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Sample records for ciguatera poisoning

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    Het overzicht van ciguatera visvergiftiging bevat informatie over de ciguatera vergiftigingen en de veroorzakers (CTXs) en gambiertoxine-4b (GTX-4 B), van welke CTX-1 de belangrijkste component is aan het eind van de voedsel keten (roofvissen). Gegevens over chemische structuren, detectie method

  4. Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

    1988-12-01

    A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters.

  5. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  6. Disease and development: ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N D

    1986-01-01

    Ciguatera, a form of fish poisoning with a pantropical distribution, has been a recognized health problem in the Caribbean and the Pacific for centuries (in the decade from 1973 to 1983 for the island Pacific region as a whole, reported incidence, conservatively 20% of actual incidence, was 97/100,000). Island peoples in subsistence communities have developed strategies to minimize its impact. These strategies are less effective when people move to towns, cities and wage labor. The existence of ciguatoxic fish, which are indistinguishable from those that are not, has serious implications for development in island states. Furthermore, development activities which result in disruption of the marine environment increase the potential for ciguatoxic biotopes. The distribution of this health risk in the Pacific region is presented, adaptive strategies discussed, and implications for health, nutrition, resource development and tourism explored.

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  8. Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Cases in Hong Kong 2004-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUN-KWAN WONG; PATRICIA HUNG; KELLIE L.H.LEE; TINA MOK; THOMAS CHUNG; KAI-MAN KAM

    2008-01-01

    To review the clinical features and laboratory investigations of ciguatera patients in Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007 in order to show the timely sampling of implicated fish from ciguatera victims and application of validated mouse bioassay for confirming suspected clinical cases of ciguatera.Methods Diagnosis of the ciguatera victims was based on history of coral fish consumption and clinical presentations stated in official guidelines for clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.Food remnants of coral fish samples were collected swiftly from ciguatera victims between 2004 and 2007 for ciguatoxins (CTXs) analysis.Results Major clinical symptoms in ciguatera patients included gastrointestinal and neurological effects including limb numbness and diarrhoea,which developed at 0.5 to 15 hours after consumption of fish.In most cases,neurological symptoms were more common than gastrointestinal symptoms.A broad range of attack rate (10%-100%) was observed in each ciguatera outbreak.Validated mouse bioassay on ether extracts of the food remnant samples confirmed that all were CTXs-positive (<0.5-4.3 MU/20 mg ether extract) and directly linked to the corresponding ciguatera cases.Conclusion Consistency between clinical and laboratory analysis for ciguatera poisoning illustrates the application of laboratory mouse bioassay in a timely fashion for confirming ciguatera poisoning cases and implementing effective public health measures.With further improvement in laboratory techniques,features of ciguatera fish poisoning cases can be better defined.Further studies are needed to determine the risk of each class of CTXs (Pacific-,Indian-and Caribbean-CTXs) in Hong Kong.

  9. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  10. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  11. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  12. Cardiovascular complications in ciguatera fish poisoning: A wake-up call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Senthilkumaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning occurs with ingestion of fish containing ciguatoxin. It causes a clinical syndrome that comprises classic gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. Ciguatoxin is a sodium channel agonist with cholinergic and adrenergic activity. Although cardiovascular symptoms are rare with ciguatoxin, we report two cases with bradycardia and hypotension. Fatality and long-term sequelae are not uncommon with ciguatoxin poisoning and educating the general population is essential.

  13. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

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    Charlotte Schoelinck

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets.We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods.Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously. Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific.The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since

  14. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

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    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  15. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  16. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  17. 雪卡毒素中毒25例分析%Analysis of 25 Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖清高; 隋敏生; 陈纪平

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨雪卡毒素中毒的原因、临床表现、治疗和预防。方法:分析25例中毒患者的临床资料并结合文献资料。结果:雪卡毒素广泛存在热带、亚热带深海鱼中,其中石斑鱼、鲈鱼最常见,是鱼类通过食物链获得。中毒后经2~10h潜伏期,出现以急性胃肠炎为主的消化道症状和心血管症状,2~3d后伴有特征性、较持久的温度感觉倒错。结论:中毒后以温度感觉倒错为特征,预后良好,病程2~3wk,为避免中毒,建议勿食用重1.5kg以上的深海鱼,特别是鱼头和内脏。%Objective:To discuss the cause,clinical feature,diagnosis,treatmen and prognosis of ciguatera fish poisoning.Methods:Twenty-five patients with ciguatera fish poisoning were observed and relevant literature history.Results:Ciguatera is a toxin-related disease caused by ingestion of a variety of toxic fish living in tropical or subtropical areas.The toxi is produced by a microscopic dinoflagellate algae(gambierdiscus toxicus) and passed up the food chain.Symptoms usually begin 2~10 hours after eating a poisonous fish.The clinical symptoms of ciguatera poisoning can be classified into three broad groups:gastrointestinal symptoms、cardiovascular and neurological.Gastro-intestinal symptoms were the first and most common complaint.Neurological symptoms generally begin 2~3 days after and stay for long time.The clinical feature is characterized by temperature reversa.Conclusion:The clinical feature is characterized by temperature reversa,course of diseases are 2~3 weeks and prognosis all right.In order to avoid poison,avoiding consumption of reef fish of 1.5kg weight is the best way to avoid ciguatera fish poisoning.

  18. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis. PMID:24830151

  19. Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Caillaud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs. The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning: A first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness...

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  2. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  3. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  4. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  5. 2005年厦门市三起雪卡毒素中毒情况分析%Study of three ciguatera fish poisoning cases in Xiamen city,in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆和东; 白艳艳; 周娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the reason of three eiguatem fish poisoning cases in Xiaman in 2005 and identify the fish species.Methods The grouper implicated in food poisoning and seven other coral reef fishes collected from market were tested by mice bioassay and ciguatoxin-test kit.The mtDNA was extracted from toxic grouper meat,and Cty b gene segment was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced.The sequences were compared with those in the GenBank.Results The result turned out to be positive by the ciguatoxin-test kit,while the toxicity of the toxic grouper implicated in food poisoning was 0.11 mouse unit(MU)/g by mice bioassay.A 475 bp segments of Cty b gene was amplified by PCR and the sequence was 99% homologous with Epinephelus fuscoguttatus(GenBank:AY950695).No ciguatoxin in six grouper species collected from market was detected.Conclusion All three food poisoning cases were caused by consumption of ciguatoxin-carrying groupers.%目的 分析引发2005年厦门3起雪卡毒素中毒的原因及引发中毒的鱼种.方法 采集3起中毒案例中剩余的棕点石斑鱼及市场上其他深海鱼共7份,采用小鼠生物法、雪卡毒素免疫膜试剂盒测定雪卡毒素,同时提取中毒鱼肉组织中的mtDNA,采用PCR技术扩增细胞色素6(Cry b)部分序列片段并直接测序,将结果与CenBank数据库比对.结果 引发中毒的鱼肉中雪卡毒素检测呈阳性,小鼠生物实验毒性为0.11小鼠单位(MU)/g,提取的mtDNA扩增出475 bp大小的Cty b基因片段,与棕点石斑鱼(登录号 AY950695)的Cry b基因相似性达99%.其余6份样品均未检出雪卡毒素.结论 这3起中毒事件均是由于食用了含有雪卡毒素的棕点石斑鱼而引发的食物中毒.

  6. Socioeconomic impacts and management ciguatera in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R J

    1992-01-01

    The inshore fisheries resource is important to the health and culture of many of the inhabitants of Pacific Island countries (PIC). Ciguateric fishes (mainly demersal reef fishes) cause a range of distressing and often debilitating gastrointestinal neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Consequently, ciguatera limits the utilisation of this otherwise over-exploited resource. For many victims, the symptoms suffered during the chronic phase of ciguatera (lasting weeks, months and occasionally years) are exacerbated upon consumption of certain foods, particularly non-toxic fishes. After each outbreak, victims and members of their social-network experience a transient increase in perception of the risk of eating reef fish. The impact of ciguatera is greatest in atoll island countries where fish is the primary source of protein (it also has a major impact and to facilitate the management of ciguatera in PIC, regular information is required that quantifies: (i) the true incidence of ciguatera; (ii) the extent and way in which different communities avoid ciguatera; and (iii) the adverse impact ciguatera has on health, the workforce, trade and tourism. Over the last 15 years (based on SPEHIS data to 1990), some countries recorded a decrease in the ciguatera problem (New Caledonia, Marshall Is.), other countries an increase (Kirbati, Tuvalu, French Polynesia), while still other countries recorded an increase followed by a decrease in ciguatera (Tokelau, American Samoa, Western Samoa, Fiji and Vanuatu). There may also be seasonal trends in the incidence of ciguatera in some countries e.g. Fiji. Management options presently implementable in PIC include: (i) treatment with i.v. mannitol; (ii) provision of timely advise on the location and status of ciguatera "hot spots" in each country that would allow affected communities to react objectively to the risk posed by ciguatera; and (iii) modification of human behaviour and aspirations to reduce the impact of increasing

  7. Review and guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of ciguatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Orozco Manuel José

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera is a disease transmitted, particularly by fish consumption. Fishes thatcome from tropical and subtropical waters where reefs and corals abound, have moreprobability of being contaminated with the different forms of ciguatoxin and onlyhumans are poisoned when they consume contaminated fishes. The symptomatologyappear generally in the first 24 hours, in a fast way, and they are characterized forgastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. In some cases alsochronic neurological, urinary and psychiatric symptoms can be presented. A possibletransmission by human milk is mentioned. Epidemiological and clinical criteria are veryimportant to do a suitable clinical impression and through instances of public health topromote the mechanisms for the definitive diagnosis of the disease by means of themicrobiological exam of the species of consumed fish. The treatment is symptomatic and it requires subsequent controls for the chronic complications. The authorities ofpublic and environmental health must look for means and methods to prevent theconsumption of fishes with high risk of being contaminated. Rev.Cienc.Biomed.2013;4(1:174-185RESUMEN:La ciguatera es una enfermedad transmitida de manera particular por la ingesta depescado. Los peces provenientes de aguas tropicales y subtropicales en donde abundanarrecifes y corales tienen mayor probabilidad de contaminarse con las diferentesformas de ciguatoxina. El hombre se intoxica cuando ingiere los peces contaminados.La sintomatología aparece en las primeras 24 horas, de forma rápida, caracterizadapor síntomas gastrointestinales, neurológicos y cardiovasculares. En muchos casosse pueden presentar síntomas crónicos neurológicos, urinarios y psiquiátricos. Se haseñalado la posible transmisión por leche materna. Los criterios epidemiológicos yclínicos son muy importantes para realizar una adecuada impresión clínica. Se debenpromover los mecanismos para el diagn

  8. The Prevalence of Benthic Dinoflagellates Associated with Ciguatera in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    This study confirms the presence of Gambierdiscus sp., Ostreopsis sp. as well as other epiphytic benthic dinoflagellates associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in the Central Red Sea, highlighting the potential occurrence of CFP in this region. These species are reported for the first time in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. A total of 80 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast. Sample analyses indicated low average cell abundances (< 40 cells g-1 wet weight algae) of Gambierdiscus sp. and Ostreopsis sp. Subsequent statistical analyses indicated a significant difference in the cell abundances of both genera between sampling sites, between species and between inshore and offshore reefs. The presence of several potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species in the Red Sea and the statistical differences in abundances between different sampling sites merits future study on possible impacts of these dinoflagellates on marine food webs and human health.

  9. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  10. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people. Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  11. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  12. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  13. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  1. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  5. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Robertson; Garcia, Ana C; Harold A. Flores Quintana; Smith, Tyler B.; Bernard F. Castillo II; Kynoch Reale-Munroe; Joseph A. Gulli; Olsen, David A.; Jennifer I. Hooe-Rollman; Jester, Edward L.E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known...

  6. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  7. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  8. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  9. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  10. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  11. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  12. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  13. Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae in coastal areas of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP: one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006-2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8-D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU r

  14. Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S

    2004-02-15

    In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention.

  15. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  16. Prevalence and proposal for cost-effective management of the ciguatera risk in the Noumea fish market, New Caledonia (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Brena, Pierpaolo F; Lecasble, Côme; Ghnassia, Reine; Chauvet, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common intoxication associated with the consumption of reef fish, which constitutes a critical issue for public health in many countries. The complexity of its epidemiology is responsible for the poor management of the risk in tropical fish markets. We used the example of the Noumea fish market in New Caledonia to develop a cost-effective methodology of assessing the CFP risk. We first used published reports and the knowledge of local experts to define a list of potentially poisonous local species, ranked by their ciguatoxic potential. Based on two 1-month surveys in the market, conducted in winters 2008 and 2009, we then calculated the consolidated ratio of biomass of potentially poisonous species vs. total biomass of fish sold on the market. The prevalence of high CFP-risk species in the market was 16.1% and 18.9% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The most common high CFP risk species were groupers (serranids), king mackerels (scombrids), snappers (lutjanids), barracudas (sphyaraenids), emperors (lethrinids) and wrasses (labrids). The size (age) of the fish also plays a critical role in the potential ciguatoxic risk. According to proposals of average size thresholds provided by experts for high-risk species, we were also able to assess the additional risk induced by the sale of some large fish on the market. The data collected both from experts and from the market allowed us to develop a cost-effective proposal for improving the management of the CFP risk in this market. However, the successful implementation of any regulation aiming to ban some specific species and sizes from the market, with an acceptable economical impact, will require the improvement of the expertise in fish identification by public health officers and, ideally, the commitment of retailers.

  17. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and older people are at ...

  18. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  19. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  20. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  1. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  2. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  3. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  4. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VESSELS Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly SKIN Burns Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  5. Solder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurs when someone swallows solder in large amounts. Skin burns can occur if solder touches the skin. This ... the effect of the poison Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  6. Ciguatera: Posible transmisión sexual. A propósito de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Hevia Pumariega

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La ciguatera es una de las más importantes intoxicaciones causadas por el consumo de pescado, se produce cuando el hombre ingiere especies que viven asociadas a los arrecifes coralinos en mares de países tropicales y subtropicales. Es originada por dinoflagelados productores de toxinas , transmitidas por vía oral a través de la cadena alimentaria. Se describe el caso de un hombre de 52 años sin antecedentes de exposición a productos del mar, ni a sustancias tóxicas, que posterior a tener contacto sexual con su pareja femenina afectada por ciguatera desde hacía 48 horas presentó: astenia, parestesias periorales y artralgias que se prolongaron por más de 21 días; se le diagnosticó y trató por la misma enfermedad. Se sugiere una posible transmisión sexual de las toxinas relacionadas con este envenenamiento justificados por la alta liposolubilidad que les confieren sus estructuras química.

  7. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  8. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  9. 雪 卡 毒 素 中 毒 的 临 床 特 征%Clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖清高; 隋敏生; 陈纪平

    2001-01-01

    目 的 探 讨 雪 卡 毒 素 中 毒 时 的 临 床 特 征 。 方 法 分 析 25(男 18, 女 7)例 中 毒 病 人 的 临 床 资 料 。 结 果 病 人 在 进 食 有 毒 海 鱼 后 2至 10小 时 , 出 现 神 经 、 消 化 、 心 血 管 系 统 症 状 。 普 遍 均 有 消 化 系 统 症 状 , 神 经 系 统 症 状 持 续 1至 2周 , 并 以 温 度 感 觉 倒 错 最 具 有 特 征 性 。 结 论 雪 卡 毒 素 中 毒 病 人 , 可 根 据 其 临 床 上 特 殊 的 神 经 系 统 特 点 得 到 确 认 。

  10. 雪卡毒素中毒15例临床观察%Clinic observation of ciguatera poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若丹; 刘新民

    2005-01-01

    目的观察雪卡毒素中毒的临床表现,探讨中毒的原因、治疗和预防.方法分析15例雪卡毒素中毒患者的临床资料并复习文献.结果进食有毒鱼肉或鱼汤后1~10 h后,出现以急性胃肠炎为主的消化系统症状,以温觉倒错为主的神经系统症状,以心率变化为主的心血管系统症状.结论中毒后经1~10 h潜伏期,出现具有特征性的温度感觉倒错症状以及消化、神经、心血管系统症状,病程2~3周,目前尚无特效药.

  11. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  14. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  15. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  16. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  17. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  18. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  19. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  20. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  1. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  2. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  3. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  4. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  5. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  6. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  7. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  8. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  9. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  10. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  11. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  12. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  13. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  14. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed al...

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  18. Ciguatera toxins in coral fishes along the southern coast of China%中国南部沿海近岸西加鱼毒素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶肖; 王爱辉; 胡蓉; 江天久; 江涛

    2012-01-01

    为了查清我国南部沿海珊瑚礁鱼类体内的西加鱼毒素状况,首次在海南三亚、琼海、广西涠洲岛、珠海担杆列岛、广东徐闻县灯楼角和福建东山岛收集渔民从附近珊瑚礁海域捕捞的野生鱼类,采用酶联免疫法、小白鼠生物法和高效液相色谱质谱联用法进行毒素测定.结果表明,6个调查海区均检测出染毒鱼类,总阳性检出率达50%,其中福建东山岛(77.8%)>广东徐闻县灯楼角(66.7%)>广东珠海担杆列岛(55.6%)>广西涠洲岛(37.5%)>海南三亚(37.5%)>海南琼海(16.7%),与海域环境质量可能存在一定的关联.鱼组织毒素含量为0~169ngP-CTX- 1/kg肉,8个样品(占总样17.4%)超过100ng P-CTX-1/kg肉,达到可致人中毒水平.染毒鱼种类繁多,主要包括蝴蝶鱼科(Chaetodontida)、鹦嘴鱼科(Scaridae)、鳂科(Holocentridae)、笛鲷科(Lutjanidae)和鮨科(Serranidae).酶联免疫法与小鼠生物法对鱼毒定性检测结果基本一致,但仅在福建东山岛2个鱼样中检测到P-CTX-1成分.染毒鱼类的毒素含量和鱼体重/体长没有相关性,也与其食性无关.%The Ciguatera toxins(CTXs) in coral fish along the southern coast of China were investigated for the first time through collecting wild coral fish samples in Sanya and Qionghai of Hainan, Weizhou Island of Guangxi, Zhuhai and Xuwen Dengloujiao of Guangdong and Dongshan Island of Fujian. By using three different analysis methods including Cigua-Check? Kit, Mouse Bioassay and HPLOMS/MS, toxic fishes existed in all six sampling areas, and the total detection rate was 50%. Respectively, the detection rate for Dongshan Island of Fujian (77.8%) > Xuwen Dengloujiao of Guangdong (66.7%) > Zhuhai Danganliedao of Guangdong (55.6%) > Weizhou Island of Guangxi (37.5%) > Sanya of Hainan (37.5%) > Qionghai of Hainan(16.7%). Toxin content offish varied in 0-169 ng P-CTX-1/kg flesh and generally showed relation to the water quality. There were

  19. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  1. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  2. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  3. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  4. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  5. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  6. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  7. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  8. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, including: Antifreeze De-icing products Detergents Paints Cosmetics Note: This list may not be all-inclusive ... vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous by-products in ...

  9. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  10. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  11. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Furniture polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touched your skin or eyes you may have: Skin burns and irritation Vision loss If the poison is ... out the stomach ( gastric lavage ) Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps ...

  13. Stoddard solvent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems Nervousness Numbness in arms and legs Unconsciousness SKIN Burns Irritation Holes in the skin or underlying tissues ... if poison touches the skin) Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  15. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  16. Analysis of the feature of 39 patients with ciguatera fish poisoning%雪卡毒素中毒39例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟娜; 袁飞雁; 刘歧凤; 刘郁

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨雪卡毒素中毒的临床特征.方法收集分析39例食用苏眉鱼而致雪卡毒素中毒患者的临床资料.结果患者在食入苏眉鱼后2~10 h出现神经、消化、心血管系统症状,神经系统症状持续1~2周,并以温度感觉倒错最具有特征性.结论雪卡毒素中毒患者,可根据其临床特殊的神经系统特点得到确诊.

  17. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  18. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  19. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  20. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  1. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles, extr...

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  3. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  4. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  6. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  7. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  8. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  9. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  10. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  11. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  12. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  13. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  14. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  15. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  16. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  17. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  18. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  19. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  20. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  1. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  2. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  3. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  4. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  5. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  6. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  7. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  8. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  9. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  10. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  11. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  12. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  13. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  14. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  15. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  16. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  17. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  18. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  19. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  20. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  1. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  3. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing ...

  4. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  5. Anti-rust product poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision Weakness Brain damage from low oxygen level SKIN Burns Irritation Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  6. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  7. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  8. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  9. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined ...

  12. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  13. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were....... A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. RESULTS: Out of 435 articles screened, 77 met inclusion criteria. Only in-vitro, animal studies, case reports and case series were identified yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Based on data from 84...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  14. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  15. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...... an overall very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data on 135 patients and toxicokinetic data on 54 patients were analyzed. Twenty-three fatalities were reviewed. The workgroup agreed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of treatment, and that ECTR is not warranted in most...

  19. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  20. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  1. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  2. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  3. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  4. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  5. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  6. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  7. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus-ba...

  8. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  9. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  10. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  11. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  12. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  13. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  14. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  15. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  16. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from unintentional poisonings have... 24 hours every day. These centers provide emergency assistance, offer guidance on poison...

  17. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  18. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  19. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  20. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  1. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  2. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  3. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  4. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  5. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful p...

  6. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  7. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I;

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......(+)] is >4.0 mEq/L, or in the presence of a decreased level of consciousness, seizures, or life-threatening dysrhythmias irrespective of the [Li(+)] (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is suggested if the [Li(+)] is >5.0 mEq/L, significant confusion is present, or the expected time to reduce the [Li(+)] to

  8. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  9. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  10. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  11. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  12. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  13. A survey of poison control centers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Maryann Mazer; Justin Wang; Ali Pourmand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  15. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  16. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended inge

  17. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia;

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  18. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  19. Clinical treatment and nursing of 41 patients with ciguatera fish poisoning%41例雪卡毒素中毒病人的临床救治及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍志祝

    2005-01-01

    目的分析雪卡毒素中毒病人的临床特点,总结病人救治及护理对策.方法对41例雪卡毒素中毒病人的临床资料作回顾性分析及参阅有关文献,了解其临床特点,评价救治及护理效果.结果全部病例均有急性胃肠炎为主的消化道症状,部分病人出现以心率和血压变化为主的心血管症状和以皮肤蚁爬感、瘙痒、痛温觉倒错为主的神经系统症状;经对症支持治疗,配合恰当的护理,全部病人2~3周内症状消失,无1例死亡.结论雪卡毒素中毒早期出现急性消化道症状应与急性胃肠炎鉴别诊断,对症支持治疗,严密观察病情变化,尤其要注意心率、血压的变化,加强生活护理和皮肤护理,同时做好心理护理及饮食健康宣教是救治雪卡毒素中毒病人的有效措施.

  20. 88例群体性雪卡毒素中毒的临床急救与护理%The emergency medical treatment and nursing comprehend in 88 patients with colonia ciguatera toxin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱军; 陈素芝; 林振素; 林瑄

    2005-01-01

    目的总结88例雪卡毒素中毒的原因、临床应急抢救措施和护理体会.方法回顾性分析88例因食用虎斑鱼等珊瑚类鱼引起的雪卡毒素中毒患者临床症状、抢救治疗过程及其相应的护理措施.结果88例患者中毒病因明确,患者中毒后经2~10 h潜伏期,出现以急性胃肠炎为主的消化道症状和心血管症状,2~3 d后伴有特征性、较持久的温度感觉倒错等神经系统症状,经催吐、洗胃、导泻、取样本、吸氧及解痉、止痛、补充血容量、纠正失水等处理,均康复出院.结论收治雪卡毒素中毒患者后,应及时启动突发公共卫生事件应急方案,针对消化道症状和心血管症状对症治疗,并进行科学护理.

  1. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  2. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  3. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  4. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  5. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  6. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  7. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  8. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  9. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  10. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... poisoned should call the National Poison Help Line immediately at 1-800-222-1222. Today, the majority of... communities. For more resources on preventing drug overdose and other forms of poisoning, visit...

  11. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F;

    2014-01-01

    -vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...... mg/L (42 the μ in μmol/L looks weird.) (2D). Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred ECTR (1D), but both intermittent hemoperfusion (1D) or continuous renal replacement therapies (3D) are alternatives if hemodialysis is not available. MDAC therapy should be continued during ECTR (1D). CONCLUSION...

  13. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  14. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  15. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides.

  16. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  17. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  18. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  19. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Austin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone responsible for triaging patient phone queries. Using a scripted form, trained investigators questioned 100 consecutive primary care provider offices on how they would handle these poisoning-related calls if there was no poison center to refer their patients to. Results of our survey suggest that 82.5% of poisoning-related calls to primary care offices would be referred to 911 or an emergency department if there was no poison center. These results further support the role that poison centers play in patient care and health care utilization.

  20. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  1. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  2. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  3. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the role of alcohol in injuries and deaths. Doctors, nurses, and other providers can Screen all adult patients ... lifethreatening signs of alcohol poisoning. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider if you think ...

  5. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  6. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  7. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  9. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  10. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  11. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  12. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  13. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  14. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  15. An unusual presentation of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    TURMEN, Suha; ERYİĞİT, Umut; SAHİN, Aynur; MENTESE, Seda; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is a substance possessing high toxicity even in small quantities. It may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, blindness and death. Methanol poisoning generally takes place as result of oral ingestion, but may rarely occur through inhalation or transdermally. Persons may be exposed to methanol because of illegal alcohol beverage producers or alternative medicine providers. A 55-year-old male with methanol poisoning as a result of rubbing a self-prepared mixture of methylated spirit and a...

  16. Acute iron poisoning. Rescue with macromolecular chelators.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, J R; Hallaway, P E; Hedlund, B E; Eaton, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication is a frequent, sometimes life-threatening, form of poisoning. Present therapy, in severe cases, includes oral and intravenous administration of the potent iron chelator, deferoxamine. Unfortunately, high dose intravenous deferoxamine causes acute hypotension additive with that engendered by the iron poisoning itself. To obviate this problem, we have covalently attached deferoxamine to high molecular weight carbohydrates such as dextran and hydroxyethyl starch. These ma...

  17. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  18. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  19. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  20. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  1. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Carbon monoxide poisoning Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea • Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: O2 treatment Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. Case Report: In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  2. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  3. [Problems introducing a pediatric poisoning treatment set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockstedt, M

    2004-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin poison center conducted a case-control study supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Berlin Medical Association, a health insurance company, and the Berlin Pediatric Society to test the efficacy of a pediatric poisoning treatment set. The aim of the study was to induce parents of small children to call the poison center immediately in cases of unintentional poisonings at home and to administer activated charcoal if advised to do so by the poison center specialist. This was achieved by handling over a so-called "emergency kit" to 24,000 parents during the regular pediatric office check-up when the children were 10-12 months of age. When an accident occurred, parents with an emergency kit at hand were able to give activated charcoal within 14 min compared to 51 min without this aid. Problems arose when attempts were undertaken to introduce the emergency kit into the routine counseling sessions throughout the country: restrictions imposed by the pharmaceutical law, lack of interest shown by pharmaceutical companies, and diverging responsibilities at county and federal political levels and between different health insurance companies have hitherto prevented the realization of this evidence-based method. PMID:15205817

  4. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  5. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  6. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  7. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  8. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  9. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  10. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S;

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from...... nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed...... and ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order...

  11. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  12. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  13. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  14. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  15. Animal poisonings in Belgium: a review of the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Van Pelt, Henk; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on poisonings in companion animals, including horses, farm animals and wildlife, investigated and recorded during the past ten years at the Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University) and the National Poison Centre in Belgium. The causative agents of poisoning incidents vary among the different species. The Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine reports that the majority of poisoning incidents in companion anima...

  16. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  17. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases.

  18. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  19. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  20. Hematologic effects of heavy metal poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C; Patterson, W P; Perry, M C; Yarbro, J W

    1988-09-01

    Heavy metal poisoning can cause a variety of hematologic disorders. Exposure to heavy metals is ubiquitous in the industrial environment and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many types of anemia. The heavy metals most commonly associated with hematologic toxicity are arsenic and its derivative arsine, copper, gold, lead, and zinc. A few distinctive clinical features characterize the hematologic manifestations of many occult heavy metal poisonings. These features have a limited differential diagnosis. A knowledge of these clinical features can assist the astute clinician in making the correct diagnosis.

  1. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hurley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:378-381.

  2. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  3. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  4. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  5. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  6. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed...

  7. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  8. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  9. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012... Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... thousands of lives every year. On the 50th anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  10. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Churi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

  11. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    K L Ong; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  12. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  13. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  14. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  15. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  16. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  17. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  18. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, A; M. Lotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients afte...

  19. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  20. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  2. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were......-poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...... of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study...

  3. The Pittsburgh Poison Center and its member hospital network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1986-02-01

    When a poison information call involves a case that requires medical intervention, the staff of poison information specialists refer the poisoned patient to the emergency department of the nearest member hospital. This regionalization of treatment involving poison exposures eliminates the necessity of having an emergent patient rushed long distances to receive prompt and effective care. Facsimile terminals provide an efficacious method of enhancing communication of toxicology information to our member hospital treatment centers. A poison center is able to electronically transmit copies of written documents such as newly published journal articles or treatment protocols directly to the emergency department of the treating hospital. In turn, the facsimile terminal can confidentially transmit a copy of a poisoned victim's emergency record to the poison center. Data collection and documentation is strengthened. Transmission and receiving is accomplished within minutes. PMID:3705433

  4. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  5. An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiu-mei

    2001-01-01

    Bongkrekic acid(BA) is a fatal bacterial toxin which was found in poisonous fermented cocnut product in indonesia in 1934 and the molecular structure was identified as C28H33O7 in 1960,In the 1950s,food poisoning outbreak of undnown cause occurred cause in the northeast part of China.A new toxin-producing bacterium,pseudomonas cocovenans subsp.Farinofermentans.was identified as the causal pathioge,and its metabolite BA was isolated.purfied and identified in 1979 and 1984.After that ,deteriorated tremella poisoning and viegar jelly poisoning were identified as being caused by the consumption of BA-contaminated foods.About 103 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in 16 provinces in China from 1985 to 1994,A total of 301 (out of 667) patients died.The overall fatality rate(45.13%) was the highest among all microbiological food poisonings in China.Various fermented cereal foods,deteriorated fresh tremella,potato products,sticky rice flur,polished glutious rice,sweet potato starch,noodles and vinegar jelly were in volved in the outbreaks,BA Was detected form leftover fermented corn flour,deteriorated tremella and the P.Cocovenenans subsp.farinofermentans was identifed as the source bascteria.The toxigenic strains have been found not only from the leftover food samples collected from the outbreaks.but also from normal fresh cultivated tremella in Henan and corn flour products from supermarkets in Beijing,TLC,HPLC,and MaAb-ELISA were used to detect BA in the food samples,The minimum detected levels were 0.25,0.1 and 0.2mg/kg,respectively,Further studies showed that Ba could be producted at 26 C for 5 days in potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium.Exposure to ultravioled ligh significantly reduced the level of BA in fresh tremella(96.7%-97.3%) as well as the toxin-producing ability of toxigenic stains in culture medium.

  6. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances. PMID:27365999

  7. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances.

  8. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  9. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  10. Arsenic poisoning of magnetism in bcc cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David J.

    1992-04-01

    Highly converged local spin-density approximation calculations are used to determine the effectiveness of As as a poisoning agent for the magnetism of bcc Co films grown on GaAs. To do this, supercell calculations of the magnetization were performed using an extension of the general potential linearized augmented plane-wave method for Co7As, Co15As, and Co31As. The effect of the nearest-neighbor relaxation around As impurities, calculated using total energy techniques, was included. It is found that substitutional As is moderately effective as a poisoning agent, each As atom contributes a moment of -3.8μB, and this may be important in explaining the discrepancy of 0.2-0.3μB between the calculated magnetization of bcc Co and the measured magnetization of bcc Co films on GaAs.

  11. A Clinical Study of aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Gupta,Annil Mahajan,Ajay Gupta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thc present prospectiYe study 01'56 cases ofAlwniniwn Phosphide (ALP poisoning in Gov!. MedicalCollcge Hospital Jammu. found out the prevalence of Deliberate self-poisoning self (DSP andaccidental ingestion in young population in age group of 16-30 years. Male-female ratio ",as 1.03: 1.00;ha' ing marital discord and family quarrels as prominent predisposing factors. The majority of patientshad gastrointestinal (GIT symptoms (73.2%, cardiac arrthymias (62.5% and shock (53.3%. Thccommoncst clectrocardiographic (ECG abnormalities were tachycardia (96%, atrial fibrillation(58% and venticular-ectopic (VE beats (59%. The management was supportive in the fonn ofstomach wash, intra"enous (IN fluids. dopamine, hydrocortisone, sodabicarbonate and assisted"entilation in intensiYe care unit (lCU setting

  12. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  13. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  14. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  15. [Noncirrhotic liver fibrosis after chronic arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, M; Hengels, K J; Borchard, F; Strohmeyer, G

    1989-10-27

    A 67-year-old woman with portal hypertension, splenomegaly without portal vein thrombosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia of splenic origin had repeated episodes of life-threatening haemorrhage from esophageal varices. Since childhood she had suffered from psoriasis and had been treated over a period of 15 years with Fowler's solution (in all about 25 g of arsenic trioxide). She had the characteristic skin lesions of arsenical poisoning-palmar hyperkeratoses and two basal cell carcinomas on the trunk. Histological examination of a wedge biopsy from the liver showed definite structural changes with fibrosis around the central veins and in the portal tracts. There was no evidence of cirrhotic alteration. The hepatocytes were normal by light microscopy and electron microscopy. This case of noncirrhotic hepatic fibrosis is considered to have been caused by chronic arsenical poisoning.

  16. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  17. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D.J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined di...

  18. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  19. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz Mesa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning. Medical emergencies determined by the exposure to different substances (drugs, medicines, physical or chemical corrosive agents, etc. It includes the classification of toxic substances, clinical diagnosis (main syndromes, and description of therapeutic variations (vital support, antidotes, absorption measurements and increase of elimination and depuration of the toxic substance. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  20. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi GA; Astaraki P; Mohtashami AZ; Ahadi M

    2015-01-01

    Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and des...

  1. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  2. A literature study on lacquer poison

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Min, Lee; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Sung-Mo, Choi; Tae-Hee, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It will be examined in this research whether Lacquer poison can be used as an distinguished treatment to cure incurable diseases by considering literature existing and various papers. Method: I studies origin, alias, species, toxicity, effect, treatment, component, medical action and contraindication of Rhus vemiciflua stokes through various kinds literatures. Results: Sap of Rhus vemiciflua stokes that is used for medical purposes, has an effect on anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, ...

  3. Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    EROĞLU, Serkan Emre; Urgan, Oğuz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizbaşı, Arzu; Akoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Stud...

  4. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  5. Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, H B

    1983-02-01

    Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent.

  6. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  7. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  8. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  9. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghilinejad M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. Case presentation We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and was treated appropriately with lead chelator (CaNa2EDTA. Conclusion Lead poisoning is frequently overlooked as the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen which may result in unnecessary surgery. Appropriate occupational history taking is helpful in making a correct diagnosis. Occupational lead poisoning is a preventable disorder and a serious challenge for the health and labor authorities in developing countries.

  10. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  11. Use of erbium as burnable poison for VVER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems related to use of Erbium as burnable poison for VVER are discussed. Comparison is made between neutronics characteristics of Uranium-Gadolinium and Uranium-Erbium fuel cycles. The study shows that use of Erbium as burnable poison allows decreasing the peaking factor in the core. Meanwhile residual Erbium at the end of the fuel cycle makes it necessary to increase fuel enrichment. There is made the conclusion of prospects of using Erbium as burnable poison for VVER. (orig.)

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J T

    1987-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales was reviewed, based on the records of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture's Regional Veterinary Laboratories. The plant species causing significant mortalities were Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum. The syndrome of hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning was more frequently diagnosed than primary pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, particularly when grazing E. plantagineum. The data indicated that adult crossbred ewes were the most commonly affected class of sheep. PMID:3632498

  13. Poison Pills : A management-shareholder benefits comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xin; Alija, Teuta; Ochoche, Owoicho

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem: The problem of this thesis involves the controversy that the implementation of poison pills generates. The conflict amongst various stakeholders that are affected directly or indirectly by the implementation of the poison pill also contributes significantly to the problem of this thesis. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and compare the benefits of the poison pill adoption on shareholder and management interests. We also seek to evaluate arguments for and...

  14. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Dalhoff, Kim Peder;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was to classify...... all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts....

  15. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  16. Ivory poachers and poison : drivers of Africa's declining vulture populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ogada, Darcy; Botha, André; Shaw, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Four species of African vultures have been recategorized as Critically Endangered, and two as Endangered, on the IUCN Red List. Their declining status is attributed partly to the impacts of widespread poisoning. Prior to 2012 poisoning of vultures was mostly associated with illegal predator control by livestock farmers, in which vultures were typically unintended victims. More recently, ivory poachers have been using poisons to kill elephants Loxodonta africana or to contaminate their carcass...

  17. Hepatic venoocclusive disease and perisinusoidal fibrosis secondary to arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, H; Stoessel, P; Callard, P; Beaugrand, M

    1990-10-01

    Hepatic injury secondary to arsenic poisoning has been known long but is poorly documented. A case of a patient with hepatic injury following severe arsenic poisoning is reported. Histological study of the liver demonstrated acute venoocclusive disease and perisinusoidal fibrosis. This case indicates that arsenic poisoning causes veno-occlusive disease in humans. It also suggests that hepatic damage in arsenic poisoning is secondary to vascular endothelial injury and supports the hypothesis that different patterns of hepatic vascular injury might proceed from a common mechanism.

  18. Development of poison injection code-COPJET for high pressure liquid poison injection in pressure tube type heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shut Down System-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting poison jet length with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for poison jet length prediction of advanced vertical pressure type reactor. (author)

  19. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and...

  20. The Good and the Bad of Poisonous Plants: an Introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin D. Welch; Panter, Kip E.; Gardner, Dale R.; Stegelmeier, Bryan L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, ...

  1. An updated checklist of poisonous ifshes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Bayhan; Murat Kaya

    2015-01-01

    The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species), the Marmara Sea (257 species) and the Black Sea (154species). On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i) Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii) Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii) Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eelAnguilla anguillaand European congerConger congermight also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  2. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant. PMID:25925815

  3. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  4. Of Poisons and Antidotes in Polypropylene Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Busico, Vincenzo; Budzelaar, Peter H M; Vittoria, Antonio; Cipullo, Roberta

    2016-07-18

    Quenched-flow studies of MgCl2 -supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts were combined for the first time with (13) C NMR fingerprinting of the nascent polymer and conclusively proved that, depending on the catalyst formulation, propene polymerization can be slowed down significantly by the occurrence of the few regiodefects (2,1 monomer insertions), changing active sites into dormant sites. Catalysts modified with ethylbenzoate show little dormancy. The more industrially relevant phthalate based catalysts, instead, are highly dormant and require the presence of H2 to counteract the deleterious effect of this self-poisoning on productivity and stereoselectivity. PMID:27243600

  5. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  6. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  7. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  8. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well. PMID:25095477

  9. Xenon poisoning calculation code for miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In line with the actual requirements and based upon the specific characteristics of MNSR, a revised point-reactor model was adopted to model MNSR's xenon poisoning. The corresponding calculation code, MNSRXPCC (Xenon Poisoning Calculation Code for MNSR), was developed and tested by the Shanghai MNSR data

  10. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD... poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive will be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances....

  11. Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

    2013-12-01

    Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis.

  12. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  13. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K;

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occup...... in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning.......Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due...... to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous...

  14. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD... poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive, will be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances....

  15. Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applica

  16. ANALYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING, AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP compounds are the most common suicidal poison in developing countries and mortality continues to be high. The present study was aimed to know the pattern and outcome of the OP poisoning. METHODOLOGY: A record based retrospective study from January 2013 - December 2013 was Conducted in a tertiary care hospital and data regarding age, gender, domicile, type of poison, manner of poisoning, seasonal trends, marital status, motive behind poisoning , socio - economic status and outcome was collected in a pre - structured Performa. All data were documented, analyzed and interpreted as per the laid down protocol. RESULTS : out of total 1575 cases of OP compound poisoning, 71.73% (1130 were male, 28.27% (445 were female, 34.6% were in the age group 21 - 30 years, 70.95% were of low socio - economic status, Occupation wise agricultural workers were on top of the list (70.07%, The commonest (93.78% motive behind poisoning was suicidal in both males and females, Financial problem was one of the commonest (51.22% reasons of poisoning. The mortality rate in our study was 13.47%. CONCLUSION : Y oung and adult males of Low socio - economic class, rural, both literate and illiterate agriculturists commonly abuse this substance to commit suicide

  17. Xenon poisoning calculation code for miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In line with the actual requirements and based upon the specific char acteristics of MNSR, a revised point-reactor model was adopted to model MNSR's xenon poisoning. The corresponding calculation code, MNSRXPCC (Xenon Poison ing Calculation Code for MNSR), was developed and tested by the Shanghai MNSR data.

  18. LEAD POISONING: AN OVERLOOKED DIAGNOSIS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kadu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a natural element that is persistent in water and soil. Human exposure occurs primarily through diet, air, drinking water and ingestion of paint chips. Absorption is increased in persons suffering from iron and calcium deficiency. Lead is a multitargated toxicant, causing effects in the gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, central and peripheral nervous systems, kidneys, immune system, and reproductive system. Lead poisoning is a common environmental health hazard in developing countries. Incidences of lead poisoning are seen in all age groups, especially in children’s and adults working in lead-based industries, where many workers still remain unaware of the adverse effects of exposure to unusually high levels of lead. Unfamiliarity with the symptoms of lead poisoning results in miss or delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and patients’ continuous exposure in the work environment. Lead intoxication symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, nausea, vomiting etc make lead poisoning an important diagnosis to be differentiated from many gastrointestinal and surgical diseases. For diagnosis of lead poisoning, paying attention to a good occupational history, detail knowledge about lead poisoning symptoms and its sources are essential. For this study, relevant literature was searched, retrieved and synopsized with respect to its sources. Lead poisoning symptoms and few case studies of lead poisoning which initially was misdiagnosed hence our study will be helpful to front-line practitioners and family physicians. They can make great contributions to the discovery of occupational diseases in the future.

  19. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  20. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  1. Poisonous plants of veterinary and human importance in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M-L

    2008-10-28

    Southern Africa is inherently rich in flora, where the habitat and climatic conditions range from arid environments to lush, sub-tropical greenery. Needless to say, with such diversity in plant life there are numerous indigenous poisonous plants, and when naturalised exotic species and toxic garden varieties are added the list of potential poisonous plants increases. The economically important poisonous plants affecting livestock and other plant poisonings of veterinary significance are briefly reviewed. In addition, a synopsis of the more common plant poisonings in humans is presented. Many of the plants mentioned in this review are also used ethnobotanically for treatment of disease in humans and animals and it is essential to be mindful of their toxic potential.

  2. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  3. Experience with soluble neutron poisons for criticality control at ICPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble neutron poisons assure criticality control in two of the headend fuel reprocessing systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Soluble poisons have been used successfully since 1964 and will be employed in the projected new headend processes. The use of soluble poisons (1) greatly increases the process output (2) allows versatility in the size of fuel assemblies processed and (3) allows the practical reprocessing of some fuels. The safety limit for all fluids entering the U-Zr alloy dissolver is 3.6 g/liter boron. To allow for possible deviations in the measurement systems and drift between analytical sampling periods, the standard practice is to use 3.85 g/liter boron as the lower limit. This dissolver has had 4000 successful hours of operation using soluble poisons. The electrolytic dissolution process depends on soluble gadolinium for criticality safety. This system is used to process high enriched uranium clad in stainless steel. Electrolytic dissolution takes advantage of the anodic corrosion that occurs when a large electrical current is passed through the fuel elements in a corrosive environment. Three control methods are used on each headend system. First, the poison is mixed according to standard operating procedures and the measurements are affirmed by the operator's supervisor. Second, the poisoned solution is stirred, sampled, analyzed, and the analysis reported while still in the mix tank. Finally, a Nuclear Poison Detection System (NPDS) must show an acceptable poison concentration before the solution can be transferred. The major disadvantage of using soluble poisons is the need for very sophisticated control systems and procedures, which require extensive checkout. The need for a poisoned primary heating and cooling system means a secondary system is needed as well. Experience has shown, however, that production enhancement more than makes up for the problems

  4. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  5. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  6. Acute mercury poisoning: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktas Can

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury poisoning can occur as a result of occupational hazard or suicide attempt. This article presents a 36-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED due to exposure to metallic mercury. Case Presentatıon A 36-year-old woman presented to the ED with a three-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. One week ago her daughter had brought mercury in the liquid form from the school. She had put it on the heating stove. One day later, her 14-month old sister baby got fever and died before admission to the hospital. Her blood pressure was 134/87 mmHg; temperature, 40.2°C; heart rate 105 bpm and regular; respiration, 18 bpm; O2 saturation, 96%. Nothing was remarkable on examination and routine laboratory tests. As serine or urinary mercury levels could not be tested in the city, symptomatic chelation treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC was instituted with regard to presumptive diagnosis and history. At the 7th day of admission she was discharged without any sequelae or complaint. At the discharge day blood was drawn and sent for mercury levels which turned out to be 30 μg/dL (normal range: 0 - 10 μg/dL. Conclusion Public education on poisoning and the potential hazards of mercury are of vital importance for community health.

  7. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi GA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. Keywords: N-acetylcysteine, overdose, acetaminophen poisoning, medication error

  8. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari K Boorugu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [ 3 H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca 2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca 2+ influx and induction of internal Ca 2+ release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  9. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Botha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7 were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing 80–770 g, packed in a layer on top of other plant material, were carefully separated from the proventricular content and submitted for chemical determination of anabasine, the major toxic principle contained by this plant. A standard solid phase extraction method was used followed by an optimised liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. Anabasine was detected in the leaf remnants (114–177 μg/g dry weight removed from the proventriculus of the ostriches that succumbed as well as in control N. glauca leaves (193 μg/g dry weight. The analytical methods used in this study revealed the presence of anabasine in the suspicious leaf remnants, indicating that the birds had been exposed to N. glauca and had died of this poisoning.

  10. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  11. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  12. Epidemiological analysis of poisoning cases in Van, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the etiological and demographical characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases in eastern Turkey. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, and comprised data related to the period between 2007 and 2009. The data obtained included age, gender, referrals, manner of poisoning, manner of application, the department which followed up on the patients, duration of hospital stay. All data was noted on proforma. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total cases visiting the Emergency Department, 1207 (1.1%) related to poisoning. Of them, 880 (72.9%) had attempted suicide; 858 (71.1%) were female; 349 (29%) were male. The average age of the females was 25.4+-8.5 years, and that of the males 28.3+-14.3 years. Single-medicine was noted in poisoning 544 (45.1%) patients. Other poisoning types were multidrugs 373 (30.9%); rat poisoning, insecticide and pesticides, 145 (12%); corrosives 38 (3.1%); and weed, mushroomang; food 47 (3.8%). Oral poisoning was noted in 1141 (94.5%) cases. A total of 1019 (84.4%) patients received treatment and were followed up in the Emergency Department. Six (0.6%) patients died. Conclusion: There is a need to generate more awareness about the hazards of domestic cleaning products and to keep it away at some distinct place to minimised chances of confusion. (author)

  13. Emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in Rawalpindi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Rafique; Umbreen Akhtar; Umar Farooq; Mussadiq Khan; Junaid Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in tertiary care settings in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: The data were extracted from an injury surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. The World Health Organization standard reporting questionnaire (one page) was used for recording information. Associations of patients' characteristics with ED care outcomes, i.e., admitted vs. discharged were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Of 62 530 injury cases reported, chemical poisoning was identified in 434 (0.7%) cases. The most frequent patient characteristics were poisoning at home (61.9%), male gender (58.6%), involving self-harm (46.0%), and youth aged 20–29 years (43.3%). Over two-thirds of acute poisoning cases (69.0%) were admitted. Acute poisoning cases were more likely to be admitted if they were youth aged 10–19 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.41], when the poisoning occurred at home (OR=21.84), and was related to self-harm (OR=18.73) or assault (OR=7.56). Conclusions: Findings suggest that controlling access of poisonous substances in youth and at homes might reduce related ED care burden. Safety promotion agencies and emergency physicians can use these findings to develop safety messages.

  14. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Urazel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.

  15. [Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, J H; Mout, H C; Kuijpers, E A

    1997-09-01

    The occurrence, the diagnosis, and the treatment of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in dogs in the Netherlands was evaluated by a survey among Dutch veterinarians carried out by the National Poisons Control Center (NPCC). The survey included information on 54 dogs, 32 being treated by veterinarians who consulted the NPCC and 22 that were admitted to the Utrecht University Clinic for Companion Animals (UUCCA). The poisons that were suspected were brodifacoum (n = 19), bromadiolone (n = 14), difenacoum (n = 8), difethialone (n = 6) and chlorophacinone (n = 1). In 6 dogs the identity of the poison was unknown. Of 31 dogs with hemorrhages, 2 died shortly after presentation to practitioners and 2 died shortly after admission to the UUCCA. Signs of bleeding occurred especially in poisoning by brodifacoum (n = 16). In all but one of the dogs without hemorrhages, the intake of poison had taken place within 24 hours before presentation. The method of treatment varied, with the induction of vomiting and the use of vitamin K mentioned most. The choice of therapy was determined by the length of time after intake of the poison, the clinical signs and whether or not an anticoagulant toxicosis was suspected at the time of the initial examination. These findings provide the basis for discussion of several aspects of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:9534772

  16. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting with organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological features found in patients presenting with OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A 1-year cross-sectional study was conducted on patients presenting with clinical features of OP poisoning in a tertiary care medical college. Results: A total of 968 patients presented during the study period. Poisoning with suicidal intent (82.02% was more common than the accidental one (17.98%. Majority of the patients were housewives (42% followed by farmers, shopkeepers, laborers, students. Methyl parathion was the most common poison consumed by the patients (35.74% followed by diazinon, chlorpyriphos, dimicron. Nausea and vomiting (85.02% was the most common symptom while miosis was the most common sign observed in 91.94% patients. A total of 56 patients of OP poisoning died (5.78% with respiratory failure being the primary cause of death followed by CNS depression, cardiac arrest, and septicaemia. Conclusion: The present study showed that majority of the patients were of young age with females outnumbering males. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more common than accidental. Nausea and vomiting was the most common symptom reported by the patients while miosis was the most common sign observed by the treating physicians of the research team.

  17. Poisoning by Herbs and Plants: Rapid Toxidromic Classification and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Centers has continued to report approximately 50,000 telephone calls or 8% of incoming calls annually related to plant exposures, mostly in children. Although the frequency of plant ingestions in children is related to the presence of popular species in households, adolescents may experiment with hallucinogenic plants; and trekkers and foragers may misidentify poisonous plants as edible. Since plant exposures have continued at a constant rate, the objectives of this review were (1) to review the epidemiology of plant poisonings; and (2) to propose a rapid toxidromic classification system for highly toxic plant ingestions for field use by first responders in comparison to current classification systems. Internet search engines were queried to identify and select peer-reviewed articles on plant poisonings using the key words in order to classify plant poisonings into four specific toxidromes: cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and gastrointestinal-hepatotoxic. A simple toxidromic classification system of plant poisonings may permit rapid diagnoses of highly toxic versus less toxic and nontoxic plant ingestions both in households and outdoors; direct earlier management of potentially serious poisonings; and reduce costly inpatient evaluations for inconsequential plant ingestions. The current textbook classification schemes for plant poisonings were complex in comparison to the rapid classification system; and were based on chemical nomenclatures and pharmacological effects, and not on clearly presenting toxidromes. Validation of the rapid toxidromic classification system as compared to existing chemical classification systems for plant poisonings will require future adoption and implementation of the toxidromic system by its intended users. PMID:26948561

  18. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).

  19. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal. PMID:760400

  20. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabami, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. PMID:27563472

  1. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  2. Successful management of zinc phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoori, Vahid; Agahi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Maryam; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn2P3) rodenticide, is generally misused intentionally for suicidal purpose in Iran. For many years, scientists believe that liberation of phosphine (PH3) on contact with acidic content of the stomach is responsible for clinical presentations. However, relatively long time interval between ingestion of Zn2P3 and presentation of its systemic toxicity, and progression of acute liver failure could not be explained by the current opinion. Hence, an innovative theory intended that phosphonium, as an intermediate product will create and pass through the stomach, which then will reduce to produce PH3in the luminal tract. Here, we present a case of massive Zn2P3 poisoning. In our case, we used repeated doses of castor oil to induce bowel movement with an aim of removing unabsorbed toxin, which was proved by radiography. Interestingly, the patient presents only mild symptoms of toxicity such as transient metabolic acidosis and hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27390464

  3. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  4. A literature study on lacquer poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min, Lee

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It will be examined in this research whether Lacquer poison can be used as an distinguished treatment to cure incurable diseases by considering literature existing and various papers. Method: I studies origin, alias, species, toxicity, effect, treatment, component, medical action and contraindication of Rhus vemiciflua stokes through various kinds literatures. Results: Sap of Rhus vemiciflua stokes that is used for medical purposes, has an effect on anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, hangover cure, and gastritis suppression. Even though urushiol and fIavonoids, the main ingredient of lacquer, has medical cure effects. but urushiol results in a dermatropic allergy. Sincc xylem of a Rhus vemiciflua stokes, however. does not induce the allergy but has medical efficacy, research on this topic is needed.

  5. Arsenic poisoning of cattle and other domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxham, J.W.; Coup, M.R.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one incidents of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals were recorded at Ruakura Veterinary Diagnostic Station from 1955 to 1967. Cattle was the animal species most subject to arsenic poisoning. Clincal signs, post-mortem findings and sources of arsenic are given. Arsenic poisoning was more prevalent in younger cattle and during the warmer months of the year. With cattle most incidents were associated with carelessly discarded arsenical compounds, although most deaths occurred when these compounds were deliberately used. In other species, losses were generally caused by the deliberate use of arsenical preparations for dipping, drenching and weed spraying. 10 references, 2 tables.

  6. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth;

    2011-01-01

    was to classify all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information and inquiries were continuously entered into a poison-centre database. A new classification system...... in contacts concerning household substances, plants and vitamins was observed. CONCLUSION: The classification gave detailed knowledge of the current poisoning status. Evaluation of subgroups showed a need for a larger number of subgroups to ensure a sufficient level of toxico-surveillance. Compared to other...

  7. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  8. [Homeostasis changes during rehabilitation period after acute chemical poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalian, A V; Luzhnikov, E A; Gol'dfarb, Iu S; Godkov, M A; Khvatov, V B; Bitkova, E E; El'kov, A N; Il'iashenko, K K; Nikulina, V P; Matveev, S B

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with review of 78 patients of rehabilitation toxicological unit. The patients received resuscitation and detoxification. All patients were divided into three groups; 1st group--patients after poisoning with psychopharmaceuticals, 2nd group--patients after poisoning with cauterizing liquids and 3rd group--patients with encephalopathy after poisoning with neurotoxin (psychopharmaceuticals, narcotics and ethanol). Disorders of rheology, haemostasis and endotoxicosis accrued in all groups. These disorders were a signs of the erythrocytes and platelets aggregation developing and viscoelasticity disorder. Homeostasis changes during rehabilitation period need an accurate diagnostics for purposeful treatment of the defined disorders.

  9. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING CASES IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning is one of the common causes of admission in emergency department of various hospitals. This is a common socio medical problem. Green revolution has increased the production of food grain but the wide spread use of organophosphorus compounds has increased incidence of its poisoning to the human kind by accidental or suicidal. Around one hundred fifty six patient admitted in Konaseema Institute of Medical Science and General Hospital with diagnosis of acute poisoning. The present study showed that majority of the patients was of young age with females outnumbering males

  11. Optical coherence tomography findings of quinine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Christoforidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available John Christoforidis, Robert Ricketts, Theodore Loizos, Susie ChangThe Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To report a case of acute quinine poisoning, document acute and chronic macular changes with optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescein angiography (FA, and to review the literature on ocular toxicity of quinine.Methods: A 32-year-old white female presented to our Emergency Department after ingesting over 7.5 g of quinine. She underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angiography, Stratus time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and electroretinography at 72 hours and 15 months postingestion. Stratus time-domain and Cirrus spectral-domain OCT, fundus autofluorescence, and FA were obtained at 28 months postingestion.Results: Fluorescein angiography at 72 hours postingestion revealed normal filling times and vasculature. OCT showed marked thickening of the inner retina bilaterally. At 15 and 28 months follow-up, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve pallor, severely attenuated retinal vessels while OCT showed inner retinal atrophy. Fundus autofluorescence did not reveal any retinal pigmentary abnormalities.Conclusions: Quinine toxicity as seen by OCT reveals increased thickness with inner retinal hyperreflectivity acutely with development of significant retinal atrophy in the long-term. Fundus autofluorescence reveals an intact retinal pigment epithelial layer at 28 months. These findings suggest that quinine poisoning may produce a direct toxic effect on the inner retina in the acute phase resulting in long-term retinal atrophy.Keywords: retinal, optical coherence tomography, quinine toxicity 

  12. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics and Management of Herbicide Poisoning in Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Cherukuri, Harika; Pramoda, K.; Rohini, D.; Thunga, Girish; Vijaynarayana, K; Sreedharan, N.; Varma, Muralidhar; Pandit, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Herbicide poisoning is most common method of suicide in India and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Among different herbicidal poisonings the most predominantly found poisonings are paraquat and glyphosate. These compounds are highly toxic and their poisonings require proper management techniques. High fatality is seen in these cases which are mainly due to its inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Common symptoms of these poisonings includes gastrointestinal co...

  13. Physiology of food poisoning microorganisms and the major problems in food poisoning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G W; Abee, T; Granum, P E; Jones, M V

    1995-12-01

    There remains considerable public concern regarding the current high level of food poisoning disease in Europe and the fact that, year by year, it continues to rise rather than fall. At the same time, there are strong and increasing demands from consumers for foods that are more convenient, fresher, more natural, less heavily processed (e.g. 'REPFEDS' and 'Sous Vide' foods, mildly heated and distributed at chill temperatures; Lund and Notermans, 1992), less heavily preserved (e.g. less acid, less salt, less sugar; Gould, 1995) and less reliant on additive preservatives than hitherto (e.g. sulphite, nitrite, organic acids and esters; Russell and Gould, 1991). Most of these trends result in a general reduction in the intrinsic preservation of foods. Furthermore, many food poisoning microorganisms escape the attention of preservation techniques altogether, reaching the consumer more or less directly from contaminated foods, most often foods of animal origin. It has therefore been argued that a substantial reduction in food poisoning in the near future will be difficult to achieve unless we obtain a greatly improved understanding of the physiology of the most important target organisms (Knochel and Gould, 1995). This knowledge must then be exploited in ways which effectively improve our means for the control of these hazards and reduce the risk to the consumer. A three year AAIR Concerted Action Programme (PL920630: 'Physiology of Food Poisoning Microorganisms') was therefore initiated in 1992 in order to bring together research groups working on the physiology and related aspects of food poisoning microorganisms. The principal objectives of the programme were: 1. To determine the physiological, biochemical and genetical bases of the organisms' survival of and responses to food-relevant stresses; 2. to determine the physiological and genetical factors influencing infectivity and toxinogenesis; 3. to understand the physiological bases of those synergistic systems that

  14. Presentations of patients of poisoning and predictors of poisoning-related fatality: Findings from a hospital-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs, but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality. Results A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%, and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%, followed by pesticides (14.5%. Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2% occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%. The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure. Conclusion In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.

  15. PROFILE OF POISONING CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , TELANGANA , INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Poisoning with various substances is an important cause of death and disability worldwide . The types of poisons that are encountered in the emergency medicine departments encompass a wide range of substances . Apparently , geographic location , socio - demographic factors , ease of availability of poisons and many other cryptic factors contribute to the wide spectrum of substances that cause poisoning . Pesticides , drugs and chemicals are reported to be the most commo nly used poisons in India . Management of poisoning is quite challenging for the health care professionals globally . Factors such as the uncertainty in the identification of allegedly consumed poison , varied clinical features and the need for timely access to specific information for treatment , complicates poisoning management . This study was therefore conducted to explore the clinical features , management and outcomes of poisoning cases reporting to a tertiary care centre in south India . OBJECTIVE : To ident ify the spectrum of poisons and evaluate their clinical manifestations , medical management and clinical outcomes . METHODOLOGY : All cases of poisoning that were reported at a tertiary care hospital in South India for a period of 18 months from January 1 , 20 13 to June 30 , 2014 were included in this study . A data abstraction sheet was designed to document demographic details ( age and gender , poison consumed , duration of stay in the hospital , clinical features , treatment administered , need for life support and patient outcomes . RESULTS : A total of 145 poisoning cases were reported during the study period . Among them , 58 . 5% were males and 41 . 3% were females . Majority of victims were in the age group of 21 - 30 years . Intentional poisoning was observed in 86 . 2% , whereas the rest were accidental poisonings . Organophosphorus ( OP poisoning was the most common poisoning encountered in this study . It accounted for 25 . 5% of the total

  16. Thallium and arsenic poisoning in a small midwestern town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyniak, Daniel E; Furbee, R Brent; Kirk, Mark A

    2002-03-01

    Thallium and arsenic have been used as a means of criminal poisoning. Although both manifest characteristically with peripheral neuropathies, thallium is associated with alopecia and arsenic with gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the symptoms, physical findings, diagnostic test results, and outcomes in a group of men poisoned with thallium and arsenic. Seven patients had evidence of elevated thallium levels, and 2 patients had elevated arsenic and thallium levels. The most commonly reported symptoms included myalgias, arthralgias, paresthesias, and dysesthesias. Five patients developed alopecia. All patients with symptoms and peripheral neuropathies had characteristic blackening of their hair roots. Initially treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid, patients were switched to multiple-dose activated charcoal after testing revealed thallium poisoning. By 6 months, all patients' symptoms and peripheral neuropathies improved, but 5 patients had ongoing psychiatric problems. Thallium remains a means of criminal poisoning and should be considered in any patient with a rapidly progressing peripheral neuropathy with or without alopecia.

  17. Minimal physical requirements for crystal growth self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D.

    2016-02-01

    Self-poisoning is a kinetic trap that can impair or prevent crystal growth in a wide variety of physical settings. Here we use dynamic mean-field theory and computer simulation to argue that poisoning is ubiquitous because its emergence requires only the notion that a molecule can bind in two (or more) ways to a crystal; that those ways are not energetically equivalent; and that the associated binding events occur with sufficiently unequal probability. If these conditions are met then the steady-state growth rate is in general a non-monotonic function of the thermodynamic driving force for crystal growth, which is the characteristic of poisoning. Our results also indicate that relatively small changes of system parameters could be used to induce recovery from poisoning.

  18. DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

    DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.

  19. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  20. Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Givens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians’ choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment.

  1. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Ceder, Gunnel;

    2001-01-01

    . For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/ morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In Sweden...... and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not seen...... in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by carbon...

  2. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anybody ... right steps as Maria does everything wrong. Be Food Safe: Learn the Risks and Rules Anyone can ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  4. Accidental Childhood Iron Poisoning: A Problem of Marketing and Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Hoff, Julie V.

    1979-01-01

    The article indicates that accidental iron poisoning represents a significant hazard in children less than five years of age. Attractiveness of dosage, high availability, and ambiguity in product labeling contribute to the problem. Journal availability: see EC 114 125. (CL)

  5. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Fridtjof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic, and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years. In 92 cases (89%, death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases, followed by ethanol (9%, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs (4%, benzodiazepines (4%, and zopiclone (4%. Seventy-one (69% were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31% as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04. Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91, 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33, and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27, respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  7. Analysis and Validation of Putative Substances Involved in Fatal Poisonings

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Christopher K.; Kashani, John; Ruck, Bruce; Marcus, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Each year, poison control centers throughout the United States respond to over 4 million calls for help in treating individuals exposed to toxic substances. Although most cases develop no or minimal clinical effects, a small proportion of patients who receive medical care for overdoses with poison center consultation expire. When such cases are investigated by a medical examiner, the postmortem toxicology results may show substances other than those considered in the consultation with the poi...

  8. Self poisoning in the home by mercury and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury poisoning can take place in the home. The metal may be present as a toy and the compounds as medicines or cosmetics. Unfortunately these materials are considered to be harmless and the victims do not connect the symptoms of poisoning (if recognised as such) with them. The tissue mercury levels are similar to those found in industrial exposure and as with them no relationship between symptoms and tissue concentrations can be found. (author)

  9. The availability of toxicological analyses for poisoned patients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    The National Poisons Information Service and the Association of Clinical Biochemists in the United Kingdom published guidelines on laboratory analyses for poisoned patients in 2002. In 2003, U.S. guidelines were prepared by an expert panel of analytical toxicologists and emergency department (ED) physicians. Some professional associations in different countries quote these guidelines but there are no data to support adherence to these recommendations in the medical literature.

  10. Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

    1993-01-01

    Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

  11. Aldicarb poisoning of dogs and cats in Gauteng during 2003

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Verster; C.J. Botha; Naidoo, V.; O.L. Van Schalkwyk

    2004-01-01

    A survey of aldicarb poisoning in companion animals was conducted by posting questionnaires to all private practitioners in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The survey was designed to determine the percentage of aldicarb cases seen, treatment regimen, clinical signs observed, proposals for preventative actions and more effective treatments. Other questions included duration of treatment, survival rate, cost to clients, post mortem findings and reasons for poisonings

  12. Acute tramadol poisoning and its clinical and laboratory findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic with opioid and nonopioid properties, which extensively used in the relief of mild to moderate pain. Tramadol poisoning is a common cause of acute pharmaceutical poisoning in Iran. There are a few studies about clinical and laboratory findings related to acute tramadol poisoning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and laboratory findings in tramadol acute poisoning cases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients with acute tramadol poisoning who referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital Poison Center during January to April 2012. Data such as patient's age, sex, time of ingestion, ingested dose, cause of poisoning, mean duration of hospitalization, patient's clinical presentations, laboratory findings, therapeutic measures, and patient's outcome have collected in a predesigned checklist. Results: A total of 144 patients including 111 men (77%) and 33 women (23%) with acute tramadol poisoning was included in this study. The mean ingested dose was 1971.2 mg (100-20000 mg). Seizure (47.91%) was the most frequent clinical symptom. Blood gas on admission showed pH (7.3 ± 0.1), PCO2 (49.7 ± 8.6 mmHg) and HCO3− (24.1 ± 3.8 mEq/L), indicating pure acute respiratory acidosis may be occurred in tramadol-intoxicated patients. There were significant differences between tramadol-intoxicated cases with and without a seizure with regard to the time interval between ingestion and admission on hospital, ingested dose and PCO2. Conclusion: Seizure and rise of PCO2 were the most findings in this study. PMID:25535500

  13. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  14. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  15. Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    St-Onge, M.; Dubé, P.-A.; Gosselin, S.; Guimont, C; Godwin, J; Archambault, P. M.; Chauny, J.-M.; Frenette, A. J.; Darveau, M.; Le sage, N.; Poitras, J.; Provencher, J.; Juurlink, D. N.; Blais, R

    2014-01-01

    Context Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. Objective To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations. Methods Medline/Ovid, PubMed, ...

  16. Larva currens in a case of Organophosphorous poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old healthy farmer consumed organophosphorous poison. On third day he developed diarrhoea and on fourth day linear serpiginous ulcers appeared on both buttocks. Clinically lesions were considered as decubitus ulcers. By stool examination and other laboratory investigations it was diagnosed as cutaneous larva currens due to S trongyloides stercoralis in a case of organophosphorus poisoning. Patient responded very well to a course of albendazole.

  17. CFD analysis of poison injection in AHWR calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work intends to give details of design and performance validation of SDS-2. The performance is evaluated on the basis of dispersion of poison in calandria in a given period of time. Location of injection tube and injection holes, size of jet hole and number of holes are some of the design parameters which greatly affect dispersion of poison in calandria. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) study for axial and radial injection of poison was carried out using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. CFD benchmarking was done using experiments performed by Johari (Johari et al. 1997) to identify suitable turbulence model for this problem. An experimental facility simulating poison injection in moderator in presence of calandria tubes was used to further validate the CFD model is shown in the paper. CFD analysis was carried out for axial as well as radial injection for AHWR geometry. CFD analysis using OpenFOAM has been carried out to study high pressure poison injection for single jet of Shut Down System - 2 (SDS- 2) of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) for various design options. CFD model used in analysis have been validated with experimental data available in literature as well as experiments performed for AHWR specific geometry. Various turbulence models are tested and their adequacy for such flow problems has been established. The CFD model is then used to simulate poison injection for two design options for AHWR and their performance is compared. (author)

  18. Rejuvenation processes applied to 'poisoned' anion exchangers in uranium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of 'poisons' from anion exchangers in uranium processing of Canadian radioactive ores is commonly called rejuvenation or regeneration. The cost of the ion exchange recovery of uranium is adversely affected by a decrease in the capacity and efficiency of the anion exchangers, due to their being 'poisoned' by silica, elemental sulphur, molybdenum and tetrathionates. These 'poisons' have a high affinity for the anion exchangers, are adsorbed in preference to the uranyl complex, and do not desorb with the reagents used normally in the uranyl desorption phase. The frequency of rejuvenation and the reagents required for rejuvenation are determined by the severity of the 'poisoning' accumulated by the exchanger in contact with the uranium leach liquor. Caustic soda (NaOH) at approximately equal to 18 cents/lb is commonly used to remove uranium anion exchangers of tetrathionate ((S406)/-/-) 'poisons'. A potential saving in operating cost would be of consequence if other reagents, e.g. sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at approximately equal to 3.6 cents/lb or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at approximately equal to 1.9 cents/lb, were effective in removing (S406)/-/-) from a 'poisoned' exchanger. A rejuvenation process for a test program was adopted after a perusal of the literature

  19. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  20. Structural equation modeling of pesticide poisoning, depression, safety, and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Stallones, Lorann

    2013-01-01

    The role of pesticide poisoning in risk of injuries may operate through a link between pesticide-induced depressive symptoms and reduced engagement in safety behaviors. The authors conducted structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data to examine the pattern of associations between pesticide poisoning, depressive symptoms, safety knowledge, safety behaviors, and injury. Interviews of 1637 Colorado farm operators and their spouses from 964 farms were conducted during 1993-1997. Pesticide poisoning was assessed based on a history of ever having been poisoned. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Safety knowledge and safety behaviors were assessed using ten items for each latent variable. Outcomes were safety behaviors and injuries. A total of 154 injuries occurred among 1604 individuals with complete data. Pesticide poisoning, financial problems, health, and age predicted negative affect/somatic depressive symptoms with similar effect sizes; sex did not. Depression was more strongly associated with safety behavior than was safety knowledge. Two safety behaviors were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury. This study emphasizes the importance of financial problems and health on depression, and provides further evidence for the link between neurological effects of past pesticide poisoning on risk-taking behaviors and injury.

  1. The Study of Electrocardiographic Findings in Patients with Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rahbar Taromsari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac manifestations that occur in a majority of patients with organophosphate (OP poisoning may range from innocuous electrocardiographic manifestations, such as sinus tachycardia, to life-threatening complications, including cardiogenic pulmonary edema and myocardial necrosis. In this study, we evaluated the various electrocardiographic manifestations in patients with OP poisoning. Methods: This retrospective-descriptive study was performed by reviewing the medical records from all patients poisoned with organophosphate admitted to Razi Educational Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from April 2008 to March 2011. Patients with incomplete records were excluded from the study. Histories of all patients were collected and ECG analysis was conducted including the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals by a cardiologist. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS software version18. Results: Of the total 100 patients (75 were male with OP poisoning that referred to the Emergency Ward of Razi Hospital, 63 patients presented ECG abnormalities. The mean age of the patients was 35.78 ± 12.91 years. The causes of poisoning were occupational in 71 patients, suicidal in 26 patients, and accidental in 3 patients. Sinus tachycardia (31% was the most common ECG abnormality, followed by non-specific ST-T changes (24%. Overall, mortality rate was 5% and all of the deceased patients presented changes in ECG. Conclusion: OP poisoning is associated with significant ECG abnormalities, especially tachycardia and non-specific ST-T changes.

  2. Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Ougouag; R. M. Ferrer

    2010-10-01

    The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these “spread” the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

  3. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Praveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To determine the common agents, clinical features and outcomes of acute poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients of acute poisoning of more than 14 years age admitted through emergency with a history of intentional, self-inflicted and suicidal poisoning in SRMS-IMS from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were included with a common age of affection 16 to 25 years and male to female ratio 1.63: 1. Poisoning cases occur throughout the year with maximum prevalence in May and minimum in June. Organophosphorus was the most common poison followed by aluminium phosphide. Vomiting was the most common symptoms followed by altered sensorium. 70.68% patients were discharged, 20.68% expired and 8.62% left against medical advice. Aluminium phosphide was the most common toxin consumed by dead patients. CONCLUSION: Acute poisoning is commonly affecting young population and is caused by variety of toxin. High mortality is associated with aluminum phosphide.

  4. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  5. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: an introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, and develop diagnostic and prognostic procedures for poisoned animals. Furthermore, the PPRL's mission is to identify the conditions under which poisoning occurs and develop management strategies and treatments to reduce losses. Information obtained through research efforts at the PPRL is mostly used by the livestock industry, natural resource managers, veterinarians, chemists, plant and animal scientists, extension personnel, and other state and federal agencies. PPRL currently has 9 scientists and 17 support staff, representing various disciplines consisting of toxicology, reproductive toxicology, veterinary medicine, chemistry, animal science, range science, and plant physiology. This team of scientists provides an interdisciplinary approach to applied and basic research to develop solutions to plant intoxications. While the mission of the PPRL primarily impacts the livestock industry, spinoff benefits such as development of animal models, isolation and characterization of novel compounds, elucidation of biological and molecular mechanisms of action, national and international collaborations, and outreach efforts are significant to biomedical researchers. The staff at the PPRL has extensive knowledge regarding a number of poisonous plants. Although the focus of their knowledge is on plants that affect livestock, oftentimes, these plants are also poisonous to humans, and thus, similar principles could apply for cases of human poisonings. Consequently, the information provided

  6. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav, S.

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3 to 7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004 to 0.75 percent arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed.

  7. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  8. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J.

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3-7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004-0.75% arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed. 5 references.

  9. Clinical and radiological findings in chlorfenapyr poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemuri Rama Tharaknath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of suicidal ingestion of chlorfenapyr, presenting with neurological complications after a latent period of more than a week, and rapidly progressing to death within days of symptoms. Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous pesticide according to World Health Organization toxicity classification, and kills target organism by depriving it of energy through interference with oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial level. A pro-pesticide, chlorfenapyr takes time to convert to its active form and either this active form or a toxic metabolite causes delayed neurological symptoms. It causes significant neurotoxicity in rat models. This case report provides for the first time from India (second worldwide, clinical and "radiological evidence" (magnetic resonance imaging showing demyelinating/oedematous changes of "chlorfenapyr neurotoxicity in humans." It also highlights the "latent period" between ingestion and onset of fatal manifestations. Earlier, similar case reports of human deaths with delayed onset neurological symptoms, due to chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported, from Japan, Columbia, and Korea.

  10. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  11. Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Federoff, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

  12. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M. Eteiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome.

  13. A stepwise approach for the management of poisoning with extracorporeal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Roberts, Darren M; Hoffman, Robert S; Ouellet, Georges; Roy, Louise; Decker, Brian Scott; Bouchard, Josée

    2014-01-01

    The use of an extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in a poisoned patient may be life-saving in a limited number of scenarios. The decision-processes surrounding the use of ECTR in poisoning is complex: most nephrologists are not trained to assess a poisoned patient while clinical toxicologists rarely prescribe ECTRs. Deciding on which ECTR is most appropriate for a poison requires a good understanding of the poison's physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Further, a detailed understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the different ECTRs can be useful to select the most appropriate ECTR for a given clinical situation. This manuscript provides a stepwise approach to assess the usefulness of ECTRs in poisoning.

  14. Temperature changes among organophosphate poisoned patients, Tehran- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaie Haleh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OPs is a major global clinical problem in the developing countries. There have been many animal studies and few human surveys on the effects of organophosphorus pesticide (OP poisoning on thermoregulation. The aim of this prospective study was to document the pattern of tympanic temperature changes among OP poisoned patients throughout the length of their hospital stay. Methods 60 patients with diagnose of organophosphate poisoning were included in this study. Questioner was filled out by trained nurses including demographic, clinical and paraclinical data. Tympanic temperature and Pulse rate data of the cases were collected on five- occasions after admission. Results There were 41 (68.3% male and 19 (31.7% female, with a mean age of 34.4 ±19.4 years (range 13–89 years. Forty five patients had intentional poisoning for suicidal attempt. At the time of entry, the mean tympanic temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic of the OP poisoned patients were respectively 37.1+/−0.6°C (36.0- 39.5, 91+/−18 (55–145, 18+/−5.6 (8–44, 116+/−20 mm Hg (70–170 and 75+/−11.6 mm Hg (40–110. 41.7% of the cases had serum butyryl cholinesterase activities (BChE ≥ 50% normal (≥1600 mU/ml. Our patients had normal temperature at the time entry (mean = 37.1. Tympanic temperature decreasing below 36°C was not detected among the patients during the study period. A rise in mean tympanic temperature was found after atropine administration. Conclusion Our study showed hypothermia was not considerable factor among organophosphate poisoned patients, although more studies with similar situations in tropical countries are needed.

  15. A Tale of two Systems: Poisoning Management in Iran and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mehrpour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning morbidity and mortality is high in the developing world. Systems for care of poisoned patients differ markedly between countries. In this paper a comparison of two very different systems for the care of poisoned patients, is presented. Specifically, the role of poison centers and poison treatment centers in the US and Iran are contrasted. A systematic literature search was undertaken utilizing the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar and the keywords “poison centers”, “treatment” “Iran” “United States of America” and 100 publications were identified. From these, relevant data were found in 23 publications. The information was double-checked and data were summarized herein.We find that the system of the care of poisoned patients relies heavily on certified poison centers in the US and that only a few hospitals have well developed medical toxicology services. In contrast, in Iran, the poison center system is somehow less developed and the care of poisoned patients is provided in centralized high volume hospital poison units.Although both the US and Iran have highly developed systems for the care of poisoned patients they are distinctly different. Comparative studies based on these systems could provide important data for developing countries with more rudimentary poison control and treatment facilities.

  16. Identification of lamb flocks susceptible and resistant against Brachiaria poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane C. Pupin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was designed to assess the influence of genetic resistance against brachiaria poisoning in sheep. Two groups of sheep, one identified as susceptible (formed by two ewes and one ram and the other as resistant against brachiaria poisoning (formed by three ewes and one ram were selected. Sheep considered susceptible were those that presented clinical signs of brachiaria poisoning at any time of their life; resistant sheep were those that even raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures, did not developed any sign of the poisoning during their life. The offspring of the two flocks (15 lambs from the sensitive flock and 9 lambs from the resistant flock were placed into brachiaria pasture (initially Brachiaria decumbens and B. brizantha,and only B. decumbens after weaning and followed up during two years (2013-2014. The determination of protodioscin levels in B. decumbens pasture was performed only in 2014 and revealed significant amounts of the toxic principle. Eleven lambs of the susceptible group were affected to some degree of brachiaria poisoning and six died; no lamb of the resistant group was affected. Clinical signs consisted of varying degrees of subcutaneous edema of the face and, erythema and loss of hair of the ears, crusts on the skin of ears, around the eyes and on planum nasale, scar deformation of the ears, and bilateral ocular discharge; affected lambs also sought for shadowy shelters and they were poor doers. Several sheep recovered from the condition and then relapsed. Necropsy findings in six lambs included pale mucous membranes, emaciation, dermatitis, scar deformation of the ears, large yellow livers with marked lobular pattern, and moderate infestation by Haemonchus contortus. Histologically the liver lesions were similar in all necropsied lambs but with varying degrees of severity; they were consistent with brachiaria poisoning and included architectural disruption of hepatocellular trabecula, clusters of foamy

  17. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

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    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  18. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  19. Pharmacokinetic Studies on Oximes in Organophosphate Poisoning: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Thunga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common causes of poisoning in developing countries especially in Southeastern Asia. Poisoning with phosphorus-containing organic chemicals or OP compounds can be managed with antidotes like oximes which are potential reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. The efficacy of oxime therapy in OP poisoned patients mainly depends upon various factors such as different dose plans, infusion rate of oximes, genetic differences of patients, type of oxime used and chemical nature of the OP compound ingested. Studies on pralidoxime kinetics in OP poisoned patients have shown that reactivation of AChE depends on the plasma concentration of oximes as well as OP compounds. The plasma concentration of oximes mainly depends on the dose plan from intermittent injection to continuous infusion after a loading dose. The incontrovertible fact is that the intermittent dosing of oximes results in deep troughs in blood pralidoxime/oxime levels (BPL whereas continuous infusion of oximes maintains steady state plasma concentrations. Many published literature also highlighted pralidoxime via continuous infusion results in better outcomes with minimum fluctuation in BPL compared to intermittent dosing. At therapeutic doses, adverse effects of oximes are reported to be minimal. But high BPL is associated with some common adverse effects including dizziness, blurred vision and diastolic hypertension. Considering all the facts, it is important to note that kinetic studies of oximes are useful not only in deciding the dose regimen, but also in predicting the possible side-effects.

  20. Trends of Suicidal Poisoning In Ahmedabad (Retrospective Study

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    Kartik Prajapati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The suicide rate in India is 10.3. In the last three decades, the suicide rate has increased by 43% but the male female ratio has been stable at 1.4: 1. Majority (71% of suicide in India are by persons below the age of 44 years which imposes a huge social, emotional and economic burden. Several studies reveal that suicidal behaviours are much more prevalent than what is officially reported. (1 Poisoning, hanging and self immolation (particularly women were the methods to commit suicide. Physical and mental illness, disturbed interpersonal relationships and economic difficulties were the major reasons for suicide. The vulnerable population was found to be women, students, farmers etc. A social and public health response in addition to a mental health response is crucial to prevent suicidal behaviour in India.The present study was undertaken in the department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology of Smt NHL MMC at Ahmedabad (Gujarat to know the pattern of Suicidal poisoning. Total 130 cases of death due to Suicidal poisoning were selected for this Retrospective study, which were brought to us for postmortem examination during the span of two year (From May 2007 to April 2009. Our study revealed that most of the victims of fatal poisoning were Hindus, married males of middle socio-economic status who died due to self ingestion of some poison

  1. Mushroom poisoning in children: clinical presentation and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variable clinical picture characterizes mushroom poisoning. The Amatoxin, the main toxic component of these fungi, are responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms as well as hepatic and renal failure. As acute gastroenteritis is extremely common in our set up, so every patient presenting with these symptoms is treated as gastroenteritis of viral aetiology. The authors present the clinical picture of the phalloid syndrome, its treatment and immediate outcome. All children age less than 16 years admitted in Saidu Hospital Swat from January to December 2006 with mushroom poisoning were included in the study. Patients with doubtful history or with associated illness were not included. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture of the patient, history and the laboratory data. In addition to maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and treating sepsis, oral Silymarin and intravenous penicillin was started. Liver function tests, renal functions tests, serum electrolytes and coagulation profile was done in all the patients. The severity of poisoning was graded according to hepatic transaminase elevations and prolongation of prothrombin time. Of the 18 patients, fifteen were above five years of age. Female were twice in number. Fifteen patients developed hepatic failure and three patients developed renal failure. Thirteen patients expired. To start timely management, Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with food poisoning particularly coming in groups. Delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality. (author)

  2. Lead poisoning and cystatin-C in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead pollution is a global problem both in developed and developing countries. Lead poisoning is associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI. Serum cystatin-C is a more precise test of GFR than serum creatinine level, as serum cystatin-C levels rise earlier than serum creatinine, when GFR decreases. Objective To assess for a possible correlation between lead poisoning and cystatin-C levels in children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 6-11 years with a history of lead poisoning from elementary schools in Talawaan District, North Minahasa Regency from July to October 2013. Cystatin-C and blood lead levels (BLL were measured in all subjects. Spearman’s rho test was used to analyze a potential correlation between BLL and cystatin-C level. Results This study included 41 children, comprising 21 boys and 20 girls. Their median age was 8.50 (range 6.8-10.7 years. Elevated levels of cystatin-C did not exceed normal values, however, we found a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C (r=0.419, P=0.006. Conclusion There is a positive correlation between BLL and cystatin C level in children with lead poisoning. Regular monitoring of BLL, medical intervention, and an epidemiological study to help find the sources of contamination are needed for children with lead poisoning.

  3. Topoisomerase II poisoning by indazole and imidazole complexes of ruthenium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y N Vashisht Gopal; Anand K Kondapi

    2001-06-01

    Trans-imidazolium (bis imidazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuIm) and trans-indazolium (bis indazole) tetrachloro ruthenate (RuInd) are ruthenium coordination complexes, which were first synthesized and exploited for their anticancer activity. These molecules constitute two of the few most effective anticancer ruthenium compounds. The clinical use of these compounds however was hindered due to toxic side effects on the human body. Our present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these compounds shows that they effectively poison the activity of topoisomerase II by forming a ternary cleavage complex of DNA, drug and topoisomerase II. The thymidine incorporation assays show that the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation correlates with topoisomerase II poisoning. The present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these two compounds opens a new avenue for renewing further research on these compounds. This is because they could be effective lead candidates for the development of more potent and less toxic ruthenium containing topoisomerase II poisons. Specificity of action on this molecular target may reduce the toxic effects of these ruthenium-containing molecules and thus improve their therapeutic index.

  4. [Food poisoning--importance of international perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2012-08-01

    It is important to obtain the information on food security in the countries other than Japan since more than 60 % of the food consumed come from these countries. Food security is now considered as a global issue. A global trend persuading us to provide safe food to humans is based on the concept of human security development associated with a sense of human mission to sustain one's life. Another global tendency pushing us to secure safety and hygiene of food is driven by the economic pressure coming from the rules in international trade established by Codex Committee under FAO/WHO. In contrast to these trends under globalization requesting safe and hygienic food, food habits based on tradition or religion are maintained locally in various parts of the world. These local habits include eating raw or improperly cooked foods, which may become a risk of being exposed to food poisoning pathogens. This issue may be adequately solved by a risk assessment approach based on the concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP). Like or not, people in some local areas live in the unhygienic environment where they are unintentionally and frequently exposed to enteric pathogens or immunologically cross-reacting microorganisms through which they may acquire specific immunity to the pathogens and escape from infection by the pathogens. There are therefore many areas in the world where people understand the necessity to provide safe food at the international level (globalization) but actually consume food in varying hygienic conditions from area to area due in part to traditional food habits or living environments (localization); we call this situation as glocalization (global+local).

  5. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattias Hagman; Thomas Pape; Rainer Schulte

    2005-01-01

    In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates) are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  6. 3 in 4 Youngsters Exposed to Laundry Pod Detergent Suffer Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal policy. More Health News on: Child Safety Household Products Poisoning Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Safety Household Products Poisoning About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  7. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality, County Trends: United States, 1999–2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics, and depicts U.S. and state trends in age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  8. Mortality Analysis of Patients with Paraquat Poisoning Treated at Two University Hospitals in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Goudarzi

    2014-12-01

    Conlcusion: PQ poisoning is associated with high mortality requiring an immediate assessment of patients and prediction of prognosis. Renal and hepatic failure in addition to respiratory distress can be the strongest risk factors for poor prognosis in acute PQ poisoning.

  9. Oral arsenic trioxide poisoning and secondary hazard from gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hidenori; Hirose, Yasuo; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2004-12-01

    In a suicide attempt, a 54-year-old man ingested arsenic trioxide. Gastric lavage was performed, but most of the poison remained as a mass in his stomach. A total gastrectomy was also performed to avoid intestinal perforation and arsenic poisoning. After the operation, he developed ventricular fibrillation. At one point, his circulation recovered spontaneously, but he later died from refractory circulatory failure. Many medical staff members were exposed to fumes from the patient's stomach. Some of the staff were diagnosed with corneal erosion or laryngitis. Because arsenic trioxide reacts with acid to produce arsine, the symptoms experienced by medical staff are directly attributable to arsine produced as a result of the reaction of arsenic trioxide with gastric acid. This case highlights the need for the introduction of protective measures to safeguard medical staff from exposure to arsine gas during the treatment of patients poisoned from ingested arsenic trioxide.

  10. Neutronic analysis of Gd2O3 as burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the reactors core design, the use of burnable poisons is one of the options for the control of in excess reactivity and the power form factor. As alternative procedures, the absorbing material may be included in pellets of an inert material or in fuel pellets. Besides, a cladding material and the locations of the fuel elements must be chosen for the first case. The CAREM reactor core design foresees the use of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) as burnable poison. In this work, a comparative study was made, from the neutronic point of view, among the following alternatives for the poisons location: a) Gd2O3 bars supports in alumina (Al2O3), sheathed in steel; b) Gd2O3 bars supports in alumina sheathed in Zry-4; c) Gd2O3 in uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel pellets. (Author)

  11. [Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals in Central Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodio, Mauro; Junghanss, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Central Europe is largely safe from accidents with venomous and poisonous animals. The regions where European vipers are regularly found are shrinking. Today accidents with jellyfish and stings of venomous fish afflicted during leisure activities at the sea side play the dominant role. Life threatening accidents in Europe are mainly due to exotic snakes held in captivity. A system useful in daily medical practice is explained to classify and stage accidents due to poisonous and venomous animals. The important poisonous and venomous animals of Central Europe and the specific therapeutics, the antivenoms, are covered. The antivenom depot "Antivenin-CH" of the Swiss Toxicology Information Centre in Zurich and the MRITox in Munich with the antivenom registry Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN) are presented.

  12. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, H L

    1998-12-01

    In 1991, the Public Health Service published the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning. This document marked a fundamental shift in federal policy from finding and treating lead-poisoned children to authentic primary prevention. It spelled out a 15-year strategy to achieve this goal and provided a cost-benefit analysis showing that the monetized benefits far exceeded the costs of abatement. A strong national effort to eliminate the disease developed. Now, 7 years after publication of the plan, primary prevention of lead exposure has been abandoned. This article examines the role of some prevailing attitudes and institutions in derailing the effort. Some institutions--the lead industry, real estate interests, and insurance interests--behaved as anticipated. Others, including private pediatricians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, some federal agencies, and a public interest group ostensibly dedicated to eliminating lead poisoning, also played an unexpected part in derailing the plan. PMID:9842392

  13. The treatment of burnable poison pins in LWRWIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an investigation into the modelling approximations normally made when the LWR lattice code LWRWIMS is used for design calculations on assemblies containing burnable poison pins. Parameters investigated include energy group structure, intervals between calculations in MWd/te and spatial subdivision of the poison pins. An estimate is made of the effect of using pin-cell smearing with diffusion theory for the assembly geometry, instead of a more exact heterogeneous transport theory calculation. The influence on reactivity of the minor gadolinium isotopes 152, 154, 156, 158 and 160 in a poison pin dominated by the isotopes 155 and 157 is presented, and finally, recommendations on the use of LWRWIMS for this type of calculation are made. (author)

  14. Reprint of 'Evaluating organophosphate poisoning in human serum with paper'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Hsu, Min-Yen; Fan, Shu-Ting; Huang, Yu-Fen; Chang, Chia-Ling; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-12-01

    This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, metabolic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of organophosphate poisoning. Paper-based platforms, including point-of-care devices and 96-well plates, provided semi-quantitative information regarding the concentration of AchE (a biomarker for organophosphate poisoning). The paper-based 96-well-plate developed and implemented in this study was used to measure the level of organophosphate poisoning in three different clinical patients. Results were comparable to those obtained using conventional hospital methods currently considered the "gold standard". This diagnostic device offers several advantages over conventional methods, including short operating time (twice as fast as conventional methods), procedure simplicity, and reduced fabrication cost. With further commercialization efforts, the methods described in this manuscript could be applied to a wide range of potential diagnostic applications in the field.

  15. Evaluating organophosphate poisoning in human serum with paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Hsu, Min-Yen; Fan, Shu-Ting; Huang, Yu-Fen; Chang, Chia-Ling; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript describes the development and clinical testing of a paper-based, metabolic assay designed for rapid, semi-quantitative measurement of organophosphate poisoning. Paper-based platforms, including point-of-care devices and 96-well plates, provided semi-quantitative information regarding the concentration of AchE (a biomarker for organophosphate poisoning). The paper-based 96-well-plate developed and implemented in this study was used to measure the level of organophosphate poisoning in three different clinical patients. Results were comparable to those obtained using conventional hospital methods currently considered the "gold standard". This diagnostic device offers several advantages over conventional methods, including short operating time (twice as fast as conventional methods), procedure simplicity, and reduced fabrication cost. With further commercialization efforts, the methods described in this manuscript could be applied to a wide range of potential diagnostic applications in the field.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis in association with criminal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Muriel; Hantson, Philippe; Haufroid, Vincent; Heilier, Jean-François; Mahieu, Paul; Bonbled, Frédéric

    2006-04-01

    A 26-year-old man suffered acute arsenic poisoning after a poisoning attempt. He developed multiple organ failure including encephalopathy, bleeding disorders, pancreatitis, renal and hepatocellular impairment. Generalized erythroderma also developed within one week after admission. The developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the endotracheal aspirate. Despite intensive care support, antidote administration and various epuration techniques, the patient died on day 26 from subarachnoid bleeding. An autopsy was obtained and the concentration of arsenic was determined in different tissues. Multiple abscesses due to Aspergillus fumigatus were seen in the lungs, myocardium and kidneys. This uncommon complication in a previously immunocompetent patient could be related to impaired immunity directly caused by arsenic poisoning.

  17. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  18. Poisonings and clinical toxicology: a template for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2013-03-01

    Poisons information is accessed around the clock in the British Isles from six centres of which two are in Ireland at Dublin and Belfast accompanied by consultant toxicologist advisory service. The numbers of calls in Ireland are down to about 40 per day due to easy access to online data bases. Access to Toxbase, the clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service is available to National Health Service (NHS) health professionals and to Emergency Departments and Intensive Care units in the Republic of Ireland. There are 59 Toxbase users in the Republic of Ireland and 99 % of activity originates in Emergency Departments. All United States Poison Control Centres primarily use Poisindex which is a commercial database from Thomson Reuters.

  19. Acute metheamoglobinemia due to nitrobenzene poisoning: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar S, Ujjawal Kumar, Raghavendra Prasad B N, Kiran BJ, Anil Kumar M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrobenzene is a nitrite compound; its toxic effects are due to its ability to convert hemoglobin to methaemoglobin by oxidizing iron. The clinical features of nitrobenzene poisoning vary based on the concentration of methaemoglobin in blood. Immediate identification based on clinical features, odour of the compound with supporting evidence of increased methaemoglobin levels will help in a timely intervention thus preventing fatal outcome. Early haemodynamic and ventilator support along with administration of methylene blue as an antidote has been proved crucial in saving some lives. An acute nitrobenzene poisoning presenting with methaemoglobinemia is becoming quite common in this part of the country. Here authorsreport a series of cases of nitrobenzene poisoning where immediate clinical evaluation, with repeated intravenous methylene blue saved three patients, but two patients presenting late and with heavy exposure could not be saved

  20. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning.

  1. Characterization of 42 Microsatellite Markers from Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans (Anacardiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tzen-Yuh Chiang; Yu-Chung Chiang; Tsai-Wen Hsu; Huei-Chuan Shih; Chia-Chi Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, and poison oaks, T. diversilobum and T. pubescens, are perennial woody species of the Anacardiaceae and are poisonous, containing strong allergens named urushiols that cause allergic contact dermatitis. Poison ivy is a species distributed from North America to East Asia, while T. diversilobum and T. pubescens are distributed in western and eastern North America, respectively. Phylogreography and population structure of these species remain unclear. Here, we...

  2. The Adoption of Poison Pills and Managerial Entrenchment: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    ARIKAWA Yasuhiro; MITSUSADA Yosuke

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of poison pills on shareholder wealth using cases of Japanese firms that announced the adoption of poison pills between April 2005 and May 2006. We find that announcements of poison pill defenses reduce shareholder wealth by a significant amount. We also investigate the relationship between this negative stock price response to poison pills and a manager's incentive for entrenchment, using conditional event study methods. We confirm that the ...

  3. A study on morbidity and mortality pattern of poisoning in tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    C. Paranthakan; P. K. Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The poisoning due to various reasons commonly occurs among population. Normally tertiary care hospitals receive large numbers of referral. During treatment many die due to poisoning. Objectives of the study were to find out the magnitude of admissions due to poisoning and to find out various type of poisoning and related mortality. Methods: The secondary data was collected from records available in Intensive care unit of toxicology department of tertiary care hospital. The adm...

  4. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  5. Mechanisms underlying early rapid increases in creatinine in paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Mohamed

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common after severe paraquat poisoning and usually heralds a fatal outcome. The rapid large increases in serum creatinine (Cr exceed that which can be explained by creatinine kinetics based on loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR.This prospective multi-centre study compared the kinetics of two surrogate markers of GFR, serum creatinine and serum cystatin C (CysC, following paraquat poisoning to understand and assess renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning. Sixty-six acute paraquat poisoning patients admitted to medical units of five hospitals were included. Relative changes in creatinine and CysC were monitored in serial blood and urine samples, and influences of non-renal factors were also studied.Forty-eight of 66 patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria, with 37 (56% developing moderate to severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or 3. The 37 patients showed rapid increases in creatinine of >100% within 24 hours, >200% within 48 hours and >300% by 72 hours and 17 of the 37 died. CysC concentration increased by 50% at 24 hours in the same 37 patients and then remained constant. The creatinine/CysC ratio increased 8 fold over 72 hours. There was a modest fall in urinary creatinine and serum/urine creatinine ratios and a moderate increase in urinary paraquat during first three days.Loss of renal function contributes modestly to the large increases in creatinine following paraquat poisoning. The rapid rise in serum creatinine most probably represents increased production of creatine and creatinine to meet the energy demand following severe oxidative stress. Minor contributions include increased cyclisation of creatine to creatinine because of acidosis and competitive or non-competitive inhibition of creatinine secretion. Creatinine is not a good marker of renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning and renal injury should be evaluated using more specific biomarkers of renal injury.

  6. Pharmaceutical and chemical pediatric poisoning in Kuwait: a retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abahussain EA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of pediatric poisoning in Kuwait have suggested differences at hospital level which could impact on the implementation of public health interventions. The objective was to compare pediatric poisoning admissions at general hospitals in Kuwait. Methods: Retrospective survey of all pediatric poisoning cases at the six general hospitals from January 2004 to December 2005. Case data were documented using ICD-10 criteria and the poisoning severity score. Aggregated data was also obtained from five private hospitals.Results: 978 children were admitted in public hospitals over 2004 and 2005 (no fatalities being 1.8% and 1.6% of all pediatric admissions (private hospitals admitted 293 cases. The majority of the poisoning cases came from Jahra hospital (>35%, the median age was 2.3 yrs, 93% of cases were under 6 yrs old and 71% were Kuwaiti. Two thirds of cases involved pharmaceuticals although this varied between hospitals with a tendency for more severe cases with chemical poisoning (p=0.011. Kerosene was an important problem at Jahra hospital (34.7% of chemical exposures. Non-opioid analgesics constituted 22.3% of medication exposures with hormones and drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system also common with some difference in pattern between institutions.Conclusion: Case demographics do not vary significantly between the hospitals but there are differences in the nature of toxic agents to which children are exposed suggesting that preventive and educational programs could be targeted to specific areas for maximal effect particularly with regard to household chemical and kerosene exposures.

  7. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Rostrup

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise.Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013 and Kenya (May and July 2014. Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports.In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066. In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341 and 21% (26/126, respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival.Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging

  8. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Ceder, G; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Simonsen, K W; Holmgren, P; Wethe, G; Kaa, E

    2001-11-15

    The study includes medicolegally examined fatal poisonings among drug addicts in 1997 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the results are compared to a similar investigation from 1991. A common definition of "drug addict" was applied by the participating countries. The highest death rate by poisoning in drug addicts was observed in Denmark, where it was 6.54 per 10(5)inhabitants, followed by Norway with 6.35, Sweden with 2.21, Finland with 1.63 and Iceland with 1.20 per 10(5)inhabitants. All countries showed a higher death rate in 1997 than in 1991. For all countries the distribution of deaths according to geographical regions showed a decreasing number of drug deaths in the metropolitan area and an increasing number in other cities. Heroin/morphine dominated as the cause of death and was responsible for about 90% of the cases in Norway. In Sweden and Denmark, however, heroin/morphine caused only about 70% of the fatal poisonings. About 30% of the fatal poisonings in Denmark and Sweden were caused by other group I drugs, in Denmark mainly methadone and in Sweden mainly propoxyphene. Apart from two cases in Sweden methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. In Finland heroin/morphine deaths have increased from about 10% in 1991 to about 40% in 1997. Forty-four percent of the fatal poisonings in Finland were caused by other group I drugs, mainly codeine and propoxyphene. The two fatal poisonings in Iceland were caused by carbon monoxide. Only few deaths in this investigation were caused by amphetamine and cocaine. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, especially diazepam, was seen in all the countries. PMID:11731199

  9. Successful treatment of polymedicamentous poisoning with metoprolol, diltiazem and cilazapril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive effects is an urgent condition in medicine which is associated with high mortality rate regardless of modern therapeutic methods. Accidental or intentional poisoning whit these drugs produces heart activity depression and cardiovascular collapse as consequences. Current therapy for severe poisoning caused by beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers includes both unspecific and specific antidote therapy whit glucagon, as well as application of adrenergic drugs, calcium, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and hyperinsulinemia/euglycemia therapy. However, even whit the application of these drugs, prompt measures of unspecific detoxication therapy and cardiopulmonary reanimation are crucial for survival of patients with severe poisoning. Case report. A 28-year-old female patient was hospitalized for cardiogenic shock and altered state of conscioussnes (Glasgow coma score = 4, caused by acute poisoning with 2 g of metoprolol (Presolol®, 1.8 g of diltiazem (Cortiazem® and 50 mg of cilazapril (Zobox®. Prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation was applied during the first 16 hours of hospitalization, including administration of crystaline solutions (8 L, 17 mg of adrenaline, 4 mg of atropine, 4 mg of glucagone and 1.6 g of dopamine, with electro-stimulation by temporary pacemaker and mechanical ventilation. In a defined time period, normalized state of consciousness was registered, mechanical ventilation was stopped and normal heart activity and hemodynamic stability were accomplished. During hospitalization the patient was treated for mild pneumonia and after ten days, completely recovered, was released and sent to home treatment. Conclusion. Prompt measures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and multidisciplinary treatment in intensive care units significantly increase the chances of complete recovery of a patient with severe poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive efects.

  10. Technique for cladding of poison sheets for Cd-poisoned moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiji; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Hitoshi; Harada, Masahide; Teshigawara, Makoto; Saito, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Kenji; Chiba, Akira; Sakaki, Kazuhiko; Yamamura, Tsutomu; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Konashi, Kenji; Nakajima, Kazutaka

    2005-08-01

    To make use of cadmium (Cd) as a poison structure in the liquid hydrogen moderator, various cladding methods such as explosion, heating up a solder of 70%Cd-30%Zn in Al case, cold spraying and cold rolling as well as HIP method were tested to seek the best fabrication method. Cd could be partially bonded to aluminum (Al) in all cases. The explosion method made a rather rigid bond between Al and Cd but generated a crack on Al plates behind Cd plate. Solder also bonded well with the Al case, although a part of the Al case was dissolved due to a mixture of Zn and Al. A porous Al layer on Cd plate was formed in the cold spray treatment. The applicability of the ultrasonic test is also discussed for the non-destructive defect inspection of the bonded materials.

  11. [Case of fatal aconite poisoning, and its background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Kohei; Satake, Motoyoshi; Konno, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Two people out of three who accidentally ate boiled aconite leaves died in 2012. This was a typical case of aconite poisoning in Japan: Aconite (Aconitum spp.) was mistakenly collected instead of Anemone flaccida, an edible wild plant. The leaves of these plants are quite similar to each other. Chemical analyses of the aconite plant left at the scene suggested intake of a fatal amount of aconitine alkaloids by each person. The collector, who died, had missed the botanical differences between the two plants, even though he owned a wild plant guidebook. A. flaccida should be collected with its flowers in order to aid positive indentification and avoid aconite poisoning.

  12. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  13. [Venomous and poisonous animals. V. Envenomations by venomous marine invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; de Haro, L

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological information about marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical countries where this type of injury is more severe and the need for medical attention is more frequent. For this reason use of the regional poison control centers in the areas where envenomation occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by poisonous marine invertebrates (cephalopods, sea urchins, cone shells, jellyfish, anemones, star-fish, corals, and worms). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  14. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  15. Chronic Lead Poisoning in Iran; a Silent Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahrpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the oldest, permanent hazards in the world and Iran is not excluded and has the same risk of lead toxicity. Humans have known about the potential hazards of lead poisoning for centuries. Lead is widespread in natural substances, and almost all people are in touch with this insidiously toxic heavy metal in different ways either in workplace or at homes. The level of exposure is higher in most of countries because of extensive use of lead containing materials in normal life and the environment.

  16. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  17. [A Case of Acetaminophen Poisoning Associated with Tramcet Overdose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Shigehiko; Terao, Yoshiaki; Tuji, Tikako; Egashira, Takashi; Goto, Shino; Fukusaki, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Tramcet is a mixture of tramadol and acetaminophen. Acetaminophen poisoning may be caused by excessive intake of Tramcet. A 17-year-old female took excessive quantity of Tramcet before noon. She reported it herself in the emergency room. Her main complaint was nausea and dizziness. Acetaminophen may cause liver damage with dose-dependent manner. Because there was a possibility of acetaminophen poisoning, we started oral acetylcysteine. She was discharged from hospital 5 days later without side effects of acetylecysteine and liver damage. PMID:27483669

  18. Carbon monoxide: The 21st century poison that goes unnoticed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial article describes the effects of carbon monoxide poisoning on human beings and the mechanisms involving carbon monoxide saturation of haemoglobin that are responsible for it. The initial research done in the mid-1800s by Claude Bernard is presented. Methods of treatment for persons poisoned by carbon monoxide are discussed and the experiments made by J.B.S. Haldane on himself by breathing in carbon monoxide are described. Acclimatisation effects observed by Haldane and his co-workers and concerning persons occupationally exposed to carbon monoxide emissions are described

  19. 16 CFR 1500.129 - Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poison Act. 1500.129 Section 1500.129 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.129 Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act. The Commission finds that for those substances covered by the Federal Caustic Poison Act (44 Stat. 1406), the requirements of section 2(p)(1)...

  20. Impact of Poison Prevention Education on the Knowledge and Behaviors of Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.; Sheppard, Monique A.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Miller, Ted R.; Nelkin, Valerie S.; Nguyen, Denise D.; Tominack, Ivy; Dunlap, Hallie Chillag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Unintentional poisoning is an important public health issue that exacts a heavy toll on our nation's seniors. However, relatively few empirical studies have examined the efficacy of poison prevention education programs on this cohort. Purpose: This study assessed the impact of a poison education program on the knowledge, perceptions,…

  1. The Hospital Management of Fatal Self-Poisoning in Industrialized Countries: An Opportunity for Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mackway-Jones, Kevin; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is a prevalent cause of death worldwide. A substantial proportion of individuals who poison themselves come into contact with medical services before they die. Our focus in the current study was the medical management of drug self-poisoning in industrialized countries and its possible contribution to suicide prevention.…

  2. 21 CFR 2.110 - Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison... SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS Caustic Poisons § 2.110 Definition of ammonia under Federal Caustic Poison Act. For the purpose of determining whether an article containing...

  3. 76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead...

  4. 76 FR 53364 - Recreational Vessel Propeller Strike and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed... casualties caused by propeller strikes and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The Coast Guard, in particular... propeller strike and CO poisoning-related casualties to help guide the Coast Guard in selecting the...

  5. 78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead...

  6. 24 CFR 965.701 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 965.701 Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint...

  7. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eroglu

    2013-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite COHB level decreased, ADMA increased after oxygen therapy in patients with CO poisoning. We think that CO poisoning induced oxidative stress may cause increased ADMA levels. Further studies are needed to evaluate the importance of ADMA in CO poisoning. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(2.000: 21-25

  8. POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2001-03-29

    The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot

  9. Analysis of current situation of poisoning caused by poisonous animals, poisinous plants, and poisonous mushrooms in China%我国有毒动物、有毒植物、毒蕈中毒现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仟; 谢立璟; 马沛滨; 孙承业

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of poisoning caused by poisonous animals,poisonous plants,and poisonous mushrooms in our country in order to understand the direction of work for controlling poisoning caused by poisonous organisms and to provide scientific basis for the research on key technique for controlling poisoning.Methods China Hospital Knowledge Database and Wanfang Database were searched,and published literature regarding poisoning cases or events caused by poisonous animals,poisonous plants,and poisonous mushrooms in 1994-2011 was collected.The data was analyzed using retrospective descriptive epidemiological methods.Results Three thousand four hundred and sixtythree articles consistent with the criteria were collected and a total of 94 700 poisonous patients were reported,of which 46 110 were produced by poisonous animals,37 172 produced by poisonous plants,and 11 418 produced by poisonous mushrooms.Poisoning mainly occurred in the south area which was abundant in various species and the case distribution was nearly consistent with that of the species.The spectrum of poison were relatively concentrated in several families,and in the number of poisoning cases caused by the top 5 poison categories,poisonous animals and poisonous plants accounted for 78.77% (36 321/46 110)and 84.03% (31 234/37 172) of total number of poisoning cases caused by the 2 kinds of poisonous organisms,respectively.The main categories of poisonous animals causing poisoning were toxic snakes,fish gall bladder,and puffer fish and main plants; the main categories of poisonous plants causing poisoning were Leguminosae and Ranunculaceae.Most poisonous mushrooms poisoning was due to unknown species which accounted for 77.09% (8802/11 418),and Amanitaceae and Boletaceae were the most common mushrooms in known poisonous mushroom poisoning.The main causes of poisoning were accidents (50.24%,41 291/82 185) and mistaken ingestion (42.19%,34 670/82 185) and the main route

  10. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning: Systematic Review and Recommendations from the EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Ghannoum, Marc; Hoffman, Robert S; Gosselin, Sophie; Lavergne, Valery; Nolin, Thomas D

    2016-02-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion criteria. Only case reports, case series, and pharmacokinetic studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence. Clinical data from 31 patients and toxicokinetic grading from 46 patients were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that phenytoin is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = C) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia is present or expected (graded 3D). If ECTR is used, it should be discontinued when clinical improvement is apparent (graded 1D). The preferred ECTR modality in phenytoin poisoning is intermittent hemodialysis (graded 1D), but hemoperfusion is an acceptable alternative if hemodialysis is not available (graded 1D). In summary, phenytoin appears to be amenable to extracorporeal removal. However, because of the low incidence of irreversible tissue injury or death related to phenytoin poisoning and the relatively limited effect of ECTR on phenytoin removal, the workgroup proposed the use of ECTR only in very select patients with severe phenytoin poisoning. PMID:26578149

  11. A "pennurth of arsenic for rat poison": the Arsenic Act, 1851 and the prevention of secret poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P

    1992-01-01

    In this country any chemist or druggist can furnish the means of self-destruction or murder for a few pence, and in too many instances have done so with the utmost indifference. The sale of a poison is regarded as a mere act of commercial intercourse; tant pis for the unfortunate victim of error or passion; he has the benefit of a coroner's inquest; the vendor of the poison receives a reprimand, and things resume their natural course--that is, arsenic and oxalic acid are retailed without compunction, and men are hurried from time to time into eternity. Images p56-a PMID:1542234

  12. A "pennurth of arsenic for rat poison": the Arsenic Act, 1851 and the prevention of secret poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P

    1992-01-01

    In this country any chemist or druggist can furnish the means of self-destruction or murder for a few pence, and in too many instances have done so with the utmost indifference. The sale of a poison is regarded as a mere act of commercial intercourse; tant pis for the unfortunate victim of error or passion; he has the benefit of a coroner's inquest; the vendor of the poison receives a reprimand, and things resume their natural course--that is, arsenic and oxalic acid are retailed without compunction, and men are hurried from time to time into eternity.

  13. Nutmeg Poisonings: A Retrospective Review of 10 Years Experience from the Illinois Poison Center, 2001–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenpreis, Jamie E.; DesLauriers, Carol; Lank, Patrick; Armstrong, P. Keelan; Leikin, Jerrold B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutmeg is a commonly consumed spice. The toxic effects of nutmeg have been purported to be due mainly to myristicin oil. Prior poison center series of nutmeg exposures show very few unintentional exposures of nutmeg to children younger than 13. Case series from these centers did not record drug exposures combined with nutmeg. This study is a review of Illinois Poison Center (IPC) data regarding nutmeg exposures from January of 2001 to December 2011. The goal of this study was to compare the I...

  14. A "pennurth of arsenic for rat poison": the Arsenic Act, 1851 and the prevention of secret poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartrip, P

    1992-01-01

    In this country any chemist or druggist can furnish the means of self-destruction or murder for a few pence, and in too many instances have done so with the utmost indifference. The sale of a poison is regarded as a mere act of commercial intercourse; tant pis for the unfortunate victim of error or passion; he has the benefit of a coroner's inquest; the vendor of the poison receives a reprimand, and things resume their natural course--that is, arsenic and oxalic acid are retailed without comp...

  15. Severe myocardial depression in a patient with aluminium phosphide poisoning: A clinical, electrocardiographical and histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Viral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide poisoning is very common in India. It is one of the most fatal poisons. The clinical spectrum of poisoning varies depending upon the dosage and duration of consumption. The main effect of the poison is due to the release of phosphine which inhibits cytochrome oxidase and thereby hampers cellular oxygen utilization. Almost any organ can be affected by aluminium phosphide poisoning. We report a case where the heart was the predominantly affected organ. We describe the clinical symptoms and signs and their correlation with electrocardiographic and histopathological examinations.

  16. Poisoning by plants in the taza-al iioceima-taounate region in morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive retrospective-study was carried out on poisoning cases by plants in Taza-Al hoceima-taounate region in Morocco, reported between 1984 and 2007 to the Moroccan Poison Control Centre. During this period, 104 cases of poisoning were recorded. Atractylis gummifera was the most incriminated plant. The average age of poisoned patients was 11+ - 7.8 years. The sex ratio (M/F) was 0.9. According to the data, poisoning by plants was primarily responsible for gastrointestinal system disorders, nervous system attacks, visual disorders and heart failure. A lethality rate of 33.65% was recorded, with a total of thirty-five deaths. (author)

  17. Acute poisoning in children; changes over the years, data of pediatric clinic department of toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alije Keka

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study drugs and house cleaning products are the most frequent agents causing accidental poisoning in children less than 5 years-old, this age of children is the most susceptible in terms of morbidity. Compared with the previous studies in Pediatric Clinic of Pristina, drugs are still the most frequent cause of acute poisoning in children; the number of poisoning with pesticides has fallen but has increased the number of poisoning with cleaning products. All preventive measures against poisoning should be taken including preventive strategies of education at national level especially in drug and household product storage.

  18. p-adic Gauss integrals from the Poison summarizing formula

    CERN Document Server

    Prokhorenko, D V

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we show how to obtain the well-known formula for Gauss sums and the Gauss reciprocity low from the Poison summarizing formula by using some ideas of renormalization and ergodic theories. We also apply our method to obtain new simple derivation of the standard formula for p-adic Gauss integrals.

  19. Cost/benefit analysis of eliminating poison control in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the economics of power generation determines, to a large extent,a utility's choice of reactor systems, the cost of electricity from a spectral shift control (SSC) reactor is a crucial measure of the SSC reactor's competitiveness. Thus, a preliminary cost analysis is an important part of our overall assessment. The economic comparisons in this work focus on the cost differences between a standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the breeder/moderator controlled/burner light water reactor (BMB-LWR) design concept. The BMB-LWR is a typical large current design PWR with a minimum of changes. The BMB-LWR does not use any poison for reactivity control in the cycle length range of interest (1 to 2 yr) and uses soluble poison only for refueling purposes, to provide a sufficient additional negative reactivity margin to supplement the water displacement system. However, the water displacement system is very similar to the control rod system from a mechanical design point of view, differing mainly in the characteristics of the in-core control pins. Mixing both poison and displacer pins in the same core introduces added complexity, but not necessarily at a large cost impact; e.g., the advanced PWR has substantial water displacement control components, whereas the BMB-LWR primarily increases the displacer-to-poison ratio. The annual credits and penalties of replacing the standard PWR with the BMB-LWR concept are covered in the analysis

  20. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.