovea, anterior extension, and visual acuity. Tumors close to the optic disc were included. Local tumor control, as well as eye preservation, metastases due to melanoma, and survival were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up times for particle and plaque arm patients were 14.6 years and 12.3 years, respectively (P=.22), and for those alive at last follow-up, 18.5 and 16.5 years, respectively (P=.81). Local control (LC) for particle versus plaque treatment was 100% versus 84% at 5 years, and 98% versus 79% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.0006). If patients with tumors close to the disc (<2 mm) were excluded, CPT still resulted in significantly improved LC: 100% versus 90% at 5 years and 98% versus 86% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.048). Enucleation rate was lower after CPT: 11% versus 22% at 5 years and 17% versus 37% at 12 years, respectively (log rank: P=.01). Using Cox regression model, likelihood ratio test, treatment was the most important predictor of LC (P=.0002) and eye preservation (P=.01). CPT was a significant predictor of prolonged disease-free survival (log rank: P=.001). Conclusions: Particle therapy resulted in significantly improved local control, eye preservation, and disease-free survival as confirmed by long-term outcomes from the only randomized study available to date comparing radiation modalities in choroidal and ciliary body melanoma.

  14. Protective effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in a model of endotoxic shock: action mechanisms and role of CNTF receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, M T; Benigni, F; Meazza, C; Zinetti, M; Fratelli, M; Villa, P; Acheson, A; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P

    1998-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibits the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice and protects against LPS lethality when coadministered with its soluble receptor (sCNTFR alpha). Both of these activities are abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. LPS-induced pulmonary polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and nitric oxide (NO) production were also inhibited by CNTF + sCNTFR alpha but not by CNTF alone. sCNTFR alpha did not alter the clearance or tissue distribution of CNTF. Furthermore, CNTF variants coadministered with sCNTFR alpha protected against LPS toxicity in a manner related to their affinity for the beta components of CNTFR. Thus, inhibition of TNF production and protection against LPS lethality by CNTF/sCNTFR alpha require an intact hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and may be mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids. This protective effect is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of PMN infiltration and NO production, and appears to be mediated by cells displaying only beta-receptor subtypes.

  15. Super-resolution imaging of ciliary microdomains in isolated olfactory sensory neurons using a custom two-color stimulated emission depletion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stephanie A.; Ozbay, Baris N.; Potcoava, Mariana; Salcedo, Ernesto; Restrepo, Diego; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    We performed stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging of isolated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) using a custom-built microscope. The STED microscope uses a single pulsed laser to excite two separate fluorophores, Atto 590 and Atto 647N. A gated timing circuit combined with temporal interleaving of the different color excitation/STED laser pulses filters the two channel detection and greatly minimizes crosstalk. We quantified the instrument resolution to be ˜81 and ˜44 nm, for the Atto 590 and Atto 647N channels. The spatial separation between the two channels was measured to be under 10 nm, well below the resolution limit. The custom-STED microscope is incorporated onto a commercial research microscope allowing brightfield, differential interference contrast, and epifluorescence imaging on the same field of view. We performed immunolabeling of OSNs in mice to image localization of ciliary membrane proteins involved in olfactory transduction. We imaged Ca2+-permeable cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel (Atto 594) and adenylyl cyclase type III (ACIII) (Atto 647N) in distinct cilia. STED imaging resolved well-separated subdiffraction limited clusters for each protein. We quantified the size of each cluster to have a mean value of 88±48 nm and 124±43 nm, for CNG and ACIII, respectively. STED imaging showed separated clusters that were not resolvable in confocal images.

  16. Control of ventricular ciliary beating by the Melanin Concentrating Hormone-expressing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus : a functional imaging survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eConductier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic peptide Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH is known to control a large number of brain functions in mammals such as food intake and metabolism, stress response, anxiety, sleep/wake cycle, memory and reward. Based on neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies these functions were attributed to neuronal circuits expressing MCHR1, the single MCH receptor in rodents. In complement to our recently published work (Conductier et al. 2013 we provided here new data regarding the action of MCH on ependymocytes in the mouse brain. First, we establish that MCHR1 mRNA is expressed in the ependymal cells of the third ventricle epithelium. Second, we demonstated a tonic control of MCH-expressing neurons on ependymal cilia beat frequency using in vitro optogenics. Finally, we performed in vivo measurements of CSF flow using fluorescent micro-beads in wild-type and MCHR1 knockout mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that MCH-expressing neurons modulate ciliary beating of ependymal cells at the third ventricle and could contribute to maintain cerebro-spinal fluid homeostasis.

  17. Pyriculins A and B, two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols and other phytotoxic metabolites produced by Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Górecki, Marcin; Mandoli, Alessandro; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Clement, Suzette; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-napthalenone, and (4S)-(+)-isosclerone. Pyriculins A and B were characterized by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [HRESIMS]) and chemical methods such as (4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)hex-4-ene-2,3-diols. The relative and absolute configuration of these compounds was determined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR, electronic circular dichroism [ECD]) and computational tools. When bioassayed in a buffelgrass coleoptile and radicle elongation test, (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol proved to be the most toxic compound. Seed germination was much reduced and slowed with respect to the control and radicles failed to elongate. All five compounds delayed germination, but only (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol was able to prevent radicle development of buffelgrass seedlings. It had no effect on coleoptile elongation, while the other four compounds caused significantly increased coleoptile development relative to the control. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Primary ciliary dyskinesia in the paediatric population: range and severity of radiological findings in a cohort of patients receiving tertiary care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, K. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S.P.G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.padley@ic.ac.uk; Goldstraw, E.J.; Kidd, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hogg, C.; Biggart, E.; Bush, A. [Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: To investigate the clinical range and severity of radiological findings in a cohort of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) receiving tertiary care. Materials and methods: The case notes and clinical test results of 89 children attending the paediatric respiratory disease clinic at our institution were retrospectively analysed. Demographic details including age at diagnosis and common presenting signs and symptoms were studied. Results of chest radiographs, microscopy, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for quantification of lung damage were analysed. Results: In a cohort of 89 children with PCD, a presentation chest radiograph was available in 62% of patients (n = 55), with all but one demonstrating changes of bronchial wall thickening. HRCT of the lungs, available in 26 patients, were scored using the system described by Brody et al. analysing five specific features of lung disease, including bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, peribronchial thickening, parenchymal changes of consolidation, and ground-glass density, and focal air-trapping in each lobe. Peribronchial thickening was observed using HRCT in 25 patients, while 20 patients had bronchiectasis. Severity scores were highest for the middle and the lingular lobes. Conclusion: The radiographic findings of the largest reported cohort of patients with PCD are presented, with associated clinical findings. Dextrocardia remains the commonest finding on chest radiography. HRCT demonstrates peribronchial thickening and bronchiectasis, which is most marked in the lower zones. Radiological scoring techniques developed for assessment of cystic fibrosis can also be applied for the assessment of disease severity in this patient population.

  19. Localization of functional receptor epitopes on the structure of ciliary neurotrophic factor indicates a conserved, function-related epitope topography among helical cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotatos, N; Radziejewska, E; Acheson, A; Somogyi, R; Thadani, A; Hendrickson, W A; McDonald, N Q

    1995-06-09

    By rational mutagenesis, receptor-specific functional analysis, and visualization of complex formation in solution, we identified individual amino acid side chains involved specifically in the interaction of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) with CNTFR alpha and not with the beta-components, gp130 and LIFR. In the crystal structure, the side chains of these residues, which are located in helix A, the AB loop, helix B, and helix D, are surface accessible and are clustered in space, thus constituting an epitope for CNTFR alpha. By the same analysis, a partial epitope for gp130 was also identified on the surface of helix A that faces away from the alpha-epitope. Superposition of the CNTF and growth hormone structures showed that the location of these epitopes on CNTF is analogous to the location of the first and second receptor epitopes on the surface of growth hormone. Further comparison with proposed binding sites for alpha- and beta-receptors on interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor indicated that this epitope topology is conserved among helical cytokines. In each case, epitope I is utilized by the specificity-conferring component, whereas epitopes II and III are used by accessory components. Thus, in addition to a common fold, helical cytokines share a conserved order of receptor epitopes that is function related.

  20. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 3. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hochradioaktive, Waerme entwickelnde Abfaelle. T. 3. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponiertechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-05-15

    A new conceptual@configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat-generating high-radio-active waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  1. [Ultrastructure of epithelium and ciliary receptors in the parasitic turbellarian Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria, "Prolecithophora") and position of the species within Platyhelminthes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornakova, E E

    2002-01-01

    be the preadaptation to the endoparasitic mode of life in Fecampiida. The differencies in ultrastructure of epithelium in U. cyprinae from the White Sea and from Mediterranean Sea (Noury-Sraïri e. a., 1990) may be explained by the differences in the method of fixation or by the parasitizing the another host--the mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis. The ciliary receptors of five types were revealed in U. cyprinae (fig. 3, e, [symbol: see text]; 4; 5; 6). They differ in the shape and length of the ciliary rootlets and in the content of the nerve processes. All receptors lack of the real collars typical for the receptors of Neodermata. Urastoma is most close to the Neodermata amond parasitic turbellarians studied thus far, and the absence of collars in receptors of this species testifies that the collars are the veritable synapomorphy of the Neodermata. The diversity in the ultrastructure and possible functions of receptors correspond to the complicated adaptations of this species. The modern molecular data as well as the ultrastructural evidence attest that parasitic turbellarians of the genera Urastoma, Genostoma and Ichthyophaga are relatives and cannot be included in any turbellarian order known. Therefore Urastoma, Genostoma and Ichthyophaga have been erected in the separate order Urastomida ord. nov. The diagnosis of the new order is given.

  2. Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Motor Unit According to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the upper extremities comprised 3 sets at 75%–85% intensity per 1 repetition maximum, 3 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. We measured isokinetic muscle function of the elbow joint with regard to strength (60°/s and endurance (180°/s by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis muscles were studied using surface electromyography with spike-triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP area. After resistance training, the SMUP of the BB increased significantly at 60°/s (p < 0.05, but no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. The SMUP of the BB at 180°/s increased significantly in the GG/AA genotype group compared with that in the GA genotype group (p < 0.05. The average power of the elbow flexor at 180°/s increased significantly after resistance training (p < 0.05, but again, no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. Thus, improvements in muscle strength and endurance may have resulted directly from resistance training rather than from genetic factors related to nerves in muscle tissue.

  3. Cochliotoxin, a Dihydropyranopyran-4,5-dione, and Its Analogues Produced by Cochliobolus australiensis Display Phytotoxic Activity against Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Clement, Suzette; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-05-26

    Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare or Cenchrus ciliaris) is a perennial grass that has become highly invasive in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. In the search for novel control strategies against this weed, strains of the foliar fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis from buffelgrass have been screened for their ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides in an integrated pest management strategy. A new phytotoxin, named cochliotoxin, was isolated from liquid culture of this fungus together with radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers. Cochliotoxin was characterized, essentially by spectroscopic methods, as 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-7-(3-methyloxiranyl)-2,3-dihydropyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4,5-dione. Its relative stereochemistry was assigned by 1 H NMR techniques, while the absolute configuration (2S,3S) was determined applying the advanced Mosher's method by esterification of its hydroxy group at C-3. When bioassayed in a buffelgrass coleoptile elongation test and by leaf puncture bioassay against the host weed and two nontarget grasses, cochliotoxin showed strong phytotoxicity. In the same tests, radicinin and 3-epi-radicinin also showed phytotoxic activity, while radicinol and 3-epi-radicinol were largely inactive. All five compounds were more active in leaf puncture bioassays on buffelgrass than on the nontarget grass tanglehead (Heteropogon contortus), while the nontarget grass Arizona cottontop (Digitaria californica) was more sensitive to radicinin and 3-epi-radicinin. Cochliotoxin at low concentration was significantly more active on buffelgrass than on either native grass, but the difference was small.

  4. Discinesia ciliar primária: quando o pediatra deve suspeitar e como diagnosticar? Primary ciliary dyskinesia: when the pediatrician must suspect and how to do the diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne K. Olm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a discinesia ciliar primária (DCP quanto aos seus aspectos ultra-estruturais, discriminar os defeitos ciliares primários dos secundários, descrever o quadro clínico, os testes laboratoriais de triagem e de diagnóstico disponíveis, bem como seu manejo clínico. FONTE DE DADOS: Pesquisa nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, no período de 1980 a 2007. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A DCP é uma doença autossômica recessiva que compromete a estrutura e/ou a função ciliar e, conseqüentemente, o transporte mucociliar. As manifestações clínicas envolvem o trato respiratório superior e inferior, com infecções recorrentes do ouvido médio, seios paranasais e pulmonares, que podem evoluir para bronquiectasias. Outras manifestações incluem situs inversus totalis e infertilidade masculina. O diagnóstico deve ser suspeitado pelos pediatras em várias situações: recém-nascidos de termo com desconforto respiratório sem causa aparente; neonatos portadores de dextrocardia; lactentes com tosse persistente e/ou infecções otorrinolaringológicas de repetição, excluindo-se as imunodeficiências e a fibrose cística; crianças com asma atípica e as com bronquiectasias sem causa definida. Os testes de triagem diagnóstica são os da sacarina e do óxido nítrico nasal. As avaliações do defeito ultra-estrutural e funcional exigem análise por microscopia eletrônica e da freqüência e formato da onda de batimento ciliar. CONCLUSÕES: A DCP, apesar da baixa prevalência, é pouco diagnosticada pelas dificuldades de estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo do defeito ciliar devido à complexidade da investigação laboratorial e pela falta de reconhecimento da doença pelos médicos. A suspeita clínica e o diagnóstico precoce são fundamentais para reduzir a morbidade e prevenir o desenvolvimento de complicações.OBJECTIVE: To review primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD and its ultrastructural aspects, to differentiate primary

  5. Studies on SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/: effect on ciliary activity in rabbit trachea of single in vitro exposure and resorption in rabbit nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhamm, T; Sjoeholm, J

    1963-01-01

    Absorption in nasal cavity was tested by drawing gas through tracheal cannula at 1 liter/min for 45 min (...simple and is not intended to give accurate quantitative results.). Both SO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/ were strongly absorbed, even at high concentrations, whereas NO/sub 2/ was not. Required concentration to arrest ciliary activity after 5 min was 500 to 1000 mg/liter for NH/sub 3/, 150 to 200 for NO/sub 2/, and 20 to 30 for SO/sub 2/. Some evidence of dose-time-effect for this action was observed.

  6. Ciliary neurotrophic factor inhibits brain and peripheral tumor necrosis factor production and, when coadministered with its soluble receptor, protects mice from lipopolysaccharide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, F; Villa, P; Demitri, M T; Sacco, S; Sipe, J D; Lagunowich, L; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P

    1995-07-01

    The receptor of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) contains the signal transduction protein gp130, which is also a component of the receptors of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), IL-11, and oncostatin M. This suggests that these cytokines might share common signaling pathways. We previously reported that CNTF augments the levels of corticosterone (CS) and of IL-6 induced by IL-1 and induces the production of the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the elevation of serum CS is an important feedback mechanism to limit the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF), we have investigated the effect of CNTF on both TNF production and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxicity. To induce serum TNF levels, LPS was administered to mice at 30 mg/kg i.p. and CNTF was administered as a single dose of 10 micrograms/mouse i.v., either alone or in combination with its soluble receptor sCNTFR alpha at 20 micrograms/mouse. Serum TNF levels were the measured by cytotoxicity on L929 cells. In order to measure the effects of CNTF on LPS-induced TNF production in the brain, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 2.5 micrograms/kg LPS. Mouse spleen cells cultured for 4 hr with 1 microgram LPS/ml, with or without 10 micrograms CNTF/ml, were also analyzed for TNF production. CNTF, administered either alone or in combination with its soluble receptor, inhibited the induction of serum TNF levels by LPS. This inhibition was also observed in the brain when CNTF and LPS were administered centrally. In vitro, CNTF only marginally affected TNF production by LPS-stimulated mouse splenocytes, but it acted synergistically with dexamethasone (DEX) in inhibiting TNF production. Most importantly, CNTF administered together with sCNTFR alpha protected mice against LPS-induced mortality. These data suggest that CNTF might act as a protective cytokine against TNF-mediated pathologies both in the brain and

  7. A feed-forward regulation of endothelin receptors by c-Jun in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junming Wang

    Full Text Available c-Jun, c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK and endothelin B (ETB receptor have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Previously, we reported that an increase of c-Jun and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ immunohistostaining is associated with upregulation of the ETB receptor within the ganglion cell layer of rats with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. In addition, both transcription factors regulate the expression of the ETB receptor in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPE. The current study addressed the mechanisms by which ET-1 produced upregulation of ET receptors in primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and HNPE cells. Treatment of ET-1 and ET-3 increased the immunocytochemical staining of c-Jun and C/EBPβ in primary rat RGCs and co-localization of both transcription factors was observed. A marked increase in DNA binding activity of AP-1 and C/EBPβ as well as elevated protein levels of c-Jun and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK were detected following ET-1 treatment in HNPE cells. Overexpression of ETA or ETB receptor promoted the upregulation of c-Jun and also elevated its promoter activity. In addition, upregulation of C/EBPβ augmented DNA binding and mRNA expression of c-Jun, and furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun and C/EBPβ was confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis of HNPE cells was identified following ET-1 treatment, and overexpression of the ETA or ETB receptor produced enhanced apoptosis. ET-1 mediated upregulation of c-Jun and C/EBPβ and their interaction may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the regulation of endothelin receptor expression. Reciprocally, c-Jun was also found to regulate the ET receptors and C/EBPβ appeared to play a regulatory role in promoting expression of c-Jun. Taken together, the data suggests that ET-1 triggers the upregulation of c-Jun through both ETA and ETB receptors, and conversely c-Jun also upregulates endothelin receptor expression

  8. Novel Bioconjugation Strategy Using Elevated Hydrostatic Pressure: A Case Study for the Site-Specific Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol (PEGylation) of Recombinant Human Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Fangxia; Li, Zenglan; Liu, Yongdong; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-11-15

    In this paper, we reported a novel strategy for the site-specific attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) of proteins using elevated hydrostatic pressure. The process was similar to the conventional one except the reactor was under elevated hydrostatic pressure. The model protein was recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF), and the reagent was monomethoxy-polyethylene glycol-maleimide (mPEG-MAL). PEGylation with mPEG (40 kDa)-MAL at pH 7.0 under normal pressure for 5 h achieved a less than 5% yield. In comparison, when the pressure was elevated, the PEGylation yield was increased dramatically, reaching nearly 90% at 250 MPa. Furthermore, the following phenomena were observed: (1) high-hydrostatic-pressure PEGylation (HHPP) could operate at a low reactant ratio of 1:1.2 (rhCNTF to mPEG-MAL), while the conventional process needs a much-higher ratio. (2) Short and long chains of PEG gave a similar yield of 90% in HHPP, while the conventional yield for the short chain of the PEG was higher than that of the long chain. (3) The reaction pH in the range of 7.0 to 8.0 had almost no influence upon the yield of HHPP, while the PEGylation yield was significantly increased by a factor of three from pH 7.0 to 8.0 at normal pressure. Surface accessibility analysis was performed using GRASP2 software, and we found that Cys17 of rhCNTF was located at the concave patches, which may have steric hindrance for the PEG to approach. The speculated benefit of HHPP was the facilitation of target-site exposure, reducing the steric hindrance and making the reaction much easier. Structure and activity analysis demonstrated that the HHPP product was comparable to the PEGylated rhCNTF prepared through a conventional method. Overall, this work demonstrated that HHPP, as we proposed, may have application potentials in various conjugations of biomacromolecules.

  9. Nueva variante de abordaje al surco ciliar en la fijación transescleral de lentes de cámara posterior New variant of approach to the ciliary sulcus in the transcleral fixation of posterior chamber lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Vila Dópico

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una variante de abordaje al surco ciliar para la fijación del lente intraocular de cámara posterior, que está a nuestro alcance, en pacientes en que no existe soporte capsular o este es insuficiente. Se describe la técnica. Se realizó en 17 pacientes de los que se obtuvo mejoría visual en todos los casos (20/50-20/20 con un seguimiento promedio de 12 meses. Esta variante tiene la ventaja de evitar el paso de la aguja por el surco ciliar a ciegas, pues se utiliza el abordaje a través de la esclera y con ello evitamos dañar estructuras oculares aledañas evitando el riesgo de complicaciones por lo que se logra la recuperación anatómica y funcional en todos los casos.A variant to approach the ciliary sulcus for fixating the posterior chamber intraocular lens, which is within our reach, in patients with insufficient or no capsular support, is explained. The technique is described here and it was applied to 17 patients. Visual improvement was obtained in all cases (20/50-20/20 with an average follow-up of 12 months. This variant allows to prevent the blind passage of the needle through the ciliary sulcus, since it is approached via the sclera, avoiding to damage adjoining ocular structures and to have complications, and making possible the anatomic and functional recovery of all patients.

  10. The aeroelastic code HawC - model and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirstrup Petersen, J. [Risoe National Lab., The Test Station for Wind Turbines, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    A general aeroelastic finite element model for simulation of the dynamic response of horizontal axis wind turbines is presented. The model has been developed with the aim to establish an effective research tool, which can support the general investigation of wind turbine dynamics and research in specific areas of wind turbine modelling. The model concentrates on the correct representation of the inertia forces in a form, which makes it possible to recognize and isolate effects originating from specific degrees of freedom. The turbine structure is divided into substructures, and nonlinear kinematic terms are retained in the equations of motion. Moderate geometric nonlinearities are allowed for. Gravity and a full wind field including 3-dimensional 3-component turbulence are included in the loading. Simulation results for a typical three bladed, stall regulated wind turbine are presented and compared with measurements. (au)

  11. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  12. Cistos primários do epitélio pigmentar da íris e corpo ciliar: aspectos de biomicroscopia ultra-sônica Primary cysts of the iris and ciliary body pigment epithelium: ultrasound biomicroscopy features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Ayres

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever as características, incidência e distribuição dos cistos primários de epitélio pigmentar de íris e corpo ciliar ao exame de biomicroscopia ultra-sônica, que devem ser diferenciados de lesões sólidas. Métodos: Foram estudados de modo retrospectivo os prontuários de 73 pacientes, 82 olhos, com diagnóstico ecográfico de cisto primário de íris ou corpo ciliar durante o período de janeiro/97 a dezembro/99. Utilizou-se o biomicroscópio ultra-sônico, aplicando técnicas padronizadas de imersão. Resultados: À biomicroscopia ultra-sônica os cistos caracterizaram-se por apresentarem paredes finas e regulares, e conteúdo anecóico. Quarenta e oito pacientes (65,7% eram do sexo feminino. A maior incidência (28,8% ocorreu para o grupo incluído no intervalo de 20 a 29 anos de idade. Observou-se uma característica distribuição, predominantemente nos quadrantes temporais inferiores. Conclusões: A biomicroscopia ultra-sônica mostrou-se útil no diagnóstico de cistos primários do epitélio pigmentar da íris e do corpo ciliar, auxiliando na diferenciação de patologias tumorais e avaliando possíveis complicações. O conhecimento dos critérios ecográficos e da distribuição epidemiológica facilitam o diagnóstico destas lesões.Purpose: To describe the ultrasound biomicroscopic characteristics, incidence, distribution and location of primary cysts of the iris and ciliary body pigment epithelium, and to differentiate them from solid lesions. Methods: A retrospective study was performed through a review of charts of 73 patients, 82 eyes, with echographic diagnosis of primary cysts of the iris and ciliary body pigment epithelium during a 36-month period (January/97 through December/99. All examinations were performed using an ultrasound biomicroscope applying standard immersion techniques. Results: Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed typical findings of the primary cysts of the pigment epithelium such as thin

  13. Nuevas citas de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina New records of adventitious monocots for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye cinco nuevos registros de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae y Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, pertenecientes al orden Asparagales. También incluye una evaluación del estado actual de estas especies, en relación al proceso de naturalización: escapadas de cultivo ocasionales, naturalizadas.This paper includes five new records of adventitious monocots for Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae and Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, belonging to order Asparagales. Also includes an evaluation of its status in the naturalization process: casual alien, naturalized.

  14. Discinesia ciliar primária: considerações sobre seis casos da síndrome de Kartagener Primary ciliary dyskinesia: considerations regarding six cases of Kartagener syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alejandro Vega Ortega

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A discinesia ciliar primária (DCP, anteriormente conhecida como síndrome dos cílios imóveis, é uma doença hereditária autossômica recessiva que inclui vários padrões de defeitos em sua ultra-estrutura ciliar. Sua forma clínica mais grave é a síndrome de Kartagener (SK, a qual é encontrada em 50% dos casos de DCP. A DCP causa deficiência ou mesmo estase no transporte de secreções em todo o trato respiratório, favorecendo a proliferação de vírus e bactérias. Sua incidência varia de 1:20.000 a 1:60.000. Como conseqüência, os pacientes apresentam infecções crônicas e repetidas desde a infância e geralmente são portadores de bronquite, pneumonia, hemoptise, sinusite e infertilidade. As bronquiectasias e outras infecções crônicas podem ser o resultado final das alterações irreversíveis dos brônquios, podendo progredir para cor pulmonale crônico e suas conseqüências. Somente a metade dos pacientes afetados pela DCP apresenta todos os sintomas, condição denominada SK completa; no restante, não ocorre situs inversus, condição denominada SK incompleta. O diagnóstico é feito com base no quadro clínico e confirmado por meio da microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Como não há tratamento especifico para a DCP, recomenda-se que, tão logo seja feito o diagnóstico, as infecções secundárias sejam tratadas com antibióticos potentes e medidas profiláticas sejam adotadas. Neste trabalho, relatamos seis casos de DCP (cinco casos de SK completa e um caso de SK incompleta e revisamos a literatura sobre o assunto, tendo como foco os aspectos diagnósticos, terapêuticos e clínicos desta doença.Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, previously known as immotile cilia syndrome, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that includes various patterns of ciliary ultrastructural defects. The most serious form is Kartagener syndrome (KS, which accounts for 50% of all cases of PCD. The incidence of PCD ranges from 1

  15. Métodos comparativos para recomposição de áreas de mata ciliar avaliados por análise longitudinal = Comparative methods for ciliary forest rearrangement evaluated by longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Costa Carrito Bobato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados três métodos de distribuição de mudas para recomposição artificial de área de mata ciliar estudando-se a variação do crescimento da estatura e diâmetro durante seis períodos em um ano, das espécies Schinus terbinthifolia Raddi–aroeira ePeltophorum dubium Taub–canafístula. Os métodos estudados foram: mudas distribuídas ao acaso em espaçamento de 2 x 2 m; mudas distribuídas individualmente ao acaso; mudas distribuídas ao acaso em agrupamento três a três, com espaçamento de 1 a 1,5 m. O crescimento da estatura e do diâmetro das espécies estudadas está diretamente relacionado com os períodos em estudo, o tratamento de recomposição e as espécies. O tratamento mudas distribuídas ao acaso individualmente foi o que apresentou melhor crescimento médio do diâmetro.This trial aimed at evaluating three methods to distribute seedlingsfrom Schinus terbinthifolia and Peltophorum dubium species for rearrangement of ciliary forests. Their growth changes in height and diameter were used as parameters during six terms in one year. The studied methods were: seedlings randomized distributed in 2 x 2 m; seedlings individually distributed in a randomized design and seedlings randomized distributed in groups by three, using a 1 to 1.5 m row distance. The growth regarding diameter and height of the observed species is straightly related to the studied periods, rearrangement treatment and species. As a conclusion, it was registered that the seedling treatment individually distributed in a randomized design was the best answer regarding the average growth ofdiameter.

  16. A relação entre o comprimento dos processos ciliares medidos pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica e a duração, localização e gravidade das uveítes The relationship between the length of ciliary processes as measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy and the duration, localization and severity of uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Socci da Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre o comprimento dos processos ciliares com a duração, localização e gravidade das uveítes. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados em estudo prospectivo, 58 indivíduos, incluindo pacientes com diferentes estágios de uveíte e indivíduos sem a doença (112 olhos, sendo 18 normais, no período de agosto de 2001 a agosto de 2002, no Departamento de Uveítes do Cole Eye Institute da Cleveland Clinic Foundation - Ohio - EUA. Todos os pacientes foram referidos para o exame de biomicroscopia ultra-sônica, pelo Departamento de Uveítes após exame oftalmológico de rotina. O aparelho modelo 840 (Zeiss-Humphrey com transdutor de 50 MHz foi utilizado para análise dos processos ciliares sob anestesia tópica e técnica de imersão. RESULTADOS: Em relação à etiologia das uveítes, a de maior freqüência foi a idiopática (27,8%. As uveítes recorrentes, agressivas e difusas levaram ao significante dano nos processos ciliares. A maior perda significativa na medida dos processos ciliares foi encontrada no quadrante inferior e as maiores medidas foram encontradas em olhos normais e no quadrante temporal. CONCLUSÃO: A biomicroscopia ultra-sônica mostrou ser método útil para avaliar as alterações anatômicas encontradas nos processos ciliares dos pacientes com uveíte. De acordo com estes achados, podemos criar recomendações para futuros trabalhos, que nos ajudem a avaliar a necessidade destes pacientes vir a receber tratamento mais agressivo em qualquer sinal de inflamação, com o objetivo de prevenir futuro dano e eventual hipotonia.PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between the length of ciliary processes as measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy and the duration, localization and severity of uveitis. METHODS: We analyzed in this prospective study, 58 individuals including patients with different stages of uveitis and normal patients (112 eyes including 18 normal, between August 2001 and August 2002, at the

  17. On ciliary pumping and sieving in bryozoans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.

    2002-01-01

    to be transferred to and conveyed by the frontal cilia bands on tentacles. The added load on laterofrontal cilia from viscous drag on a food particle retained by the cilia is found to be of the same order of magnitude or greater than the "background load" of viscous drag from fluid passing the laterofrontal cilia...... flicks, a description is given of the feeding mechanisms. Particles entering the central region are brought to the mouth by the high velocity feeding current in the central part of the lophophore. Particles entering further out either escape between tentacles or are stopped by the laterofrontal cilia...... sieve and, in the distal region of tentacles, are brought back into the central feeding current by flicks of tentacles. The relative velocity between fluid and particle during a flick recovery phase ensures particle release. Particles stopped in the proximal region of the lophophore appear...

  18. The intraflagellar transport machinery in ciliary signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourão, André; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Lorentzen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella on eukaryotic cells are slender microtubule-based projections surrounded by a membrane with a unique lipid and protein composition. It is now appreciated that cilia in addition to their established roles in motility also constitute hubs for cellular signaling by sensing external...

  19. Propagation in Schlumbergera truncata (Haw: alternatives to the use of xaxim = Propagação de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw: alternativas ao uso do xaxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonseca Zanotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental cactus, Schlumbergera truncata, is propagated by cuttings, with xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana being one of the substrates used. However, xaxim is endangered, and it has become necessary to evaluate alternative substrates. The use of suitable substrates and of substances that promote organogenesis, such as auxins, aid in the process of plant propagation. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate the development of cuttings of S. truncata in different substrates, and the effect of IBA on organogenesis. Six treatments were carried out, consisting of a combination of three substrates (powdered xaxim, powdered coconut and a commercial substrate, and two rates of IBA (0 and 600 mg L-1. Twenty cuttings were used per treatment, distributed over five replications of four cuttings, in a completely randomised design and a 3 x 2 factorial (substrates x AIB. There was no significant interaction between the factors, which were evaluated separately. For the powdered xaxim substrate, the commercial substrate and the powdered coconut, the cuttings displayed 3.0, 3.7 and 1.3 shoots per plant respectively. After exposure to a solution of IBA of 0 or 600 mg L-1, the cuttings presented 2.2 and 3.1 shoots per plant respectively. The substrate of powdered xaxim and the commercial substrate are both effective in the propagation of S. truncata. As the xaxim, found in the Atlantic Forest, is an endangered species, the use of a commercial substrate is recommended, with IBA as a growth regulator to promote an increase in budding. = A Schlumbergera truncata é uma cactaceae ornamental, propagada por estacas, e o xaxim é um dos substratos utilizados. Devido à ameaça de extinção do xaxim, torna-se necessário avaliar substratos alternativos. A utilização de substratos adequados e o uso de substâncias promotoras de organogênese, como as auxinas, auxiliam no processo de propagação vegetativa. Dessa maneira, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento de estacas de S. truncata em diferentes substratos e o efeito do AIB na organogênese. Foram realizados seis tratamentos, que consistiram na combinação de três substratos (pó de xaxim; pó de coco e substrato comercial, bem como na presença (600 mg L-1 ou ausência de AIB. Foram utilizadas 20 estacas por tratamento, sendo distribuídas em cinco repetições com quatro estacas por repetição, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (substratos x AIB. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, sendo avaliados isoladamente. Nos substratos pó de xaxim, substrato comercial e pó de coco, as estacas apresentaram 3,0; 3,7 e 1,3 brotos por planta, respectivamente. Após exposição à solução de AIB com 0 e 600 mg L-1, as estacas apresentaram 2,2 e 3,1 brotos por planta, respectivamente. Tanto o substrato pó de xaxim quanto o substrato comercial são eficientes para propagação de S. truncata. Portanto, sendo o xaxim (Dicksonia sellowianna uma espécie da Mata Atlântica que se encontra em extinção, recomenda-se a utilização de substrato comercial e uso do regulador de crescimento AIB para promover incremento de brotação.

  20. Progress report of the ECN contribution to the experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.; Vonka, V.

    1990-12-01

    This progress report documents the progress of the ECN contribution in the High Active Waste experiment, a large-scale in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen FRG, during the period April 1st through June 30th, 1990. In ch. 2 a general overview is given of the experiment development. Problems and solutions are discussed in ch. 3. (author). 4 refs.; 10 figs

  1. The HAW-Project: Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuously surveyed in respect of the thermomechanical and geochemical response of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of 30 radioactive canisters (Sr-90 and Cs-137 sources) was developed and succesfully tested. This system consists of six multiple transport and storage casks of the type Castor-GSF-5, two above ground/below ground shuttle transport casks of the type Asse TB1, an above ground transfer station, an underground transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and a borehole slider. A laboratory investigation program on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This program includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field. (orig./HP)

  2. Progress report of the ECN contribution to the experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.; Vonka, V.

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the progress of the ECN contribution in the High Active Waste Experiment, a large-scale in-situ test being performed underground in the Asse salt mine, Remlingen, FRG, during the period January 1st through March 31st, 1991. (A.S.). 3 refs.; 10 figs

  3. Generative period in development of Mammillaria Haw. (Cactaceae Juss. plants in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Baglay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of the collection of the genus Mammillariain O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, as well as the peculiarities of blooming and seed germination have been considered. The list of the plants from the genus Mammillariain this collection which are included into IUCN Red List have been represented. The optimal conditions of seed conservation have been determined.

  4. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-04-01

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  5. Thermo-mechanical analyses and model validation in the HAW test field. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J J; Broerse, J; Prij, J

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the thermo-mechanical analysis work done for the design of the High Active Waste experiment and for the purpose of validation of the used models through comparison with experiments. A brief treatise is given on the problems of validation of models used for the prediction of physical behaviour which cannot be determined with experiments. The analysis work encompasses investigations into the initial state of stress in the field, the constitutive relations, the temperature rise, and the pressure on the liner tubes inserted in the field to guarantee the retrievability of the radioactive sources used for the experiment. The measurements of temperatures, deformations, and stresses are described and an evaluation is given of the comparison of measured and calculated data. An attempt has been made to qualify or even quantify the discrepancies, if any, between measurements and calculations. It was found that the model for the temperature calculations performed adequately. For the stresses the general tendency was good, however, large discrepancies exist mainly due to inaccuracies in the measurements. For the deformations again the general tendency of the model predictions was in accordance with the measurements. However, from the evaluation it appears that in spite of the efforts to estimate the correct initial rock pressure at the location of the experiment, this pressure has been underestimated. The evaluation has contributed to a considerable increase in confidence in the models and gives no reason to question the constitutive model for rock salt. However, due to the quality of the measurements of the stress and the relatively short period of the experiments no quantitatively firm support for the constitutive model is acquired. Collections of graphs giving the measured and calculated data are attached as appendices. (orig.).

  6. Thermo-mechanical analyses and model validation in the HAW test field. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Broerse, J.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the thermo-mechanical analysis work done for the design of the High Active Waste experiment and for the purpose of validation of the used models through comparison with experiments. A brief treatise is given on the problems of validation of models used for the prediction of physical behaviour which cannot be determined with experiments. The analysis work encompasses investigations into the initial state of stress in the field, the constitutive relations, the temperature rise, and the pressure on the liner tubes inserted in the field to guarantee the retrievability of the radioactive sources used for the experiment. The measurements of temperatures, deformations, and stresses are described and an evaluation is given of the comparison of measured and calculated data. An attempt has been made to qualify or even quantify the discrepancies, if any, between measurements and calculations. It was found that the model for the temperature calculations performed adequately. For the stresses the general tendency was good, however, large discrepancies exist mainly due to inaccuracies in the measurements. For the deformations again the general tendency of the model predictions was in accordance with the measurements. However, from the evaluation it appears that in spite of the efforts to estimate the correct initial rock pressure at the location of the experiment, this pressure has been underestimated. The evaluation has contributed to a considerable increase in confidence in the models and gives no reason to question the constitutive model for rock salt. However, due to the quality of the measurements of the stress and the relatively short period of the experiments no quantitatively firm support for the constitutive model is acquired. Collections of graphs giving the measured and calculated data are attached as appendices. (orig.)

  7. Effect of different 1-methylcyclopropene doses on the postharvest period of pitahaya fruits (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez-Herrera

    2016-07-01

    application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the preservation and quality of dragon fruit, given that it has been effective in the conservation and postharvest quality of many agricultural species allowing longer life, using a completely randomized experiment design with three treatments: 0, 300 and 600 mg L-1 of 1-MCP, with four replications. The 600 mg L-1 of 1-MCP dose was able to maintain the quality of the dragon fruit longer (28 days after harvest (dah because it managed to reduce the respiratory rate. The application of 1-MCP did not affect the firmness, loss of mass, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, or total carotenoids in the fruits. The application of 1-MCP slowed the loss of fruit quality in terms of color because the 600 mg L-1 dose maintained the lightness of the fruits longer, reduced the color changes as expressed in a* and b* values and decreased the chlorophyll degradation.

  8. Ethylene and 1-MCP affect the postharvest behavior of yellow pitahaya fruits (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pitahaya or dragon fruit is one of the most representative exotic fruits that Colombia has, with an important, growing international market, but the cultivation and postharvest of this fruit lack sufficient technological support to be more competitive. Therefore, alternatives that provide good-quality products that meet market requirements are very important. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of a ripening retardant and ethylene application on the conservation and quality of pitahaya fruits and the possible changes during ripening associated with ethylene, for which a completely randomized design with three treatments was used, corresponding to the application of ethylene (ethephon, 3 mL L-1, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 600 mg L-1 and a control, with four replications, for a total of 12 experimental units. The fruits were stored at 18°C with 75% relative humidity. The 1-MCP application significantly decreased the loss of firmness, total soluble solids, loss of fresh mass and respiratory rate. Fruits from the control and ethylene treatment tended toward a climateric respiratory behavior. The total carotenoid content of the fruits was significantly higher in the ethylene application and the control treatment, which was consistent with the color change of the fruits. It can be concluded that the 1-MCP application reduced the ethylene action, slowing the ripening of the dragon fruits.

  9. Haw-glass dissolution and radionuclide release: mechanism - modelling - source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grambow, B [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fur Nukleare, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Important release controlling processes are: 1) kinetics of glass matrix dissolution (leaching), 2) formation of secondary alteration products (controlling thermodynamic solubility), 3) sorption on surfaces in the engineered barrier system and 4) formation of mobile species. Quantification of these processes requires assessment of the energetics and dynamics of the various reversible and irreversible processes within an overall open non-equilibrium system. Corrosion/dissolution of the waste matrices is not necessarily associated with a proportional release of radionuclides. The formation of new secondary phases, such as silicates, molybdates, uranates, carbonates... establishes a new geochemical barrier for re-immobilization of radionuclides dissolved from the waste matrices. The presence of iron (corroding canisters during glass alteration) reduces the solution concentration of redox sensitive radionuclides. Consequently, the container, after being corroded, constitutes an important geochemical barrier for radionuclide re-immobilization. Geochemical modelling of the long-term behaviour of glasses must be performed in an integrated way, considering simultaneous reactions of the glass, of container corrosion, of repository rock and of backfill material. Until now, only few attempts were made for integral systems modelling. (A.C.)

  10. Biomicroscopia ultra-sônica (UBM no planejamento cirúrgico e acompanhamento pós-operatório de melanomas malignos de íris e corpo ciliar Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM in the surgical planning and postoperative follow-up of iris and ciliary body melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria da Silva Corrêa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os achados da biomicroscopia ultra-sônica (UBM em melanomas malignos primários da íris e corpo ciliar antes e depois da resecção cirúrgica e correlacionar a extensão do tumor (revelado pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica aos achados histopatológicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de 5 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de tumor de íris e/ou corpo ciliar. Estes pacientes foram avaliados pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica antes e após iridociclectomia ou iridectomia. Os espécimens foram enviados para estudo histopatológico. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por período mínimo de 6 meses quando foi realizada nova biomicroscopia ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Neste grupo de 5 pacientes, 3 eram do sexo feminino e 2, do masculino, variação de idade de 32 e 64 anos. Todos os casos eram unilaterais. Quatro pacientes apresentaram massa iridociliar e um apresentou lesão limitada à íris. Em todos os casos a biomicroscopia ultra-sônica auxiliou o planejamento cirúrgico para a ressecção tumoral com margens livres. A biomicroscopia ultra-sônica no pós-operatório revelou ausência de crescimento tumoral em todos os casos, sendo que 2 pacientes apresentaram vítreo na incisão cirúrgica, 1 deles com tração vítrea leve, mas sem sinais de descolamento de retina. CONCLUSÃO: A biomicroscopia ultra-sônica pareceu ser método auxiliar confiável para diagnosticar tumores de íris e corpo ciliar, planejar o tratamento cirúrgico e o acompanhamento pós-operatório.PURPOSE: To study pre-operatively and post-operatively ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM findings of iris and ciliary body melanomas and correlate tumor extension (revealed by ultrasound biomicroscopy with histopathology findings. METHODS: Prospective study of 5 patients with a clinical diagnosis of iris and ciliary body tumors. These patients were evaluated by ultrasound biomicroscopy before and after treatment with iridectomy or iridociclectomy. All specimens were sent

  11. Swimming direction reversal of flagella through ciliary motion of mastigonemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namdeo, S.; Khaderi, S. N.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Onck, P. R.; Colin, S.; Morini, G.L.

    Bio-inspired designs can provide an answer to engineering problems such as swimming strategies at the micron or nano-scale. Scientists are now designing artificial micro-swimmers that can mimic flagella-powered swimming of micro-organisms. In an application such as lab-on-a-chip in which

  12. Regulation of the branchial ciliary activity in the mussel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dral, A.D.G.

    1977-01-01

    In mussels the movement of the cilia on the gill are basically autonomous and influenced by environmental factors. The branchial nerve has an inhibitory as well as a stimulating effect on the activity of the lateral cilia. The reactions of these cilia to changing temperature and chlorinity in

  13. Artificial cilia : a physical model for ciliary propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Babataheri , Avin

    2009-01-01

    Most microorganisms use cilia or flagella as a means of propulsion. These low Reynolds number swimming mechanisms have been studied theoretically and experimentally on living organisms. However, so far very few physical experimental models have been realised. We describe here the fabrication of microscopic artificial cilia, actuated by a magnetic field. These artificial cilia share with real cilia a large aspect ratio, great flexibility, and the actuation by a magnetic torque distributed alon...

  14. Ciliary heterogeneity within a single cell: the Paramecium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubusson-Fleury, Anne; Cohen, Jean; Lemullois, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a single cell able to divide in its morphologically differentiated stage that has many cilia anchored at its cell surface. Many thousands of cilia are thus assembled in a short period of time during division to duplicate the cell pattern while the cell continues swimming. Most, but not all, of these sensory cilia are motile and involved in two main functions: prey capture and cell locomotion. These cilia display heterogeneity, both in their length and their biochemical properties. Thanks to these properties, as well as to the availability of many postgenomic tools and the possibility to follow the regrowth of cilia after deciliation, Paramecium offers a nice opportunity to study the assembly of the cilia, as well as the genesis of their diversity within a single cell. In this paper, after a brief survey of Paramecium morphology and cilia properties, we describe the tools and the protocols currently used for immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry to analyze cilia, with special recommendations to overcome the problem raised by cilium diversity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. VAMP7 modulates ciliary biogenesis in kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Szalinski

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells elaborate specialized domains that have distinct protein and lipid compositions, including the apical and basolateral surfaces and primary cilia. Maintaining the identity of these domains is required for proper cell function, and requires the efficient and selective SNARE-mediated fusion of vesicles containing newly synthesized and recycling proteins with the proper target membrane. Multiple pathways exist to deliver newly synthesized proteins to the apical surface of kidney cells, and the post-Golgi SNAREs, or VAMPs, involved in these distinct pathways have not been identified. VAMP7 has been implicated in apical protein delivery in other cell types, and we hypothesized that this SNARE would have differential effects on the trafficking of apical proteins known to take distinct routes to the apical surface in kidney cells. VAMP7 expressed in polarized Madin Darby canine kidney cells colocalized primarily with LAMP2-positive compartments, and siRNA-mediated knockdown modulated lysosome size, consistent with the known function of VAMP7 in lysosomal delivery. Surprisingly, VAMP7 knockdown had no effect on apical delivery of numerous cargoes tested, but did decrease the length and frequency of primary cilia. Additionally, VAMP7 knockdown disrupted cystogenesis in cells grown in a three-dimensional basement membrane matrix. The effects of VAMP7 depletion on ciliogenesis and cystogenesis are not directly linked to the disruption of lysosomal function, as cilia lengths and cyst morphology were unaffected in an MDCK lysosomal storage disorder model. Together, our data suggest that VAMP7 plays an essential role in ciliogenesis and lumen formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating an R-SNARE in ciliogenesis and cystogenesis.

  16. Ciliary Body Tumour Occurring in a Nigerian - A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report the rare case of a 33-year-old female Nigerian who presented to our retina clinic with a chronic total retinal detachment and visual acuity of no light perception in her left eye. Re-attachment surgery in the eye was not attempted as prognosis for return of vision was poor. She was later noted to harbor a ...

  17. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Kartagener syndrome in a family with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makia J. Marafie

    2014-12-22

    Dec 22, 2014 ... flagella of sperm tail, brain and spinal cord ependyma [2]. Many syndromes are linked to ... VC) to left sided superior caval vein (right sided inferior caval vein), and with S/P left .... east: nature versus nurture. Open Complement ...

  18. Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed.

  19. The Haw River Sites: Archaeological Investigations at Two Stratified Sites in the North Carolina Piedmont. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    activity of the NBS Oxalic acid as a modem standard. .......... Table 1 Radiocarbon Age Determinations for Samples from 31ChS and 31Ch29 Lab Number...devitrified flow. Devitrification of both basic and acidic tuffs involves alteration of glass and glass fragments to other minerals (Howell, Turner...quartz as " hydrothermal veins" (Blatt at al. 1972:276-277) account for its white color. Additional trace minerals may add color to the quartz. In

  20. Antiviral activity of the crude extracts and phytochemical fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae), and three phytochemical (HPLC) fractions containing the major phenolic compounds were investigated for their effects on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. The three fractions used contained the major peaks within ...

  1. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... Key words: Aloe, anopheles gambie, larvicidal activity. INTRODUCTION. Extracts from plants in the genus Aloe (Aloeaceae) have been widely used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Aloe species have long been known as medicinal plants (Cheney, 1970) and Aloe vera species is most widely ...

  2. Cellular Mechanisms Regulating Ciliary Disassembly and EMT: Roles of Ion Transport and Implications for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinda, Raj Rajeshwar

    pathway. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most deadly cancer types globally, is characterized by high levels of Transforming growth factor (TGF)β signaling and epithelial-tomesenchymal (EMT). In paper II, I show that TGFβ signaling elicits EMT in SMAD4-positive Panc-1 PDAC cells......, as judged by the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of α- smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). A modest induction of EMT was also observed in the SMAD-deficient BxPc-3 cells. TGFβ treatment increased Panc- 1 cell invasiveness about 5-fold, and significantly......, knockdown of NHE1 increased TGFβ-induced Panc-1 cell invasiveness, yet the invasiveness induced by merlin knockdown was abolished by knockdown of either NHE1 or NBCn1. Furthermore, TGFβ treatment increased proliferation in Panc-1 cells in a partially NHE1 dependent manner. In conclusion, the findings...

  3. AUTOPOLINIZACIÓN EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE SEMILLA DE PASTO BUFFEL (Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Conde-Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.

  4. Chemical constituents of Cenchrus ciliaris L. from the Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel; Mahmood Karamat; Yusoff Ismail; Qureshi Ahmad Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The Cholistan Desert is an extension of the Great Indian Desert, covering an area of 26,330 km2. The desert can be divided into two main geomorphic regions: the northern region, known as Lesser Cholistan, constituting the desert margin and consisting of a series of saline alluvial flats alternating with low sand ridges/dunes; and the southern region, known as Greater Cholistan, a wind-resorted sandy desert comprised of a number of old Hakra River terraces w...

  5. The dynein regulatory complex is required for ciliary motility and otolith biogenesis in the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Jessica R; Vermot, Julien; Wu, David; Langenbacher, Adam D; Fraser, Scott; Chen, Jau-Nian; Hill, Kent L

    2009-01-08

    In teleosts, proper balance and hearing depend on mechanical sensors in the inner ear. These sensors include actin-based microvilli and microtubule-based cilia that extend from the surface of sensory hair cells and attach to biomineralized 'ear stones' (or otoliths). Otolith number, size and placement are under strict developmental control, but the mechanisms that ensure otolith assembly atop specific cells of the sensory epithelium are unclear. Here we demonstrate that cilia motility is required for normal otolith assembly and localization. Using in vivo video microscopy, we show that motile tether cilia at opposite poles of the otic vesicle create fluid vortices that attract otolith precursor particles, thereby biasing an otherwise random distribution to direct localized otolith seeding on tether cilia. Independent knockdown of subunits for the dynein regulatory complex and outer-arm dynein disrupt cilia motility, leading to defective otolith biogenesis. These results demonstrate a requirement for the dynein regulatory complex in vertebrates and show that cilia-driven flow is a key epigenetic factor in controlling otolith biomineralization.

  6. A novel adhering junction in the apical ciliary apparatus of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera, Monogononta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, R; Lupetti, P; Lane, N J

    1996-10-01

    Cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were examined with regard to their interepithelial junctions after infiltration with the extracellular tracer lanthanum, freeze-fracturing or quick-freeze deep-etching. The lateral borders between ciliated cells have an unusual apical adhering junction. This apical part of their intercellular cleft looks desmosome-like, but it is characterized by unusual intramembranous E-face clusters of particles. Deep-etching reveals that these are packed together in short rows which lie parallel to one another in orderly arrays. The true membrane surface in these areas features filaments in the form of short ribbons; these are produced by projections, possibly part of the glycocalyx, emerging from the membranes, between which the electron-dense tracer lanthanum permeates. These projections appear to overlap with each other in the centre of the intercellular cleft; this would provide a particularly flexible adaptation to maintain cell-cell contact and coordination as a consequence. The filamentous ribbons may be held in position by the intramembranous particle arrays since both have a similar size and distribution. These contacts are quite different from desmosomes and appear to represent a distinct new category of adhesive cell-cell junction. Beneath these novel structures, conventional pleated septate junctions are found, exhibiting the undulating intercellular ribbons typical of this junctional type, as well as the usual parallel alignments of intramembranous rows of EF grooves and PF particles. Below these are found gap junctions as close-packed plaques of intramembranous particles on either the P-face or E-face. After freeze-fracturing, the complementary fracture face to the particles shows pits, usually on the P-face, arrayed with a very precise hexagonal pattern.

  7. CDKL Family Kinases Have Evolved Distinct Structural Features and Ciliary Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Canning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinases, including a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK family member, regulate the growth and functions of primary cilia, which perform essential roles in signaling and development. Neurological disorders linked to CDK-Like (CDKL proteins suggest that these underexplored kinases may have similar functions. Here, we present the crystal structures of human CDKL1, CDKL2, CDKL3, and CDKL5, revealing their evolutionary divergence from CDK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including an unusual αJ helix important for CDKL2 and CDKL3 activity. C. elegans CDKL-1, most closely related to CDKL1–4 and localized to neuronal cilia transition zones, modulates cilium length; this depends on its kinase activity and αJ helix-containing C terminus. Human CDKL5, linked to Rett syndrome, also localizes to cilia, and it impairs ciliogenesis when overexpressed. CDKL5 patient mutations modeled in CDKL-1 cause localization and/or cilium length defects. Together, our studies establish a disease model system suggesting cilium length defects as a pathomechanism for neurological disorders, including epilepsy.

  8. Chronic intravitreous infusion of ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates electrical retinal stimulation thresholds in the RCS rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Tiffany L; Glybina, Inna V; Abrams, Gary W; Iezzi, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the sustained intravitreous delivery of CNTF modulates cortical response thresholds to electrical retinal stimulation in the RCS rat model of retinal degeneration. Animals were assigned to four groups: untreated, nonsurgical control and infusion groups of 10 ng/d CNTF, 1 ng/d CNTF, and PBS vehicle control. Thresholds for electrically evoked cortical potentials (EECPs) were recorded in response to transcorneal electrical stimulation of the retina at p30 and again at p60, after a three-week infusion. As the retina degenerated over time, EECP thresholds in response to electrical retinal stimulation increased. Eyes treated with 10 ng/d CNTF demonstrated significantly greater retinal sensitivity to electrical stimulation when compared with all other groups. In addition, eyes treated with 1 ng/d CNTF demonstrated significantly greater retinal sensitivity than both PBS-treated and untreated control groups. Retinal sensitivity to electrical stimulation was preserved in animals treated with chronic intravitreous infusion of CNTF. These data suggest that CNTF-mediated retinal neuroprotection may be a novel therapy that can lower stimulus thresholds in patients about to undergo retinal prosthesis implantation. Furthermore, it may maintain the long-term efficacy of these devices in patients.

  9. Disruption of the mouse Jhy gene causes abnormal ciliary microtubule patterning and juvenile hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbe, Oliver K.; Bollman, Bryan; Attarwala, Ali; Triebes, Lindy A.; Muniz-Talavera, Hilmarie; Curry, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital hydrocephalus, the accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, affects one of every 1,000 children born today, making it one of the most common human developmental disorders. Genetic causes of hydrocephalus are poorly understood in humans, but animal models suggest a broad genetic program underlying the regulation of CSF balance. In this study, the random integration of a transgene into the mouse genome led to the development of an early onset and rapidly progressive hydrocephalus. Juvenile hydrocephalus transgenic mice (JhylacZ) inherit communicating hydrocephalus in an autosomal recessive fashion with dilation of the lateral ventricles observed as early as postnatal day 1.5. Ventricular dilation increases in severity over time, becoming fatal at 4-8 weeks of age. The ependymal cilia lining the lateral ventricles are morphologically abnormal and reduced in number in JhylacZ/lacZ brains, and ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganization of the expected 9+2 microtubule pattern. Rather, the majority of JhylacZ/lacZ cilia develop axonemes with 9+0 or 8+2 microtubule structures. Disruption of an unstudied gene, 4931429I11Rik (now named Jhy) appears to underlie the hydrocephalus of JhylacZ/lacZ mice, and the Jhy transcript and protein are decreased in JhylacZ/lacZ mice. Partial phenotypic rescue was achieved in JhylacZ/lacZ mice by the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) carrying 60-70% of the JHY protein coding sequence. Jhy is evolutionarily conserved from humans to basal vertebrates, but the predicted JHY protein lacks identifiable functional domains. Ongoing studies are directed at uncovering the physiological function of JHY and its role in CSF homeostasis. PMID:23906841

  10. Sinus bacteriology in patients with cystic fibrosis or primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Maria E.; Alanin, Mikkel C.; Grønhøj, Christian

    2017-01-01

    flora in the sinuses and nasal cavities of patients with CF or PCD.  Methods: A number of medical literature data bases were systematically searched between January 1960 and July 2016. We applied the following inclusion criteria: a minimum of one case of PCD (or Kartagener syndrome) or CF...... are aspirated to and colonize the lungs according to the theory of the united (unified) airways. Whereas the pattern of bacterial flora in the lower airways has been extensively studied, the upper airways have drawn limited attention.  Objective: Our aim was to review the literature that reported bacterial...

  11. Measurement of plasma gentamicin concentrations postchemical ciliary body ablation in dogs with chronic glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Amy J; Lanuza, Rick; KuKanich, Butch; Crumley, William C; Pucket, Jonathan D; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Meekins, Jessica M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of gentamicin into the plasma after an intravitreal injection in dogs and to report the success rate of this procedure in lowering the intraocular pressure. Twenty-four client-owned dogs with chronic, end-stage glaucoma. Dogs received a unilateral (22) or bilateral (2) intravitreal injection of 25-40 mg of gentamicin (mean ± SD dose 2.57 ± 1.65 mg/kg and range 0.61-7.50 mg/kg) and 1 mg of dexamethasone per eye. Blood samples were collected at various time points following the intravitreal injection. Plasma concentrations of gentamicin were determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total plasma concentration of gentamicin ranged from 0.21 to 9.71 μg/mL (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 2.03). The mean gentamicin CMAX was 2.29 μg/mL at 2.54 h with a terminal half-life of 9.8 h. The success rate of the chemical ablation procedure was 86.4% (19/22 eyes) in dogs that had at least 1 month of follow-up. Intravitreal injection of gentamicin in eyes with chronic glaucoma resulted in detectable plasma levels in dogs and was successful in lowering the intraocular pressure in 86.4% of the eyes after the first procedure. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    feeding characterized by processing of water at low pressures (.ltoreq. 1 mm H2O). Mechanisms of water processing and particle retention in brachiopods and bivalves are compared. Laminar flow of through-currents and surface-currents in brachiopods is consistent with the hypothesis of capture of suspended...

  13. Calcium sensors of ciliary outer arm dynein: functions and phylogenetic considerations for eukaryotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The motility of eukaryotic cilia and flagella is modulated in response to several extracellular stimuli. Ca(2+) is the most critical intracellular factor for these changes in motility, directly acting on the axonemes and altering flagellar asymmetry. Calaxin is an opisthokont-specific neuronal calcium sensor protein first described in the sperm of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. It binds to a heavy chain of two-headed outer arm dynein in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and regulates 'asymmetric' wave propagation at high concentrations of Ca(2+). A Ca(2+)-binding subunit of outer arm dynein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the light chain 4 (LC4), which is a Ca(2+)-sensor phylogenetically different from calaxin, shows Ca(2+)-dependent binding to a heavy chain of three-headed outer arm dynein. However, LC4 appears to participate in 'symmetric' wave propagation at high concentrations of Ca(2+). LC4-type dynein light chain is present in bikonts, except for some subclasses of the Excavata. Thus, flagellar asymmetry-symmetry conversion in response to Ca(2+) concentration represents a 'mirror image' relationship between Ciona and Chlamydomonas. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the duplication, divergence, and loss of heavy chain and Ca(2+)-sensors of outer arm dynein among excavate species. These features imply a divergence point with respect to Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein in cilia and flagella during the evolution of eukaryotic supergroups.

  14. Congenital adenoma of the iris and ciliary body: light and electron microscopic observations.

    OpenAIRE

    Rennie, I G; Parsons, M A; Palmer, C A

    1992-01-01

    A 23-year-old man had a lesion in the right inferior iris which appeared to have enlarged since it was first seen when the patient was aged 5 years. The lesion was excised by a partial iridocyclectomy. Histopathologically the neoplasm was composed of both pigmented and non-pigmented cells. Pseudoacini, containing acid mucopolysaccharides, were present throughout the tumour matrix. Electron microscopically the non-pigmented cells were found to possess a convoluted plasmalemma, abundant rough e...

  15. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Aloe saponaria Haw in a model of UVB-induced paw sunburn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderò; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-04-05

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methodology and applicability of a safety and demonstration concept for a HAW final repository on clays. Safety concept and verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Meleshyn, Artur

    2014-08-01

    The report describes the site independent frame for a safety concept and verification strategy for a final repository for heat generating wastes in clay rock. In the safety concept planning specifications and technical measures are summarized that are supposed to allow a safe inclusion of radionuclides in the host rock. The verification strategy defines the systematic procedures for the development of fundamentals and scenarios as basis for the demonstration of the safety case and to allow the prognosis of appropriateness. The report includes the boundary conditions, the safety concept for the post-closure phase and the verification strategy for the post-closure phase.

  18. El mezcal en Sonora, México, más que una bebida espirituosa. Etnobotánica de Agave angustifolia Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Bañuelos Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo sería la vida de los sonorenses sin el mezcal? La interrogante guía el propósito general del trabajo, orientado a identificar la importancia que tradicionalmente ha revestido el Agave angustifolia en la vida cotidiana de los sonorenses. En su mayor parte, los estudios existentes en Sonora en torno a esta especie se enfocan, básicamente, en su uso para la elaboración industrial del licor, popularmente conocido como bacanora. La investigación pretende contribuir, en alguna medida, al mayor conocimiento del valor biológico y cultural de la planta. Con ese objetivo se recurre a la etnobotánica para obtener una mirada más completa de las formas en las que los hombres y mujeres se han relacionado con el agave. La región de estudio comprende dos zonas mezcaleras: la sierra orien-te, donde la mayor parte de la población es mestiza, y la zona sur, donde los grupos indígenas Mayo y Guarijío cohabitan con mestizos. Se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad a diversos pobladores, así como a investigadores y otros estudiosos de la planta. Se consultaron las fuentes históricas disponibles. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias regionales en los usos del agave y técnicas de preparación, determinadas por un número de factores estrechamente vinculados con el grupo étnico de los pobladores y su historia.

  19. Biologia reprodutiva e ausência de frutificação de Aloe saponaria (Aiton Haw. (Xanthorrhoeaceae fora do local de origem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. CORREDOR-PRADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O gênero Aloe, originário principalmente da África, tem atualmente uma ampla distribuição no mundo. No entanto, são poucas as regiões que têm realizado estudos quanto ao sistema reprodutivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características e o comportamento reprodutivo de Aloe saponaria em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. Foram conduzidos estudos sobre sua morfologia e biologia floral, visitantes florais e sistema reprodutivo. Esta espécie apresentou uma inflorescência por planta, com um comprimento de 105 ± 0,1 cm e 267 ± 92,7 flores. A razão pólen/óvulo sugere que a espécie é xenogâmica. O volume e concentração de sólidos solúveis totais do néctar potencial foi 16,6 ± 6,3 μL e 22 ± 2,4 °Brix respectivamente. O néctar instantâneo não apresentou diferenças significativas nos períodos avaliados (9:00h e 15:00h e o estigma permaneceu receptivo até o segundo dia após a antese. Foram coletados 110 insetos visitantes florais, dos quais 61,8% foram indivíduos de Trigona spinipes. Entretanto, nos testes de polinização não foi observada frutificação efetiva, indicando que a propagação vegetativa é o principal tipo de reprodução usado nessa população. Isto pode estar relacionado a um mecanismo de autoincompatibilidade esporofítica, a anormalidades cromossômicas durante a formação do pólen, as condições climáticas, e a escassa variabilidade genética no local de estudo.

  20. Inventario de la entomofauna asociada al cultivo de pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw. en Briceño (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Iván Patiño-Tiria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Boyacá es uno de los departamentos con mayor producción de pitahaya amarilla en el país. Los estudios realizados sobre este cultivo son muy pocos, y el conocimiento de la entomofauna asociada a él es un punto de partida para realizar nuevas investigaciones que permitan identificar la entomofauna asociada a este cultivo en el municipio de Briceño (Boyacá. El desarrollo de esta investigación se llevó a cabo en plantaciones de pitahaya en tres fincas del municipio de Briceño (Boyacá. Se realizaron muestreos empleando métodos activos, como captura manual directa, uso de red y aspirador entomológico, y métodos pasivos, como trampas con atrayentes y trampas  de caída. Los insectos colectados se sometieron a cámara letal y luego se montaron en alfileres para su posterior identificación con ayuda del estereoscopio y claves taxonómicas. En las tres fincas se identificaron un total de 9 órdenes y 58 familias, y los órdenes Hymenóptera y Díptera se reportaron con la mayor cantidad de individuos benéficos. En la finca San Pablo se observó la mayor cantidad de insectos; también fue la única en donde se evidenció la presencia de la plaga más limitante para este cultivo, que es Dasiops saltans (mosca del botón floral. La cantidad de familias presentes en los muestreos se ve influenciada más por el manejo agronómico implementado en cada finca que por las variables climatológicas, como temperatura, humedad relativa y precipitación.

  1. Notes on the typification of some species of Aloe (Asphodelaceae/Aloaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Glen

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Lecto- or neotypes are designated for Aloe thompsoniae Groenew.. A. micracantha Haw .. A. schmidticma Regel (a synonym of/4,  cooperi Baker. A. longistyla Baker. A. aristata Haw., A. longiaristata Schult. & Schult. f„ (a synonym of the preceding name, A. humilis (L. Mill. var.  incurva Haw.. A. glauca Mill., A. niuricata Schult. (a synonym of the preceding name. A. saponaria (Aiton Haw. var.  latifolia Haw. (a new synonym of A. maculata All. and A. pluridens Haw. The confusing citation of the type of A. thomcroftii Pole Evans is clarified.

  2. (Bio)degradation of RDX and HMX in Marine/Estuarine Water and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    four fungal strains Rhodotorula sp . HAW-OCF1, Bullera sp . HAW-OCF2, Acremonium sp . HAW-OCF3 and Penicillium sp . HAW-OCF5, were isolated as RDX...represent four novel species of Shewanella described as follows: Shewanella sediminis sp . nov.: Strain HAW-EB3T contains lysine decarboxylase that is...We proposed Shewanella sediminis sp . nov. with HAW-EB3T (= NCIMB 14036T = DSM 17055T) as the type strain (Zhao et al. 2005). Shewanella halifaxensis

  3. EFECTO DE DOS ÍNDICES DE MADUREZ Y DOS TEMPERATURAS DE ALMACENAMIENTO SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO EN POSCOSECHA DE LA PITAHAYA AMARILLA (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw. EFFECT OF TWO RIPENING STAGES AND TWO STORAGE TEMPERATURES ON THE POSTHARVEST BEHAVIOUR OF YELLOW PITAHAYA (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Alexandra Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento poscosecha de la pitahaya amarilla, se almacenaron 60 kg de fruta cosechada en estado 3 de madurez, según la Tabla de Color de CENICAFE (ICONTEC NTC 3554, de los cuales 30 kg se colocaron en un cuarto a 19 ºC y los 30 kg restantes en un cuarto frío a 8 ºC; igual se procedió con 60 kg de la fruta cosechada en estado 5 de madurez. Las características físicas de las frutas en estado 3 cambiaron poco, mientras las químicas variaron a través del tiempo, respondiendo al proceso de maduración; tuvieron un tiempo de vida útil mayor los frutos almacenados a 8 °C (19 días. Sin embargo a partir de este día se evidenció daño por frío en el 50 % de los frutos. Los frutos a 8 °C y 19 °C, presentaron aumento en el pH y el índice de madurez, pasando de estado 3 a 5 y de 5 a 6 al final del almacenamiento. Así mismo la acidez titulable decreció, pasando de 2,54 % a 1,50 % y 3,02 % a 1,29 % en estado 3 a 19 ºC y 8 ºC, respectivamente. El porcentaje de agua en el fruto tuvo una reducción del 3,0 % y 1,10 % para las frutas en estado 3 a 19 ºC y 8 ºC; y de 2,5 4 % y 0,51 % en estado 5 a 19 ºC y 8 ºC, respectivamente. Los ºBrix tuvieron un comportamiento errático. Las frutas cosechadas en estado 5, no presentaron cambios fisicoquímicos importantes y su duración fue menor, debido en parte a la presencia de la pudrición basal del fruto causada por Fusarium sp. Por lo tanto se sugiere cosechar la fruta en estado 3 de madurez y almacenarla a una temperatura menor al ambiente ( 19 ºC aprox. y mayor a 8 ºC.In order to evaluate the postharvest behaviour of yellow pitahaya, 60 kg of fruit harvested at ripening stage 3, as determined by the CENICAFE colour scale (ICONTEC NTC 3554, were stored, of which 30 kg were placed in a room at 19 °C and the remaining 30 kg were placed in refrigerated storage at 8 °C; similarly, the same procedure was conducted with 60 kg of fruit harvested at ripening stage 5. The physical properties of stage 3 fruits changed little, while chemical properties varied over time, responding to the ripening process. Fruits stored at 8 °C had a longer shelf life (19 days. However, after this time, chill injury was apparent in 50 % of the fruits. Fruits at 8 and 19 °C exhibited increases in pH and the ripening index went from 3 to 5 up to 5 to 6 by the end of the storage. Likewise, titratable acid decreased in stage 3 from 2,54 % to 1,50 %, and from 3,02 % to 1,29 %, at 19 and 8 ºC, respectively. Water percentage of the stage 3 fruit decreased 3 and 1,10 % at 19 and 8 ºC; and decreased in stage 5 fruits 2,54 and 0,51 % at 19 and 8 ºC, respectively. ºBrix exhibited erratic behavior. Fruits harvested at ripening stage 5 did not exhibit important physicochemical changes and their longevities were lower, due in part to fruit basal end-rot caused by Fusarium sp. Therefore, it is suggested that fruit be harvested at ripening stage 3 and stored at temperatures below ambient ( 19 °C and above 8 °C.

  4. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Kartagener syndrome in a family with a novel DNAH5 gene mutation and variable phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makia J. Marafie

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Molecular test helped in confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in providing better management of the affected family members, which in turn could significantly improve overall quality of their life. Consequently, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is the most acceptable procedure in the Islamic countries, was offered to the heterozygous-carrier couple in order to prevent recurrence of the disease in their future generations.

  5. A new index for characterizing micro-bead motion in a flow induced by ciliary beating: Part II, modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bottier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the human respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the airways is constantly moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, expelling at the same time particles trapped in it. The efficiency of the cilia motion can experimentally be assessed by measuring the velocity of micro-beads traveling through the fluid surrounding the cilia. Here we present a mathematical model of the fluid flow and of the micro-beads motion. The coordinated movement of the ciliated edge is represented as a continuous envelope imposing a periodic moving velocity boundary condition on the surrounding fluid. Vanishing velocity and vanishing shear stress boundary conditions are applied to the fluid at a finite distance above the ciliated edge. The flow field is expanded in powers of the amplitude of the individual cilium movement. It is found that the continuous component of the horizontal velocity at the ciliated edge generates a 2D fluid velocity field with a parabolic profile in the vertical direction, in agreement with the experimental measurements. Conversely, we show than this model can be used to extract microscopic properties of the cilia motion by extrapolating the micro-bead velocity measurement at the ciliated edge. Finally, we derive from these measurements a scalar index providing a direct assessment of the cilia beating efficiency. This index can easily be measured in patients without any modification of the current clinical procedures.

  6. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Hoiby, Niels

    2017-01-01

    patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. Conclusion We demonstrated...... an improvement in CRS-related symptoms after ESS and adjuvant therapy. In selected PCD patients, the suggested regimen may postpone chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and stabilize lung function....

  7. Regulation of ciliary function by fibroblast growth factor signaling identifies FGFR3-related disorders achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia as ciliopathies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunová Bosáková, M.; Vařecha, M.; Hampl, Marek; Duran, I.; Nita, A.; Buchtová, Marcela; Dosedělová, Hana; Machat, R.; Xie, Y.; Ni, Z.; Martin, J. H.; Chen, L.; Jansen, G.; Krakow, D.; Krejčí, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2018), s. 1093-1105 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : achondroplasia * thanatophoric dysplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2016

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta, but not ciliary neurotrophic factor, inhibits DNA synthesis of adrenal medullary cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, N; Krohn, K; Bieger, S

    1999-01-01

    by the neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, which also express the transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II. In contrast to the developmentally related sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells continue to proliferate throughout postnatal life. Using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse labeling and tyrosine hydroxylase...... immunocytochemistry as a marker for young postnatal rat chromaffin cells, we show that treatment with fibroblast growth factor-2 (1 nM) and insulin-like growth factor-II (10 nM) increased the fraction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled nuclei from 1% to about 40% of the cells in the absence of serum. In the presence...... of fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor-II, transforming growth factor-beta1 (0.08 nM) reduced 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling by about 50%, without interfering with chromaffin cell survival or death. Doses lower and higher than 0.08 nM were less effective. Similar effects were seen...

  9. Cultivo in vitro de anteras como estrategia para el mejoramiento genético de buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L)

    OpenAIRE

    Carloni, Edgardo José

    2016-01-01

    Tesis (Doctor en Ciencias Agropecuarias)--UNC- Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, 2016. Buffelgrass es una gramínea forrajera que se reproduce principalmente por apomixis. El objetivo del presente trabajo es generar variabilidad genética, mediante cultivo in vitro, en caracteres asociados a tolerancia a sequía a partir de germoplasma introducido de buffelgrass, con la finalidad de incorporarla en un programa de mejoramiento genético de esta especie....

  10. Metastasis of Ciliary Body Melanoma to the Contralateral Eye: A Case Report and Review of Uveal Melanoma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouritza M. Torossian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many types of cancers metastasize to the eye. However, uveal melanoma metastasizing to the contralateral choroid is very rare. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with history of treated uveal melanoma of the right eye that developed metastasis to the liver and the choroid of the left eye. Ten years earlier, he was diagnosed to have uveal melanoma of the right eye and was initially treated with plaque radiotherapy. Two years later, upon progression of the disease in the right eye he had enucleation of the eye. We describe the patient’s clinical history, the diagnosis of recurrent disease in the contralateral eye, therapy of the left eye, and systemic metastasis. In addition, we reviewed the published medical literature and described the recent advances in the management of uveal melanoma.

  11. UJI VIABILITAS DAN PERKEMBANGAN SERBUK SARI BUAH NAGA PUTIH (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS (HAW. BRITTON & ROSE, MERAH (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS (WEB. BRITTON & ROSE DAN SUPER MERAH (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS (WEB. BRITTON & ROSE SETELAH PENYIMPANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI KADEK YUNITA SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine pollen viability, pollen tube length and pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at different temperatures and times. The method used to test pollen viability was hanging drop technique and to observe the development of pollen used acetolysis techniques. The results showed viability and pollen tube length of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at temperature of 10° C and -20° C for 1, 2 and 3 weeks decreased (66% and 25%, tended to increase (2% after 4 weeks. Viability and pollen tube length decreased (100% after storage at 30° C for 4 weeks. Pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at 30°C, 10°C and -20°C for 1 to 4 weeks showed the majority of pollen consists of uninucleat and binucleat.

  12. A fugitive illusion. anti-nuclear 'barbarism'. Nuclear policies: France hums and haws, England dashes, Germany sinks, Northern America strengthens, Japan gets ready, Russia and China move forward, and the rest of the world emerges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-04-01

    This document proposes three articles by the same author. In the first one, he presents wind energy and photovoltaic as a complete economic failure (and even disaster), a sector in which huge investments have been lost with dramatic human consequences. In the second one, he comments and criticizes the statements contained in an anti-nuclear publication entitled Antinuclear barbarism (in French: Barbarie antinucleaire) which denounces various aspects of the nuclear industry notably in Japan and in Fukushima, but also regarding the Chernobyl accident and its health consequences, or the French nuclear policy (ASTRID project) and energy policies of various countries. The third article proposes an overview of nuclear policies in France (no important nuclear project until 2007, difficulties with the EPR, new perspectives in China and in the UK), in England (project of construction of 10 EPRs), in Germany (dramatic consequences of the decision to phase out nuclear), in Eastern European countries (new reactor projects), in Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden may extend their nuclear fleet), in the USA (a 20 year extension of reactor life) and in Canada, in Russia (nuclear revival with remarkable improvements on the existing reactors, project of development of fast breeder reactors, development of the VVER fleet, good prospects for exports), in Asia (Japan, South Korea, China)

  13. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing an ageing management program for dry cask storage facilities. From the gained results and findings recommendations were derived, which are on the one hand directed to the implementation of a periodic safety review, and on the other hand addressing safety issues which could be important in case of a needed extension of the storage period. The report comes to the conclusion that on the base of the analyses performed herein no indication on unexpected long term effects nor on insufficient justification of safety during the planned regular period of storage was found. In addition the report provides recommendations regarding the implementation of a systematic ageing management program in the frame of the planned 40 years storage period and for an extension, if this should be necessary.

  14. Evaluación de la actividad fungistática in vitro de bacterias ácido lácticas contra especies de Fusarium causantes de pudrición basal en pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw)

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Hernández, Leidy J

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium sp. Es uno de los principales hongos fitopatógenos causantes de enfermedades en pitahaya amarilla. Estudios previos han demostrado la capacidad antimicrobiana de bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) contra patógenos; sin embargo no se ha reportado en la literatura científica actividad fungistática de BAL contra especies de Fusarium causantes de pudrición basal en pitahaya amarilla. En este trabajo se evaluó in vitro la actividad fungistática de una BAL aislada de cultivos de pitahaya amari...

  15. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  16. 绝对期青光眼行睫状体光凝的护理%Absolute phase glaucoma line ciliary body photocoagulation of nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽平; 岳蕃

    2013-01-01

    objective Discuss the potential complications of using semiconductor laser photocoagulation treatment period of absolute glaucoma surgery nursing period.methods Of 158 patients with 163 eyes to the potential complications of the semiconductor laser photocoagulation, On preoperative psychological nursing、Ful preoperative preparation;Intraoperative take recumbent position 、Actively cooperate with the operation 、To adjust the laser equipment parameters ,Try to shorten the operation time, Relieve the patient pain; Postoperative pay attention to rest, Reduce activities, To anterior chamber reaction 、Eye pain、High intraocular pressure and suit support treatment. The results 163 eyes in 146 eyes (89.6%) surgery intraocular pressure control stability, To avoid the reoperation even remove eye pain, In addition to 17 cases of intraocular pressure rise again and again, Patients require evisceration line, more than no serious complications.conclusion The potential complications of the semiconductor laser photocoagulation therapy is a simple, safe and effective in the treatment of absolute glaucoma phase method, Reasonable preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care, can greatly reduce the pain of patients and improve the success rate of laser surgery.%  目的探讨利用半导体激光经巩膜睫状体光凝治疗绝对期青光眼的手术期护理。方法对158例163眼进行半导体激光的经巩膜睫状体光凝,术前进行心理护理、充分术前准备;术中采取卧位、积极配合手术、随时调节激光设备参数,尽量缩短手术时间,减轻患者痛苦;术后注意休息,减少活动,对前房反应、眼部疼痛、高眼压等对症支持处理。结果163眼中146眼(89.6%)手术后眼压控制稳定,避免了再次手术甚至摘除眼球的痛苦,除17例因眼压反复升高,患者要求行眼球摘除,余无严重并发症出现。结论半导体激光经巩膜睫状体光凝治疗是一种简单、安全、有效的治疗绝对期青光眼的方法,合理的术前、术中和术后护理,可以极大减轻患者的痛苦,提高激光手术的成功率。

  17. A potential contributory role for ciliary dysfunction in the 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliavacca, Eugenia; Golzio, Christelle; Männik, Katrin; Blumenthal, Ian; Oh, Edwin C.; Harewood, Louise; Kosmicki, Jack A.; Loviglio, Maria Nicla; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Hippolyte, Loyse; Maillard, Anne M.; Alfaiz, Ali Abdullah; Witwicki, Robert; Didelot, Gérard; Van Der Werf, Ilse; Alfaiz, Ali A.; Zazhytska, Marianna; Chrast, Jacqueline; Macé, Aurélien; Bergmann, Sven; Kutalik, Zoltan; Siffredi, Vanessa; Zufferey, Flore; Martinet, Danielle; Bena, Frédérique; Rauch, Anita; Bouquillon, Sonia; Delobel, Bruno; Boute, Odile; Duban-Bedu, Bénédicte; Le Caignec, Cédric; Isidor, Bertrand; Chiesa, Jean; Keren, Boris; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Touraine, Renaud; Campion, Dominique; Thambo, Caroline Rooryck; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Plessis, Ghislaine; Kooy, Frank; Peeters, Hilde; Ounap, Katrin; Vulto-Van Silfhout, Anneke T.; De Vries, Bert B.; Van Binsbergen, Ellen; Nordgren, Ann; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Renieri, Alessandra; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Philipps, John A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Andrieux, Joris; Gusella, James F.; Daly, Mark J.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Talkowski, Michael E.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Reymond, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb copy-number variants (CNVs) are associated with mirror phenotypes on BMI, head circumference, and brain volume and represent frequent genetic lesions in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Here we interrogated the transcriptome of individuals carrying reciprocal

  18. Retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutations in the ciliary MAK gene is relatively mild and is not associated with apparent extra-ocular features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, R.A.C. van; Siemiatkowska, A.M.; Ozgul, R.K.; Yucel, D.; Hoyng, C.B.; Banin, E.; Blumenfeld, A.; Rotenstreich, Y.; Riemslag, F.C.; Hollander, A.I. den; Theelen, T.; Collin, R.W.J.; Born, L.I. van den; Klevering, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Defects in MAK, encoding a protein localized to the photoreceptor connecting cilium, have recently been associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The aim of this study is to describe our detailed clinical observations in patients with MAK-associated RP, including an

  19. Ciliary-propelling mechanism, effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming speed, and adaptive significance of ‘jumping’ in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2009-01-01

    , hence increasing viscosity, from 9.6 +/- 0.3 mm/s at 21C to 5.2 +/- 0.7 mm/s at 9.8C for seawater, and down to 3.7 +/- 0.5 mm/s at a temperature equivalent Te = 5.8C for PVP-manipulated viscosity, and further, the swimming velocity was found to decrease with increasing viscosity according to the power...

  20. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  1. Hyperoxia-induced ciliary loss and oxidative damage in an in vitro bovine model: The protective role of antioxidant vitamins E and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shmgani, Hanady S.; Moate, Roy M.; Sneyd, J. Robert; Macnaughton, Peter D.; Moody, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new bovine bronchial model for studying hyperoxia-induced cilia loss is presented. ► Hyperoxia-induced cilia loss was associated with increased sloughing of cells. ► Hyperoxia led to higher epithelial glutathione levels, evidence of oxidative stress. ► Hyperoxia led to increased DNA damage (Comet), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). ► Vitamins C and E partially protected against hyperoxia-induced cilia loss. -- Abstract: Although elevated oxygen fraction is used in intensive care units around the world, pathological changes in pulmonary tissue have been shown to occur with prolonged exposure to hyperoxia. In this work a bovine bronchus culture model has been successfully used to evaluate the effects of hyperoxia on ciliated epithelium in vitro. Samples were cultured using an air interface method and exposed to normoxia, 21% O 2 or hyperoxia, 95% O 2 . Cilial coverage was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, in the medium), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), DNA damage (comet assay), protein oxidation (OxyBlot kit) and antioxidant status (total glutathione) were used to assess whether the hyperoxia caused significant oxidative stress. Hyperoxia caused a time-dependent decline (t ½ = 3.4 d compared to 37.1 d under normoxia) in cilial coverage (P 6 compared to 1.97 ± 0.23 × 10 6 ml −1 after 6 d), many apparently intact, in the medium (P −1 g −1 after 6 d; P −1 for hyperoxia and normoxia, respectively); % tail DNA (18.7 ± 2.2 versus 11.1 ± 1.5); protein carbonyls (P −1 versus 189 ± 15 μmol g −1 ). Vitamins E (10 −7 M) and C (10 −6 or 10 −7 M) alone or in combination (10 −7 M and 10 −6 M, respectively) had a significant protective effect on the hyperoxia-induced reduction in percentage cilial coverage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hyperoxia caused damage to cultured bovine bronchial epithelium and denudation of cilia. The antioxidant vitamins E and C significantly protected against hyperoxia-induced cilia loss.

  2. A conserved role for Notch in priming the cellular response to Shh through ciliary localisation of the key Shh transducer, Smoothened

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stasiulewicz, Magdalena; Gray, Shona; Mastromina, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Notochord-derived Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is essential for dorso-ventral patterning of the overlying neural tube. Increasing concentration and duration of Shh signal induces progenitors to acquire progressively more ventral fates. We show Notch signalling augments the response of neuroepithelial cells...

  3. Chloromonilinic Acids C and D, Phytotoxic Tetrasubstituted 3-Chromanonacrylic Acids Isolated from Cochliobolus australiensis with Potential Herbicidal Activity against Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Clement, Suzette; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-10-27

    The fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis isolated from infected leaves of the invasive weed buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) was grown in vitro to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides against this weed. Two new tetrasubstituted 3-chromanonacrylic acids, named chloromonilinic acids C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the liquid cultures of C. australiensis, together with the known chloromonilinic acid B. Chloromonilinic acids C and D were characterized by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (E)-3-chloro-3-[(5-hydroxy-3-(1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-7-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)]acrylic acid and (Z)-3-chloro-3-[(5-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-7-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)]acrylic acid, respectively. The stereochemistry of chloromonilinic acids C and D was determined using a combination of spectroscopic and computational methods, including electronic circular dichroism. The fungus produced these compounds in two different liquid media together with cochliotoxin, radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers. The radicinin-related compounds were also produced when the fungus was grown in wheat seed solid culture, but chloromonilinic acids were not found in the solid culture organic extract. All three chloromonilinic acids were toxic to buffelgrass in a seedling elongation bioassay, with significantly delayed germination and dramatically reduced radicle growth, especially at a concentration of 5 × 10 -3 M.

  4. Hyperoxia-induced ciliary loss and oxidative damage in an in vitro bovine model: The protective role of antioxidant vitamins E and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shmgani, Hanady S.; Moate, Roy M. [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Sneyd, J. Robert [Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Macnaughton, Peter D. [Derriford Critical Care Unit, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John, E-mail: jmoody@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new bovine bronchial model for studying hyperoxia-induced cilia loss is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia-induced cilia loss was associated with increased sloughing of cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia led to higher epithelial glutathione levels, evidence of oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia led to increased DNA damage (Comet), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitamins C and E partially protected against hyperoxia-induced cilia loss. -- Abstract: Although elevated oxygen fraction is used in intensive care units around the world, pathological changes in pulmonary tissue have been shown to occur with prolonged exposure to hyperoxia. In this work a bovine bronchus culture model has been successfully used to evaluate the effects of hyperoxia on ciliated epithelium in vitro. Samples were cultured using an air interface method and exposed to normoxia, 21% O{sub 2} or hyperoxia, 95% O{sub 2}. Cilial coverage was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, in the medium), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), DNA damage (comet assay), protein oxidation (OxyBlot kit) and antioxidant status (total glutathione) were used to assess whether the hyperoxia caused significant oxidative stress. Hyperoxia caused a time-dependent decline (t{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 3.4 d compared to 37.1 d under normoxia) in cilial coverage (P < 0.0001). This was associated with a significant increase in the number of cells (2.80 {+-} 0.27 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} compared to 1.97 {+-} 0.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} ml{sup -1} after 6 d), many apparently intact, in the medium (P < 0.05); LDH release (1.06 {+-} 0.29 compared to 0.83 {+-} 0.36 {mu}mol min{sup -1} g{sup -1} after 6 d; P < 0.001); lipid peroxidation (352 {+-} 16 versus 247 {+-} 11 {mu}mol MDA g{sup -1} for hyperoxia and normoxia, respectively); % tail DNA (18.7 {+-} 2.2 versus 11.1 {+-} 1.5); protein carbonyls (P < 0.05); and total glutathione (229 {+-} 20 {mu}mol g{sup -1} versus 189 {+-} 15 {mu}mol g{sup -1}). Vitamins E (10{sup -7} M) and C (10{sup -6} or 10{sup -7} M) alone or in combination (10{sup -7} M and 10{sup -6} M, respectively) had a significant protective effect on the hyperoxia-induced reduction in percentage cilial coverage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hyperoxia caused damage to cultured bovine bronchial epithelium and denudation of cilia. The antioxidant vitamins E and C significantly protected against hyperoxia-induced cilia loss.

  5. Viscosity and not biological mechanisms often controls the effects of temperature on ciliary activity and swimming velocity of small aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.

    2009-01-01

    organisms using cilia or small appendages for propulsion. Here we summarize results from the literature and from own studies on bio-mechanical activities in response to changing temperature or manipulated viscosity at constant temperature, both having the same change in kinematic viscosity. The survey......A number of studies have shown that temperature-dependent viscosity of the ambient water controls or strongly affects bio-mechanical activity such as beat frequency of water-pumping cilia in mussels and ascidians, swimming velocity of sperm cells, ciliates and small (micro- and meso-scale) aquatic...

  6. Impact of Relativistic Electron Beam on Hole Acoustic Instability in Quantum Semiconductor Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Areeb, F.; Javed, Asif; Sumera, P.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of the classical relativistic beam of electrons on the hole acoustic wave (HAW) instability exciting in the semiconductor quantum plasmas. We conducted this study by using the quantum-hydrodynamic model of dense plasmas, incorporating the quantum effects of semiconductor plasma species which include degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential and Bohm potential. Analysis of the quantum characteristics of semiconductor plasma species along with relativistic effect of beam electrons on the dispersion relation of the HAW is given in detail qualitatively and quantitatively by plotting them numerically. It is worth mentioning that the relativistic electron beam (REB) stabilises the HAWs exciting in semiconductor (GaAs) degenerate plasma.

  7. Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Choi, A.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the off-gas analysis of samples collected during the radioactive vitrification experiments. Production and characterization of the Hanford waste-containing LAW and HAW glasses are presented in related reports from this conference

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2053 ref|YP_001474562.1| DNA internalization-related competence protei...n ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] gb|ABV37434.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] YP_001474562.1 0.18 25% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1488 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1488 ref|YP_001474562.1| DNA internalization-related competence protei...n ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] gb|ABV37434.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] YP_001474562.1 1.7 33% ...

  10. Investigations concerning the source term for the emission of fission products and transuranic elements from the highly radioactive waste in the temperature region between 200 and 11000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, F.; Krebs, K.; Merte, B.

    1984-04-01

    Starting point of these investigations was the research report 290 of the former Institute for Reactor Safety, Cologne. The largely incorrect assumptions made in the chemical statement led to high radioactive doses not only for the closer, but also for the further surroundings of a reprocessing plant in case that the cooling system of the fuel element storage or the storage tank for the highly radioactive waste (HAW) should become inoperative for an extended period of time. However, as a result of this temperature region which we used in our experiments, the investigations concerning the source term of the HAW between 1100 and 1200 0 C became interesting again, because a glass melt of about 1100 0 C is used during the PAMELA-process for the vitrification of the HAW. The aqueous HAW-solution is thereby poured onto a hot glass melt. The solution thereby dries up, the HAW-salt is calcined and finally sinks into the glass melt. From today's point of view an investigation concerning the source term of the fission products and transuranic elements from the HAW at 1100 0 C therefore provides information regarding the fission product- and transuranic element volatilization within the melting furnace during the vitrification process. The results may now therefore also be considered a contribution for the layout of the off-gas purification system during the PAMELA-process

  11. Study protocol, rationale and recruitment in a European multi-centre randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of azithromycin maintenance therapy for 6 months in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Buchvald, Frederik F; Haarman, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    maintenance therapy in PCD. METHODS: The BESTCILIA trial is a European multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. The intervention is tablets of azithromycin 250/500 mg according to body weight or placebo administered three times a week for 6 months. Subjects...... prescribed in other chronic respiratory disorders. Furthermore, the trial will utilize the Lung clearance index and new, PCD-specific quality of life instruments as outcome measures for PCD. Recruitment is hampered by frequent occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, exacerbations at enrolment...

  12. Phylogeny of Cyclic Nitramine-Degrading Psychrophilic Bacteria in Marine Sediment and Their Potential Role in the Natural Attenuation of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    prepared by dissolving Brewer Anaerobic Agar (Becton Dickson,Sparks, MD, USA) in marine salts medium. Liquid marine media used in the present study...were marine broth 2216 (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) [7], or prepared by dissolving 0.1 or 1 g each of yeast extract, bacto peptone, and glucose in 1 l...biodegrada- tion All marine isolates (HAW-EB1–5, HAW-EB17, 18 and 21) grew well in marine broth 2216 or other peptone and yeast extract based media

  13. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    species. Once an item recovered from sites 41DL183, 41DL196, and 41TR45. was identified to genus or species, it was labeled and When viewed from the...Gray Red Haw Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry Cercis canadensis L. Redbud Juglans spp. Walnut 15.4...spp. Plum .3 Crataegus mollis Torr. & Gray Red Haw .9 .8 .3 Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon .3 Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry .8 1.9

  14. Negotiating Primitivist Modernisms: Louis Armstrong, Robert Goffin, and the Transatlantic Jazz Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available “Dear Pal Goffin,” Louis Armstrong wrote to his Belgian acquaintance, the lawyer, hobby journalist, and jazz historian Robert Goffin, on July 19, 1944. “‘Man—I’ve been trying to get in touch with you […]. Here’s another hundred dollars toward the five hundred. […] So accept this hundred and I’ll send the other before a ‘Black Cat can ‘Lick his ‘Bu‘hind’ ….. haw haw haw…” (80. Sending Goffin a batch of money along with this playfully worded missive, Armstrong was hoping for quick results. He ...

  15. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical...... surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...... in the investigation of pathophysiological aspects and drug effects in human nasal airway epithelium....

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    It is urgent to find other novel therapy for lung cancer patients. Opuntia dillenii Haw was introduced from Milpa region into China in 1997. Because its rhizome is an excellent herb medicine, it has been used extensively for treatments of wounds, burns, asthma and diabetes (Huang et al., 2009). This plant contains high levels ...

  17. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAnsHAwe, J. 2002. Field guide of the birds of East Africa. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda,. Rwanda, Burundi. London: T. & A.D. Poyser. zimmermAn, d.A., tUrner, d.A. & PeArson d.J. 1999. Birds of Kenya & Northern Tanzania. London: Helm Field Guides. Sandro Panzera. Museo di Storia Naturale del Salento, Calimera LE, Italy.

  18. 3 CFR 8386 - Proclamation 8386 of May 26, 2009. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... storm surges, which can in turn bring severe flooding, power outages, damage to homes and businesses... working in government, business, and the nonprofit sector—to plan ahead and help secure the safety and... conditions. More information on precautionary measures is available at www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/intro...

  19. Archeological Survey of Undeveloped Portions of Eaker Air Force Base, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    Swamp (Quercus bicolor) T I White (Quercus alba)11 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw...Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Sheilbark ( Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeamn (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica

  20. A Cultural Resources Survey of Steele, New Franklin, and Main Ditches, and National Register of Historic Places Significance Testing of Sites 2PM574, 575, 577, and 23PM578, Pemiscot County Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-15

    White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red... Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark (Car.ya laciniosa) T Hornbeam ( Ostrya virgin/iana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica)T "Locust, ? T Black (Robinia

  1. Enhancing Infant Mental Health Using a Capacity-Building Model: A Case Study of a Process Evaluation of the "Ready, Steady, Grow" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrelly, Christine; Guerin, Suzanne; Victory, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Infant mental health (IMH) is best promoted through a continuum of services underpinned by strong service capacity. However, service providers often lack fundamental IMH knowledge and skills. Using the Ready, Steady, Grow (RSG) initiative as a case study of a capacity-building model (P., Hawe, L., King, M., Noort, C., Jordens, & B., Llyod,…

  2. Oma riik / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    Inglise kunstniku Mark Wallingeri näitusest "State Britain" Londonis Tate Britainis. Eksponeeritakse üle 40 meetri pikkust installatsiooni, mis koosneb Briti parlamendihoone vastas sõjavastast demonstratsiooni pidava Brian Haw' banneritest, lippudest, loosungitest, fotodest, kaisukarudest. Rootsi kunstniku Ann Sofi Siden'i näitusest "Warte Mal!" Londoni Haywardi galeriis 2002 a.

  3. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  4. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  5. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-06

    of Koh’s Johore-registered Datsun where the drugs were found after Mr Lim Chye Huat, who was holding a watching brief for Messrs United Keng Soon...prime minister that Article 21 be imposed against two Chinese Haw heroin traffickers, Lin Taisiang and Mrs Ma Chin -muai, who were caught with k.l kgs

  6. Marketing Climate: New Considerations for Target Marketing in Graduate Student Enrollment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzow, Jeannine; Hyland, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Lewison and Hawes (1997) discuss target marketing strategies of differentiated, concentrated or orchestrated marketing in their article "Student Marketing Strategies for Universities." While the authors agree with some of the suggested strategies and reasons behind them, their perspective as faculty teaching in a graduate education program offers…

  7. A Drosophila melanogaster hobo-white + vector mediates low frequency gene transfer in D. vlrllls with full Interspecific white + complementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformation of a Drosophila virilis white mutant host strain was attempted by using a hobo vector containing the D. melanogaster mini-white+ cassette (H[w+, hawN]) and an unmodified or heat shock regulated hobo transposase helper. Two transformant lines were recovered with the unmodified helper (...

  8. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Ronald F.L.; Sugano, J.S.; Jang, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  9. Environmental Assessment for the Independent Waste Handling Facility, 211-F at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Currently, liquid Low Activity Waste (LAW) and liquid High Activity Waste (HAW) are generated from various process operational facilities/processes throughout the Savannah River Site (SRS) as depicted on Figure 2-1. Prior to storage in the F-Area tank farm, these wastes are neutralized and concentrated to minimize their volume. The Waste Handling Facility (211-3F) at Building 211-F Complex (see Figure 2-2) is the only existing facility onsite equipped to receive acidic HAW for neutralization and volume reduction processing. Currently, Building 221-F Canyon (see Figure 2-2) houses the neutralization and evaporation facilities for HAW volume reduction and provides support services such as electric power and plant, process, and instrument air, waste transfer capabilities, etc., for 21 1-F operations. The future plan is to deactivate the 221-F building. DOE`s purpose is to be able to process the LAW/HAW that will continue to be generated on site. DOE needs to establish an alternative liquid waste receipt and treatment capability to support site facilities with a continuing mission. The desire is for Building 211-F to provide the receipt and neutralization functions for LAW and HAW independent of 221-F Canyon. The neutralization capability is required to be part of the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Programs (NMSP) facilities since the liquid waste generated by the various site facilities is acidic. Tn order for Waste Management to receive the waste streams, the solutions must be neutralized to meet Waste Management`s acceptance criteria. The Waste Management system is caustic in nature to prevent corrosion and the subsequent potential failure of tanks and associated piping and hardware.

  10. SRS-A leukotrienes decrease the activity of human respiratory cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) constituents leukotrienes (LT) C4 and D4 on the ciliary activity of human respiratory cells. The ciliary beat frequency on human nasal cells harvested by cell scraping from the inferior turbinate was measured...

  11. A case of Kartagener syndrome with rhinolalia clausa | Raoufi | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kartagener syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic ciliary disorder comprising of a classic triad of sinusitis, situs inversus and bronchiectasis. It's the one of primary ciliary dyskinesia disorders with manifestations present from childhood. Most patients of PCD have situs inversus. We present a case of 18 year-old women ...

  12. Loss of Arf4 causes severe degeneration of the exocrine pancreas but not cystic kidney disease or retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian N Pearring

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arf4 is proposed to be a critical regulator of membrane protein trafficking in early secretory pathway. More recently, Arf4 was also implicated in regulating ciliary trafficking, however, this has not been comprehensively tested in vivo. To directly address Arf4's role in ciliary transport, we deleted Arf4 specifically in either rod photoreceptor cells, kidney, or globally during the early postnatal period. Arf4 deletion in photoreceptors did not cause protein mislocalization or retinal degeneration, as expected if Arf4 played a role in protein transport to the ciliary outer segment. Likewise, Arf4 deletion in kidney did not cause cystic disease, as expected if Arf4 were involved in general ciliary trafficking. In contrast, global Arf4 deletion in the early postnatal period resulted in growth restriction, severe pancreatic degeneration and early death. These findings are consistent with Arf4 playing a critical role in endomembrane trafficking, particularly in the pancreas, but not in ciliary function.

  13. CEP128 Localizes to the Subdistal Appendages of the Mother Centriole and Regulates TGF-β/BMP Signaling at the Primary Cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönnich, Maren; Borgeskov, Louise; Breslin, Loretta

    2018-01-01

    The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells and comprises a mother and daughter centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material. During formation of primary cilia, the mother centriole transforms into a basal body that templates the ciliary axoneme. Ciliogenesis depends...... on mother centriole-specific distal appendages, whereas the role of subdistal appendages in ciliary function is unclear. Here, we identify CEP128 as a centriole subdistal appendage protein required for regulating ciliary signaling. Loss of CEP128 did not grossly affect centrosomal or ciliary structure...... but caused impaired transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein (TGF-β/BMP) signaling in zebrafish and at the primary cilium in cultured mammalian cells. This phenotype is likely the result of defective vesicle trafficking at the cilium as ciliary localization of RAB11 was impaired upon loss...

  14. Indicadores ambientais para o estudo da contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica da Mata Ciliar na margem direita do Rio São Francisco - ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE STUDY OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF BIOENGINEERING IN ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF FOREST IN CILIARY MARGIN RIGHT OF SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ferreira Ribeiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O maior problema ambiental que se destaca no rio São Francisco é a erosão, tais conseqüências ambientais são fornecidas entre elas o aumento da turbidez nos corpos hídricos, perda da área produtiva e assoreamento do rio devido à devastação das matas ciliares, o que acarreta a diminuição da biodiversidade na região. No processo de contenção da erosão, é necessário ser feito um estudo da mata ciliar, uma vez que a mesma pode auxiliar na contenção da erosão, preservando a integridade do solo contra os efeitos danosos da erosão. A utilização de indicadores para o estudo da sucessão ecológica de espécies de mata ciliar na margem direita do rio São Francisco oferece uma melhor compreensão e dimensão do problema que atinge a área. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo a construção de indicadores ambientais como ferramenta para uma melhor compreensão da contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica na margem direita do Rio São Francisco. A identificação de indicadores ambientais para o estudo do sistema “contribuição da bioengenharia na sucessão ecológica da mata ciliar no Baixo São Francisco”, mostrou-se como uma ferramenta de grande importância para uma melhor compreensão do sistema, permitindo práticas de recuperação mais viáveis.

  15. Adenoid ciliostimulation in children with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Steven M; Schlosser, Rodney J; Wang, Ling-Feng; Mulligan, Ryan M; Discolo, Christopher M; White, David R

    2013-01-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy and chronic adenoiditis are associated with an increased incidence of chronic otitis media. This study intends to determine the relationship between chronic otitis media and dynamic ciliary beat frequency in children undergoing adenoidectomy. Prospective, controlled study. Pediatric tertiary care hospital. Children undergoing adenoidectomy were enrolled. Patients were stratified according to their indication for surgery, including adenotonsillar hypertrophy with obstructive sleep apnea, chronic otitis media with effusion, or recurrent episodes of acute otitis media. Adenoids were harvested using the curette. Tissue was sectioned and allowed to equilibrate in basal media for 24 hours. Cilia-bearing tissue was then stimulated using isoproterenol or methacholine. Ciliary beat frequency was serially reordered and analyzed using the Sisson-Ammons Video Analysis software program. Baseline ciliary beat frequency was similar in all groups (N = 47, total). Using isoproterenol, children with chronic otitis media with effusion demonstrated a blunted dynamic ciliary response at 2 and 3 hours relative to control (P = .0176 and P = .0282). Methacholine-stimulated ciliary beat frequency was not different between each group. At 2 and 3 hours following isoproterenol stimulation, there was a significant blunting of dynamic ciliary beat frequency in children with chronic otitis media with effusion. This ciliary dysfunction may provide a physiological explanation related to chronic adenoiditis in children with chronic otitis media.

  16. Paramecium BBS genes are key to presence of channels in Cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Megan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in genes coding for ciliary proteins contribute to complex human syndromes called ciliopathies, such as Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS. We used the model organism Paramecium to focus on ciliary ion channels that affect the beat form and sensory function of motile cilia and evaluate the effects of perturbing BBS proteins on these channels. Methods We used immunoprecipitations and mass spectrometry to explore whether Paramecium proteins interact as in mammalian cells. We used RNA interference (RNAi and swimming behavior assays to examine the effects of BBS depletion on ciliary ion channels that control ciliary beating. Combining RNA interference and epitope tagging, we examined the effects of BBS depletion of BBS 7, 8 and 9 on the location of three channels and a chemoreceptor in cilia. Results We found 10 orthologs of 8 BBS genes in P. tetraurelia. BBS1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 co-immunoprecipitate. While RNAi reduction of BBS 7 and 9 gene products caused loss and shortening of cilia, RNAi for all BBS genes except BBS2 affected patterns of ciliary motility that are governed by ciliary ion channels. Swimming behavior assays pointed to loss of ciliary K+ channel function. Combining RNAi and epitope tagged ciliary proteins we demonstrated that a calcium activated K+ channel was no longer located in the cilia upon depletion of BBS 7, 8 or 9, consistent with the cells’ swimming behavior. The TRPP channel PKD2 was also lost from the cilia. In contrast, the ciliary voltage gated calcium channel was unaffected by BBS depletion, consistent with behavioral assays. The ciliary location of a chemoreceptor for folate was similarly unperturbed by the depletion of BBS 7, 8 or 9. Conclusions The co-immunoprecipitation of BBS 1,2,4,5,7,8, and 9 suggests a complex of BBS proteins. RNAi for BBS 7, 8 or 9 gene products causes the selective loss of K+ and PKD2 channels from the cilia while the critical voltage gated calcium channel and a

  17. Experimental drop tests in the frame of the component testing of transport casks for radioactive materials; Durchfuehrung experimenteller Fallpruefungen im Rahmen der mechanischen Bauartpruefung von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, A.; Droste, B.; Quercetti, T.; Mueller, K. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM) is the responsible German authority for component testing of packaging containers for radioactive materials in the frame of the licensing process. The tests are performed according to the national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. This includes the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal behavior under defined testing conditions and the radionuclide release in case of severe accidents. The most important test concerning the accident resistance is the experimental drop tests from 9 m height on a firm base plate and from 1 m height on a steel mandrel. The tested sample was a 1:2 model cask CASTOR {sup registered} HAW/Tb2 of the original type CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M. The tests were performed at the BAM test ground in Hortswalde. The documented test results will be part of the safety analysis in the frame of the licensing process for the transport and storage cask.

  18. A nuclear waste deposit in space - the ultimate solution for low-cost and safe disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, H.O.; Hayn, D.; Braitinger, M.; Schmucker, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear high-active waste (HAW) is representative for the problem of burdening the environment with highly active or toxic waste products at present and in the future. Safe disposal methods on Earth are technically very difficult to achieve and the costs of establishment and maintenance of such plants are extremely high. Furthermore the emotionally based rejection by a wide sector of the population gives sufficient reason to look for new solutions. Here, space technology can offer a real alternative - a waste deposit in space. With the Space Transportation System, which shall soon be operative, and the resulting high flight frequencies it will be possible to transport all future HAW into space at economical casts. (orig.) [de

  19. Variation in Phytochemical Composition Reveals Distinct Divergence of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. From Other Aloe Species: Rationale Behind Selective Preference of Aloe vera in Nutritional and Therapeutic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Priyankar; Dutta, Somit; Chowdhury, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Prasad; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we have phytochemically characterized 5 different abundant Aloe species, including Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., using silylation followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technique and compared the data using multivariate statistical analysis. The results demonstrated clear distinction of the overall phytochemical profile of A vera, highlighted by its divergent spatial arrangement in the component plot. Lowest correlation of the phytochemical profiles were found between A vera and A aristata Haw. (−0.626), whereas highest correlation resided between A aristata and A aspera Haw. (0.899). Among the individual phytochemicals, palmitic acid was identified in highest abundance cumulatively, and carboxylic acids were the most predominant phytochemical species in all the Aloe species. Compared to A vera, linear correlation analysis revealed highest and lowest correlation with A aspera (R 2 = 0.9162) and A aristata (R 2 = 0.6745), respectively. Therefore, A vera demonstrated distinct spatial allocation, reflecting its greater phytochemical variability. PMID:29228808

  20. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Vernonia baldwinii Torr. Western Ironweed Viburnum rufidulum Raf. Black Haw Vicia dasycarpa Ten. Winter (Wooly-pod) Vetch Vitex agnus -castus L. Chaste-tree... DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In...Bacteria. 207 Table 45. Macrobenthos. 208 Table 46. Turbidity. 209 Table 47. Relative Transparency. 209 Table 48. Distribution of invertebrates in

  1. In vitro neoplastic transformation of plant callus tissue by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.N.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tumours have been induced by γ-radiation in callus tissue derived from a monocotyledonous flowering plant, Haworthia mirabilis Haw. The transformed tissue exhibited compact texture, excessive cell proliferation and loss of capacity for organogenesis. Tumors were characterized by their ability to undergo continuous autonomous growth on minimal media in the subsequent 4 generations of subculture. In contrast, the nonirradiated control tissue grew with friable texture, required inositol or growth hormones and showed prolific differentiation of vegetative buds. (Auth.)

  2. Designing Medical Facilities to Care for Patients with Highly Hazardous Communicable Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    experience in biocontainment patient care. Pub Health Nursing 2010;140-6. 25Lowe JJ , Jelden KC, Schenarts PJ, Rupp LE, Jr, Hawes KJ, Tysor BN, Swansiger RG...units. Curr Opin-Infect Dis 2015;28:343-8. 27 Wadman MC, Schwedhelm SS, Watson S, Swanhorst J, Gibbs SG, Lowe JJ , Iwen PC, Hayes AK, Needham S...30 Lowe JJ , Gibbs SG, Schwedhelm SS, Nguyen J, Smith PW. Nebraska biocontainment unit perspective on disposal of Ebola medical waste. Am J Infect

  3. Können Suchmaschinen von sozialer Software profitieren?

    CERN Document Server

    Seehaus, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Students at the HAW Hamburg dealed with the question how search engines could add user generated content from a social software system like lycos iq to their result pages. For this reason they analysed and compared the systems` advantages, relevance of search results, usability and the quality of the generated content. The conclusion is that it’s necceassary to improve social software. The text presents the results and the recommendations for lycos iq.

  4. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  5. Shielding calculations with SCALE/MAVRIC and comparison with measurements for the TN85 cask with vitrified high level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Holger; Börst, Frank-Michael

    2017-09-01

    A series of dose rate/spectra measurements in the German interim storage facility Gorleben was carried out at a TN85 cask in April 2009. This type of cask is used for the transport and interim storage of vitrified high level radioactive waste (HAW) from reprocessing. The aim of this work is to assess the shielding component MAVRIC of the SCALE code system with these measurements for the use in the German Bundesamt für Kerntechnische Entsorgungssicherheit (BfE).

  6. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite...also provides a habitat for a number of mammals including: 1. Opossum Didelphis virginiana 2. Shrews Blarina brevicuada and Cryptotis parva 3. Raccoon

  7. Laboratory Experiments to Simulate and Investigate the Physics Underlying the Dynamics of Merging Solar Corona Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-05

    efficiently by using current density rather than electric field as the fundamental wave quantity. 3. Moser & Bellan (2012) showed that the effective gravity...there is effectively a magnetic bubble. This is relevant to interplanetary magnetic clouds spawned by the eruptions of solar corona structures. 10...release. Haw, Magnus , & Bellan, Paul. 2015. 1D fast coded aperture camera. Review of Scientific Instruments, 86(4). 043506. Moser, Auna L., & Bellan

  8. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  9. Results of research and development works 1981 of the Institute for Nuclear Waste Management Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The emphasis of the work is on the development and characterization of waste products suitable for final storage, such as actinides and fission products from MAW/LAW, as well as on the development of methods for the treatment and solidification of radioactive wastes, e.g. wet chemical oxidation, vitrification and cementation. Investigations on the HAW-storage in salt are carried out in cooperation with the GSF. (HP) [de

  10. Aquilla Lake, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Pre-Impoundment Environmental Study: Supplement to Design Memorandum Number 9, Master Plan (in Response to: 40CFR 1505.3),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    phaeacantha White Prairie Rose Rosa filiolosa Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa Slippery Elm Ulrnus rubra Elbow-Bush Forestiera pubescens Southen Black-haw Virburnum...It LIST OF PLATES Plate Title Page 1 Above, a cedar elm woodland scene ( -5), herbaceous component consists primarily of Canada...3( 2 Above, view of a pecan parkland (T3-2), herbaceous and shrub components composed primarily of Smilax, June 1980. Below, a mesquite/cedar elm

  11. 6-Hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (Opuntiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Athar Abbasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H8O4, isolated from Opuntia dillenii Haw (Cactaceae, is almost planar [maximum deviation of 0.027 (2 Å] except for the H atoms of the methylene and methyl groups. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  12. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  13. Generalized laws of black-hole thermodynamics and quantum conservation laws on Hawking radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black-hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Haw king's relation S=A/4 is exactly recovered

  14. Typologie spatiale de la végétation sahélienne en relation avec les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    0,0316. Tribulus terrestris L. 16,5. 0,0373. Très dégradé. Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw. 36,5. 0,0170. Acalypha crenata Hochst.ex A.Rich. 36,5. 0,0250. Tableau 4: Quantification comparative des variables par stade de dégradation. Variables de dégradation des glacis du bassin versant de. Gourouol. Peu dégradé.

  15. 2.45 GHz Rectenna Designed for Wireless Sensors Operating at 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Downey, Alan N.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature wireless sensors that operate at 500 C are required for aircraft engine monitoring and performance improvement These sensors would replace currently used hard-wired sensors and lead to a substantial reduction in mass. However, even if the sensor output data is transmitted wirelessly to a receiver in the cooler part of the engine, and the associated cables are eliminated, DC power cables are still required to operate the sensors and power the wireless circuits. To solve this problem, NASA is developing a rectenna, a circuit that receives RF power and converts it to DC power. The rectenna would be integrated with the wireless sensor, and the RF transmitter that powers the rectenna would be located in the cooler part of the engine. In this way, no cables to or from the sensors are required. Rectennas haw been demonstrated at ambient room temperature, but to date, no high temperature rectennas haw been reported. In this paper, we report the first rectenna designed for 2.45 GHz operation at 500 C. The circuit consists of a microstrip dipole antenna, a stripline impedance matching circuit, and a stripline low pass filter to prevent transmission of higher harmonics created by the rectifying diode fabricated on an Alumina substrate. The rectifying diode is the gate to source junction of a 6H Sic MESFET and the capacitor and load resistor are chip elements that are each bonded to the Alumina substrate. Each element and the hybrid, rectenna circuit haw been characterized through 500 C.

  16. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997

  17. Requirements for a long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a final storage facility for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, M.; Hippler, J.; Herzog, C.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, BMWi), a safety certification concept for a future permanent final storage for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste (HAW disposal facility) in rock salt formations is being prepared. For a reference concept, compliance with safety requirements in regard to operational safety as well as radiological and non-radiological protection objectives related to long-term safety, including ground water protection, will be evaluated. This paper deals with the requirements for a long-term safety certification for the purpose of protecting ground water from chemotoxic substances. In particular, longterm safety certifications for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations and for the dumping of hazardous waste in underground storage facilities in rock salt formations are first discussed, followed by an evaluation as to whether these methods can be applied to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances. The authors find it advisable to apply the long-term safety certification for underground storage facilities to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations. In conclusion, a corresponding certification concept is introduced. (orig.)

  18. Landau quantization effects on hole-acoustic instability in semiconductor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumera, P.; Rasheed, A.; Jamil, M.; Siddique, M.; Areeb, F.

    2017-12-01

    The growth rate of the hole acoustic waves (HAWs) exciting in magnetized semiconductor quantum plasma pumped by the electron beam has been investigated. The instability of the waves contains quantum effects including the exchange and correlation potential, Bohm potential, Fermi-degenerate pressure, and the magnetic quantization of semiconductor plasma species. The effects of various plasma parameters, which include relative concentration of plasma particles, beam electron temperature, beam speed, plasma temperature (temperature of electrons/holes), and Landau electron orbital magnetic quantization parameter η, on the growth rate of HAWs, have been discussed. The numerical study of our model of acoustic waves has been applied, as an example, to the GaAs semiconductor exposed to electron beam in the magnetic field environment. An increment in either the concentration of the semiconductor electrons or the speed of beam electrons, in the presence of magnetic quantization of fermion orbital motion, enhances remarkably the growth rate of the HAWs. Although the growth rate of the waves reduces with a rise in the thermal temperature of plasma species, at a particular temperature, we receive a higher instability due to the contribution of magnetic quantization of fermions to it.

  19. Functions of vitamin D / Calcium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Excitation-contraction coupling,. Cardiac functions. Hormonal secretion. Control of enzymatic reactions. Mitotic division. Maintenance of cell integrity. Ciliary motility. Notes: Calcium is a vital second messenger.

  20. Primary Cilia, Signaling Networks and Cell Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veland, Iben Rønn

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based, sensory organelles that emerge from the centrosomal mother centriole to project from the surface of most quiescent cells in the human body. Ciliary entry is a tightly controlled process, involving diffusion barriers and gating complexes that maintain a unique...... this controls directional cell migration as a physiological response. The ciliary pocket is a membrane invagination with elevated activity of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE). In paper I, we show that the primary cilium regulates TGF-β signaling and the ciliary pocket is a compartment for CDE...... on formation of the primary cilium and CDE at the pocket region. The ciliary protein Inversin functions as a molecular switch between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. In paper II, we show that Inversin and the primary cilium control Wnt signaling and are required for polarization and cell migration...

  1. Numerical simulation of flow fields and particle trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    . The time-dependent flow is approximated with a continuous sequence of steady state creeping flow fields, where metachronously beating ciliary bands are modelled by linear combinations of singularity solutions to the Stokes equations. Generally, the computed flow fields can be divided into an unsteady......A model describing the ciliary driven flow and motion of suspended particles in downstream suspension feeders is developed. The quasi-steady Stokes equations for creeping flow are solved numerically in an unbounded fluid domain around cylindrical bodies using a boundary integral formulation...... in the simulated unsteady ciliary driven flow. A fraction of particles appear to follow trajectories, that resemble experimentally observed particle capture events in the downstream feeding system of the polycheate Sabella penicillus, indicating that particles can be captured by ciliary systems without mechanical...

  2. Intraocular (Eye) Melanoma—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intraocular (uveal) melanoma of the uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, and choroid), though rare, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Find evidence-based information on intraocular melanoma treatment.

  3. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  4. Case report: imaging and treatment of ophthalmic manifestations in oculodentodigital dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaed, Sameh; Jacobsen, Bradley H; Lin, Ken Young

    2016-01-07

    Diagnostic and surgical management of severe chronic angle- closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body cysts can be difficult to manage in a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia. A 6-year old girl with oculodentodigital dysplasia, with progressive chronic angle- closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body cysts presented to our clinic. The initial examination revealed counting fingers vision in the left eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP), as assessed by tonopen, was 31 mm Hg. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed ciliary body cysts in the left eye, and gonioscopy confirmed chronic angle closure. A tube shunt was placed to control the elevated IOP. A year after her tube shunt placement in the left eye, ultrasound biomiscropy was performed on her right eye and showed no ciliary body cysts. Gonioscopy in the right eye revealed an open angle to the ciliary body band. Subsequent serial gonioscopy every 3 months showed gradual narrowing of the right eye angle and finally three-and-a-half years after tube placement of the left eye, her right eye IOP became uncontrolled with medications alone and a tube shunt was similarly placed in the right eye. Intraoperative ultrasound biomicroscopy performed at the time of the right eye tube shunt revealed extensive ciliary body cysts in the right eye. Her IOP in both eyes have been well controlled since the placement of tube shunts. This is one of the first reported cases of severe chronic angle- closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body cysts in a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia. We believe that early screening for ciliary body cysts is important in patients with oculodentodigital dysplasia.

  5. Morphological evaluation of buffelgrass cultivar “Lucero INTA-PEMAN” in drought conditions

    OpenAIRE

    GRIFFA, S.; RIBOTTA, A; LUNA, C; BOLLATI, G; LÓPEZ COLOMBA, E.; TOMMASINO, E; CARLONI, E; QUIROGA, M.; GRUNBERG, K

    2011-01-01

    In searching for new cultivars that are better adapted to edapho-climatic constraints existing in northwestern Argentina, mainly drought and salinity stress, a hybrid of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) named Lucero INTA PEMAN was obtained by controlled crosses at the Instituto de Fitopatología y Fisiología Vegetal, INTA. The objective was to morphologically evaluate and compare Cenchrus ciliaris cv Lucero with Texas-4464, Biloela and Molopo cultivars in Dean Funes (North of the Province of...

  6. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A.; Hanna, Wayne W.; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, St?phane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) a...

  7. EVALUATION OF IRIDOCILIARY AND LENTICULAR ELASTICITY USING SHEAR-WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY IN RABBIT EYES

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathios T. Detorakis; Eleni E. Drakonaki; Harilaos Ginis; Nikolaos Karyotakis; Ioannis G. Pallikaris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Methods: Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and an...

  8. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, {beta}-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  9. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, β-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  10. Emerging ciliopathies: are respiratory cilia compromised in Usher syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, G; De Santi, M M; Brogi, M; Castorina, P; Ambrosetti, U

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome is a ciliopathy involving photoreceptors and cochlear hair cells (sensory cilia): since sensory and motor ciliopathies can overlap, we analysed the respiratory cilia (motile) in 17 patients affected by Usher syndrome and 18 healthy control subject. We studied the mucociliary transport time with the saccharine test, ciliary motility and ultrastructure of respiratory cilia obtained by nasal brushing; we also recorded the classical respiratory function values by spirometry. All enrolled subjects showed normal respiratory function values. The mean mucociliary transport time with saccharine was 22.33 ± 17.96 min, which is in the range of normal values. The mean ciliary beat frequency of all subjects was 8.81 ± 2.18 Hz, which is a value approaching the lower physiological limit. None of the classical ciliary alterations characterizing the "ciliary primary dyskinesia" was detected, although two patients showed alterations in number and arrangement of peripheral microtubules and one patient had abnormal ciliary roots. Respiratory cilia in Usher patients don't seem to have evident ultrastructural alterations, as expected, but the fact that the ciliary motility appeared slightly reduced could emphasize that a rigid distinction between sensory and motor ciliopathies may not reflect what really occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Voltage-gated calcium channels of Paramecium cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodh, Sukanya; Yano, Junji; Valentine, Megan S; Van Houten, Judith L

    2016-10-01

    Paramecium cells swim by beating their cilia, and make turns by transiently reversing their power stroke. Reversal is caused by Ca 2+ entering the cilium through voltage-gated Ca 2+ (Ca V ) channels that are found exclusively in the cilia. As ciliary Ca 2+ levels return to normal, the cell pivots and swims forward in a new direction. Thus, the activation of the Ca V channels causes cells to make a turn in their swimming paths. For 45 years, the physiological characteristics of the Paramecium ciliary Ca V channels have been known, but the proteins were not identified until recently, when the P. tetraurelia ciliary membrane proteome was determined. Three Ca V α1 subunits that were identified among the proteins were cloned and confirmed to be expressed in the cilia. We demonstrate using RNA interference that these channels function as the ciliary Ca V channels that are responsible for the reversal of ciliary beating. Furthermore, we show that Pawn (pw) mutants of Paramecium that cannot swim backward for lack of Ca V channel activity do not express any of the three Ca V 1 channels in their ciliary membrane, until they are rescued from the mutant phenotype by expression of the wild-type PW gene. These results reinforce the correlation of the three Ca V channels with backward swimming through ciliary reversal. The PwB protein, found in endoplasmic reticulum fractions, co-immunoprecipitates with the Ca V 1c channel and perhaps functions in trafficking. The PwA protein does not appear to have an interaction with the channel proteins but affects their appearance in the cilia. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Mucociliary transport and upper airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Mucociliary transport so critical in nasal, paranasal sinus, and middle ear physiology is impaired in chronic sinsusitis and otitis media by factors such as increased mucus viscoelasticity, decreased ciliary area, and primary or secondary ciliary immotility. We reviewed the pathophysiology of primary ciliary dyskinesia, otitis media with effusion, chronic sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis in terms of mucociliary transport. Subjects with primary ciliary dyskinesia may experience recurrent middle ear infection, chronic airway infection, predominantly lower-lobe bronchiectasis, male sterility, or situs inversus. Primary ciliary dyskinesia is sometimes difficult to diagnose in cases without situs inversus. Nasal nitric oxide concentration in such patients decreases, although why is unclear. Mutations may involve dynein arm intermediate chain 1 (DNAI1) or dynein arm heavy chain 5 (DNAH5). Mucociliary clearance decreases more in those with otitis media with effusion than in those without, due in part to increased middle ear effusion viscosity. Prognosis is poor in subjects with viscous effusion, which is difficult to clear from the middle ear via the mucociliary system. An understanding of anatomic paranasal sinus variations is thus extremely important in chronic sinusitis when endoscopic sinus surgery is attempted, although recent advances in computed tomography (CT) have enabled paranasal sinus drainage pathways to be delineated more clearly than ever before. (author)

  13. Histoanatomical study on the uveal coat of eye in mature ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadali Ebrahimi saadatlou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the uveal coats of 20 healthy adult ostriches were studied anatomically and histologically. At first, the appearance, dimension, structure and vicinity of choroid, ciliary body and iris were evaluated macroscopically. Then they were studied microscopically after preparing histological slides and staining by H&E, Verhoeff, Van Gieson, and P.A.S. Tapetum lucidum was not seen in the choroid. The average thickness of ciliary body was measured as 1.48±0.01 centimeters. Moreover, the number of macroscopic ciliary body process in the ostrich eye was about 120. Iris thickness in the normal state is 0.7 centimeters and the diameter of pupil was measured as 1.2 centimeters. Pupil is round shaped in ostrich. There is a hyaline cartilage membrane between the sclera and choroid. There is bruch's membrane in the choroid and the total thickness of the choroid was measured as 350 µm. The ciliary body was supported by a hyaline cartilage. Skeletal muscle fibers in the ciliary body were seen as separated masses. Epithelium is lacking on the anterior surface of the iris. Iridial muscle fibers were smooth. The posterior epithelium of the iris had two pigmented layers with the inner layer acting as myoepithelial cells. In conclusion, the uveal coat of ostrich was similar to other birds although there were little differences in anatomical dimensions and histological characteristics

  14. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  15. Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik: Status report on research and development 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Some of the main points tackled by the Institute during 1984 included: Testing the glassification technique for radioactive waste and design and construction of a glassification plant; examination of the properties of glass products, testing of incineration of waste containing plutonium; solidification of concentrate containing alpha particles; separation of actinides and fission products from MAW; examination of the release procedures of radio-nuclides from waste solidified with cement; development of long-term containers for the final storage of HAW glass products in salt; model calculations for thermo-mechanical processes and for release mechanisms in final storage. (RB) [de

  16. Problems with the disposal of run-out high-activity fission product solution in the Hot Cells of Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreibmaier, J.

    1979-05-01

    During decanting of 50 l high-level radioactive waste (120 Ci/l) from a transport container about 1 l HAW leaked to the floor of the transfer chamber. The causes for the incident and the removal of the consequences are described. The costs incurred and the losses resulting from the cell facility not having been used are said to amount to 6-8 million DM. Decontamination and repair work took more than 18 months, sometimes more than 80 persons were occupied. The radiation exposure of all persons involved amounted to 80 man-rem. (HP) [de

  17. 12 Flasktransport of vitrified High Level Waste (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdier, A.; Lancelot, J. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Gisbertz, A.; Graf, W. [GNS (Germany); Bartagnon, O. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    The return of HLW to Germany has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters to German utilities by COGEMA. After several transports comprising 1, 2 and 6 flasks per shipment German and French Authorities requested to transport 12 flasks in a single shipment. The first of these 12-flask-transports was performed with the type CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flask in 2002 and the second followed in 2003. COGEMA LOGISTICS is responsible for the overall transport assigned by GNS (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH) being itself entrusted by the German utilities with the return of reprocessing residues.

  18. qualities and skills of nurses from the perspective of nurses and patients

    OpenAIRE

    FIEDLEROVÁ, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Nursing develops and becomes a field with scientific base and well-educated employees. Thanks to that, nursing care is safer and of better quality. Nurses obtain prestige, importance and autonomy. The aim of this thesis is to map haw the nurses perceive their the features and skills and what is the view of patients of the same features and skills of nurses. The research was performed using the quantitative method in the form of a non-standardised questionnaire. The research was aimed at opini...

  19. An one-dimensional model simulating the energy distribution of neutrals going out of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, J.M.; Blazquez, J.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Zurro, B.

    1977-01-01

    An one-dimensional model to analyze the neutral atoms penetration into a hot plasma has been introduced in order to get the ionic temperature from the energy distribution of the charge exchange neutrals, which is obtained following a Montecarlo procedure. The model enhances the influence of the non homogeneous charge-exchange and temperature profiles over the energy distribution. It also shows haw the inner neutrals are screened by the plasma external layers and the dependence of the effective temperature on the charge-exchange cross section. Results agree with experimental data and with obtained through some others more elaborated models. (author) [es

  20. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  1. Biochemical changes during larval development in the short neck clam, Paphia malabarica Chemnitz

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireesh, R.; Biju, A.; Muthiah, P.

    larvae through feeding on organic particles and are subsequently used for supporting metamorphosis. (Rodriguez, Sedano, Garcia- Martin, Perez-Camacho & Sanchez 1990; Haws, DiMichele & Hand1993). During this stage, larval velum disap- pears, and larvae... on lipid class composition. Part II: larval rearing, competency and settlement. Journal of Shell¢sh Research 22, 377^388. RodriguezJ.L., SedanoF.J., Garcia-Martin L.O., Perez-Cama- choA. & SanchezJ.L. (1990) Energy metabolism of newly settled Ostrea edulis...

  2. The concept of fuel cycle integrated molten salt reactor for transmuting Pu+MA from spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Japan should need a new fuel cycle, not to save spent fuels indefinitely as the reusable resources but to consume plutonium and miner actinides orderly without conventional reprocessing. The key component is a molten salt reactor fueled with the Pu+MA (PMA) separated from LWR spent fuels using fluoride volatility method. A double-tiered once-through reactor system can burn PMA down to 5% remnant ratio, and can make PMA virtually free from the HAW to be disposed geometrically. A key issue to be demonstrated is the first of all solubility behavior of trifluoride species in the molten fuel salt of 7 LiF-BeF 2 mixture. (author)

  3. Physical, chemical and sensory changes of refrigerated yellow pitahaya treated preharvest with 1-MCP

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Serna Cock; Laura Sofía Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Ayala Aponte

    2013-01-01

    El efecto de la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 0, 200 y 400 mg L de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) en pitahaya amarilla en precosecha (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw) fue evaluado. Se midieron los cambios en pérdida de peso, cambio total de la coloración, azucares totales, acidez titulable, ácido ascórbico y análisis sensorial. La pitahaya fue almacenada bajo refrigeración (10°C y 85% de humedad relativa por 29 días). Dos tipos de empaque (Cajas para exportación y canastillas plá...

  4. 12 Flasktransport of vitrified High Level Waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, A.; Lancelot, J.; Gisbertz, A.; Graf, W.; Bartagnon, O.

    2004-01-01

    The return of HLW to Germany has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters to German utilities by COGEMA. After several transports comprising 1, 2 and 6 flasks per shipment German and French Authorities requested to transport 12 flasks in a single shipment. The first of these 12-flask-transports was performed with the type CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flask in 2002 and the second followed in 2003. COGEMA LOGISTICS is responsible for the overall transport assigned by GNS (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH) being itself entrusted by the German utilities with the return of reprocessing residues

  5. Neovascular glaucoma in a child: an unusual presentation of medulloepithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa, Enoch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] A healthy 12 month old infant without significant medical history presented with left eye redness for one week. Ophthalmic examination showed elevated intraocular pressure with iris neovascularization in the affected eye with increased optic nerve cupping. Scleral depression revealed a ciliary body mass in the supratemporal quadrant. A large, non-pigmented, vascular mass was noted; biopsy results showed multilayered cords, tubules, and sheets resembling primitive medullary epithelium arising from the ciliary body. The patient was diagnosed with medulloepithelioma. The patient underwent enucleation of the affected eye. Medulloepithelioma is a rare but important cause of neovascular glaucoma in the pediatric population. This case will focus on the characteristics of medulloepthelioma and the differential diagnosis for a non-pigmented ciliary body mass in a child.

  6. Novel Insights into the Development and Function of Cilia Using the Advantages of the Paramecium Cell and Its Many Cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paramecium species, especially P. tetraurelia and caudatum, are model organisms for modern research into the form and function of cilia. In this review, we focus on the ciliary ion channels and other transmembrane proteins that control the beat frequency and wave form of the cilium by controlling the signaling within the cilium. We put these discussions in the context of the advantages that Paramecium brings to the understanding of ciliary motility: mutants for genetic dissections of swimming behavior, electrophysiology, structural analysis, abundant cilia for biochemistry and modern proteomics, genomics and molecular biology. We review the connection between behavior and physiology, which allows the cells to broadcast the function of their ciliary channels in real time. We build a case for the important insights and advantages that this model organism continues to bring to the study of cilia.

  7. Novel Insights into the Development and Function of Cilia Using the Advantages of the Paramecium Cell and Its Many Cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junji; Valentine, Megan S.; Van Houten, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium species, especially P. tetraurelia and caudatum, are model organisms for modern research into the form and function of cilia. In this review, we focus on the ciliary ion channels and other transmembrane proteins that control the beat frequency and wave form of the cilium by controlling the signaling within the cilium. We put these discussions in the context of the advantages that Paramecium brings to the understanding of ciliary motility: mutants for genetic dissections of swimming behavior, electrophysiology, structural analysis, abundant cilia for biochemistry and modern proteomics, genomics and molecular biology. We review the connection between behavior and physiology, which allows the cells to broadcast the function of their ciliary channels in real time. We build a case for the important insights and advantages that this model organism continues to bring to the study of cilia. PMID:26230712

  8. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies.

  9. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  10. Immotile cilia syndrome in an aged dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingsworth, C.R.; Slocombe, R.F.; Wilsman, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An 11-year-old Dalmatian was examined and treated for bilateral nasal discharge and cough of 6 months' duration. Response to medical treatment and surgical intervention was unsatisfactory. Histologic examination of lung tissue revealed chronic severe catarrhal bronchitis and bronchiolitis with bronchiectasis. Histologic findings and barium sulfate bronchography indicated abnormal mucociliary clearance in the respiratory tract. Electron microscopy revealed abnormalities or deletions of outer and/or inner dynein arms in 26% of the ciliary profiles from the affected dog. Similar abnormalities were not found in 500 ciliary profiles from age- and gender-matched control dogs

  11. [Spasm of accommodation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Jillian P

    2015-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance, leading to recurrent respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis media and male infertility. Some patients also have laterality defects. We recently reported the identification of three disease-causing PCD genes in the Irish Traveller population; RSPH4A, DYX1C1 and CCNO. We have since assessed an additional Irish Traveller family with a complex phenotype involving PCD who did not have any of the previously identified PCD mutations.

  13. Cerebral Abscess and Extraaxial Empyema in a Patient with Kartagener Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Gunes Tatar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The triad of situs inversus totalis, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome which is among the diseases with ciliopathies. Herein we present a case of cerebral abscess and extraaxial empyema detected in a 21-year-old male patient with Kartagener syndrome and a 10-year history of substance abuse. Preoperative CT, MRI findings and postoperative complications are presented with clinical and radiological review of primary ciliary dyskinesia. The consideration of primary ciliary dyskinesia in the differential diagnosis of frequent occurence of cough, rhinitis and otitis media in children is crucial since early diagnosis is known to affect the short term and long term morbidity.

  14. Institute of Nuclear Waste Management Technology (INE). 1994 progress report on research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994 INE worked on the following research projects: radionuclide behaviour during corrosion of high-level radioactive COGEMA glass; studies of glassy basalt of the Werra-Fulda salt deposit as a natural analogue of the corrosion of HAW glass; corrosion studies of high burnup LWR fuels in brine; chemical behaviour of Tc in aqueous, chloride systems; corrosion studies of waste container materials; solution chemistry of U; thermodynamics of Np(V) in concentrated brines; radiation-chemical effects in the vicinity of repositories; laser spectroscopic speciation and thermodynamics of Cm(III); development of laser spectroscopic methods; radiochemical and chemical analyses of nuclear samples; solid-state and surface analyses; coupling of transport and speciation models; influence of colloid formation on the migration behaviour of long-lived radionuclides; studies of the consolidation behaviour of filling material; thermomechanical effects of inhomogeneities in the salt dome; basic studies and process engineering developments in the field of solidification of high-level radioactive fission product solutions; corrosion behaviour of WAK-HAW containing glass products in brines. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn alleviate the endothelial cells injury after coronary bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Feng, Bing; He, Songmin; Su, Zuqing; Zheng, Guangjuan

    2018-02-01

    To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn, compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines, on the endothelial cells injury after artery bypass graft surgery. The animal model of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was prepared by transplanting a segment of autologous jugular vein onto the transected common carotid artery in rabbits. After CABG surgery, the rabbits were administrated with saline (model group), aspirin (Aspirin group), resveratrol (Res group), total flavones of hawthorn (Haw group) and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn (Res+Haw group) once a day for eight weeks, respectively. Eight weeks later, the grafting arteries from all group were obtained for the pathomorphism observation, peripheral blood was collected to detect circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry. And the concentration of albumen and mRNA of ICAM-1 in the serum were measured by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the model group, the level of CECs density and the expressions of albumen and mRNA of ICAM-1 were significantly decreased in the aspirin,resveratrol,total flavones of hawthorn and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn groups (P Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn could protect the endothelial cells after coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Substitution of strontium and boron into hydroxyapatite crystals: Effect on physicochemical properties and biocompatibility with human Wharton-Jelly stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Velard, Frédéric; Jaguszewska, Aneta; Lemaire, Flora; Kerdjoudj, Halima; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kaflak, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) enriched with strontium and boron ions was synthesized using two different methods: the precipitation method (Sr,B-HAw) and the dry method (Sr,B-HAd). Additionally, for the sake of comparison, the "pure" unsubstituted HA was prepared together with HAs substituted only with one type of a foreign ion. The obtained materials were subjected to physicochemical analysis with the use of various analytical methods, such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H ssNMR). All the obtained materials were also biologically tested for their potential cytotoxicity. The obtained materials (Sr,B-HAw and Sr,B-HAd) were homogeneous and respectively showed nano- and microcrystal apatitic structures. The simultaneous introduction of Sr 2+ and BO 3 3- ions turned out to be more effective in respect of the dry method. Of importance, doped materials obtained using both synthesis routes have been demonstrated to be biocompatible, opening the way for medical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  18. Use and knowledge of Cactaceae in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Camilla Marques de; Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de; Costa, Gabriela Maciel; Carvalho, Thamires Kelly Nunes; Costa, Gyslaynne Gomes da Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Pereira, Daniel Duarte; Ribeiro, João Everthon da Silva; Alves, Carlos Antônio Belarmino; Quirino, Zelma Glebya Maciel; Nunes, Ernane Nogueira

    2013-08-28

    This study aimed to record the use, and knowledge that residents from São Francisco community (Paraiba, Brazil) have regarding the Cactaceae. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 118 informants; 50 men and 68 women. The cacti cited in this study were organised into use categories and use values were calculated. Differences in the values applied to species and use categories by men and women were compared via a G test (Williams). The nine species identified were: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus bahiensis (Brtitton & Rose) Luetzelb., Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck., Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill, Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber) Byles & Rowley, Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter, Tacinga inamoena (K. Schum) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy, Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy. In total, 1,129 use citations were recorded, divided into 11 categories. The use value categories with the highest scores were forage (0.42), food (0.30) and construction (building) (0.25). P. pachycladus showed the greatest use value, versatility and number of plant parts used. The survey showed that the Cactaceae is extremely important for several uses and categories attributed to different species. Apart from contributing to the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Cactaceae, another important focus of this study was to reinforce the necessity for further studies that record the traditional knowledge about this plant family, which has been lost in younger generations.

  19. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  20. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... unrelated conditions1. Individuals with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis may have associated congenital heart malformations2, primary ciliary dyskinesia or splenic malformations.3. We describe a case of dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis in a one day old neonate with neonatal sepsis, the.

  1. Loss of Centrobin Enables Daughter Centrioles to Form Sensory Cilia in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Marco; Pollarolo, Giulia; Llamazares, Salud; Reina, Jose; Riparbelli, Maria G; Callaini, Giuliano; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2015-08-31

    Sensory cilia are organelles that convey information to the cell from the extracellular environment. In vertebrates, ciliary dysfunction results in ciliopathies that in humans comprise a wide spectrum of developmental disorders. In Drosophila, sensory cilia are found only in the neurons of type I sensory organs, but ciliary dysfunction also has dramatic consequences in this organism because it impairs the mechanosensory properties of bristles and chaetae and leads to uncoordination, a crippling condition that causes lethality shortly after eclosion. The cilium is defined by the ciliary membrane, a protrusion of the cell membrane that envelops the core structure known as the axoneme, a microtubule array that extends along the cilium from the basal body. In vertebrates, basal body function requires centriolar distal and subdistal appendages and satellites. Because these structures are acquired through centriole maturation, only mother centrioles can serve as basal bodies. Here, we show that although centriole maturity traits are lacking in Drosophila, basal body fate is reserved to mother centrioles in Drosophila type I neurons. Moreover, we show that depletion of the daughter-centriole-specific protein Centrobin (CNB) enables daughter centrioles to dock on the cell membrane and to template an ectopic axoneme that, although structurally defective, protrudes out of the cell and is enveloped by a ciliary membrane. Conversely, basal body capability is inhibited in mother centrioles modified to carry CNB. These results reveal the crucial role of CNB in regulating basal body function in Drosophila ciliated sensory organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dexamethasone selectively suppresses microglial trophic responses to hippocampal deafferentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A G; Poulsen, F R; Gall, C M

    1999-01-01

    hippocampus. Daily dexamethasone injections almost completely blocked increases in insulin-like growth factor-1 messenger RNA content, but did not perturb increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor or basic fibroblast growth factor messenger RNA content, in the deafferented dentate gyrus molecular layer...

  3. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well...

  4. Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance: A comparative analysis using saccharin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Kurian Baby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC system transports the mucus layer covering the nasal epithelium towards nasopharynx by ciliary beating at a frequency of 7-16 Hz. NMC is altered by septal deviations, upper respiratory infections, and drugs. Few studies have revealed significant depression of ciliary activity in smokers. We conducted this study to compare NMC and influence duration of smoking on NMC in adult smokers and nonsmokers using saccharin test. Materials and Methods: Our study included 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers (21-40 years who were not on any medications and had no history of any systemic illness. Time elapsing until the first experience of sweet taste at posterior nasopharynx, following placement of saccharin particle approximately 1 cm behind the anterior end of inferior turbinate was recorded as NMC time in minutes using standard method described by Anderson. Mean NMC of both groups were compared using Student′s t -test and influence of duration was analyzed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: NMC was significantly prolonged in smokers (481.2 ± 29.83; P 5 years = 637.5 ± 28.49 s; F statistic = 20.8968, P = 0.0000. Conclusions: NMC measurement is a simple and useful index for the assessment of effect of smoking on the ciliary activity of respiratory mucosa. Prolonged clearance observed in smokers of our study may be due to slowed ciliary beat frequency or reduction in number of cilia and changes in viscoelastic properties of mucus.

  5. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2014-01-01

    (rhodamine WT and brilliant blue), we investigated the relationship between irrigation and O2 dynamics in burrows of M. viridis. The investigated animals shifted between 2 modes of ventilation: ciliary pumping for 77% of the time and muscular pumping for 23% of the time. On average, muscular pumping...

  6. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Al-Mazroa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  7. An organelle-specific protein landscape identifies novel diseases and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Karsten; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Lu, Qianhao; Koutroumpas, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Thanh-Minh T; Texier, Yves; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Horn, Nicola; Willer, Jason R; Mans, Dorus A; Dougherty, Gerard; Lamers, Ideke J C; Coene, Karlien L M; Arts, Heleen H; Betts, Matthew J; Beyer, Tina; Bolat, Emine; Gloeckner, Christian Johannes; Haidari, Khatera; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Iaconis, Daniela; Jenkins, Dagan; Klose, Franziska; Knapp, Barbara; Latour, Brooke; Letteboer, Stef J F; Marcelis, Carlo L; Mitic, Dragana; Morleo, Manuela; Oud, Machteld M; Riemersma, Moniek; Rix, Susan; Terhal, Paulien A; Toedt, Grischa; van Dam, Teunis J P; de Vrieze, Erik; Wissinger, Yasmin; Wu, Ka Man; Apic, Gordana; Beales, Philip L; Blacque, Oliver E; Gibson, Toby J; Huynen, Martijn A; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kremer, Hannie; Omran, Heymut; van Wijk, Erwin; Wolfrum, Uwe; Kepes, François; Davis, Erica E; Franco, Brunella; Giles, Rachel H; Ueffing, Marius; Russell, Robert B; Roepman, Ronald

    2016-05-13

    Cellular organelles provide opportunities to relate biological mechanisms to disease. Here we use affinity proteomics, genetics and cell biology to interrogate cilia: poorly understood organelles, where defects cause genetic diseases. Two hundred and seventeen tagged human ciliary proteins create a final landscape of 1,319 proteins, 4,905 interactions and 52 complexes. Reverse tagging, repetition of purifications and statistical analyses, produce a high-resolution network that reveals organelle-specific interactions and complexes not apparent in larger studies, and links vesicle transport, the cytoskeleton, signalling and ubiquitination to ciliary signalling and proteostasis. We observe sub-complexes in exocyst and intraflagellar transport complexes, which we validate biochemically, and by probing structurally predicted, disruptive, genetic variants from ciliary disease patients. The landscape suggests other genetic diseases could be ciliary including 3M syndrome. We show that 3M genes are involved in ciliogenesis, and that patient fibroblasts lack cilia. Overall, this organelle-specific targeting strategy shows considerable promise for Systems Medicine.

  8. De novo 14q24.2q24.3 microdeletion including IFT43 is associated with intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokman, Marijn F; Oud, Machteld M; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Slaats, Gisela G; Nicolaou, Nayia; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Nijman, Isaac J; Roepman, Ronald; Giles, Rachel H; Arts, Heleen H; Knoers, Nine V A M; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2016-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old girl with mild intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defect, myopia, and facial dysmorphisms including an extra incisor, cup-shaped ears, and a preauricular skin tag. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a de novo 4.5-Mb microdeletion on chromosome 14q24.2q24.3. The deleted region and phenotype partially overlap with previously reported patients. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on 14q24 microdeletions and further delineate the associated phenotype. We performed exome sequencing to examine other causes for the phenotype and queried genes present in the 14q24.2q24.3 microdeletion that are associated with recessive disease for variants in the non-deleted allele. The deleted region contains 65 protein-coding genes, including the ciliary gene IFT43. Although Sanger and exome sequencing did not identify variants in the second IFT43 allele or in other IFT complex A-protein-encoding genes, immunocytochemistry showed increased accumulation of IFT-B proteins at the ciliary tip in patient-derived fibroblasts compared to control cells, demonstrating defective retrograde ciliary transport. This could suggest a ciliary defect in the pathogenesis of this disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Generation, Characterization, and Differentiation--Methods and Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graversen, Veronica Kon; Chavala, Sai H

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) remains a promising technique for cell replacement therapy. Diverse populations of somatic cells have been examined for their reprogramming potential. Recently, ocular ciliary body epithelial cells (CECs) have been reprogrammed with high reprogramming efficiency and single transcription factor reprogramming, making them an exciting candidate for cellular reprogramming strategies.

  10. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, Cornelis Peter van der

    1991-01-01

    The use of physiotherapeutic techniques may increase mucus transport in patients with airways disease including COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The most effective parts of the treatment are probably forced expirations with open glottis and coughing. However, in patients

  11. Seed salt-soluble protein expression as marker of local Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eleven patterns of M. ciliaris populations with two moderate sensitive ecotypes to NaCl, two reference genotypes and seven prospecting populations near and far from a strongly salted area (Sebkha of Oran) were investigated by one dimensional electrophoresis SDS-PAGE. The results show that the proteins profiles were ...

  12. Water permeability of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporters in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José Jaime; Bundgaard, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    Water transport properties of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) were studied in cultures of pigmented epithelial cells (PE) from the ciliary body of the eye. Here, the membrane that faces upwards contains NKCCs and can be subjected to rapid changes in bathing solution composition and osmolarity...

  13. Cotransport of water by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José J; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Water transport by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) was studied in confluent cultures of pigmented epithelial (PE) cells from the ciliary body of the fetal human eye. Interdependence among water, Na+ and Cl(-) fluxes mediated by NKCC1 was inferred from changes in cell water volume, monitored...

  14. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Al-Mazroa; L.H. Al-Wahaibi; A.A. Mousa; H.Z. Al-Khathlan

    2015-01-01

    The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  15. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  16. PDGFR alpha signaling in the primary cilium regulates NHE1-dependent fibroblast migration via coordinated differential activity of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) and AKT signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Ditte L.; Mally, Sabine; Stock, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In fibroblasts, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR alpha) is upregulated during growth arrest and compartmentalized to the primary cilium. PDGF-AA mediated activation of the dimerized ciliary receptor produces a phosphorylation cascade through the PI3K-AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 path...

  17. [Microscopic structure of the epithelium of the oviducts in cows during the estrus cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrín, V

    1983-03-01

    The mucous membrane of a cow is covered with ciliary and secretory cells. The so-called basal cells occur at the basal membrane. The counts of ciliary cells vary during the sexual cycle: they reach the maximum (up to 68%) during oestrus. About 13% of cells lose cilia during metoestrus and at the beginning of dioestrus. Reciliation occurs during pro-oestrus. Light and dark ciliary cells can be discerned by the staining of cytoplasm and by the density of nuclei. A higher variability was found in the secretory cells. There are light and dark cells, cells with a wedge shape and rod-shaped cells. Their frequency and function are discussed. Mitoses of epithelium were found in rare cases. The relative volume of epithelium and the mucous membrane of connective tissues change during the sexual cycle. The volume of secretory cells increases during metoestrus and dioestrus and the volume of ciliary cells increases during pro-oestrus and heat. The volume of nuclei decreases in metoestrus and mainly in dioestrus. PAS positive granules occur in the cytoplasm of secretory cells, mainly during metoestrus, in the apical regions. Ptyalin-resistant polysaccharides, besides glycogen, were detected in the cells. The occurrence rate of lipids varies just slightly during the oestrous cycle.

  18. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  19. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Ko, Je Yeong; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer’s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer’s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(−/−) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development. PMID:25722189

  20. Optical techniques in pulmonary medicine. SPIE photonics West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa J; Lam, Stephen; Brenner, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    There is ongoing interest in the emerging field of pulmonary photonic-based diagnostics. Potential clinical need areas that are being actively investigated at this time include airway and peripheral lung cancer diagnostics, pulmonary parenchymal and interstitial disorders, alveolar structure function, inhalation injury, ciliary function analysis, asthma and obstructive lung diseases.

  1. TCTN2 : a novel tumor marker with oncogenic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano-Rodriguez, David; Campagnoli, Susanna; Grandi, Alberto; Parri, Matteo; De Camilli, Elisa; Song, Chaojun; Jin, Boquan; Lacombe, Aurelien; Pierleoni, Andrea; Bombaci, Mauro; Cordiglieri, Chiara; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Viale, Giuseppe; Terracciano, Luigi; Sarmientos, Paolo; Abrignani, Sergio; Grandi, Guido; Pileri, Piero; Rots, Marianne G.; Grifantini, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Tectonic family member 2 (TCTN2) encodes a transmembrane protein that belongs to the tectonic family, which is involved in ciliary functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of tectonics in regulating a variety of signaling pathways at the transition zone of cilia. However, the role of

  2. Association of vitamin D receptor gene start codon (Fok1 polymorphism with high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Annamaneni

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : The results suggest that VDR gene might not be playing a direct role in the development of myopia, but might contribute indirectly to the risk conferred by mechanical stress factors or growth/development related factors through its role in calcium homeostasis and regulation of ciliary muscle function.

  3. Functional Architecture of the Outer Arm Dynein Conformational Switch*

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen M.; Patel-King, Ramila S.

    2012-01-01

    Dynein light chain 1 (LC1/DNAL1) is one of the most highly conserved components of ciliary axonemal outer arm dyneins, and it associates with both a heavy chain motor unit and tubulin located within the A-tubule of the axonemal outer doublet microtubules. In a variety of model systems, lack of LC1 or expression of mutant forms leads to profound defects in ciliary motility, including the failure of the hydrodynamic coupling needed for ciliary metachronal synchrony, random stalling during the power/recovery stroke transition, an aberrant response to imposed viscous load, and in some cases partial failure of motor assembly. These phenotypes have led to the proposal that LC1 acts as part of a mechanical switch to control motor function in response to alterations in axonemal curvature. Here we have used NMR chemical shift mapping to define the regions perturbed by a series of mutations in the C-terminal domain that yield a range of phenotypic effects on motility. In addition, we have identified the subdomain of LC1 involved in binding microtubules and characterized the consequences of an Asn → Ser alteration within the terminal leucine-rich repeat that in humans causes primary ciliary dyskinesia. Together, these data define a series of functional subdomains within LC1 and allow us to propose a structural model for the organization of the dynein heavy chain-LC1-microtubule ternary complex that is required for the coordinated activity of dynein motors in cilia. PMID:22157010

  4. Fine structure of the creeping larva of Loxosomella murmanica: additional evidence for a clade of Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and Mollusca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    . The prototroch consists of two ciliary rings; a downstream collecting system is not present. Although there is a one-way gut with a lumen throughout, the larva obviously does not feed. A single pair of protonephridia is present. The foot sole shares distinct similarities with basic molluscs, particularly...

  5. The Golgin GMAP210/TRIP11 anchors IFT20 to the Golgi complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Follit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells often use proteins localized to the ciliary membrane to monitor the extracellular environment. The mechanism by which proteins are sorted, specifically to this subdomain of the plasma membrane, is almost completely unknown. Previously, we showed that the IFT20 subunit of the intraflagellar transport particle is localized to the Golgi complex, in addition to the cilium and centrosome, and hypothesized that the Golgi pool of IFT20 plays a role in sorting proteins to the ciliary membrane. Here, we show that IFT20 is anchored to the Golgi complex by the golgin protein GMAP210/Trip11. Mice lacking GMAP210 die at birth with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes growth restriction, ventricular septal defects of the heart, omphalocele, and lung hypoplasia. Cells lacking GMAP210 have normal Golgi structure, but IFT20 is no longer localized to this organelle. GMAP210 is not absolutely required for ciliary assembly, but cilia on GMAP210 mutant cells are shorter than normal and have reduced amounts of the membrane protein polycystin-2 localized to them. This work suggests that GMAP210 and IFT20 function together at the Golgi in the sorting or transport of proteins destined for the ciliary membrane.

  6. Overview of structure and function of mammalian cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satir, Peter; Christensen, Søren Tvorup

    2007-01-01

    nonmotile 9 + 0 primary cilia are found on epithelial cells, such as those of the kidney tubule, but also on nonepithelial cells, such as chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. The ciliary membranes of all cilia contain specific receptors and ion channel proteins that initiate signaling pathways...

  7. Effect of Lactic Acid Lactobacillus Preservative and Moisture Level at Baling on In-situ Digestibility of Crabgrass Hay by Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is a warm-season annual that offers an advantage over many perennial warm-season grasses because of its greater nutritive value and high palatability. However, little is known about how baling crabgrass hay at high moisture affects ruminal forage ...

  8. Chlamydomonas DYX1C1/PF23 is essential for axonemal assembly and proper morphology of inner dynein arms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Yamamoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic assembly of ciliary dyneins, a process known as preassembly, requires numerous non-dynein proteins, but the identities and functions of these proteins are not fully elucidated. Here, we show that the classical Chlamydomonas motility mutant pf23 is defective in the Chlamydomonas homolog of DYX1C1. The pf23 mutant has a 494 bp deletion in the DYX1C1 gene and expresses a shorter DYX1C1 protein in the cytoplasm. Structural analyses, using cryo-ET, reveal that pf23 axonemes lack most of the inner dynein arms. Spectral counting confirms that DYX1C1 is essential for the assembly of the majority of ciliary inner dynein arms (IDA as well as a fraction of the outer dynein arms (ODA. A C-terminal truncation of DYX1C1 shows a reduction in a subset of these ciliary IDAs. Sucrose gradients of cytoplasmic extracts show that preassembled ciliary dyneins are reduced compared to wild-type, which suggests an important role in dynein complex stability. The role of PF23/DYX1C1 remains unknown, but we suggest that DYX1C1 could provide a scaffold for macromolecular assembly.

  9. Soil erosion studies in buffelgrass pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; D. Phillip Guertin

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of exotic grasses in native rangelands to increase the production of forage has been a good alternative for the cattle industry in North America. Different studies have demonstrated that buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.), a plant introduced from Africa, increases the annual green forage production approximately three times in comparison to production...

  10. Situs inversus totalis associated with subaortic stenosis, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and tricuspid dysplasia in an adult dog

    OpenAIRE

    Piantedosi, Diego; Cortese, Laura; Meomartino, Leonardo; Di Loria, Antonio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A rare association between situs inversus totalis (SIT), restrictive ventricular septal defect, severe subaortic stenosis, and tricuspid dysplasia was observed in an adult mixed-breed dog. Primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener’s syndrome were excluded. After 15 mo the dog died suddenly. The association between SIT and congenital heart diseases is discussed.

  11. Situs inversus totalis associated with subaortic stenosis, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and tricuspid dysplasia in an adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Cortese, Laura; Meomartino, Leonardo; Di Loria, Antonio; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2011-11-01

    A rare association between situs inversus totalis (SIT), restrictive ventricular septal defect, severe subaortic stenosis, and tricuspid dysplasia was observed in an adult mixed-breed dog. Primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome were excluded. After 15 mo the dog died suddenly. The association between SIT and congenital heart diseases is discussed.

  12. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  13. EVALUATION OF IRIDOCILIARY AND LENTICULAR ELASTICITY USING SHEAR-WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY IN RABBIT EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios T. Detorakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Methods: Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Results: Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Conclusions: Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.

  14. Evaluation of iridociliary and lenticular elasticity using shear-wave elastography in rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni E; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikolaos; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2014-01-01

    A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.

  15. The effects of microwave radiation on rabbit's retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Talebnejad

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions: Histopathologically, cell phone simulated MW irradiation had no significant detrimental effect on the retina. However, ciliary body congestion was observed in greater fraction of those who received higher MW doses. Although there was no significant difference between post-treatment mean ERG values, there were statistically non-significant trends toward greater changes in the MW irradiated eyes.

  16. Pigment dispersion glaucoma induced by the chafing effect of intraocular lens haptics in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Sun, Yan-Xiu; Qi, Hong; Zhou, Ji-Chao; Hao, Yan-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    To study the possible mechanism and treatment for pigment dispersion glaucoma (PDG) caused by single-piece acrylic (SPA) intraocular lens (IOL) ciliary sulcus fixation in Asian eyes. Patients referred for PDG caused by SPA IOL ciliary sulcus fixation to our hospital from April 2005 to June 2011 were included. The patients' general information, IOL type, interval between initial surgery and PDG occurrence, examination findings, antiglaucoma medicine regimen and surgical interventions were recorded. In total, six eyes from five Chinese patients were included in this study. The intraocular pressure (IOP) increased 19-30 days after cataract surgery and was not satisfactorily controlled with antiglaucoma medication. Dense pigmentation was deposited on the IOLs and on the anterior chamber angle. IOL haptic chafing was noted on the rear iris surface. IOL repositioning in the capsular bag was performed in three eyes and was combined with trabeculectomy in two eyes with progressive glaucoma. An IOL exchange with three-piece IOL ciliary sulcus fixation was performed in the other three eyes. Scanning electron microscopy of the explanted IOLs demonstrated a rough edge on the IOL haptics. SPA IOLs were not suitable for ciliary sulcus fixation. The chafing effect of the IOL haptics on the posterior iris pigment epithelium could induce PDG in Asian eyes. IOLs should be positioned in the capsular bag or a three-piece IOL should be used instead.

  17. Usher syndrome type I associated with bronchiectasis and immotile nasal cilia in two brothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneau, D; Raymond, F; Kremer, C; Klossek, J M; Kaplan, J; Patte, F

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by congenital sensorineural deafness, involvement of the vestibular system, and progressive visual loss owing to retinitis pigmentosa. Here we report the association of this disease with bronchiectasis, chronic sinusitis, and reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in two sibs and we suggest Usher syndrome type I could be a primary ciliary disorder.

  18. The Practical Aspects of the Visual Act in Studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bernard N.

    This paper explores the role of vision in reading and studying. "How Vision Occurs" discusses the functions of rods, cones, the cerebral cortex, and the receptor senses. "The Optometrist and the Educator" views the role of the optometrist in relation to student learning. "Eye Anatomy Terms" defines the ciliary muscle, optic disc and nerve, macula…

  19. Rekombinant humant deoxyribonuklease til andet end cystisk fibrose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    be associated with increased need for supplemental oxygen. In adults with idiopathic bronchiectasis, treatment with rhDNase leads to more pulmonary exacerbations and a greater decline in pulmonary function tests. There are no controlled studies on rhDNase in primary ciliary dyskinesia or atelectasis....

  20. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-29

    Jan 29, 2015 ... usually asymptomatic, as the structure and function of vital organs are generally unaffected. However, in 25% of the cases, the syndrome coexists with primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome), then characterized by chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis and susceptibility to infections. A random X-ray test ...

  1. Assembly of primary cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Veland, Iben R; Schrøder, Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    knowledge about IFT is based on studies performed in Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our review of the IFT literature includes studies performed in these two model organisms. The role of several non-IFT proteins (e.g., centrosomal proteins) in the ciliary assembly process is also...... discussed. Developmental Dynamics, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  2. The response of the ciliated epithelium during and after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldetorp, B.

    1984-10-01

    Irradiation of the ciliated tissues of the body gives undesirable sideefects. In vitro irradiation (10 Gy) of the rabbit's trachea shows that 1.5 Gy of indirectly ionizing radiation (50 kV and 6 MV X-ray 60 Co-gamma 1.25 MeV) causes a 20 per cent increase of the ciliary beat frequency lasting 5-10 seconds, followed by a decline to normal ciliary activity during the ensuing course of irradiation. Electron radiation (4 MeV) proved to be three times more effective than photon radiation in regard to the physiological response of the cilia to ionizing radiation. This finding led to introduction of the concept Relative Physiological Efficiency (RPE) in this study, complementing the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) concept. This momentary increase in frequency can be caused by a radiation-induced increased hydrolysis of the ATP available in the cilia. The ciliary activity was 20 per cent lower than normal at 45 min following irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray), whereupon it increased to 12 per cent above normal activity at two hours after initial irradiation. At re-irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) administered two hours after initial irradiation, the cilia showed a constant rate of activity. In vivo irradiation (10 Gy, 160 kV X-ray) of the trachea of the rabbit caused a heightened activity (10%) during the first three days after irradiation, indicating a stimulation of the ATP-synthesis. During days 4 to 8 after irradiation, the ciliary epithelium's morphology was damaged resulting in reduced transport ability. Repair took place during days 9 and 10 after irradiation, i.e. the function of the ciliary epithelium appeared to be restored. The membrane potential of the ciliary cell, registered during irradiation (10 Gy, 50 kV X-ray) showed no changes, which supports the assumption that the increased ciliary beat frequency recorded during irradiation can be due to rapid radiation-induced biochemical changes that are connected to the motility of the cilia. (author)

  3. Ciliopathies: Genetics in Pediatric Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Machteld M; Lamers, Ideke J C; Arts, Heleen H

    2017-03-01

    Ciliary disorders , which are also referred to as ciliopathies , are a group of hereditary disorders that result from dysfunctional cilia. The latter are cellular organelles that stick up from the apical plasma membrane. Cilia have important roles in signal transduction and facilitate communications between cells and their surroundings. Ciliary disruption can result in a wide variety of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Because cilia occur widespread in our bodies many organs and sensory systems can be affected when they are dysfunctional. Ciliary disorders may be isolated or syndromic, and common features are cystic liver and/or kidney disease, blindness, neural tube defects, brain anomalies and intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities ranging from polydactyly to abnormally short ribs and limbs, ectodermal defects, obesity, situs inversus , infertility, and recurrent respiratory tract infections. In this review, we summarize the features, frequency, morbidity, and mortality of each of the different ciliopathies that occur in pediatrics. The importance of genetics and the occurrence of genotype-phenotype correlations are indicated, and advances in gene identification are discussed. The use of next-generation sequencing by which a gene panel or all genes can be screened in a single experiment is highlighted as this technology significantly lowered costs and time of the mutation detection process in the past. We discuss the challenges of this new technology and briefly touch upon the use of whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic test for ciliary disorders. Finally, a perspective on the future of genetics in the context of ciliary disorders is provided.

  4. Qualitative Assessment of Ultrasound Biomicroscopic Images Using Standard Photographs: The Liwan Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Huang, Wenyong; Huang, Qunxiao; Zhang, Jian; Foster, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To classify anatomic features related to anterior chamber angles by a qualitative assessment system based on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images. Methods. Cases of primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), defined by pigmented trabecular meshwork that is not visible in two or more quadrants on static gonioscopy (cases) and systematically selected subjects (1 of every 10) who did not meet this criterion (controls) were enrolled during a population-based survey in Guangzhou, China. All subjects underwent UBM examination. A set of standard UBM images was used to qualitatively classify anatomic features related to the angle configuration, including iris thickness, iris convexity, iris angulation, ciliary body size, and ciliary process position. All analysis was conducted on right eye images. Results. Based on the qualitative grades, the difference in overall iris thickness between gonioscopically narrow eyes (n = 117) and control eyes (n = 57) was not statistically significant. The peripheral one third of the iris tended to be thicker in all quadrants of the PACS eyes, although the difference was statistically significant only in the superior quadrant (P = 0.008). No significant differences were found in the qualitative classifications of iris insertion, iris angulation, ciliary body size, and ciliary process position. The findings were similar when compared with the control group of eyes with wide angles in all quadrants. Conclusions. Basal iris thickness seems to be more relevant to narrow angle configuration than to overall iris thickness. Otherwise, the anterior rotation and size of the ciliary body, the iris insertion, and the overall iris thickness are comparable in narrow- and wide-angle eyes. PMID:19834039

  5. Uncovering the Forgotten Effect of Superior Cervical Ganglia on Pupil Diameter in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Mehmet Resid; Yilmaz, Ilhan; Ramazanoglu, Leyla; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Keles, Sadullah; Baykal, Orhan; Aydin, Nazan; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between neuron density of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia and pupil diameter in subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study was conducted on 22 rabbits; 5 for the baseline control group, 5 for the SHAM group and 12 for the study group. Pupil diameters were measured via sunlight and ocular tomography on day 1 as the control values. Pupil diameters were re-measured after injecting 0.5 cc saline to the SHAM group, and autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna of the study group. After 3 weeks, the brain, superior cervical sympathetic ganglia and ciliary ganglia were extracted with peripheral tissues bilaterally and examined histopathologically. Pupil diameters were compared with neuron densities of the sympathetic ganglia and ciliary ganglia which were examined using stereological methods. Baseline values were; normal pupil diameter 7.180±620 ?m and mean neuron density of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia 6.321±510/mm3, degenerated neuron density of ciliary ganglia was 5±2/mm3 after histopathological examination in the control group. These values were measured as 6.850±578 ?m, 5.950±340/mm3 and 123±39/mm3 in the SHAM group and 9.910±840 ?m, 7.950±764/mm3 and 650±98/mm3 in the study group. A linear relationship was determined between neuron density of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia and pupil diameters (p < 0.005). Degenerated ciliary ganglia neuron density had an inverse effect on pupil diameters in all groups (p < 0.0001). Highly degenerated neuron density of the ciliary ganglion is not responsible for pupil dilatation owing to parasympathetic pupilloconstrictor palsy, but high neuron density of the pupillodilatatory superior cervical sympathetic ganglia should be considered an important factor for pupil dilatation.

  6. Effects of a radiosensitizer and radiation on the ciliated mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsson, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation (2 Gy/F, TD:2-20 Gy) in vivo on the ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea, caused measurable physiological alternations ten consecutive days after completion of irradiation with an initial heightening of the ciliary activity after 2 and 4 Gy, followed by a dose-dependent decrease. On scanning electron microscopy-pictures, knobs were observed on the cilia with the number being related to the dose. The addition of misonidazole potentiated the effects described above, with an enhancement ratio ( physiologically) of 1.2 and an enhancement ratio (morphologically) of 1.6. Furthermore, administration of misonidazole to the rabbits caused an increased vascularity in the subepithelial layer of the trachea, directly correlated to an oedema in the same region. Single doses (2,2.5,5,10,15,20,25, and 30 Gy) were given to the trachea in vivo and daily investigation of the ciliary beating and morphologic examinations of the tissue were made for ten days. The ciliary activity showed a dose-dependent reduction of about 50% after 30 Gy. A development of damage, in relation to the dose, was observed in the cilia. The changes were blebs, swollen tips, bent and curved tips, and broken cilia clustered together. During in vitro irradiation with 10 Gy Single Dose, an increase of the ciliary activity to about 25 % of its original value was observed without any morphological changes, while in vivo irradiation and examinations during 10 days thereafter, showed three different phases, day 1-3: Stimulation phase, day 4-8: Damage-phase, day 9-10: Repair-phase. The ciliary epithelium offers an exceptional system for the study of early radiobiological effects, since mutual comparisons can be made between physiology and morphology. (Author)

  7. Morphological features of different polyploids for adaptation and molecular characterization of CC-NBS-LRR and LEA gene families in Agave L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Ordóñez, M C; Rodriguez-Zapata, L C; Narváez-Zapata, J A; Tamayo-Ordóñez, Y J; Ayil-Gutiérrez, B A; Barredo-Pool, F; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2016-05-20

    Polyploidy has been widely described in many Agave L. species, but its influence on environmental response to stress is still unknown. With the objective of knowing the morphological adaptations and regulation responses of genes related to biotic (LEA) and abiotic (NBS-LRR) stress in species of Agave with different levels of ploidy, and how these factors contribute to major response of Agave against environmental stresses, we analyzed 16 morphological trials on five accessions of three species (Agave tequilana Weber, Agave angustifolia Haw. and Agave fourcroydes Lem.) with different ploidy levels (2n=2x=60 2n=3x=90, 2n=5x=150, 2n=6x=180) and evaluated the expression of NBS-LRR and LEA genes regulated by biotic and abiotic stress. It was possible to associate some morphological traits (spines, nuclei, and stomata) to ploidy level. The genetic characterization of stress-related genes NBS-LRR induced by pathogenic infection and LEA by heat or saline stresses indicated that amino acid sequence analysis in these genes showed more substitutions in higher ploidy level accessions of A. fourcroydes Lem. 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) and A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180), and a higher LEA and NBS-LRR representativeness when compared to their diploid and triploid counterparts. In all studied Agave accessions expression of LEA and NBS-LRR genes was induced by saline or heat stresses or by infection with Erwinia carotovora, respectively. The transcriptional activation was also higher in A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180) and A. fourcroydes 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) than in their diploid and triploid counterparts, which suggests higher adaptation to stress. Finally, the diploid accession A. tequilana Weber 'Azul' showed a differentiated genetic profile relative to other Agave accessions. The differences include similar or higher genetic representativeness and transcript accumulation of LEA and NBS-LRR genes than in polyploid (2n=5x=150 and 2n=6x=180) Agave accessions

  8. NDA generic research programme for higher activity waste management issues - 16390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, James; Brownridge, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    NDA has a responsibility to ensure decommissioning activities are sufficiently technically underpinned and appropriate Research and Development (Rand D) is carried out. The NDA funds research and development (R and D) indirectly via the Site Licence Companies (SLCs) or directly. The main component of directly funded R and D is the NDA Direct Research Portfolio (DRP). The DRP is split into four framework areas: - University Interactions; - Waste Processing; - Material Characterisation; - Actinide and Strategic Nuclear Materials. These four framework areas were competed through an Official Journal of European Union (OJEU) process in 2008. Although all four areas involve waste management, Waste Processing and Material Characterisation specifically deal with Higher Activity Waste (HAW) waste management issues. The Waste Processing area was awarded to three groups: (i) National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), (ii) Consortium led by Hyder Consulting Ltd, and (iii) Consortium led by UKAEA Ltd. The Material Characterisation area was awarded to three groups: (i) NNL, (ii) Serco, and (iii) Consortium led by UKAEA Ltd. The initial work in Waste Processing and Material Characterisation was centered on establishing a forward research programme to address the generic needs of the UK civil nuclear industry and the NDA strategic drivers for waste management and land quality. This has been achieved by the four main framework contractors from the Waste Processing and Materials Characterisation areas working together with the NDA to identify the key research themes and begin the development of the NDA's HAW Management Research Programme. The process also involves active engagement with both industry and regulators via the Nuclear Waste Research Forum (NWRF). The NDA's HAW Management Research Programme includes a number of themes: - Optimisation of Interim Store Operation and Design; - Alternative Waste Encapsulants; - Waste Package Integrity; - Alternative Waste treatment methods

  9. New strategy for minor actinides partitioning preliminary results on the electrovolatilization of ruthenium and on the stabilization of Am(IV) in nitric acid with phosphotunsgstate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnet, J.M.; Madic, C.

    1989-01-01

    On problems related to the long term storage in deep geological repositories of high active wastes (H.A.W.) is due to the presence of minor actinide isotopes. Thus after the decay of the fission products (≅ 300 years) the toxicity of these H.A.W. is mainly due to the minor actinides. One solution is based on actinide partitioning followed by transmutation into fission products with short half-lives. A simpler processes than those developed previously, can be based on the possible oxidation of minor actinides to the + IV or + VI oxidation states and their selective extraction. The first step to study is the elimination of the ruthenium (whose presence would be detrimental to oxidize minor actinides) which can be done by electrovolatilization of Ru on the RuO 4 form. The rate of electrovolatilization can be increased by the use of the following electronic mediators, AgI/AgII(1); CeIII/Ce(2), and CoII/CoIII(3), the efficiency of which decreases in the order: 1 > 2 > 3. The effectiveness of that process has been proven when treating real H.A.W solution produced during the study of the reprocessing of a MOX fuel irradiated to as burn-up of 52 GWd/t in a LWR: complete Ru removal was obtained. The second part of the study concerns the electrochemical oxidation of AmIII in nitric acid solutions in the presence of a strong complexing agent: P 2 W 17 O 61 K 10 (P.W.).Total americium oxidation to AmIV can be obtained in nitric acid solution with a concentration up to 8 M. No particular drawback was induced by the presence of an amount of lanthanide III (NdIII) in 6 fold excess vs P.W. The stability of AmIV was studied. The other actinides will be present in these solutions, after the electrochemical oxidation step, in the + VI or+ IV oxidation states, thus a selective extraction (vs fission products) could be performed. A possible way to extract actinide IV/P.W complexes is to use dodecylamine nitrate as extractant

  10. Revealing the Molecular Structure and the Transport Mechanism at the Base of Primary Cilia Using Superresolution STED Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tung-Lin

    The primary cilium is an organelle that serves as a signaling center of the cell and is involved in the hedgehog signaling, cAMP pathway, Wnt pathways, etc. Ciliary function relies on the transportation of molecules between the primary cilium and the cell, which is facilitated by intraflagellar transport (IFT). IFT88, one of the important IFT proteins in complex B, is known to play a role in the formation and maintenance of cilia in various types of organisms. The ciliary transition zone (TZ), which is part of the gating apparatus at the ciliary base, is home to a large number of ciliopathy molecules. Recent studies have identified important regulating elements for TZ gating in cilia. However, the architecture of the TZ region and its arrangement relative to intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins remain largely unknown, hindering the mechanistic understanding of the regulation processes. One of the major challenges comes from the tiny volume at the ciliary base packed with numerous proteins, with the diameter of the TZ close to the diffraction limit of conventional microscopes. Using a series of stimulated emission depletion (STED) superresolution images mapped to electron microscopy images, we analyzed the structural organization of the ciliary base. Subdiffraction imaging of TZ components defines novel geometric distributions of RPGRIP1L, MKS1, CEP290, TCTN2 and TMEM67, shedding light on their roles in TZ structure, assembly, and function. We found TCTN2 at the outmost periphery of the TZ close to the ciliary membrane, with a 227+/-18 nm diameter. TMEM67 was adjacent to TCTN2, with a 205+/-20 nm diameter. RPGRIP1L was localized toward the axoneme at the same axial level as TCTN2 and TMEM67, with a 165+/-8 nm diameter. MKS1 was situated between TMEM67 and RPGRIP1L, with an 186+/-21 nm diameter. Surprisingly, CEP290 was localized at the proximal side of the TZ close to the distal end of the centrin-labeled basal body. The lateral width was unexpectedly close to

  11. [Histological structure of the trabecular meshwork in the eyeball: challenging the traditional concept and preliminary findings in rabbits, rats and mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Zhou, Fan-Qi; Luo, Zhou-Cai; Chen, Ying-Hua; Chen, Yu; Dong, Wei-Ren

    2017-10-20

    To verify that the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the wall of the eyeball consists of smooth muscle fibers instead of collagen fibers or endothelial cells. Eighteen fresh eyeballs from 3 rabbits, 3 SD rats and 3 mice were sectioned along the sagittal plane and sliced after paraffin embedding for HE staining, VG staining, Masson staining, α-SMA immunohistochemistry or CD31 immunohistochemistry. These slices were observed under microscope and the structure of the TM was compared with those of scleral collagen fibers, ciliary muscles and endothelial cells. HE staining of the eyeball slices from the 3 animal species resulted in purplish red staining of the TM, which was highly consistent with ciliary muscle fibers. The cell?like structures on the surface of the TM were not clearly outlined, with flat nuclei showing a dark purple staining; these structures did not show obvious boundaries from the TM. Ciliary muscle fibers, which were smooth muscle cells in nature, were aligned in bundles in various directions. The longitudinally sectioned cells were flat and contained purplish cytoplasm and highly flattened nuclei. Scleral collagen fibers were stained dark red with a few fibroblasts sandwiched among them. The long axis of the fibroblasts was in parallel with that of the collagen fibers. The outline of the fibroblast was not clear and the nucleus was flat in dark blue. The vascular endothelial cells presented with different morphologies and contained light purplish cytoplasm and dark nuclei, protruding into the vascular cavity. VG staining of the TM revealed a pale red filamentous structure, and the collagen fibers were stained bright red. Masson staining of the TM showed a reticular structure consisting mainly of dark red fibers intermingled with thin green fibers. Scleral collagen fibers presented with a cord?like green wavy structure. The endothelial cells were green and flat, while the ciliary smooth muscle fibers were purple. In immunohistochemistry for α?SMA, the TM

  12. Embryonic and post-embryonic development of the polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri; implications for the evolution of spiralian life history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Planktonic life history stages of spiralians share some muscular, nervous and ciliary system characters in common. The distribution of these characters is patchy and can be interpreted either as the result of convergent evolution, or as the retention of primitive spiralian larval features. To understand the evolution of these characters adequate taxon sampling across the Spiralia is necessary. Polyclad flatworms are the only free-living Platyhelminthes that exhibit a continuum of developmental modes, with direct development at one extreme, and indirect development via a trochophore-like larval stage at the other. Here I present embryological and larval anatomical data from the indirect developing polyclad Maritrigrella crozieri, and consider these data within a comparative spiralian context. Results After 196 h hours of embryonic development, M. crozieri hatches as a swimming, planktotrophic larva. Larval myoanatomy consists of an orthogonal grid of circular and longitudinal body wall muscles plus parenchymal muscles. Diagonal body wall muscles develop over the planktonic period. Larval neuroanatomy consists of an apical plate, neuropile, paired nerve cords, a peri-oral nerve ring, a medial nerve, a ciliary band nerve net and putative ciliary photoreceptors. Apical neural elements develop first followed by posterior perikarya and later pharyngeal neural elements. The ciliated larva is encircled by a continuous, pre-oral band of longer cilia, which follows the distal margins of the lobes; it also possesses distinct apical and caudal cilia. Conclusions Within polyclads heterochronic shifts in the development of diagonal bodywall and pharyngeal muscles are correlated with life history strategies and feeding requirements. In contrast to many spiralians, M. crozieri hatch with well developed nervous and muscular systems. Comparisons of the ciliary bands and apical organs amongst spiralian planktonic life-stages reveal differences; M. crozieri lack a distinct

  13. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements.

  14. Issue of Separation of Powers in Ancient Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Javid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotemporary public law in Iran cannot ignore the elements of its identity in the past. Although analysis of public law issue in ancient Iran, the most researchers to be considered so it is not easy to speak about separation of powers, the part of the body of public law in the Iran primary governments but this article constants on hypothesis which with think and assimilation in history of ancient Iran which can laying the groundwork of strengthening people rights and limitation of authority's governors with emphasis on three periods of governorship on ancient Iran .for example Hakhamaneshian, Ashkanian and Sasanian. This article intent to clear haw can in these periods, the primary figure and foundation of separation of powers and functions division in body of previous governments of Iran to be observed.

  15. Visions and Revisions: Seamus Heaney, ‘Foreign’ Poetry, and The Problem of Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the unusual position of Irish and Polish cultures and how it correlates to the construction of lyric subjects that appear unassimilable to dominant postcolonial literary-critical paradigms. Translation and assimilation become crucial concepts when understood in relation to attempts to take inspiration from foreign sources, especially when such attempts do not accord with typical patterns of influence. These concepts, however, only reveal their utility when they are grounded. The problem of assimilation is here considered in reference to debates over the Eastern European influences behind Seamus Heaney’s volume The Haw Lantern, which reveal the cultural pressures brought to bear upon a well-known poet whose work challenges dominant assumptions about the proper idiom of the Anglo-American lyric.

  16. An approach to averaging digitized plantagram curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Heinemeyer, R; Sovak, D; Tory, B

    1994-07-01

    The averaging of outline shapes of the human foot for the purposes of determining information concerning foot shape and dimension within the context of comfort of fit of sport shoes is approached as a mathematical problem. An outline of the human footprint is obtained by standard procedures and the curvature is traced with a Hewlett Packard Digitizer. The paper describes the determination of an alignment axis, the identification of two ray centres and the division of the total curve into two overlapping arcs. Each arc is divided by equiangular rays which intersect chords between digitized points describing the arc. The radial distance of each ray is averaged within groups of foot lengths which vary by +/- 2.25 mm (approximately equal to 1/2 shoe size). The method has been used to determine average plantar curves in a study of 1197 North American males (Hawes and Sovak 1993).

  17. Anisotropic damping of Timoshenko beam elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.H.

    2001-05-01

    This report contains a description of a structural damping model for Timoshenko beam elements used in the aeroelastic code HawC developed at Risoe for modeling wind turbines. The model has been developed to enable modeling of turbine blades which often have different damping characteristics for flapwise, edgewise and torsional vibrations. The structural damping forces acting on the beam element are modeled by viscous damping described by an element damping matrix. The composition of this matrix is based on the element mass and stiffness matrices. It is shown how the coefficients for the mass and stiffness contributions can be calibrated to give the desired modal damping in the complete model of a blade. (au)

  18. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  19. Geotechnical and geological aspects for repository concepts with retrievability of radioactive waste; Geotechnische und geologische Aspekte fuer Tiefenlagerkonzepte mit der Option der Rueckholung der radioaktiven Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Grundbau und Bodenmechanik

    2016-03-15

    The retrievability of heat-producing high-level radioactive waste (HAW) is on debate internationally as well as in Germany. This article deals with the geological and geotechnical consequences of the design of a repository with retrievability in different host rocks. The properties of rock salt, clay, shale and crystalline rock - potential host rocks for a repository with retrievability in Germany - will be presented. Based on these properties generic models of repositories with measurements for retrievability and monitoring will be also presented. With these models it can be derived that due the different stress-deformation-behavior there is a conflict of aims between the best possible closure of the waste and the option of retrieval.

  20. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately.