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Sample records for ciguatera fish poisoning

  1. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  4. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    Het overzicht van ciguatera visvergiftiging bevat informatie over de ciguatera vergiftigingen en de veroorzakers (CTXs) en gambiertoxine-4b (GTX-4 B), van welke CTX-1 de belangrijkste component is aan het eind van de voedsel keten (roofvissen). Gegevens over chemische structuren, detectie

  5. Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisoning in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennotti, Radha; Scallan, Elaine; Backer, Lorraine; Thomas, Jerry; Angulo, Frederick J

    2013-12-01

    Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings are common causes of fish-related foodborne illness in the United States; however, existing surveillance systems underestimate the overall human health impact. This study aimed to describe existing data on ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings from outbreak and poison control center reports and to estimate the overall number of ciguatera and scombroid fish-poisoning illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. We analyzed outbreak data from the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance Systems (FDOSS) from 2000 to 2007 and poison control center call data from the National Poison Data System (NPDS) from 2005 to 2009 for reports of ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings. Using a statistical model with many inputs, we adjusted the outbreak data for undercounting due to underreporting and underdiagnosis to generate estimates. Underreporting and underdiagnosis multipliers were derived from the poison control call data and the published literature. Annually, an average of 15 ciguatera and 28 scombroid fish-poisoning outbreaks, involving a total of 60 and 108 ill persons, respectively, were reported to FDOSS (2000-2007). NPDS reported an average of 173 exposure calls for ciguatoxin and 200 exposure calls for scombroid fish poisoning annually (2005-2009). After adjusting for undercounting, we estimated 15,910 (90% credible interval [CrI] 4140-37,408) ciguatera fish-poisoning illnesses annually, resulting in 343 (90% CrI 69-851) hospitalizations and three deaths (90% CrI 1-7). We estimated 35,142 (90% CrI: 10,496-78,128) scombroid fish-poisoning illnesses, resulting in 162 (90% CrI 0-558) hospitalizations and 0 deaths. Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings affect more Americans than reported in surveillance systems. Although additional data can improve these assessments, the estimated number of illnesses caused by seafood intoxication illuminates this public health problem. Efforts, including education, can reduce

  6. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning: treatment, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A; Fleming, Lora E; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  9. A case of ciguatera fish poisoning in a French traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develoux, M; Le Loup, G; Pialoux, G

    2008-11-06

    Ciguatera is a toxic poisoning due to ingestion of fish and is rarely reported in France. Little is known about this imported tropical disease. We present a case observed in Paris in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning--Texas, 1998, and South Carolina, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and neurologic symptoms such as weakness, tingling, and pruritus (itching). The condition is caused by eating fish containing toxins produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, a one-celled plantlike organism that grows on algae in tropical waters worldwide. Because these toxins are lipid soluble, they accumulate through the food chain as carnivorous fish consume contaminated herbivorous reef fish; toxin concentrations are highest in large, predatory fish such as barracuda, grouper, amberjack, snapper, and shark. Because fish caught in ciguatera-endemic areas are shipped nationwide, ciguatera fish poisoning can occur anywhere in the United States. This report describes ciguatera fish poisoning in four persons (two in 1998, two in 2004) who ate fish caught by recreational fishers in waters outside of ciguatera-endemic areas (e.g., the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic and Gulf Coast waters off southern Florida). These cases underscore the need for physicians, regardless of whether they are in a ciguatera-endemic area, to consider ciguatera in patients who have gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms after eating large, predatory fish.

  11. Ciguatera fish poisoning: impact for the military health care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Michael V; Lim, Julia T

    2007-09-01

    Ciguatera toxin is a marine neurotoxin produced by microorganisms that becomes concentrated in predatory fish. Toxicity in humans results from the ingestion of contaminated fish harvested in tropical waters. Clinical manifestations of illness include the rapid onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and neurological abnormalities. Because of the rapid onset of symptoms and the potential for case clusters from a common source ingestion of contaminated fish, there is the potential that ciguatera poisoning may initially mimic illnesses caused by antipersonnel biological and chemical agents. We present data on an active duty soldier who presented to sick call for evaluation of new onset paresthesias and was diagnosed with ciguatera toxin poisoning. We also present a review of ciguatera poisoning literature with emphasis on the distinguishing features between ciguatoxin and other neurotoxins of military significance.

  12. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I; Lewis, R J; Eaglesham, G K; Graham, G C; Poole, S; Craig, S B

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to years; second and subsequent attacks may manifest in a more severe illness. Ciguatera remains largely a pan-tropical disease, although tourism and export fish markets facilitate increased presentation in temperate latitudes. While ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific was recognised and eloquently described by seafarers in the 18th Century, it remains a public-health challenge in the 21st Century because there is neither a confirmatory diagnostic test nor a reliable, low-cost screening method to ascertain the safety of suspect fish prior to consumption. A specific antidote is not available, so treatment is largely supportive. The most promising pharmacotherapy of recent decades, intravenous mannitol, has experienced a relative decline in acceptance after a randomized, double-blind trial failed to confirm its efficacy. Some questions remain unanswered, however, and the use of mannitol for the treatment of acute ciguatera poisoning arguably deserves revisiting. The immunotoxicology of ciguatera is poorly understood, and some aspects of the epidemiology and symptomatology of ciguatera warrant further enquiry.

  13. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  14. Reversible cerebellar dysfunction associated with ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Seo, Man-Wook; Shin, Byoung-Soo

    2012-10-01

    Ciguatera-fish poisoning (or ciguatera) is a common but underdiagnosed food-borne illness related to fish consumption that is characterized by nausea, vomiting and neurologic symptoms such as tingling in the fingers or toes. We describe the case of a young man who suffered from diarrhea and abdominal pain after eating raw fish and who also developed severe ataxia with spontaneous downbeat and perverted head-shaking nystagmus. The patient experienced visual fixation suppression failure during the bithermal caloric test and bilateral smooth-pursuit impairment. Oculomotor findings suggested dysfunction of the vestibulocerebellum, especially the flocculus. These findings suggest that both the peripheral and the central nervous systems can be involved in ciguatera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  16. Features of ciguatera fish poisoning cases in Hong Kong 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Kellie L H; Mok, Tina; Chung, Thomas; Kam, Kai-Man

    2008-12-01

    To review the clinical features and laboratory investigations of ciguatera patients in Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007 in order to show the timely sampling of implicated fish from ciguatera victims and application of validated mouse bioassay for confirming suspected clinical cases of ciguatera. Diagnosis of the ciguatera victims was based on history of coral fish consumption and clinical presentations stated in official guidelines for clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. Food remnants of coral fish samples were collected swiftly from ciguatera victims between 2004 and 2007 for ciguatoxins (CTXs) analysis. Major clinical symptoms in ciguatera patients included gastrointestinal and neurological effects including limb numbness and diarrhoea, which developed at 0.5 to 15 hours after consumption of fish. In most cases, neurological symptoms were more common than gastrointestinal symptoms. A broad range of attack rate (10%-100%) was observed in each ciguatera outbreak. Validated mouse bioassay on ether extracts of the food remnant samples confirmed that all were CTXs-positive (ciguatera cases. Consistency between clinical and laboratory analysis for ciguatera poisoning illustrates the application of laboratory mouse bioassay in a timely fashion for confirming ciguatera poisoning cases and implementing effective public health measures. With further improvement in laboratory techniques, features of ciguatera fish poisoning cases can be better defined. Further studies are needed to determine the risk of each class of CTXs (Pacific-, Indian- and Caribbean-CTXs) in Hong Kong.

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Brewer, Tom D; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E; Lewis, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  19. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.

  20. Cluster of ciguatera fish poisoning--North Carolina, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a distinctive type of foodborne disease that results from eating predatory ocean fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. As many as 50,000 cases are reported worldwide annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific basin, Indian Ocean, and Caribbean. In the United States, 5--70 cases per 10,000 persons are estimated to occur yearly in ciguatera-endemic states and territories. CFP can cause gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, or diarrhea) within a few hours of eating contaminated fish. Neurologic symptoms, with or without gastrointestinal disturbance, can include fatigue, muscle pain, itching, tingling, and (most characteristically) reversal of hot and cold sensation. This report describes a cluster of nine cases of CFP that occurred in North Carolina in June 2007. Among the nine patients, six experienced reversal of hot and cold sensations, five had neurologic symptoms only, and overall symptoms persisted for more than 6 months in three patients. Among seven patients who were sexually active, six patients also complained of painful intercourse. This report highlights the potential risks of eating contaminated ocean fish. Local and state health departments can train emergency and urgent care physicians in the recognition of CFP and make them aware that symptoms can persist for months to years.

  1. Outbreak bias in illness reporting and case confirmation in ciguatera fish poisoning surveillance in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begier, Elizabeth M; Backer, Lorraine C; Weisman, Richard S; Hammond, Roberta M; Fleming, Lora E; Blythe, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by eating coral reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins and is the most common marine poisoning. However, existing surveillance systems capture few cases. To improve regional ciguatera surveillance in South Florida, this study compared ciguatera illnesses in the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami (FPICM) call database to ciguatera cases in the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) disease surveillance systems. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of when FPICM reported ciguatera illnesses to FDOH and whether FDOH confirmed reported ciguatera cases. FPICM staff preferentially reported ciguatera illnesses that were of shorter duration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.84 per additional illness day; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74, 0.97); outbreak-associated (AOR = 7.0; 95% CI 2.5, 19.5); and clinically more severe (AOR = 21.6; 95% CI 2.3, 198.5). Among ciguatera illnesses reported to FDOH, outbreak-associated illnesses were more likely than single, sporadic illnesses to become confirmed surveillance cases (crude OR = 11.1; 95% CI 2.0, 62.5). The over-representation of outbreak-associated ciguatera cases underestimates the true contribution of sporadic illnesses to ciguatera disease burden. This bias should be considered when evaluating surveillance systems that include both outbreak-associated and sporadic illness reports.

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning with elevated muscle enzymes and abnormal spinal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasay, Mohammad; Sarangzai, Amanullah; Siddiqi, Ather; Nizami, Qamaruddin

    2008-03-01

    We report three cases of ciguatera fish poisoning. One patient died secondary to respiratory failure. Two patients showed elevated muscle enzymes and one patients had an abnormal cervical spinal MRI. MRI findings have not been previously described. MRI findings explain the mechanism of the L'hermitte phenomenon (a common complaint) among these patients. Respiratory failure is rare in ciguatera fish poisoning. Our findings suggest this could be related to respiratory muscles involvement.

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  4. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  5. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  6. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  7. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  8. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-20

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  9. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents. PMID:25333356

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawai'i and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Nathanial K; Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai'i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai'i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP.

  11. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures.

  13. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  14. Gene Expression Patterns in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes in Patients with Recurrent Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Preliminary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Ungaro, Ricardo F; Baker, Henry V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Robertson, Alison; Abbott, Margaret; Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) is a common clinical syndrome in areas where there is dependence on tropical reef fish for food. A subset of patients develops recurrent and, in some instances, chronic symptoms, which may result in substantial disability. To identify possible biomarkers for recurrent/chronic disease, and to explore correlations with immune gene expression, peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression in 10 ciguatera patients (7 recurrent, 3 acute) from the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 5 unexposed Florida controls were evaluated. Significant differences in gene expression were noted when comparing ciguatera patients and controls; however, it was not possible to differentiate between patients with acute and recurrent disease, possibly due to the small sample sizes involved.

  15. Cardiovascular Complications in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: A Wake-up Call

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D.; Suresh, Ponnuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2011-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning occurs with ingestion of fish containing ciguatoxin. It causes a clinical syndrome that comprises classic gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. Ciguatoxin is a sodium channel agonist with cholinergic and adrenergic activity. Although cardiovascular symptoms are rare with ciguatoxin, we report two cases with bradycardia and hypotension. Fatality and long-term sequelae are not uncommon with ciguatoxin poisoning and educating the general population ...

  16. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is mannitol the treatment of choice for patients with ciguatera fish poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Michael E; Hoffman, Robert S

    2017-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning arises primarily from consumption of carnivorous reef fish caught in tropical and sub-tropical waters. Ciguatoxins, a class of tasteless, heat-stable, polycyclic toxins produced by dinoflagellates, accumulate through the food chain and concentrate in various carnivorous fish, such as groupers, barracudas, wrasses, amberjack, kingfishes, and eels. Characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning include early nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea in the first one to two days post ingestion, followed by the appearance of sensory disturbances. The classic dysaesthesia is cold allodynia, often described as reversal of hot and cold sensation, but a more accurate description is burning pain on exposure to cold. To discuss and appraise the evidence regarding the use of mannitol or other drugs in treating ciguatera framed in the historical context of the last four decades. We searched PubMed and Embase for all years from 1966 to March 31, 2017 with search terms "ciguatera", "mannitol", and "treatment". These searches identified 85 articles, of which 36 were relevant to the review question. We searched Google Scholar to supplement the primary search and reviewed the references of articles for sources overlooked in the original searches. These secondary searches identified another 23 references. We excluded six clinical reports (two case series and four case reports) which did not clearly describe ciguatera or which lacked information on treatment or outcome. Fifty-three clinical articles remained for review. We searched PubMed using "ciguatera" AND "treatment" NOT "mannitol" to better identify reports describing other treatments. The search identified 128 articles, of which nine described specific pharmacological treatments and their outcomes. We combined our findings into a consensus review of the evidence both for and against the use of mannitol or other medications for ciguatera fish poisoning. Early human evidence of effectiveness of mannitol: A 1988 report

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ciguatera fish poisoning in an international ship crew in Saint John Canada: 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, C; Hamper, L; Skinner, A L; Osborne, C

    2015-11-05

    An international ship crew presented for medical care in Saint John, New Brunswick, following rapid onset of gastrointestinal and in some cases neurological and cardiac symptoms after a common fish meal. Ciguatera poisoning was identified as the cause of illness. This report describes the public health investigation and management of this incident, including collaboration between the implicated provincial and federal authorities.

  20. Outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning on a cargo ship in the port of hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Clara; Hagelstein, Jan-Gerd; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Schmiedel, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a travel-related illness characterized by a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms in persons who eat ciguatoxic seafood in endemic areas. In 2009, an outbreak of the disease on a refrigerator vessel in the port of Hamburg was investigated. The ship's crew fell ill after they ate fish from a catch in the Caribbean 2 weeks earlier. All 15 sailors on board were examined by port medical officers. Samples of blood and stool specimens were taken from symptomatic sailors. The frozen fish was secured for the prevention of further disease spreading and additional diagnostic tests. All but one sailor ate the fish. The intoxication resulted in gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms in all 14 sailors who consumed the fish and persisted in varying degrees in 93% of sailors over at least 14 days. No fatality occurred, but two seamen were "unfit for duty" on the ship due to severity of symptoms. The diagnosis was supported by the fact that all seafarers who consumed the same reef fish, experienced typical signs, symptoms, and time course consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. The fish from the catch in the Caribbean was identified as Caranx sexfasciatus (Bigeye Trevally) and Cephalopholis miniata (Red Grouper). An experimental assay later confirmed presence of the ciguatoxin in the fish. Sailors are an occupational group at risk for ciguatera fish poisoning due to potentially unsafe food sources during international travel. Even if no fatality occurred, the disease affected marine operations due to high attack rates and chronicity of symptoms. Medical doctors must be aware that ciguatera fish poisoning is a risk for seafarers traveling in tropical and subtropical areas. Stocking of food in affected ports from safe sources, adequate training of ship cooks, and informing sailors about the risk of fishing are needed to prevent disease occurrence in seafarers in international trade and traffic. © 2012 International Society of

  1. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  2. Treatment of a mild chronic case of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article describes a recent case of ciguatera poisoning treated with intravenous mannitol. Mannitol has been used with good effect in non-controlled studies in acutely severely poisoned patients, but is not described in the treatment of chronic or milder poisoning. Our patient was a 35-year-old Niuean man who had eaten a ciguatoxic fish two weeks previously. His symptoms were not severe but were very unpleasant and restricted his ability to work. He was given a single dose of mannitol (0.66g/kg) as an intravenous infusion over two hours. His symptoms dramatically improved within 24 hours, and within a few days he felt virtually back to his former self. He experienced no side effects to the mannitol. It is suggested that intravenous mannitol may prove to be a useful treatment for mild to moderate ciguatera poisoning, and for patients who present late for treatment.

  3. Are cyanobacteria involved in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning-like outbreaks in New Caledonia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Dominique; Kerbrat, Anne-Sophie; Darius, H. T.; Girard, E.; Golubic, S.; Benoit, E.; Sauviat, M. P.; Chinain, M.; Molgo, J.; Pauillac, S.

    2008-01-01

    From 2001 to 2005, numerous cases of seafood poisonings were reported in a tribe from Lifou (Loyalty Islands Province, New Caledonia) of which 35 were thoroughly examined. Observations outlined by the epidemiological and clinical data (including severity and rapid onset of certain symptoms following consumption of either giant clams (Tridacna spp.) or grazing and molluscivorous fish together with the apparent inefficacy of traditional remedies, were not in favour of a classical Ciguatera Fish...

  4. [Ciguatera poisoning in Spanish travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Joaquim; Macià, Maria; Oliveira, Inés; Corachán, Manuel

    2003-05-31

    Ciguatera poisoning appears after ingestion of contaminated fish from tropical coral reefs. Due to the diversity of clinical symptoms and the absence of a specific test in humans, the diagnosis is often difficult. A retrospective study of 10 patients consulting for a clinical and epidemiological picture compatible with ciguatera poisoning after a trip to tropical countries between 1993 and 2000. Most infections but one were acquired in the Caribbean area and there were 8 females. Clinical manifestations started within the first 24 hours after fish ingestion. Chief symptoms were diarrhea and nausea, followed by neurological symptoms, mainly limbs paresthesias that persisted for several weeks. The severity of clinical symptoms was variable and not related to age or initial symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning has to be considered in the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis affecting travellers to tropical areas.

  5. Characteristic Features and Contributory Factors in Fatal Ciguatera Fish Poisoning--Implications for Prevention and Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-04-01

    In this review, the main objective was to describe the characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning and identify contributory factors, with a view to promote prevention and public education. Ciguatera-related deaths, although rare, have been reported from the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean regions. The clinical features were generally dominated by convulsions and coma, with various focal neurological signs. Several contributory factors could be identified, including consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-rich fish parts (viscera and head) in larger amounts, the most ciguatoxic fish species (e.g.,Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) and reef fish collected after storms and individuals' susceptibility. Mass ciguatera fish poisoning with mortalities also occurred when G. flavimarginatus and other ciguatoxic fish species were shared in gatherings and parties. The characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning must be recognized early. The public should be repeatedly reminded to avoid eating the most ciguatoxic fish species and the CTX-rich parts of reef fish. To prevent mass poisoning in gatherings and parties, the most ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species must be avoided. Particularly after hits by disastrous storms, it is important to monitor the toxicity of reef fish and the incidence rates of ciguatera. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fernández, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C.; Dickey, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O.; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E.; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Loeffler, Christopher R.; Weisman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection...

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness worldwide with 50,000 to 500,000 global incidences per annum and is usually limited to endemic areas located between 35° northern and 35° southern latitude. The rising global incidence frequency renders it a major human health problem, because no curative treatment is available yet and reliable detection assays are lacking. During the last decade ciguatera has increasingly become endemic in previously unaffected areas for two reasons: first global warming has contributed to the emergence of dinoflagellate species in subtropical and even temperate regions that previously had been constrained to tropical areas and second: in Europe globalization of fishing industry and tourism has led to a progressive increase in the number of ciguatera cases and a lack of awareness among medical personnel contributes to under-reporting. We review, through a recent ciguatera outbreak in Germany, the risk for ciguatera poisoning in Europe and highlight characteristic symptoms, current knowledge about disease pathomechanisms and treatment options.

  8. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  9. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in

  10. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Schoelinck

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets.We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods.Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously. Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific.The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (3rd), Held in La Parguera, Puerto Rico on April 30-May 5, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a human health problem that affects all persons living in tropical seas for whom marine fish represent a significant...source of food. Ciguatera traditionally was limited to tropical regions, however, modern improvements in refrigeration and transport have augmented...reports of this poisoning in the tropical Pacific in the 17th century, ciguatera has come to have an impact of global proportions. A broad and detailed

  12. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning in industrial ship crewmembers: a retrospective study in a seaport general practice in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-King, C M; Chen, A; Poon-King, T

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to outline the epidemiology of Ciguatera fish poisoning as seen in a general practice serving two industrial seaports in Trinidad and Tobago, in order to highlight the potential public health implications. A retrospective study was undertaken of all the cases of Ciguatera fish poisoning identified between November 1, 1992 and October 31, 1998 in a seaport general practice to identify signs, symptoms and treatment. An investigation of one outbreak was undertaken. Four outbreaks affecting 42 male ship crewmembers were identified. The suspect fish were caught in northern Caribbean waters en route to Trinidad and Tobago. The most common early symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, pruritus and tiredness. In the third outbreak, dysaesthesia was common. Progression to muscular weakness, ataxic gait, unsteadiness and other neurotoxic signs were seen in moderate to severe disease. Hypotension was an important prognostic sign in the initial case. Treatment was symptomatic and supportive and included vitamins B12 and BCO, folic acid, prostigmine, steroids and antihistamines as indicated. In the investigation of the second outbreak, the relative risk of 'eating fish meat' was 5 (95% CI 1.45, 17.27, p ciguatera fish poisoning.' All cases were industrial ship crewmembers. It is suggested that increased clinician awareness with early and appropriate treatment, and focussed public health intervention may help limit the potential public health impact of ciguatera poisoning in industrial ship crewmembers and other fish-consuming communities in the future.

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong--a 10-year perspective on the class of ciguatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lo, Janice Y C

    2014-08-01

    The present study used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate retrospectively ciguatoxin (CTX)-positive samples as determined by mouse bioassay (MBA) in the past 10 years in Hong Kong. The results showed that Pacific CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3) were the most commonly observed toxins found in the samples, indicating Pacific Ocean areas as the most important origin of ciguatera fish poisoning. Clinical diagnosis from ciguatera patients also revealed the predominance of neurological illnesses in most cases, supporting intoxication of Pacific origin. This study demonstrated the ability of laboratory analysis to identify and quantify Pacific CTXs in suspected fish samples, so as to support the clinical diagnosis of ciguatera. Comparative analysis (Student's t-test and Spearman's rank correlation analysis) on the two CTX detection methods showed approximate linearity for overall P-CTXs (P-CTX-1, -2 and -3)/P-CTX-1 alone as derived by LC-MS/MS and total toxicity levels (P-CTX-1 equivalent) as determined by MBA. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with the rapid extraction method could allow the detection of trace amount of CTXs at levels below the clinically relevant limit, 0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. For practical application, the adoption of a two-tiered approach for testing, chemical analysis by LC-MS/MS for toxic fish screening, coupled with biological assay by MBA for final toxicity confirmation, was proposed for first-line screening of CTX in potentially contaminated fish samples in the market, with an aim to minimizing the use of laboratory mice and at the same time providing reasonably effective means for routine analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Study of three ciguatera fish poisoning cases in Xiamen city, in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, He-dong; Bai, Yan-yan; Zhou, Na

    2011-06-01

    To find out the reason of three ciguatera fish poisoning cases in Xiamen in 2005 and identify the fish species. The grouper implicated in food poisoning and seven other coral reef fishes collected from market were tested by mice bioassay and ciguatoxin-test kit. The mtDNA was extracted from toxic grouper meat, and Cty b gene segment was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced. The sequences were compared with those in the GenBank. The result turned out to be positive by the ciguatoxin-test kit, while the toxicity of the toxic grouper implicated in food poisoning was 0.11 mouse unit (MU)/g by mice bioassay. A 475 bp segments of Cty b gene was amplified by PCR and the sequence was 99% homologous with Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (GenBank: AY950695).No ciguatoxin in six grouper species collected from market was detected. All three food poisoning cases were caused by consumption of ciguatoxin-carrying groupers.

  17. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  18. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  19. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning in la Habana, Cuba: a study of local social-ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Karen; Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Castro Domínguez, Arnaldo; Waltner-Toews, David; Fitzgibbon, John

    2008-09-01

    Following the collapse of the Cuban economy in the early 1990s, epidemiologists in the Cuban Ministry of Health noticed dramatic increases in reported outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in some coastal communities. This article summarizes the results of a comparative case study which applied an ecosystem approach to human health to investigate this issue. Situated learning and complexity theories were used to interpret the results of the investigation. CFP outbreaks are influenced by a complex set of interactions between ecological and socioeconomic processes. This study found that the level of organization of the local sports fishing community and the degree of degradation of the local nearshore marine ecosystem appear to be key factors influencing the diverging levels of CFP outbreaks recorded in the 1990s in the communities studied.

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196 PMID:24618280

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ewen; Gatti, Clémence; Bambridge, Tamatoa; Chinain, Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data. A mean incidence rate of 8 cases per 10,000 inhabitants for the study period and an average under-reporting rate of 54% were found. Taking into account hospitalization and medication fees, and loss of productive days, the health-related costs due to CFP were estimated to be USD $1613 and $749 for each reported and unreported case, respectively, with an overall cost of USD $241,847 for the study period. Comparison of the present status of CFP on Moorea with a risk map established in the late 1970's showed that the spatial distribution of the risk has stayed relatively stable in time, with the north shore of the island remaining the most prone to ciguatera. Evaluation of the current knowledge on CFP among different populations groups, i.e. fishermen, residents and visitors, was also conducted through direct and indirect interviews. About half of the fishermen interviewed were actually able to identify risky fishing areas. While, overall, the CFP risk perception in the fishing community of Moorea seemed accurate, although not scientifically complete, it was sufficient for the safe practice of their fishing activities. This may be due in part to adaptive responses adopted by 36% of the fishermen interviewed, such as the avoidance of either high-risk fishing sites or toxic species. At the residents and visitors' level, the study points out a striking lack of awareness

  3. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis.

  4. Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak - Orange County, Florida, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekamp, Benjamin G; Bodager, Dean; Matthews, Sarah D

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), caused by the ingestion of predatory reef-dwelling fish harboring ciguatoxins is one of the most commonly reported fish-associated marine intoxications. Ciguatoxin retains toxicity regardless of freezing or cooking. Prompt treatment can reduce debilitating neurologic symptoms that are associated with CFP.What is added by this report? Syndromic surveillance systems in Florida identified six adults with CFP following consumption of black grouper. Five patients sought medical attention; health care providers did not make a diagnosis of CFP or report the cases to public health authorities, and none of the patients received treatment. Close collaboration among several investigating agencies allowed traceback efforts to link black grouper consumed by all patients to a common international distributor.What are the implications for public health practice? Syndromic surveillance systems capable of detecting CFP are essential public health tools to identify outbreaks and enhance investigations. Medical and public health practitioners should be educated to inquire about recent fish consumption when evaluating patients with clinically compatible signs and symptoms to allow for prompt treatment, and report suspected CFP cases to public health authorities to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Public education on avoidance of consumption of relatively large predatory reef fish species known to be from ciguatoxic-endemic areas might reduce the risk for CFP.

  5. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  6. A review of traditional remedies of ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Taiana Darius, H; Matsui, Mariko; Fabre, Nicolas; Haddad, Mohamed; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be efficient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning and sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Patricia A; Feldman, Rebecca L; Nau, Amy W; Kibler, Steven R; Wayne Litaker, R

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a circumtropical disease caused by ingestion of a variety of reef fish that bioaccumulate algal toxins. Distribution and abundance of the organisms that produce these toxins, chiefly dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, are reported to correlate positively with water temperature. Consequently, there is growing concern that increasing temperatures associated with climate change could increase the incidence of CFP. This concern prompted experiments on the growth rates of six Gambierdiscus species at temperatures between 18 degrees C and 33 degrees C and the examination of sea surface temperatures in the Caribbean and West Indies for areas that could sustain rapid Gambierdiscus growth rates year-round. The thermal optimum for five of six Gambierdiscus species tested was >/=29 degrees C. Long-term SST data from the southern Gulf of Mexico indicate the number of days with sea surface temperatures >/=29 degrees C has nearly doubled (44 to 86) in the last three decades. To determine how the sea surface temperatures and Gambierdiscus growth data correlate with CFP incidences in the Caribbean, a literature review and a uniform, region-wide survey (1996-2006) of CFP cases were conducted. The highest CFP incidence rates were in the eastern Caribbean where water temperatures are warmest and least variable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C.; Dickey, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O.; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E.; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Loeffler, Christopher R.; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties. PMID:28335428

  9. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C; Dickey, Robert W; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Loeffler, Christopher R; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-03-14

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.

  10. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs, diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008 and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.

  11. Ciguatera fish poisoning and environmental change: a case for strengthening health surveillance in the Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derne, Bonnie; Fearnley, Emily; Goater, Sarah; Carter, Karen; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-09-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), a significant public health problem in the Pacific, is intrinsically linked to the health of coral reef ecosystems. Incidence data on CFP could therefore be used, in theory, as indicators of disruption to coral reefs. Some disruptions, such as increasing sea surface temperatures, result from global environmental change--therefore suggesting that CFP is likely to become an increasing public health problem in the region. The proactive management of increasing numbers of cases will depend on an understanding of the ecology of the disease, sound health surveillance systems to report cases of CFP including appropriate case definitions, and quantifiable correlations between case numbers and environmental variables. Here, we briefly review the knowledge about these components in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), including summarising regional variation in symptoms of CFP cases, investigating media as an enhanced surveillance tool, and summarising regional environmental drivers of CFP cases. We conclude that CFP could be an important indicator of the health of reef ecosystems in the face of global climate change and more novel approaches such as combining environmental and health data, need to be implemented to improve surveillance of CFP.

  12. Revisiting the association between sea surface temperature and the epidemiology of fish poisoning in the South Pacific: reassessing the link between ciguatera and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon E

    2010-10-01

    The most detailed dataset of ciguatera intensity is that produced by the South Pacific Epidemiological and Health Information Service (SPEHIS) of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The SPEHIS fish poisoning database has been previously analysed yielding statistically significant correlations between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and ciguatera case numbers in several countries raising concerns this affliction will increase as oceans warm. Mapping of the SPEHIS records and other data hints at ciguatera not only being restricted to warm waters but that the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, a body of water that remains hot throughout much of the year, may inhibit ciguatera prevalence. A qualitative assessment of ciguatera intensity and sea surface temperature (SST) behaviour within the EEZ of selected South Pacific nations supported the notion that ciguatera intensity was highest when SST was between an upper and lower limit. Many more climate and SST indices beyond the SOI are now available, including some that measure the abovementioned phenomenon of oceanic warm pools. Statistically significant, positive and negative cross-correlations were obtained between time series of annual ciguatera case rates from the SPEHIS dataset and the Pacific Warm Pool Index and several ENSO related indices which had been lagged for up to 2 years before the ciguatera time series. This further supports the possibility that when considering the impact of climate change on ciguatera, one has to consider two thresholds, namely waters that remain warm enough for a long enough period can lead to ciguatera and that extended periods where the water remains too hot may depress ciguatera case rates. Such a model would complicate projections of the effects of climate change upon ciguatera beyond that of a simple relationship where increased SST may cause more ciguatera. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel B; Strickland, Matthew J; Hess, Jeremy J

    2014-06-01

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001-2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5-3.5 °C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200-400%. Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change.

  14. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  15. The prevalence of benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Daniela; Richlen, Mindy L; Mak, Yim Ling; Morton, Steve L; Laban, Elizabeth H; Xu, Yixiao; Anderson, Donald M; Chan, Leo Lai; Berumen, Michael L

    2017-09-01

    This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world. Both Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis spp. were observed at low densities (weight algae). Cell densities of Ostreopsis spp. were significantly higher than Gambierdiscus spp. at most of the sampling sites, and abundances of both genera were negatively correlated with seawater salinity. To assess the potential for ciguatoxicity in this region, several Gambierdiscus isolates were established in culture and examined for species identity and toxicity. All isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Gambierdiscus belizeanus. Toxicity analysis of two isolates using the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay for ciguatoxins (CTX) confirmed G. belizeanus as a CTX producer, with a maximum toxin content of 6.50±1.14×10 -5 pg P-CTX-1 eq. cell -1 . Compared to Gambierdiscus isolates from other locations, these were low toxicity strains. The low Gambierdiscus densities observed along with their comparatively low toxin contents may explain why CFP is unidentified and unreported in this region. Nevertheless, the presence of these potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species at multiple sites in the central Red Sea warrants future study on their possible effects on marine food webs and human health in this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The prevalence of benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2017-09-09

    This study confirms the presence of the toxigenic benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus belizeanus and Ostreopsis spp. in the central Red Sea. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of these taxa in coastal waters of Saudi Arabia, indicating the potential occurrence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in that region. During field investigations carried out in 2012 and 2013, a total of 100 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast and examined for the presence of Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis, two toxigenic dinoflagellate genera commonly observed in coral reef communities around the world. Both Gambierdiscus and Ostreopsis spp. were observed at low densities (<200 cells g−1 wet weight algae). Cell densities of Ostreopsis spp. were significantly higher than Gambierdiscus spp. at most of the sampling sites, and abundances of both genera were negatively correlated with seawater salinity. To assess the potential for ciguatoxicity in this region, several Gambierdiscus isolates were established in culture and examined for species identity and toxicity. All isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Gambierdiscus belizeanus. Toxicity analysis of two isolates using the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay for ciguatoxins (CTX) confirmed G. belizeanus as a CTX producer, with a maximum toxin content of 6.50±1.14×10−5pg P-CTX-1 eq. cell−1. Compared to Gambierdiscus isolates from other locations, these were low toxicity strains. The low Gambierdiscus densities observed along with their comparatively low toxin contents may explain why CFP is unidentified and unreported in this region. Nevertheless, the presence of these potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species at multiple sites in the central Red Sea warrants future study on their possible effects on marine food webs and human health in this region.

  17. Incidence and clinical characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016: a retrospective cases-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucaud-Maitre, Denis; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Pelczar, Stéphane; Daudens-Vaysse, Elise; Aubert, Lyderic; Boa, Sylvie; Ferracci, Serge; Garnier, Robert

    2018-02-15

    This retrospective case study analysed the incidence and symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016. Cases attending the emergency departments of the two public hospitals and the reports received by the regional health authority in charge of monitoring (ARS) were compiled. Two hundred and thirty-four cases of poisoning were observed, with a mean annual incidence of 1.47/10,000 (95% CI): 1.29-1.66), i.e 5 times higher than the previously reported incidence (1996-2006). The main species described as being responsible for poisoning were fish from the Carangidae family (n = 47) (jack), followed by fish from the Lutjanidae family (n = 27) (snapper), Serranidae family (n = 15) (grouper), Sphyraenidae family (n = 12) (barracuda), and Mullidae family (n = 12) (goatfish). One case of lionfish ciguatera was observed. 93.9% of patients experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, 76.0% presented neurological signs (mainly paresthesia, dysesthesia and pruritus) and 40.3% presented cardiovascular symptoms (bradycardia and/or hypotension). A high frequency (61.4%) of hypothermia (body temperature ciguatera poisoning throughout the Caribbean region must be improved, notably after reef disturbance due to Irma and Maria major cyclones.

  18. Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe [1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H. Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. PMID:20631873

  19. Update on methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination: perspectives to confront the onset of ciguatera fish poisoning in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Amandine; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Darius, H Taiana; Pauillac, Serge; Aligizaki, Katerina; Fraga, Santiago; Chinain, Mireille; Diogène, Jorge

    2010-06-14

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

  20. Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Caillaud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs. The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis.

  1. Rabbitfish ("aras"): an unusual source of ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, Bianca; Bentur, Yedidia

    2002-01-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is the commonest fish-borne seafood intoxication. It is endemic to warm water tropical areas and is caused by consumption of bottom-dwelling shore reef fish, mostly during spring and summer. The causative agent, ciguatoxin, is a heat-stable ester complex that becomes concentrated in fish feeding on toxic dinoflagellates. The common clinical manifestations are a combination of gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms. Severe poisoning may be associated with seizures and respiratory paralysis. To describe a series of patients who sustained ciguatera poisoning in an uncommon region and from an unexpected source. Two families complained of a sensation of "electrical currents," tremors, muscle cramps, nightmares, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety and nausea of varying severity several hours after consuming rabbitfish ("aras"). These symptoms lasted between 12 and 30 hours and resolved completely. The temporal relationship to a summer fish meal, the typical clinical manifestations along with the known feeding pattern of the rabbitfish suggested ciguatera poisoning. The Eastern Mediterranean basin is an unusual region and the rabbitfish an unusual source for ciguatera poisoning. There are no readily available and reliable means for detecting ciguatoxin in humans. A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosis and a thorough differential diagnosis is essential to eliminate other poisonings, decompression sickness and encephalitis. Supportive therapy is the mainstay of treatment.

  2. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossen, Virginie; Soliño, Lucia; Leroy, Patricia; David, Eric; Velge, Pierre; Dragacci, Sylviane; Krys, Sophie; Flores Quintana, Harold; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg −1 fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 fish). - Highlights: • We report on an epidemiological study on Ciguatera events in the French West Indies. • The collection of consumption data allows for the first time the LOAEL determination. • The LOAEL for ciguatoxins was established at 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg −1 bw. • LC–MS/MS provided structural confirmation of C-CTX1 in two suspected samples • Neuro-2A CBA is suitable for assessing composite toxicity levels in fish samples.

  3. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Virginie [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Soliño, Lucia [Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Ctra. Poble Nou km 5.5, Sant Carles de la Rapita (Spain); Leroy, Patricia [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); David, Eric [Ministry of Agriculture, Direction de l’Alimentation de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt de Guadeloupe, Abymes (France); Velge, Pierre [Ministry of Agriculture, General Directorate for Food, Paris (France); Dragacci, Sylviane, E-mail: Sylviane.dragacci@anses.fr [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Krys, Sophie [Université Paris-Est, ANSES-Laboratory for Food Safety, National Reference Laboratory for the Control of Marine biotoxins, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Flores Quintana, Harold [U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Division of Seafood Science and Technology, Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory, 1 Iberville Drive, Dauphin Island, AL 36528 (United States); Diogène, Jorge [Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Ctra. Poble Nou km 5.5, Sant Carles de la Rapita (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg{sup −1} fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} fish). - Highlights: • We report on an epidemiological study on Ciguatera events in the French West Indies. • The collection of consumption data allows for the first time the LOAEL determination. • The LOAEL for ciguatoxins was established at 48.4 pg P-CTX-1 eq. kg{sup −1} bw. • LC–MS/MS provided structural confirmation of C-CTX1 in two suspected samples • Neuro-2A CBA is suitable for assessing composite toxicity levels in fish samples.

  4. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Virginie; Soliño, Lucia; Leroy, Patricia; David, Eric; Velge, Pierre; Dragacci, Sylviane; Krys, Sophie; Flores Quintana, Harold; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg(-1) fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48. 4 pg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION OF CIGUATERA POISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on ciguatera toxin resulted in a satisfactory method for extracting the toxin from fish muscle. Partial purification was also accomplished...by precipitation and silicic acid adsorption. The most precise fractionation of ciguatera toxin is accomplished on a silicic acid column developed...WILL LEAD TO HIGHLY PURIFIED SAMPLES OF CIGUATERA TOXIN. Paper chromatography was examined using fourteen different solvent systems, but none proved

  6. Assessing the incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning with two surveys conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Luber, George; Conklin, Laura; Tosteson, Thomas R; Granade, Hudson R; Dickey, Robert W; Backer, Lorraine C

    2012-04-01

    Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential risk factors for CFP. During 2005 and again during 2006, we conducted a census of all occupied households on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, where locally caught fish are a staple food. We defined CFP case-patients as persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or nausea) and neurological symptoms (extremity paresthesia, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, pruritus, headache, dizziness, metallic taste, visual disturbance, circumoral paresthesia, temperature reversal, or toothache) or systemic symptoms (e.g., bradycardia) within 72 hr of eating fish during the previous year. Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA). We surveyed 340 households during 2005 and 335 households during 2006. The estimated annual incidence of possible CFP was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years, and that of probable CFP was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. One of three fish samples submitted by probable case-patients was positive for ciguatoxins. None of the case-patients required respiratory support. Households that typically consumed barracuda were more likely to report CFP (p = 0.02). Our estimates, which are consistent with previous studies using similar case findings, contribute to the overall information available to support public health decision making about CFP prevention.

  7. Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, J Y; Brown, A F

    2001-12-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and

  8. Ciguatera fish poisoning: A first epidemic in Germany highlights an increasing risk for European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, César; Vetter, Irina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Krock, Bernd; Ebbecke, Martin; Desel, Herbert; Zimmermann, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Toxin-producing microalgae are thriving worldwide due to coral reef destruction and global warming with major consequences on ecosystems, international trade and human health. Microalgae belonging to the family of flagellate protists, in particular dinoflagellates, secrete a variety of high-molecular-weight polyether toxins that accumulate through the marine food chain to cause disease in humans by acting as sodium channel activator toxins; ciguatera is the most frequent seafood-borne illness...

  9. Use of monoclonal antibodies as an effective strategy for treatment of ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masayuki; Lee, Nayoung; Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    Ciguatera is a global food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated sodium channel activator toxins, ciguatoxins. At present, most diagnosed cases of ciguatera are treated with symptomatic and supportive remedies, and no specific therapy has been devised. Here we report that ciguatoxin CTX3C can be effectively neutralized in vitro and in vivo by simultaneous use of two anti-ciguatoxin monoclonal antibodies, providing the first rational approach toward directly preventing and treating ciguatera.

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monotis , Thecadinium spp. and Amphidinium carterae Toxins implicated: Ciguatoxins; possibly maitotoxin, okadaic acid, palytoxin analogs, and others. ... in approximately 20% of those acutely exposed to ciguatoxins and lasts for several years, which may be ...

  11. The Epiphytic Genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) in the Kermadec Islands and Zealandia Regions of the Southwestern Pacific and the Associated Risk of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Murray, Sam; Harwood, D Tim; Trnski, Tom; Munday, Rex

    2017-07-11

    Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and/or maitotoxins (MTXs), which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands), and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present. Bulk cultures were tested for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The species isolated were G. australes , which produced MTX-1 (ranging from 3 to 36 pg/cell), and G. polynesiensis , which produced neither MTX-1 nor, unusually, any known CTXs. Isolates of both species produced putative MTX-3. The risk of fish, particularly herbivorous fish, causing CFP in the Zealandia and Kermadec Islands region is real, although in mainland New Zealand the risk is currently low. Both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa have been recorded in the sub-tropical northern region of New Zealand, and so the risk may increase with warming seas and shift in the distribution of Gambierdiscus species.

  12. The Epiphytic Genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae in the Kermadec Islands and Zealandia Regions of the Southwestern Pacific and the Associated Risk of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley L. Rhodes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs and/or maitotoxins (MTXs, which may cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP in humans if contaminated fish are consumed. Species of Gambierdiscus have previously been isolated from macroalgae at Rangitahua (Raoul Island and North Meyer Islands, northern Kermadec Islands, and the opportunity was taken to sample for Gambierdiscus at the more southerly Macauley Island during an expedition in 2016. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated, cultured, and DNA extracted and sequenced to determine the species present. Bulk cultures were tested for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The species isolated were G. australes, which produced MTX-1 (ranging from 3 to 36 pg/cell, and G. polynesiensis, which produced neither MTX-1 nor, unusually, any known CTXs. Isolates of both species produced putative MTX-3. The risk of fish, particularly herbivorous fish, causing CFP in the Zealandia and Kermadec Islands region is real, although in mainland New Zealand the risk is currently low. Both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa have been recorded in the sub-tropical northern region of New Zealand, and so the risk may increase with warming seas and shift in the distribution of Gambierdiscus species.

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis following ciguatera poisoning: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Ryuichi; Shimabukuro, Akira; Kinjo, Mitsuyo

    2017-05-01

    Objective: To report the first case of ciguatera-associated rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Patient: A 53-year-old man presented to our clinic with morning stiffness and pain in the fingers and wrists. Results: For six months, he had suffered from chronic pain in both hands and shoulders caused by ciguatera poisoning. He was referred to a local general hospital and diagnosed with RA. Conclusion: When synovitis becomes evident in chronic ciguatera poisoning, reevaluation is necessary, including investigation of chronic arthritis, which might be associated with the onset of RA.

  14. Linking ciguatera poisoning to spatial ecology of fish: a novel approach to examining the distribution of biotoxin levels in the great barracuda by combining non-lethal blood sampling and biotelemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Amanda C; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Danylchuk, Andy J; Ramsdell, John S; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-15

    Ciguatera in humans is typically caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated Ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their flesh. Over a six month period, we captured 38 wild adult great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), a species commonly associated with ciguatera in The Bahamas. We sampled three tissues (i.e., muscle, liver, and blood) and analysed them for the presence of ciguatoxins using a functional in vitro N2A bioassay. Detectable concentrations of ciguatoxins found in the three tissue types ranged from 2.51 to 211.74pg C-CTX-1 equivalents/g. Blood and liver toxin concentrations were positively correlated (ρ=0.86, P=0.003), indicating that, for the first time, blood sampling provides a non-lethal method of detecting ciguatoxin in wild fish. Non-lethal blood sampling also presents opportunities to couple this approach with biotelemetry and biologging techniques that enable the study of fish distribution and movement. To demonstrate the potential for linking ciguatoxin occurrence with barracuda spatial ecology, we also present a proof-of-concept case study where blood samples were obtained from 20 fish before releasing them with acoustic transmitters and tracking them in the coastal waters using a fixed acoustic telemetry array covering 44km(2). Fish that tested positive for CTX may have smaller home ranges than non-toxic fish (median distance travelled, U=2.21, P=0.03). Results presented from this study may help identify high risk areas and source-sink dynamics of toxins, potentially reducing the incidence and human health risk of ciguatera fish poisoning. Moreover, development of the non-lethal sampling approach and measurement of ciguatera from blood provide future opportunities to understand the mechanistic relationship between toxins and the spatial ecology of a broad range of marine fish species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Reybier, Karine; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-06-25

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX-1B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Many traditional remedies are commonly used in the Pacific against CFP. In this context, bioassay-guided screening was carried out to study NO inhibiting capacity of 28 selected plant extracts. We prepared aqueous extracts of plants used in New Caledonia in the treatment of CFP and screened their NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among 28 plants tested, Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Schinus terebenthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae), Vitex trifolia (Labiateae) and Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) showed inhibitory activity, validating their use as traditional remedies in CFP, and the potential for use in the treatment of conditions accompanied by NO overproduction. These plants are promising candidates for further screening of their active compounds through activity-guided fractionation.

  16. Two patients with ciguatera toxicity: a seafood poisoning in travellers to (sub) tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobbe, L; van Genderen, P J J; Wismans, P J

    2008-10-01

    Ciguatera toxicity is a type of seafood poisoning caused by the consumption of ciguatoxic reef fish. We describe two patients with characteristic gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, both of whom had eaten local seafood. Although mortality is low, morbidity can be considerable due to debilitating symptoms. Most cases originate in the (sub)tropics but due to expanding tourism and fish exportation, it may be encountered in more temperate regions. Treatment is supportive, but some benefit from intravenous mannitol has been reported.

  17. TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions. PMID:17659256

  18. Characteristic Features and Contributory Factors in Fatal Ciguatera Fish Poisoning—Implications for Prevention and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the main objective was to describe the characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning and identify contributory factors, with a view to promote prevention and public education. Ciguatera-related deaths, although rare, have been reported from the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean regions. The clinical features were generally dominated by convulsions and coma, with various focal neurological signs. Several contributory factors could be identified, including consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-rich fish parts (viscera and head) in larger amounts, the most ciguatoxic fish species (e.g., Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) and reef fish collected after storms and individuals' susceptibility. Mass ciguatera fish poisoning with mortalities also occurred when G. flavimarginatus and other ciguatoxic fish species were shared in gatherings and parties. The characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning must be recognized early. The public should be repeatedly reminded to avoid eating the most ciguatoxic fish species and the CTX-rich parts of reef fish. To prevent mass poisoning in gatherings and parties, the most ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species must be avoided. Particularly after hits by disastrous storms, it is important to monitor the toxicity of reef fish and the incidence rates of ciguatera. PMID:26787145

  19. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Mahana iti Gatti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP, associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia. The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.

  20. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Clémence Mahana Iti; Lonati, Davide; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Zancan, Arturo; Roué, Mélanie; Schicchi, Azzurra; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-02-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories.

  1. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Davide; Zancan, Arturo; Schicchi, Azzurra; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most prevalent non-bacterial food-borne form of poisoning in French Polynesia, which results from the consumption of coral reef fish naturally contaminated with ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Since the early 2000s, this French territory has also witnessed the emergence of atypical forms of ciguatera, known as ciguatera shellfish poisoning (CSP), associated with the consumption of marine invertebrates. In June 2014, nine tourists simultaneously developed a major and persistent poisoning syndrome following the consumption of the gastropod Tectus niloticus collected in Anaho, a secluded bay of Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas Archipelago, French Polynesia). The unusual nature and severity of this event prompted a multidisciplinary investigation in order to characterize the etiology and document the short/long-term health consequences of this mass-poisoning event. This paper presents the results of clinical investigations based on hospital medical records, medical follow-up conducted six and 20 months post-poisoning, including a case description. This study is the first to describe the medical signature of T. niloticus poisoning in French Polynesia and contributed to alerting local authorities about the potential health hazards associated with the consumption of this gastropod, which is highly prized by local communities in Pacific island countries and territories. PMID:29495579

  2. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C: a venture into the problems of ciguatera seafood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirama, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    After a twelve-year struggle, the total synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C has been achieved. Annually, more than 20,000 people worldwide suffer from ciguatera seafood poisoning. The extremely small amounts of the causative neurotoxin, ciguatoxin, in fish hampered the isolation, structural elucidation, detailed biological study, and preparation of anti-ciguatoxin antibodies for detecting these toxins. The large (3 nanometers long) and complicated molecular structure of ciguatoxins hindered chemists from completing a total synthesis. The chemical synthesis of CTX3C, determination of the absolute configuration, and synthesis-based preparation of the monoclonal antibodies as well as the effect of synthetic CTX3C on voltage-sensitive sodium channels are outlined. (c) 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  4. Neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis in the anterior cingulate cortex in acute ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Li, Ying

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific ciguatoxin 1 (P-CTX-1), we performed in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and identified the increase in spontaneous firings and enhanced responses to visceral noxious stimulation. Local field recordings characterized the P-CTX-1-induced synaptic potentiation and blockage of the induction of electrical stimulation-induced long-term potentiation in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC pathway. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of P-CTX-1 at doses of 1.0, 5.0, and 10 nM produced a dose-dependent increase in ACC neuronal firings and MT-ACC synaptic transmission. Further studies showed upregulated Na(+) channel expression in astrocytes under pathological conditions. We hypothesized that the astrocytes might have been activated in the ciguatera poisoning in vivo. Increases in glial fibrillary acid protein expression were detected in reactive astrocytes in the rat ACC. The activation of astroglia was further indicated by activation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 and upregulation of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 expression suggesting that glutamate was normally rapidly cleared from the synaptic cleft during acute ciguatera poisoning. However, neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis were not detected in the ACC after 7 days of P-CTX-1 exposure. The present results are the first characterization of P-CTX-1-invoked brain cortex neuronal excitotoxicity in vivo and supported the theme that neuron and astroglia signals might play roles in acute ciguatera poisoning.

  5. Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia: size does not always matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Matthias; Ponton, Dominique; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille

    2014-06-01

    Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was ≥6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes

  6. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Hélène Taiana; Roué, Mélanie; Sibat, Manoella; Viallon, Jérôme; Gatti, Clémence Mahana Iti; Vandersea, Mark W; Tester, Patricia A; Litaker, R Wayne; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp; Chinain, Mireille

    2017-12-21

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates) contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus . The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia) prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus . Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

  7. Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Taiana Darius

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus. Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

  8. Neurology of ciguatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxaemia with dramatic and clinically important neurological features. This severe form of fish poisoning may present with either acute or chronic intoxication syndromes and constitutes a global health problem. Ciguatera poisoning is little known in temperate countries as a potentially global problem associated with human ingestion of large carnivorous fish that harbour the bioaccumulated ciguatoxins of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. This neurotoxin is stored in the viscera of fish that have eaten the dinoflagellate and concentrated it upwards throughout the food chain towards progressively larger species, including humans. Ciguatoxin accumulates in all fish tissues, especially the liver and viscera, of "at risk" species. Both Pacific (P-CTX-1) and Caribbean (C-CTX-1) ciguatoxins are heat stable polyether toxins and pose a health risk at concentrations above 0.1 ppb. The presenting signs of ciguatera are primarily neurotoxic in more than 80% of cases. Such include the pathognomonic features of postingestion paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, and heightened nociperception. Other sensory abnormalities include the subjective features of metallic taste, pruritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and dental pain. Cerebellar dysfunction, sometimes diphasic, and weakness due to both neuropathy and polymyositis may be encountered. Autonomic dysfunction leads to hypotension, bradycardia, and hypersalivation in severe cases. Ciguatoxins are potent, lipophilic sodium channel activator toxins which bind to the voltage sensitive (site 5) sodium channel on the cell membranes of all excitable tissues. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and the early administration of intravenous mannitol. The early identification of the neurological features in sentinel patients has the potential to reduce the number of secondary cases in cluster outbreaks.

 PMID:11118239

  9. Ciguatera: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Robert W; Plakas, Steven M

    2010-08-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of fish that have accumulated lipid-soluble ciguatoxins. In the United States, ciguatera is responsible for the highest reported incidence of food-borne illness outbreaks attributed to finfish, and it is reported to hold this distinction globally. Ciguatoxins traverse the marine food web from primary producers, Gambierdiscus spp., to commonly consumed fish in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ciguatoxins comprise 12 known congeners among Caribbean and tropical Atlantic fish and 29 reported congeners among Pacific fish. Expanding trade in fisheries from ciguatera-endemic regions contributes to wider distribution and increasing frequency of disease among seafood consumers in non-endemic regions. Ciguatoxins produce a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiological symptoms. Treatment options are very limited and supportive in nature. Information derived from the study of ciguatera outbreaks has improved clinical recognition, confirmation, and timely treatment. Such studies are equally important for the differentiation of ciguatoxin profiles in fish from one region to the next, the determination of toxicity thresholds in humans, and the formulation of safety limits. Analytical information from case and outbreak investigations was used to derive Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxin threshold contamination rates for adverse effects in seafood consumers. To these threshold estimates 10-fold safety factors were applied to address individual human risk factors; uncertainty in the amount of fish consumed; and analytical accuracy. The studies may serve as the basis for industry and consumer advisory levels of 0.10ppb C-CTX-1 equivalent toxicity in fish from the tropical Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and 0.01ppb P-CTX-1 equivalent toxicity in fish from Pacific regions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p < 0.001). The incriminated fish was later identified as a scombroid fish of Euthynnus with a histamine content of 271.9 mg/100 g flesh in 1 leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish

  11. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  12. Prevalence and proposal for cost-effective management of the ciguatera risk in the Noumea fish market, New Caledonia (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clua, Eric; Brena, Pierpaolo F; Lecasble, Côme; Ghnassia, Reine; Chauvet, Claude

    2011-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a common intoxication associated with the consumption of reef fish, which constitutes a critical issue for public health in many countries. The complexity of its epidemiology is responsible for the poor management of the risk in tropical fish markets. We used the example of the Noumea fish market in New Caledonia to develop a cost-effective methodology of assessing the CFP risk. We first used published reports and the knowledge of local experts to define a list of potentially poisonous local species, ranked by their ciguatoxic potential. Based on two 1-month surveys in the market, conducted in winters 2008 and 2009, we then calculated the consolidated ratio of biomass of potentially poisonous species vs. total biomass of fish sold on the market. The prevalence of high CFP-risk species in the market was 16.1% and 18.9% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The most common high CFP risk species were groupers (serranids), king mackerels (scombrids), snappers (lutjanids), barracudas (sphyaraenids), emperors (lethrinids) and wrasses (labrids). The size (age) of the fish also plays a critical role in the potential ciguatoxic risk. According to proposals of average size thresholds provided by experts for high-risk species, we were also able to assess the additional risk induced by the sale of some large fish on the market. The data collected both from experts and from the market allowed us to develop a cost-effective proposal for improving the management of the CFP risk in this market. However, the successful implementation of any regulation aiming to ban some specific species and sizes from the market, with an acceptable economical impact, will require the improvement of the expertise in fish identification by public health officers and, ideally, the commitment of retailers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  14. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  15. Survey of ciguatera at Enewetak and Bikini, Marshall Islands, with notes on the systematics and food habits of ciguatoxic fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J.E.

    1980-04-01

    A total of 551 specimens of 48 species of potentially ciguatoxic fishes from Enewetak and 256 specimens of 23 species from Bikini, Marshall Islands, were tested for ciguatoxin by feeding liver or liver and viscera from these fishes to mongooses at 10% body weight (except for sharks, when only muscle tissue was used). The fishes are representatives of the following families: Orectolobidae, Carcharhinidae, Dasyatidae, Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Sphyraenidae, Mugilidae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Carangidae, Scombridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Acanthuridae, and Balistidae. The species selected were all ones for which toxicity can be expected, including the worst offenders from reports of ciguatera throughout Oceania; only moderate to large-sized adults were tested. In all, 37.3% of the fishes from Enewetak and 19.7% from Bikini gave a positive reaction for ciguatoxin. Because liver and other viscera are more toxic than muscle, the percentage of positive reactions at the level which might cause illness in humans eating only the flesh of these fishes collectively would drop to 16.2 for Enewetak and 1.4 for Bikini. This level of toxicity is not regarded as high for Pacific islands, in general. Because ciguatoxin is acquired through feeding, the food habits of these fishes were investigated. Most of the highly toxic species, including seven of the eight causing severe illness or death in the test animals (Lycodontis javanicus, Cephalopholis argus, Epinephelus hoedtii, E. microdon, Plectropomus leopardus, Aprion virescens, and Lutjanus bohar) are primarily piscivorous.

  16. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  17. 78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    .... FDA-2013-D-0269] Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With... seafood processors who purchase reef fish how to minimize the risk of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) from...

  18. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Normal axonal ion channel function in large peripheral nerve fibers following chronic ciguatera sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2008-03-01

    Although the acute clinical effects of ciguatera poisoning, due to ingestion of ciguatoxin, are mediated by activation of transient Na+ channels, the mechanisms underlying ciguatera sensitization remain undefined. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the median motor and sensory nerves in two patients with ciguatera sensitization. Excitability parameters were all within normal limits, thereby arguing against dysfunction of axonal membrane ion channels in large-diameter fibers in ciguatera sensitization.

  20. Puffer fish poisoning: summary of case reports from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish poisoning is a common seafood poisoning. The problem is due to tetradotoxin in puffy fish meat. It can be seen in many countries with seacoasts. The problem is resulted from tetradotoxin (TTX in puffer fish meat. This toxin is an important natural toxin. Here, the authors report summary of case reports from Thailand. The authors use standard search engines (PubMed and Thai Index Medicus for searching on the reports on puffer fish poisoning from Thailand. According to this work, there are at least 3 reports on 55 cases of puffer fish poisoning. All cases visit to the physician within 30 min. Focusing on severity, stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be seen in 16%, 8%, 4% and 72%, respectively. In the present report, the summary of the cases presenting to the physician at hospital is shown. Of interest, most patients have severe intoxication and the respirator failure is an important problem to be managed. It is clearly shown in the present report that if good respiratory support is done, the full recovery without problem can be derived. It is no doubt that there is no death case in the present series since the present report focuses on the cases that are successfully delivered to the hospital for management.

  1. Hypnosis to alleviate the symptoms of ciguatera toxicity: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Eleanor D; Shenefelt, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Ciguatera toxicity is a poisoning from consuming reef fish that had fed on dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus found along coral reefs. The toxin is oil soluble, odorless, colorless, tasteless, heat stable, and is concentrated in larger carnivorous fish such as amberjack, barracuda, eel, grouper, red snapper, sea bass, and Spanish mackerel. Onset of symptoms is usually within 6-12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms lasting 1-2 days include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms may persist for weeks or several months or--rarely--years and include circumoral and extremity paresthesias, temperature sensation reversal, itching, weakness, ataxia, and others. A patient with burning hands and feet who had not found relief using other methods had diagnosis of ciguatera toxicity assisted by hypnotically refreshed memory followed by rapid relief with hypnotic suggestions in 1 session and remained free of symptoms.

  2. Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples ...

  3. Socioeconomic impacts and management ciguatera in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R J

    1992-01-01

    The inshore fisheries resource is important to the health and culture of many of the inhabitants of Pacific Island countries (PIC). Ciguateric fishes (mainly demersal reef fishes) cause a range of distressing and often debilitating gastrointestinal neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Consequently, ciguatera limits the utilisation of this otherwise over-exploited resource. For many victims, the symptoms suffered during the chronic phase of ciguatera (lasting weeks, months and occasionally years) are exacerbated upon consumption of certain foods, particularly non-toxic fishes. After each outbreak, victims and members of their social-network experience a transient increase in perception of the risk of eating reef fish. The impact of ciguatera is greatest in atoll island countries where fish is the primary source of protein (it also has a major impact and to facilitate the management of ciguatera in PIC, regular information is required that quantifies: (i) the true incidence of ciguatera; (ii) the extent and way in which different communities avoid ciguatera; and (iii) the adverse impact ciguatera has on health, the workforce, trade and tourism. Over the last 15 years (based on SPEHIS data to 1990), some countries recorded a decrease in the ciguatera problem (New Caledonia, Marshall Is.), other countries an increase (Kirbati, Tuvalu, French Polynesia), while still other countries recorded an increase followed by a decrease in ciguatera (Tokelau, American Samoa, Western Samoa, Fiji and Vanuatu). There may also be seasonal trends in the incidence of ciguatera in some countries e.g. Fiji. Management options presently implementable in PIC include: (i) treatment with i.v. mannitol; (ii) provision of timely advise on the location and status of ciguatera "hot spots" in each country that would allow affected communities to react objectively to the risk posed by ciguatera; and (iii) modification of human behaviour and aspirations to reduce the impact of increasing

  4. The prevalence of benthic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela; Richlen, Mindy L.; Mak, Yim Ling; Morton, Steve L.; Laban, Elizabeth H.; Xu, Yixiao; Anderson, Donald M.; Chan, Leo Lai; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    using the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay for ciguatoxins (CTX) confirmed G. belizeanus as a CTX producer, with a maximum toxin content of 6.50±1.14×10−5pg P-CTX-1 eq. cell−1. Compared to Gambierdiscus isolates from other locations, these were low

  5. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  6. Temporal trends and epidemiological aspects of ciguatera in French Polynesia: a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Dewailly, Eric; Cerf, Nicole; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Huin-Blondey, Marie-Odile; Hubert, Bruno; Laudon, François; Chansin, René

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the temporal trends of the incidence of ciguatera poisoning from 1992 to 2001 in French Polynesia. This retrospective study analysed 7842 cases of ciguatera disease recorded over a period of 10 years. The annual incidence varied from 26.3 to 41.9 per 10,000 person-years. An analysis of cases grouped by archipelago revealed differences in incidences (P ciguatera poisoning appeared relatively stable during the 10 years of the study period. However, the gradient of remoteness observed suggests an adaptation of management of ciguatera disease to each archipelago.

  7. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2013-12-15

    Humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. A food surveillance project using a validated mouse bioassay revealed the presence of ciguatoxins in significantly greater amounts in its flesh than in groupers and other coral reef fishes commonly available in Hong Kong wholesale market. Humphead wrasse has long been known to cause ciguatera, but there was a lack of clinical reports. A 45-year-old woman developed ciguatera after eating humphead wrasse. She required ICU care and infusions of intravenous fluids and dopamine for management of severe hypotension. All 5 published case series are also reviewed to characterise the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms after its consumption. In addition to the gastrointestinal, neurological and other features that were typical of ciguatera, some subjects developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, shock, neuropsychiatric features (e.g. mental exhaustion, depression, insomnia and memory loss), other central nervous system symptoms (e.g. coma, convulsions and ataxia) and myocardial ischaemia. Other subjects still experienced residual symptoms 6 months later; these were mainly neurological or neuropsychiatric complaints and skin pruritus. To prevent ciguatera, the public should avoid eating humphead wrasse and other large coral reef fishes. They should realise that consumption of the high-risk fish may result in more severe and chronic illness, including life-threatening complications and neuropsychiatric features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical issues in the development of health information systems in supporting environmental health: a case study of ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Derne, Bonnie; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-05-01

    Emerging environmental pressures resulting from climate change and globalization challenge the capacity of health information systems (HIS) in the Pacific to inform future policy and public health interventions. Ciguatera, a globally common marine food-borne illness, is used here to illustrate specific HIS challenges in the Pacific and how these might be overcome proactively to meet the changing surveillance needs resulting from environmental change. We review and highlight inefficiencies in the reactive nature of existing HIS in the Pacific to collect, collate, and communicate ciguatera fish poisoning data currently used to inform public health intervention. Further, we review the capacity of existing HIS to respond to new data needs associated with shifts in ciguatera disease burden likely to result from coral reef habitat disruption. Improved knowledge on the ecological drivers of ciguatera prevalence at local and regional levels is needed, combined with enhanced surveillance techniques and data management systems, to capture environmental drivers as well as health outcomes data. The capacity of public HIS to detect and prevent future outbreaks is largely dependent on the future development of governance strategies that promote proactive surveillance and health action. Accordingly, we present an innovative framework from which to stimulate scientific debate on how this might be achieved by using existing larger scale data sets and multidisciplinary collaborations.

  9. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine.

  10. Identification of tetrodotoxin and fish species in a dried dressed fish fillet implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Hsieh, Yu-Wen; Shiu, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Kong; Cheng, Chao-An

    2002-02-01

    There were five victims of neurotoxic food poisoning from a dried dressed fish fillet in Changhua County, Taiwan, in February 2000. The toxicity of the dried dressed fish fillets was 243 mouse units per g according to a tetrodotoxin bioassay. The partially purified toxin was identified as tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin. The sequence of the 376-nucleotide region in the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA exhibited the same genotype as that of the toxic puffer fish Lagocephalus lunaris. The same single restriction site for Hinfl was found in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the dried dressed fish fillet and the muscle of L. lunaris, yielding two DNA fragments of 170 and 206 bp. However, no restriction site for Hinfl was found in the PCR products from other toxic puffer fishes, including Takifugu niphobles, Takifugu oblongus, and Takifugu rubripes. Therefore, the species of the dried dressed fish fillet was identified as L. lunaris and its causative agent was identified as tetrodotoxin.

  11. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  12. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home. Regularly test and replace the batteries. Poisoning treatment Treatment depends on the person and the type ... Injury Prevention, Prevention and Wellness, Staying HealthyTags: chemical ... poison treatments, snakebite, syrup of ipecac July 12, 2017 Featured ...

  13. TRP channel blamed for burning cold after a tropical fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    EMBO J (2012) 31 19, 3795–3808 doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.207; published online 07312012 Ciguatera is one of the most common forms of food poisoning, occurring after consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. New work by Vetter et al (2012) reveals the key molecular players that underlie the altered temperature sensation associated with ciguatera. In particular, they show that ciguatoxins act on sensory neurons that express TRPA1, an ion channel implicated in the detection of noxious cold. PMID:22960637

  14. Short report: persistent bradycardia caused by ciguatoxin poisoning after barracuda fish eggs ingestion in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yao-Min; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Chou, Kang-Ju; Huang, Neng-Chyan; Tung, Chung-Ni; Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2005-12-01

    We report an outbreak of ciguatoxin poisoning after barracuda fish ingestion in southern Taiwan. Three members of a family developed nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and myalgias about 1 hour after eating three to ten eggs of a barracuda fish. Numbness of the lips and extremities followed the gastrointestinal symptoms about 2 hours after ingestion. Other manifestations included hyperthermia, hypotension, bradycardia, and hyperreflexia. Bradycardia persisted for several days, and one patient required a continuous infusion of intravenous atropine totaling 40 mg over 2 days. Further follow-up of the patients disclosed improvement of neurologic sequelae and bradycardia, but sensory abnormalities resolved several months later. In conclusion, ciguatoxin poisoning causes mainly gastrointestinal and neurologic effects of variable severity. In two patients with ciguatoxin poisoning after barracuda fish egg ingestion, persistent bradycardia required prolonged atropine infusion.

  15. Spatial distribution of ciguateric fish in the Republic of Kiribati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Hei; Mak, Yim Ling; Wu, Jia Jun; Jin, Ling; Sit, Wai Hung; Lam, James Chung Wah; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Murphy, Margaret B

    2011-06-01

    Ciguatera is food poisoning caused by human consumption of reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The expanding international trade of tropical fish species from ciguatera-endemic regions has resulted in increased global incidence of ciguatera, and more than 50000 people are estimated to suffer from ciguatera each year worldwide. The Republic of Kiribati is located in the Pacific Ocean; two of its islands, Marakei and Tarawa, have been suggested as high-risk areas for ciguatera. The toxicities of coral reef fish collected from these islands, including herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous fish (24% [n=41], 8% [n=13] and 68% [n=117], respectively), were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma assay (MNA) after CTX extraction. The MNA results indicated that 156 fish specimens, or 91% of the fish samples, were ciguatoxic (CTX levels >0.01 ng g(-1)). Groupers and moray eels were generally more toxic by an order of magnitude than other fish species. All of the collected individuals of eight species (n=3-19) were toxic. Toxicity varied within species and among locations by up to 10000-fold. Cephalapholis argus and Gymnothorax spp. collected from Tarawa Island were significantly less toxic than those from Marakei Island, although all individuals were toxic based on the 0.01 ng g(-1) threshold. CTX concentrations in the livers of individuals of two moray eel species (Gymnothorax spp., n=6) were nine times greater than those in muscle, and toxicity in liver and muscle showed a strong positive correlation with body weight. The present study provides quantitative information on the ciguatoxicity and distribution of toxicity in fish for use in fisheries management and public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Prevalence of Benthic Dinoflagellates Associated with Ciguatera in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    This study confirms the presence of Gambierdiscus sp., Ostreopsis sp. as well as other epiphytic benthic dinoflagellates associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in the Central Red Sea, highlighting the potential occurrence of CFP in this region. These species are reported for the first time in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. A total of 80 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast. Sample analyses indicated low average cell abundances (< 40 cells g-1 wet weight algae) of Gambierdiscus sp. and Ostreopsis sp. Subsequent statistical analyses indicated a significant difference in the cell abundances of both genera between sampling sites, between species and between inshore and offshore reefs. The presence of several potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species in the Red Sea and the statistical differences in abundances between different sampling sites merits future study on possible impacts of these dinoflagellates on marine food webs and human health.

  17. Semiquantitative mercury determination in fish: a tool for poisoning prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YALLOUZ ALLEGRA V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particulaly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators.

  18. The Diverse Uses Of Fish-Poison Plants In Northwest Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    Although prohibited by law, fish poison plants are still widely used by indigenous tribes in Guyana. The latest ethnobotanical collections date from the first half of the 20th century and, from recent anthropological studies, it cannot be deduced whether the same species are still used today. The

  19. Establishing a public health analytical service based on chemical methods for detecting and quantifying Pacific ciguatoxin in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K; Poole, Sue; Graham, Glenn; Paulo, Carl; Wickramasinghe, Wasantha; Sadler, Ross; Shaw, Glen R

    2010-10-01

    A referee analysis method for the detection and quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish flesh has recently been established by the public health analytical laboratory for the State of Queensland, Australia. Fifty-six fish samples were analysed, which included 10 fillets purchased as negative controls. P-CTX-1 was identified in 27 samples, and P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 were found in 26 of those samples. The range of P-CTX-1 concentrations was 0.04-11.4 microg/kg fish flesh; coefficient of variation from 90 replicate analyses was 7.4%. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method utilising a rapid methanol extraction and clean-up is reliable and reproducible, with the detection limit at 0.03 microg/kg fish flesh. Some matrix effects are evident, with fish oil content a likely signal suppression factor. Species identification of samples by DNA sequence analysis revealed some evidence of fish substitution or inadvertent misidentification, which may have implications for the management and prevention of ciguatera poisoning. Blinded inspection of case notes from suspect ciguatera poisoning cases showed that reporting of ciguatera-related paraesthesias was highly predictable for the presence of ciguatoxins in analysed fish, with 13 of 14 expected cases having consumed fish that contained P-CTX-1 (p<0.001, Fishers Exact Test). Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ciguatera and acute polyradiculoneuritis. Description of two cases in French Polynesia: immunoallergic hypothesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, E; Gatti, C; Legrand, A M; Ghawche, F

    2009-02-01

    Ciguatera is a foodborne poisoning caused by eating seafood from tropical and subtropical reef areas. According to official data from the local health department, cases of ciguatera in French Polynesia are estimated to involve 240 to 400 persons per 100 000 inhabitants. Associated with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and general signs, ciguatera is usually benign although some forms can lead to hospitalization. The purpose of this report is to describe two unusual cases involving patients who developed acute polyradiculoneuritis with Guillain-Barré-syndrome-like peripheral nervous system deficits on the seventh day of ciguatera after ingestion of moray eel. The hypothesis of an immune-allergic reaction is raised especially in the light of rapid improvement of the patient who received polyvalent immunoglobulin treatment.

  1. Emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-03-02

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100-200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  2. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people. Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  3. Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future.

  4. Regional Variations in the Risk and Severity of Ciguatera Caused by Eating Moray Eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2017-06-26

    Moray eels ( Gymnothorax species) from tropical waters have long been known to be high-risk species, and the consumption of particularly the viscera or ungutted eels can result in severe ciguatera (known as Gymnothorax or moray eel poisoning), characterized by prominent neurological features. In this review, the main objective was to describe the risk and severity of ciguatera caused by eating moray eels in different parts of the world. Moray eels can accumulate very high ciguatoxin (CTX) levels in the flesh and particularly the liver. Therefore, even the smaller ones can be toxic and the consumption of an average portion (particularly liver) can result in severe or fatal ciguatera. Moray eels (particularly when ungutted) must never be served in gatherings since they can cause mass poisoning because of their large sizes and high CTX levels. Apart from regulatory measures restricting or excluding access, the public should be repeatedly warned to avoid eating moray eels.

  5. Regional Variations in the Risk and Severity of Ciguatera Caused by Eating Moray Eels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Moray eels (Gymnothorax species from tropical waters have long been known to be high-risk species, and the consumption of particularly the viscera or ungutted eels can result in severe ciguatera (known as Gymnothorax or moray eel poisoning, characterized by prominent neurological features. In this review, the main objective was to describe the risk and severity of ciguatera caused by eating moray eels in different parts of the world. Moray eels can accumulate very high ciguatoxin (CTX levels in the flesh and particularly the liver. Therefore, even the smaller ones can be toxic and the consumption of an average portion (particularly liver can result in severe or fatal ciguatera. Moray eels (particularly when ungutted must never be served in gatherings since they can cause mass poisoning because of their large sizes and high CTX levels. Apart from regulatory measures restricting or excluding access, the public should be repeatedly warned to avoid eating moray eels.

  6. Regional Variations in the Risk and Severity of Ciguatera Caused by Eating Moray Eels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2017-01-01

    Moray eels (Gymnothorax species) from tropical waters have long been known to be high-risk species, and the consumption of particularly the viscera or ungutted eels can result in severe ciguatera (known as Gymnothorax or moray eel poisoning), characterized by prominent neurological features. In this review, the main objective was to describe the risk and severity of ciguatera caused by eating moray eels in different parts of the world. Moray eels can accumulate very high ciguatoxin (CTX) levels in the flesh and particularly the liver. Therefore, even the smaller ones can be toxic and the consumption of an average portion (particularly liver) can result in severe or fatal ciguatera. Moray eels (particularly when ungutted) must never be served in gatherings since they can cause mass poisoning because of their large sizes and high CTX levels. Apart from regulatory measures restricting or excluding access, the public should be repeatedly warned to avoid eating moray eels. PMID:28672845

  7. Development of standardized methodology for identifying toxins in clinical samples and fish species associated with tetrodotoxin-borne poisoning incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin in food, especially in puffer fish. TTX poisoning is observed frequently in South East Asian regions. In TTX-derived food poisoning outbreaks, the amount of TTX recovered from suspicious fish samples or leftovers, and residual levels from biological fluids of victims are typically trace. However, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods have been demonstrated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine TTX in clinical samples from victims. Identification and validation of the TTX-originating seafood species responsible for a food poisoning incident is needed. A polymerase chain reaction-based method on mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identification of fish species. This review aims to collect pertinent information available on TTX-borne food poisoning incidents with a special emphasis on the analytical methods employed for TTX detection in clinical laboratories as well as for the identification of TTX-bearing species.

  8. Caribbean ciguatera: a changing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R Tosteson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of ciguatoxicity in the great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda and quantity of toxic benthic dinoflagellates on coastal reefs (correlated with the number of cases of human ciguatera intoxications in Puerto Rico were used to construct a model formulated on data obtained during the period of 1985-1988. The validity of the proposed model has been questioned by recent data obtained during the period of 1990-2000. Barracuda ciguatoxicity no longer showed a prominent seasonality while the fraction of randomly caught barracuda that were ciguatoxic significantly increased during this period. These two changes, accompanied by the discovery that ciguatoxic fish contained a variety of multiple toxins, appear to be correlated with the steadily increasing periods of elevated sea surface temperatures in this regionPruebas de ciguatoxicidad en la gran barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda y la cantidad de dinoflagelados bentónicos tóxicos en los arrecifes de la costa están correlacionados con el número de casos de intoxicaciones por ciguatera en humanos, en Puerto Rico. Estos hechos fueron utilizados para construir un modelo que fue formulado con la información recopilada durante el período de 1985- 1988. La validez de este modelo propuesto ha sido cuestionada debido a la información recientemente obtenida durante el período 1990-2000. La ciguatoxicidad en la barracuda ya no demostraba una marcada asociación con las temporadas mientras que la cantidad de barracuda ciguatóxica capturada al azar tuvo un aumento significativo durante este período. Estos dos cambios estuvieron acompañados por el descubrimiento de que peces ciguatóxicos contienen una gran variedad de toxinas que parecen estar relacionadas con los períodos de elevadas temperaturas en la superficie del mar. Estas temperaturas continúan aumentando de manera que a su vez continúan en un aumento estable en esta región

  9. Defining the neurotoxin derived illness chronic ciguatera using markers of chronic systemic inflammatory disturbances: a case/control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Ritchie C; House, Dennis; Ryan, James C

    2010-01-01

    Ciguatoxins are extremely potent neurotoxins, produced by tropical marine dinoflagellates, that persistently enter into our food web. Over 100,000 people annually experience acute ciguatera poisoning from consuming toxic fish. Roughly 5% of these victims will develop chronic ciguatera (CC), a widespread, multisymptom, multisystem, chronic illness that can last tens of years. CC is marked by disproportionate disability and non-specific refractory symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive deficits and pain, and is suggestive of other illnesses. Its unknown pathophysiology makes both diagnosis and treatment difficult. We wanted to compare objective parameters of visual contrast sensitivity testing, measures of innate immune response and genetic markers in cases to controls to assess the potential for the presence of persistent inflammatory parameters that are demonstrated in other biotoxin associated illnesses at a single specialty clinic. Using 59 CC cases and 59 controls we present in retrospective review, in all cases, abnormalities in immune responses paralleling the chronic systemic inflammatory response syndrome seen in several other chronic diseases. This study defines a preliminary case definition using medical history, total symptoms, visual contrast sensitivity, HLA DR genotype analysis, reduction of regulatory neuropeptides VIP and MSH, and multiple measures of inflammatory immune response, especially C4a and TGFβ1, thereby providing a basis for identification and targeted therapy. CC provides a model for chronic human illness associated with initiation of inflammatory responses by biologically produced neurotoxins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-30

    and labeled for shipment. The vial is then encased ip a plastic container with absorbant material. The plastic container is then packed into a metal ...and Pesado , D., (1985) Production and toxicity of Gambierdiscus tcxicas, Adacbh and Fukuyo (Dinophyceae), Phycologia, 24, 2 17-223. 96. Durand, M

  11. Selenium poisoning of fish by coal ash wastewater in Herrington Lake, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Selenium pollution from the E.W. Brown Electric Generating Station was investigated in Herrington Lake, KY. Coal ash wastewater is discharged as surface water overflow from ash disposal ponds into the lake via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the Kentucky Division of Water, but the permit does not restrict or limit the amount of selenium released. Unpermitted discharges occur from seeps and drainage through leaks in ash pond dams. Together, these discharges have resulted in selenium concentrations in water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish that are 2-9 times the level that is toxic for fish reproduction and survival. A large proportion (12.2%, or 25 times background) of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, the only species examined) exhibited spinal and/or craniofacial malformations that are consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated a 3.05% population-level impact on the bass fishery, with total selenium-induced mortality (including pre-swimup mortality) estimated to be in excess of 25% per year. These findings confirm that coal ash discharges into Herrington Lake are contributing selenium to the Lake that is poisoning fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of

  13. Association of cardiac disease and alcohol use with the development of severe ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Morris, John Glenn

    2013-12-01

    Ciguatera is a foodborne illness that causes severe gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms, but the risk factors for illness are not well established. In St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed a case-control study for ciguatera, enrolling 47 patients primarily through the emergency department and 141 age- and sex-matched controls identified through an island-wide survey. We used conditional logistic regression to assess health-related risk factors for ciguatera, including comorbidities and alcohol and tobacco use. Cases were more likely than controls to report alcohol consumption at least weekly (odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 2.7-24.8). Cases also more frequently had a history of heart disease (odds ratio 6.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-32.7). Previous ciguatera episodes, lower levels of education, and frequent fish consumption also were associated with illness. This study provides preliminary evidence that preexisting health status influences an individual's risk of developing severe ciguatera. There may be a benefit to educating high-risk individuals about preventing ciguatera.

  14. Towards the standardisation of the neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay for ciguatoxin-like toxicity detection in fish: application to fish caught in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, A; Eixarch, H; de la Iglesia, P; Rodriguez, M; Dominguez, L; Andree, K B; Diogène, J

    2012-01-01

    The ouabain/veratridine-dependent neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay (CBA) was applied for the determination of the presence of ciguatoxin (CTX)-like compounds in ciguatera-suspected fish samples caught in the Canary Islands. In order to avoid matrix interferences the maximal concentration of wet weight fish tissue exposed to the neuro-2a cells was set at 20 mg tissue equivalent (TE) ml(-1) according to the sample preparation procedure applied. In the present study, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of CTX1B equivalents in fish extract was set at the limit of detection (LOD), being defined as the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 20% cell viability (IC(20)). The LOQ was estimated as 0.0096 ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1) with 23-31% variability between experiments. These values were deemed sufficient even though quantification given at the IC(50) (the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 50% cell viability) is more accurate with a variability of 17-19% between experiments. Among the 13 fish samples tested, four fish samples were toxic to the neuro-2a cells with estimations of the content in CTX1B g(-1) of TE ranging from 0.058 (± 0.012) to 6.23 (± 0.713) ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1). The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay for CTX1B confirmed its suitability as a screening tool of CTX-like compounds in fish extracts at levels that may cause ciguatera fish poisoning. Species identification of fish samples by DNA sequence analysis was conducted in order to confirm tentatively the identity of ciguatera risk species and it revealed some evidence of inadvertent misidentification. Results presented in this study are a contribution to the standardisation of the neuro-2a CBA and to the risk analysis for ciguatera in the Canary Islands.

  15. Ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Spanier, Ehud

    2007-09-01

    The consumption of edible fish (e.g., Siganus spp) was assumed to have caused ciguatera poisoning at an atypical site, the eastern Mediterranean. This pilot study assesses the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Samples of Siganus rivulatus from polluted seawater (Haifa Bay), Siganus rivulatus from relatively clean seawater (Dor), and fish from the freshwater Sea of Galilee not inhabited by toxic algae were analyzed during summertime. Ciguatoxin-like substances were tested by a membrane immunobead assay that yields a color reaction (positive, weakly positive, negative). Significantly more large and small fish from Haifa Bay yielded positive color reactions compared to fish from Dor. Sea of Galilee fish gave no positive color reactions. Our results suggest the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish of the eastern Mediterranean. Additional analyses are needed to determine whether these substances are ciguatoxins or related polyethers.

  16. Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

    2013-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Ciguatera risk management in French Polynesia: the case study of Raivavae Island (Australes Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinain, Mireille; Darius, H Taiana; Ung, André; Fouc, Mote Tchou; Revel, Taina; Cruchet, Philippe; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2010-10-01

    Based on epidemiological data available through long-term monitoring surveys conducted by both the Public Health Directorate and the Louis Malardé Institute, ciguatera is highly endemic in French Polynesia, most notably in Raivavae (Australes) which appears as a hot spot of ciguatera with an average incidence rate of 140 cases/10,000 population for the period 2007-2008. In order to document the ciguatera risk associated with Raivavae lagoon, algal and toxin-based field monitoring programs were conducted in this island from April 2007 to May 2008. Practically, the distribution, abundance and toxicity of Gambierdiscus populations, along with the toxicity levels in 160 fish distributed within 25 distinct species, were assessed in various sampling locations. Herbivores such as Scarids (parrotfish) and Acanthurids (unicornfish) were rated as high-risk species based on receptor-binding assay toxicity data. A map of the risk stratification within the Raivavae lagoon was also produced, which indicates that locations where both natural and man-made disturbances have occurred remained the most susceptible to CFP incidents. Our findings also suggest that, locally, the traditional knowledge about ciguatera may not be scientifically complete but is functionally correct. Community education resulted in self-regulating behaviour towards avoidance of high-risk fish species and fishing locations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, symptoms and chronicity of ciguatera in New Caledonia: results from an adult population survey conducted in Noumea during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Bourrat, Marie-Blanche; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005. Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-07-11

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  20. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  1. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  2. Susceptibility of salmonid fish to poisons under estuarine conditions. I. Zinc sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Wakeford, A C

    1964-01-01

    The resistance of yearling rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon smolts to zinc sulphate increases with salinity up to 30-40 percent sea water, in which these species can withstand for 2 days respectively 15 and 13 times as much zinc sulphate as on fresh water. Further increase in salinity to 72 percent sea water reduces tolerance for the zinc salt. Salmon smolts were more susceptible to zinc poisoning than trout in fresh water and at all salinities tested.

  3. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food.

  4. Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae in coastal areas of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP: one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet.A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006-2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8-D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities.This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8-D10 as genetic markers are recommended for further use.

  5. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    2014-01-01

    Selenium pollution from coal ash waste water was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14–105 µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24–127 in eggs, 4–23 in muscle,7–38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic...

  6. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  7. [Advance on study development of detection of ciguatoxins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianhui; Zhao, Kunshan; Zhuang, Zhixiong

    2007-11-01

    Ciguatoxin may be a terrible coral fish toxin that can result in poisoning in people who eat fish containing ciguatoxin. Being lack of a convenient and accurate detection method for ciguatoxin, Ciguatera fish poisoning have occurred from time to time. To provide references for detection and prevention of ciguatera fish poisoning, in this paper, the current detection methods of ciguatoxin were reviewed.

  8. Detection of ciguatoxin in fish tissue using sandwich ELISA and neuroblastoma cell bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empey Campora, Cara; Dierking, Jan; Tamaru, Clyde S; Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Vincent, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of a new enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for detecting ciguatoxin (CTX) in fish tissue was evaluated by testing three fish species commonly implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawaii. A total of 164 individual almaco jack (Seriola rivoliana) and greater amberjack (S. dumerili) and a total of 175 individuals of the blue-spotted grouper (Cephalopholis argus) were caught at various locations in the Hawaiian Islands. Muscle tissue from each individual was assessed for the presence of CTX using two methods: a semi-quantitative ELISA that was recently developed for detecting picogram levels of CTX in fish extract and a neuroblastoma (NB) cell assay commonly used to screen for marine toxins in fish. Results of the tests were highly correlated, with the ELISA indicating the presence of CTX in 9.4% of all fish samples, and the NB assay indicating toxicity in 6.8% of the fish samples. We conclude that the ELISA produces reliable and accurate results that are consistent with those provided by the accepted NB assay and that the ELISA has potential for future applications in screening fish populations for CTX.

  9. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia Jun; Mak, Yim Ling; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Wing Hei; Wang, Mingfu; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a global foodborne illness caused by consumption of seafood containing ciguatoxins (CTXs) originating from dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus. P-CTX-1 has been suggested to be the most toxic CTX, causing ciguatera at 0.1 μg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. CTXs are structurally complex and difficult to quantify, but there is a need for analytical methods for CFP toxins in coral reef fishes to protect human health. In this paper, we describe a sensitive and rapid extraction method using accelerated solvent extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. By the use of a more sensitive MS system (5500 QTRAP), the validated method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 μg/kg, linearity correlation coefficients above 0.99 for both solvent- and matrix-based standard solutions as well as matrix spike recoveries ranging from 49% to 85% in 17 coral reef fish species. Compared with previous methods, this method has better overall recovery, extraction efficiency and LOQ. Fish flesh from 12 blue-spotted groupers (Cephalopholis argus) was assessed for the presence of CTXs using HPLC-MS/MS analysis and the commonly used mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the results of the two methods were strongly correlated. This method is capable of detecting low concentrations of P-CTX-1 in fish at levels that are relevant to human health, making it suitable for monitoring of suspected ciguateric fish both in the environment and in the marketplace.

  10. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbcane poisoning; Leopard lily poisoning; Tuft root poisoning ... Get the following information: Person's age, weight, and condition Parts of the plant that were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed

  11. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... Time of the sting Location of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  18. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Yim Ling; Wu, Jia Jun; Chan, Wing Hei; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-04-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food intoxication caused by exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs) in coral reef fish. Rapid analytical methods have been developed recently to quantify Pacific-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) in fish muscle, but it is destructive and can cause harm to valuable live coral reef fish. Also fish muscle extract was complex making CTX quantification challenging. Not only P-CTX-1, but also P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 could be present in fish, contributing to ciguatoxicity. Therefore, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 in whole blood of marketed coral reef fish using sonication, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The optimized method gave acceptable recoveries of P-CTXs (74-103 %) in fish blood. Matrix effects (6-26 %) in blood extracts were found to be significantly reduced compared with those in muscle extracts (suppressed by 34-75 % as reported in other studies), thereby minimizing potential for false negative results. The target P-CTXs were detectable in whole blood from four coral reef fish species collected in a CFP-endemic region. Similar trends in total P-CTX levels and patterns of P-CTX composition profiles in blood and muscle of these fish were observed, suggesting a relationship between blood and muscle levels of P-CTXs. This optimized method provides an essential tool for studies of P-CTX pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fish, which are needed for establishing the use of fish blood as a reliable sample for the assessment and control of CFP.

  5. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  6. Merthiolate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merthiolate poisoning is difficult to treat. How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis ( ...

  7. Benzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be admitted to the hospital if the poisoning is severe. ... benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The ... Poisoning can cause rapid death. However, deaths have occurred ...

  8. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  9. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  10. Ciguatera: the detection of neurotoxins in carnivorous reef fish from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two barracuda and one snapper tested positive for a sodium-channel activator, i.e. presumptive ciguatoxin, in the N2a assay. LC/MS analyses showed that only these three samples contained high-intensity peaks, with masses of 1 222 amu and 1 279 amu. These results represent the first analytical report indicating the ...

  11. AN INVESTIGATION OF POISONOUS AND VENOMOUS FISHES AT PALMYRA ISLAND, LINE ISLANDS, DURING 13 APRIL TO 2 MAY 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    puffers were edible . Collections were made in April during the reproduction period when toxicity was at a maximum. Hook and line, spear, dynamite, and...flavimarginatus; the sea bass Variola louti; the pomacentrids Abudefduf spp. and lethrinids. Underwater movies were taken for food chain studies. A shipment of reef fishes of Fanning Island was also procured.

  12. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. (Miami Univ., FL (USA). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  15. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  16. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Proposed Actions at U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    activities have been implicated as causes for in- creased incidence and outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning that have occurred at some of the same... ciguatera is more toxic to mammals, including man (Withers, 1982). Con- siderable research has been done by the Japanese and French on the causes...symptoms, and distribution of ciguatera , especially in French Polynesia, where it is particularly prevalent. Cases of ciguatera have been reported among

  17. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  18. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely , for more information . If you use an e-cigarette, keep the liquid nicotine refills locked up out ... to a child. See Liquid Nicotine Used in E-Cigarettes Can Kill Children . Never place poisonous products in ...

  19. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  20. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Farmer B, Seger DL. ... Textbook of Critical Care . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 153. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  1. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  2. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  3. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, D Ransom; Holland, William C; McCall, Jennifer R; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A; Shea, Damian; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Morris, James A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  4. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ransom Hardison

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs. One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R. However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2 for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1. Fish (N = 61 of six different species were screened using the RBA(F. Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a correlated well (R2 = 0.71 with those of the RBA(F, given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F, which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F advantages include the long-term (> 5 years stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R. The RBA(F is cost-effective, allows high sample

  5. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  6. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy rash Overview Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol (u-ROO-she-ol). This oil is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  7. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  8. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  9. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

  11. Ornamental fish in pet stores in Greece: a threat to biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PAPAVLASOPOULOU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquarium trade has been recognized as an important pathway for the introduction of invasive species around the world. This study investigates the availability of ornamental fish species in ten large-size, centrally positioned aquarium stores that control a large share of imports and the Hellenic market chain, and aims to provide a provisional checklist on the aquarium fish trade in Greece. For each recorded species, additional data concerning various aspects (e.g. natural environment, native range, established as aliens, conservation status and threats to humans were collected from Fishbase, IUCN red list and the scientific literature. Overall, 326 fish species belonging to 64 families were reported according to the store labels. The majority of the species recorded were freshwater (66%, originating mainly from South America and Asia, while most of the marine species (26% had primarily an Indo-Pacific native distribution. Among the freshwater fishes, Cichlidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant families with 64 and 27 species, respectively, while the family Acanthuridae dominated within the marine fishes with ten species. The vast majority of both freshwater and marine species (>90% were tropical. Concerning the presence of alien species, 62 ornamental species have been established outside their natural range, with 22 of them positively confirmed as aliens in the European waters. Moreover, 25 species were listed in the critically endangered (CR, endangered (EN and vulnerable (VU categories of the IUCN red list. Even more surprisingly, for 192 species recorded, data were missing to assign their conservation status or had not been assessed at all. Finally, the majority of the species (84% were harmless to humans. However, 35 species (11% were recognised as potentially harmful (i.e. venomous, ciguatera poisoning, traumatogenic and two were found to be poisonous if consumed. In conclusion, the aquarium fish sector in Greece is practically

  12. Mercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... now banned by the FDA) Fumes from burning coal Fish that have eaten a form of organic ... ECG (electrocardiogram) or heart tracing Treatment may include: Activated charcoal by mouth or tube through the nose ...

  13. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  14. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that are not stored at the proper temperature or are not reheated to the right temperature Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables ... proper amount of fluids. Getting enough fluids and learning what to eat will help keep you comfortable. ...

  15. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  16. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  17. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  18. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  19. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  20. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  1. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  2. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  3. Diagnosis of acute poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    functional tissue damage in ... cury or alcohol) .... †The degree of poisoning, together with drug or poison levels, usually determines the .... monoxide, caffeine and the sym- .... the brain. It usually occurs when two or more drugs, which increase.

  4. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  5. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  6. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the effect of water elimination and the effect of burn-up residue boron, thereby reduce the effect of burnable poison rods as the neutron poisons at the final stage of reactor core lifetime. Constitution: In a burnable poison rod according to the present invention, a hollow burnable poison material is filled in an external fuel can, an inner fuel can mounted with a carbon rod is inserted to the hollow portion of the burnable poison material and helium gases are charged in the outer fuel can. In such a burnable poison rod, the reactivity worths after the burning are reduced to one-half as compared with the conventional case. Accordingly, since the effect of the burnable poison as the neutron poisons is reduced at the final stage of the reactor core of lifetime, the excess reactivity of the reactor core is increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  9. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-05-09

    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food

  10. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical and epidemiological study of 27 poisonings caused by ingesting puffer fish (Tetrodontidae in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil Estudo clinico-epidemiológico de 27 envenenamentos causados pela ingestão de baiacus (Tetrodontidae nos estados de Santa Catarina e Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carvalho Pestana Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish can be poisonous due to the presence of the potent neurotoxins such as Tetrodotoxin (TTX and Saxitoxin (STX found in its tissues. The authors report 27 human poisonings from ingestion of puffer fish in patients treated at Toxicology Centers in the states of Santa Catarina and Bahia, Brazil, between 1984 and January 2009. Poisonings were classified as moderate (52% and severe (33%, two deaths were observed. Early diagnosis is very important to ensure respiratory support.Os baiacus ou peixes-bola podem ser venenosos devido à presença em seus tecidos corporais de Tetrodotoxina e/ou Saxitoxina, ambas potentes neurotoxinas. Os autores relatam 27 envenenamentos por ingestão da carne de baiacus. Os pacientes foram atendidos nos Centros de Toxicologia de Santa Catarina e da Bahia de 1984 a 2009. Os acidentes foram classificados em moderados (52% e graves (33%, havendo dois óbitos. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental no sentido de garantir suporte ventilatório aos pacientes.

  12. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  13. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  14. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  16. Bluefish-associated scombroid poisoning. An example of the expanding spectrum of food poisoning from seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkind, P; Wilson, M E; Gallagher, K; Cournoyer, J

    1987-12-18

    Five persons who attended a medical conference developed symptoms suggestive of an intoxication after a common meal. Although the symptoms were recognized as typical of scombroid poisoning, no fish of the Scrombridae family had been served. However, food histories implicated bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). The initially frozen bluefish had been improperly handled in storage and thawing. Elevated levels of histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were detected in uncooked samples. This outbreak emphasizes that scombroid-type poisoning (1) can be caused by nonscombroid fish such as bluefish, (2) is probably more common than currently recognized, and (3) may become even more widespread as fish become a larger part of our diet. Physicians who work in conjunction with public health officials can help prevent additional cases and outbreaks.

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  18. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  19. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  20. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  1. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  2. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  4. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ... urushiol". These are called Rhus plants after the old scientific name (it was changed to toxidendron). A ...

  5. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in fumes produced any time you burn fuel in cars or trucks, small engines, stoves, lanterns, ... prevent CO poisoning in my home? Install a battery-operated or battery back-up CO detector in ...

  7. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  8. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activated charcoal, which is used to treat other types of poisoning does not effectively treat (adsorb) sodium hydroxide. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn ...

  9. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  10. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  11. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  12. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  13. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours a day, 7 days a week. Be Smart about Storage Store all medicines and household products ... call medicine "candy." Identify poisonous plants in your house and yard and place them out of reach ...

  14. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  15. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  16. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  17. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013:chap 6. Review Date ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  18. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013:chap 24. Kulig K. General ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  19. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the reactor core lifetime by decreasing the effect of neutron absorption of burnable poison rods by using material with less neutron absorbing effect. Constitution: Stainless steels used so far as the coating material for burnable poison rods have relatively great absorption in the thermal neutral region and are not preferred in view of the neutron economy. Burnable poison rods having fuel can made of zirconium alloy shows absorption the thermal neutron region lower by one digit than that of stainless steels but they shows absorption in the resonance region and the cost is higher. In view of the above, the fuel can of the burnable poison material is made of aluminum or aluminu alloy. This can reduce the neutron absorbing effect by stainless steel fuel can and effectively utilize neutrons that have been wastefully absorbed and consumed in stainless steels. (Takahashi, M.)

  20. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Đorđević Snežana; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collecte...

  1. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  2. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  3. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  4. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  5. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  6. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  7. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students. Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning. If caught early CO poisoning is reversible with oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Objectives: The learner will assess a patient with altered mental status and weakness, ultimately identifying that the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. The learner will treat the patient with oxygen and admit/transfer the patient for hyperbaric oxygenation. Method: Oral boards case

  9. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  11. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. How to Recognize CO Poisoning The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. People who are sleeping or who ...

  12. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide is known as the silent killer, being colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply that prevents complete oxidation of carbon to C02. During World War II, Nazis used gas vans to kill an estimated over 700,000 prisoners by carbon monoxide poisoning. This method was also used in the gas chambers ofseveral death camps. The true number of incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning is unknown, since many non-lethal exposures go undetected From the available data, carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Clinical features and management: The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning vary with concentration and length of exposure. Subtle cardiovascular or neurobehavioural effects occur at low concentration. The onset of chronic poisoning is usually insidious and easily mistaken for viral prodrome, depression, or gastroenteritis in children. The classic sign of carbon monoxide poisoning which is actually more often seen in the dead than the living is appearing red-cheeked and healthy. Cherry pink colour develops in nails, skin and mucosa. In acute poisoning, common abnormalities of posture and tone are cogwheel rigidity, opisthotonus, spasticity or flaccidity and seizures. Retinal haemorrhages and the classic cherry red skin colour are seldom seen. Different people andpopulations may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. On average, exposures at 100ppm or greater is dangerous to human health. Treatment and prevention: The mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen administration until the COHb level is normal When the patient is stable enough to be transported, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT should be considered This treatment is safe and well tolerated Public education about the danger of carbon monoxide, with

  14. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  15. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  16. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  18. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  19. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done more than 1 hour after touching the plant's sap. Flush the eyes out with water. Take care to clean under the fingernails well to remove ... room. If you are concerned, call your health care provider or poison control. At the ... Take a sample of the plant with you to the doctor or hospital, if ...

  20. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  1. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  2. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  3. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  4. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  5. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiqun; Sun Chengye

    2004-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  6. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  7. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  8. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  9. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  10. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  11. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    treatment, six task forces formulated recom- mendations for a national structure of prehospital EM by family physicians, ambulance nurses , and hospital...competencies between ambulance nurses and prehospital physicians. Eur J Emerg Med 2011; 18:322 327. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Vikhyat S. Bebarta...the study model (limited to 60 min after the start of cyanide infusion) and the hemodynamic parameters as end points, instead of long-term sequelae

  12. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  13. Food poisoning. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askar, A.; Treptow, H.

    1982-01-15

    In the present study information about food poisoning is compared and reviewed. From the viewpoint of a food technologist the toxic substances are represented in four sections: 1. Residues of substances used by plants and animals: pesticides, antibiotics, sexual hormones and psychopharmaces. 2. Environmental contaminants: heavy metals, radionuclides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Substances developing during the manufacture: food additives, asbest, parts of packing materials, and residual solvents. 4. Substances arising from processing: smoked and roasted food, non enzymatic reaction, oxidized and heated fats and irradiated foods. The mere presence of toxic substances does not make food unsafe or poisonous. Dangerous, because of their toxic or carcinogenic effects are: Pesticides (especially chlorinated organic pesticides), heavy metals (especially lead, mercury and cadmium), polycyclic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzpyren), nitrosamines and vinyl chloride. The other components are only dangerous if they are present in large ammounts. A good and responsible practise of agriculture and food manufacture processes, a watchful and competent official food control and well informed consumers can limit the danger of food poisoning and human health.

  14. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  15. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  16. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have had any contact with raw meat, poultry, fish, or eggs. Use a thermometer when cooking. Cook beef to at least 160°F (71°C), poultry to at least 165°F (73.8°C), and fish to at least 145°F (62.7°C). ...

  17. Puffer fish tragedy in Bangladesh: an incident of Takifugu oblongus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puffer fish poisoning that occurs occasionally among the rural poor in Bangladesh is mainly caused by freshwater species. A food poisoning incident resulting from the ingestion of the marine puffer Takifugu oblongus occurred at Degholia in the Khulna district of Bangladesh on 18 May 2002. A total of 36 victims, including ...

  18. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.

  19. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  20. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  1. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  3. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  4. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  7. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and foods (particularly certain species of mushroom and fish ). However, almost any substance ingested in sufficiently large ... changes in consciousness, body temperature, heart rate, and breathing and many others, depending on the organs affected. ...

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  9. Impact of fishing with Tephrosia candida (Fabaceae) on diversity and abundance of fish in the streams at the boundary of Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epa, Udaya Priyantha Kankanamge; Mohotti, Chamari Ruvandika Waniga Chinthamanie

    2016-09-01

    Local communities in some Asian, African and American countries, use plant toxins in fish poisoning for fishing activities; however, the effects of this practice on the particular wild fish assemblages is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of fish poisoning using Tephrosia candida, on freshwater fish diversity and abundance in streams at the boundary of the World Natural Heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. A total of seven field trips were undertaken on a bimonthly basis, from May 2013 to June 2014. We surveyed five streams with similar environmental and climatological conditions at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We selected three streams with active fish poisoning practices as treatments, and two streams with no fish poisoning as controls. Physico-chemical parameters and flow rate of water in selected streams were also measured at bimonthly intervals. Fish were sampled by electrofishing and nets in three randomly selected confined locations (6 x 2 m stretch) along every stream. Fish species were identified, their abundances were recorded, and Shannon-Weiner diversity index was calculated for each stream. Streams were clustered based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for fish composition and abundance. Physico-chemical parameters of water were not significantly different among streams (P > 0.05). A total of 15 fish species belonging to four different orders Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes were collected; nine species (60 %) were endemic, and six (40 %) were native species. From these, 13 fish species were recorded in streams with no poisoning, while five species were recorded in streams where poisoning was practiced. Four endemic and one native fish species were locally extinct in streams where fish poisoning was active. Fish abundance was significantly higher in control streams (32-39/m2) when compared to treatment streams (5-9/m2) (P fish poisoning with T. candida may

  10. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  11. Endosulfan poisoning: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Qadir, Tooba Fatima; Moin, Ariba; Fatima, Huda; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Al Rubaish, Fatima A; Senthilkumaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide, is a widely used agricultural pesticide, despite its life threatening toxic effects. In this review, the pharmacokinetics of endosulfan, mechanism of endosulfan toxicity, clinical presentations and management, histopathological findings, and toxicological analysis are described, in addition to its environmental toxicity. The toxic effects of endosulfan can affect many organs and systems presenting in a wide array of signs and symptoms. Although termed a restricted OC-classed pesticide, it continues to be used, especially in the developing world, owing to its beneficial effects on agriculture. Several cases of endosulfan poisoning have been reported from different regions of the world. Whether accidental or intentional, endosulfan ingestion proves to be fatal unless immediate, aggressive treatment is initiated. Management is mainly supportive as no antidote exists for endosulfan poisoning as yet. The use of endosulfan needs to be strictly regulated and eventually banned worldwide altogether to lower the current morbidity and mortality resulting from this pesticide. Additionally, monitoring biological samples, using non-invasive techniques such as breast milk sampling, can provide an effective method of observing the elimination of this environmentally persistent organic pollutant from the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-05-17

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha(2) adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

  13. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  15. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  16. Monitoreo de Dinoflagelados Causantes de Ciguatera en las Aguas de Punta Galeta, Colón, Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alexander; Fábrega, José; Broce, Kathia

    2018-01-01

    Los océanos son la clave para la conservación de la vida y son la conexión para los ecosistemas y el mercado mundial. Los seres humanos somos atraídos a las zonas costeras por los múltiples beneficios que nos brinda, siendo el principal la pesca. A través de los productos del mar que consumimos, podemos resultar contaminados con toxinas que producen unos microorganismos acuáticos llamados  dinoflagelados que a su vez pueden causar la enfermedad ciguatera. En Panamá dentro el Paisaje Protegido...

  17. Using Smart Packaging in Fish and Fish Based Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging have three main roles during protection, preservation and storage are still involved better continuance of food quality. Evolution of civilization and improvement of new kind of food stuffs, packaging industry must created new possibilities for preventation of food quality during shelf-life. The quality and safety of perishable food is related to microbial quality has got a significance role. Fish is a very perishable food product. It is a very low acidic food and thus is very liable to the expansion of food poisoning bacteria. Also decomposition of fish can be by reason of enzymatic spoilage, oxidation and/or bacterial spoilage. Fish is an important resource of polyunsaturated fatty acids stated to have defensive effects in opposition to heartconnected diseases. Some smart packaging mechanisms liable to determine this break down incident thought storage. In this review, smart packaging technologies that could be used to detect breakdown compounds from packed fish and fish products.

  18. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  19. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  20. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  1. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  2. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.

  3. Food poisoning prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wash your hands before preparing or serving food. Cook eggs until they are solid, not runny. DO NOT eat raw ground beef, chicken, eggs, or fish. Heat all casseroles to ... Use a thermometer when cooking beef to at least 160°F (71.1° ...

  4. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...... is present or expected (graded 3D). If ECTR is used, it should be discontinued when clinical improvement is apparent (graded 1D). The preferred ECTR modality in phenytoin poisoning is intermittent hemodialysis (graded 1D), but hemoperfusion is an acceptable alternative if hemodialysis is not available...

  5. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  6. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  7. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation

  8. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  9. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  10. [Outbreak due to butterfish consumption: keriorrhea and histamine poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariñas Cabrero, Maria Azucena; Berbel Hernández, Clara; Allué Tango, Marta; Díez Hillera, Margarita; Herrero Marcos, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of butterfish is spreading in our country; if appropriate standards of conservation and preparation of this type of food are not met may cause poisoning. The objective is to describe an outbreak of histamine poisoning and double cerous esters after consumption butterfish. A descriptive study of the double intoxication at a banquet held in July 2013 in Valladolid. It was studied by filling a specific survey, by phone or by the medical centers who treated the guests. The database and subsequent descriptive statistical analyzes were performed with Microsoft Excel Professional Plus 2010 program. Of the 27 cases reported in 24 we obtained information on symptoms. The attack rate was 22.5 %, with a clinical picture in which predominant diarrhea (75%), headache (46%), abdominal pain (38%) and sweating (38%), highlighting its specificity itching/burning of mouth (29%). Four patients had orange and oily stools (keriorrhea). The average time from the start of dinner to onset of symptoms was 119 minutes. The mean duration of symptoms was 14 hours. Analytical served fish showed histamine levels above 2,000 mg / kg. A double poisoning (histamine and cerous esters) was produced by consumption of butterfish. The picture was mild and self-limiting. You need to know this type of poison to properly handle avoiding unnecessary tests, and to notify the health authority for investigation and subsequent adoption of appropriate measures.

  11. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  12. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  13. Acute selenium poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbedy, B J; Dickson, J

    1969-10-01

    An outbreak of sodium selenite poisoning is reported in which 180 of 190 six-weeks-old lambs died. The estimated dose rate of the selenium was 6.4 mg/kg body weight. Liver concentrations of selenium at the time of poisoning averaged 64 ppM and 15 days later liver and kidney concentrations of selenium averaged 26 ppM and 7.4 ppM respectively.

  14. Rapid extraction combined with LC-tandem mass spectrometry (CREM-LC/MS/MS) for the determination of ciguatoxins in ciguateric fish flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Yang, Aijun; Jones, Alun

    2009-07-01

    Ciguatera is a significant food borne disease caused by potent polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins, which accumulate in the flesh of ciguateric fish at risk levels above 0.1 ppb. The management of ciguatera has been hindered by the lack of analytical methods to detect and quantify clinically relevant levels of ciguatoxin in easily prepared crude extracts of fish. Here we report a ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) that allows the rapid preparation of fish flesh extracts for the detection and quantification of ciguatoxin by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CREM-LC/MS/MS delivers a linear response to P-CTX-1 spiked into fish prior to extraction. A similar response was obtained for P-CTX-1 spiked after extraction, indicating >95% extraction efficiency was achieved overall and 85% at the limit of quantification (0.1 ppb). Using this approach, levels >or=0.1 ppb P-CTX-1 could be detected and quantified from an extract of 2g fish flesh, making it suitable as a confirmatory assay for suspect ciguateric carnivorous fish in the Pacific Ocean. The approach is designed to simplify the extraction and analysis of multiple samples per day.

  15. What is the definition of a poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uges, D R

    2001-03-01

    New insights in medicine and acceptable treatments necessitates an adjustment of the existing definition of clinical or forensic poisoning to: 'An individual's medical or social unacceptable condition as a consequence of being under influence of an exogenous substance in a dose too high for the person concerned'. For medical and legal purposes it is important to know how the victim became poisoned. In general, there are three ways of causing medical poisoning: accidental poisoning, including iatrogenic poisoning, experimental and intentional poisoning. Nowadays iatrogenic intoxication, poisoning caused by the Münchhausen's syndrome (by proxy) and experimental poisoning (designer drugs) have a major place in contemporary toxicology. Although some toxicologists use the word 'intoxication' only overdoses with central effects, in this article 'intoxication' and 'poisoning' are considered to be synonymous.

  16. 78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... either electronic or written comments on FDA guidances at any time. ADDRESSES: Submit written requests... Safety and Applied Nutrition, (HFS-325), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College... to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm...

  17. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  18. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  19. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  20. Length-weight relationship of fishes from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneur, Y.; Kulbicki, M.; Labrosse, P.

    1998-01-01

    Length-weight relationships of 316 reef and lagoon fish from New Caledonia (SW Pacific Ocean) belonging to 68 families are computed. A total of 43,750 individuals was used for this purpose. Fish were sampled by different techniques such as rotenone poisoning, handline and bottom longline fishing, gill and trammel nets, and trawling in various isotopes (coral reefs, lagoon bottoms and mangroves).

  1. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  2. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  3. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  5. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... add poison control as a contact in your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of the conversation by following #PreventPoison and #NPPW2017 on social media, and check out AAPCC's NPPW webpage and press ...

  6. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  7. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  8. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  9. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...... was used to achieve consensus on voting statements and RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymized votes and opinions were compiled and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-five articles were identified, including 63 deaths...... appears to be amenable to extracorporeal treatments. Despite clinical evidence comprised mostly of case reports and suboptimal toxicokinetic data, the workgroup recommended extracorporeal removal in the case of severe metformin poisoning....

  10. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  11. Lipid resuscitation in acute poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Gosselin, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The decision to provide intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as a treatment modality for the reversal of various drug toxicity was discovered in the last decade. Numerous publications, in both humans and animals attest to its clinical use, but current supporting evidence...... is inconsistent. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent systematic review reported evidence for benefit of ILE in bupivacaine toxicity. Human randomized trials, large observational studies as well as animal models of orogastric poisoning failed to report a clear benefit of ILE for nonlocal anesthetics poisoning. SUMMARY: ILE...

  12. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  13. Food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden ( S.weltevreden involving 34 students has been reported from a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. The symptoms developed 8-10 hours, after consuming a non- vegetarian dish, probably fish, from an outside caterer. The identity of the organism was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. This report emphasizes the geographical distribution of this organism in the Coastal Karnataka region. S.Weltevreden may be overlooked due to the biochemical similarity to S. Paratyphi B & S. Typhimurium.

  14. Food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype weltevreden in Mangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, B; Dias, M; Shetty, A K; Rekha, B

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden ( S.weltevreden ) involving 34 students has been reported from a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. The symptoms developed 8-10 hours, after consuming a non- vegetarian dish, probably fish, from an outside caterer. The identity of the organism was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. This report emphasizes the geographical distribution of this organism in the Coastal Karnataka region. S.Weltevreden may be overlooked due to the biochemical similarity to S. Paratyphi B & S. Typhimurium.

  15. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  16. Article Commentary: Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  17. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal

    2002-01-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  18. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  19. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  20. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  1. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  2. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  3. Chronic lead poisoning in a herd of mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, V.R.; Hunt, A.E.; French, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of lead fishing shot was shown to be the cause of death of a number of mute swans Cygnus olor Gmelin. The area in which they were feeding was shown to be heavily contaminated with fishing shot. The results of clinical, histopathological, haematological and analytical examinations are reported. The kidneys of the dead birds contained from 350 to 6650 ..mu..g/g DM of lead and blood lead levels in the remainder of the herd were greatly elevated, rising to 3290 ..mu..g/100 ml. Consistently elevated liver levels of iron and zinc and a marked loss of body weight were all directly proportional to the increase in kidney lead concentration. 17 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, T. (Monash Medical School, Melbourne (Australia))

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  6. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, L.

    1977-06-01

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  7. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death.

  8. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  9. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; KAHRAMANER, Zelal; BOSNAK, Mehmet; KOCAMAZ, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  10. Personality traits in persons with manganese poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, A A

    1976-10-01

    Results of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 3 groups of arc welders with various degrees of manganese poisoning (22 symptom-free, 23 with functional disturbances, 55 with organic symptoms) and 50 controls were discussed. There was a close relation between the severity of the poisoning and quantitative and qualitative personality changes. Personality tests are considered a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning.

  11. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-01-01

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper

  12. Mercury and its toxic effects on fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Morcillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and its derivative compounds have been parts of widespread pollutants of the aquatic environment. Since Hg is absorbed by fish and passed up the food chain to other fish-eating species, it does not only affect aquatic ecosystems but also humans through bioaccumulation. Thus, the knowledge of toxicological effects of Hg on fish has become one of the aims in research applied to fish aquaculture. Moreover, the use of alternative methods to animal testing has gained great interest in the field of Toxicology. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with Hg poisoning on fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health.

  13. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  14. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  15. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  16. Species identification of ciguatoxin-carrying grouper implicated in food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Ken-Lin; Lee, Ming-Ming; Lan, Chi-Hsun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2009-11-01

    Food poisoning due to ingestion of an unknown red grouper occurred in southern Taiwan. To identify the species of toxic red grouper implicated in food poisoning, a 475-bp sequence of the cytochrome b gene from six species of fresh red grouper meat was amplified by using a pair of primers (L14735/H15149). This fragment could be amplified when fish meat was treated with different heating processes. After sequencing, it was found that no variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. The species of toxic red grouper meat implicated in food poisoning was judged to be Lutjanus bohar based on sequence analysis. In addition, restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII rapidly distinguished these six species of red grouper and the two samples implicated in food poisoning. No toxicity of viscera in 18 specimens of six red grouper species was detected, but two food poisoning samples were found to be toxic. This study indicated that DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis are powerful methods for identifying potentially toxic red grouper species as L. bohar.

  17. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  18. Characteristics of poisoning cases in Adiyaman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Uludağ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate poisoning cases in an intensive care unit (ICU in order to determine the profile of poisoning cases, update epidemiological data in Adiyaman, and contribute to data about poisoning in our country. Methods: Between 01-01-2012 and 31-12-2013 174 patients (116 males, 58 females with a mean age of 23.7 years were treated. Demographic characteristics, reasons and ways of poisoning, types of toxic substances, length of their ICU stay and prognosis were evaluated. Results: 2733 patients admitted to the intensive care unit were 174 poisoning cases. Poisoning ways were suicide by drug overdose (n=162, 93.1%, and accidental poisoning (n=12,6.9%.119 patients (66.5% had single drug intake, thirty-three patients (18.4% with multiple drug intake, and 16 (8.9% were poisoned by organic phosphates. The most common drug used for suicide was antidepressants (n=87.5%. 32 patients (18.4% took analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A total of 152 patients taking the drug, 22 patients were poisoned by other means. The median length of patient stay was 2 days (range 1-20 days. Ninety-nine patients (56.9% recovered and were discharged.72 patients (41.4% were admitted to inpatient after intensive care unit. Patients were followed up by asking poisoning suicidal psychiatric consultation.1 patient was followed up for 20 days in intensive care due to alcohol poisoning but was died.2 patients (1.1% were referred to a center forward. Conclusion: Majority of the patients were females, who took drugs with suicidal intention. Frequent use of antidepressants, which are not subject to control by authorities, to commit suicide was remarkable.

  19. "Canary Islands (NE Atlantic) as a biodiversity 'hotspot' of Gambierdiscus: Implications for future trends of ciguatera in the area".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Fraga, Santiago; Ramilo, Isabel; Rial, Pilar; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg -1 blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed. Five Gambierdiscus species (G. australes, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. excentricus and G. silvae), together with a new putative species (Gambierdiscus ribotype 3) were identified. These results suggest that some cases of CFP in the region could be associated with the accumulation of ciguatoxins in the marine food web acquired from local populations of Gambierdiscus. This unexpected high diversity of Gambierdiscus species in an area which a priori is not under risk of ciguatera, hints at an ancient settlement of Gambierdiscus populations, likely favored by warmer climate conditions in the Miocene Epoch (when oldest current Canary Islands were created), in contrast with cooler present ones. Currently, warming trends associated with climate change could contribute to extend favorable environmental conditions in the area for Gambierdiscus growth especially during winter months. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    patients, including six fatalities, it was concluded that digoxin is slightly dialyzable (level of evidence = B), and that ECTR is unlikely to improve the outcome of digoxin-toxic patients whether or not digoxin immune Fab (Fab) is administered. Despite the lack of robust clinical evidence, the workgroup...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context......, and is not indicated for removal of digoxin-Fab complex....

  1. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  2. Beryllium poisonings; Les intoxications par le beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-15

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis.

  3. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  4. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and ... In a pre-structured proforma, data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake, circumstances of poisoning, duration of hospitalization ... responsible for majority of self-attempted deaths ... cleansed with water at the time of admission.

  5. Cardiological aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Jakub; Gawlik, Iwona; Dębski, Grzegorz; Popiołek, Lech; Marchewka, Wojciech; Hydzik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiological manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Background/introduction: Carbon monoxide intoxication is one of the most important toxicological causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early clinical manifestation of CO poisoning is cardiotoxicity. We enrolled 75 patients (34 males and 41 females, mean age 37.6 ± 17.7 y/o) hospitalized due to CO poisoning. Laboratory tests including troponin I, blood pressure measurements, HR and electrocardiograms (ECG) were collected. Pach's scale scoring and grading system was used to establish severity of poisoning. Grade of poisoning is positively correlated with troponin I levels and systolic blood pressure. Moreover, troponin levels are significantly correlated with exposition time, lactates and are higher in tachycardiac, hypertensive and positive ECG subpopulations. COHb levels are indicative of exposure but do not correlate with grade of poisoning. The main cause of CO poisoning were bathroom heaters - 83%, only 11% of examined intoxicated population were equipped with CO detectors. Complex cardiological screening covering troponin levels, ECG, blood pressure and heart rate measurements as well as complete blood count with particular attention to platelet parameters should be performed in each case where CO intoxication is suspected. More emphasis on education on CO poisoning is needed.

  6. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  7. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... delay or gap in poison center services. The State of New York has determined that the Research... Noncompetitive Replacement Awards to the Research Foundation of SUNY and the New York City Health & Hospitals... the Research Foundation of SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also...

  8. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  9. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  10. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  11. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  12. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  13. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  14. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  15. Poisoning of animals by industrial fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P

    1937-01-01

    Autopsy findings of game that died presumably due to poisoning by arsenic are presented. Corrosive gastroenteritis with edema and ecchymosis of the mucosa, and partly ulceration of the stomach, and fatty degeneration of the kidneys and liver were found in hares and stags. Arsenic was detected in the gastric content, liver, and other organs. These cases were diagnosed as acute to subacute poisoning by arsenic. Catarrhal gastrointestinal mucosa, pseudomembranes, in the esophagus, inflammatory edema of the nasal septum and laryngeai mucosa, and sometimes liver cirrhosis and edema of the spleen were found in red deer, roes, and hares. In these cases, poisoning by arsenic could not be identified as the primary cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to those observed in game around a smelter prior to the installation of an efficient arsenic trap.

  16. Burnable poison fuel element and its fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukeran, Atsushi; Inoue, Kotaro; Aizawa, Hiroko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to optionally vary the excess reactivity and fuel reactivity. Method: Burnable poisons with a large neutron absorption cross section are contained in fuel material, by which the excess reactivity at the initial stage in the reactor is suppressed by the burnable poisons and the excess reactivity is released due to the reduction in the atomic number density of the burnable poisons accompanying the burning. The burnable poison comprises spherical or rod-like body made of a single material or spherical or rod-like member made of a plurality kind of materials laminated in a layer. These spheres or rods are dispersed in the fuel material. By adequately selecting the shape, combination and the arrangement of the burnable poisons, the axial power distribution of the fuel rods are flattened. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. A CASE SERIES ON FISH BILE TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A case series of 3 cases of fish bile poisoning are reported. After ingestion of gall bladder of Labeo rohita for alleged vision improvement, generally presented with gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping pain abdomen, nausea and vomiting within 12 hours after ingestion. Subsequently rena l and hepatic dysfunctions were found in all the three cases. The patient recovered fully with conservative treatment and supportive haemodialysis.

  18. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to raise penetrance should be informed by an understanding of the barriers to utilization - language, Black/African American race, distance from the poison center, poverty, and lower education levels.

  19. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  20. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The diets of littoral fish from the Cape Peninsula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mainly by poisoning with rotenone dissolved in acetone, but hand nets and baited hooks were also used on occasion. All fish were killed by placing in formalin or alcohol, after which they were ...... A wide variety of prey species were taken (Table 3), with ..... first weeks after the beginning of exogenous feeding in Lake Opi-.

  2. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mix household chemicals. Doing so can cause dangerous gases. Always store household chemicals in the container they ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  3. Development of a real-time PCR method coupled with a selective pre-enrichment step for quantification of Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podeur, Gaetan; Dalgaard, Paw; Leroi, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is common and due to toxic concentrations of histamine often produced by Gram-negative bacteria in fin-fish products with a high content of the free amino acid histidine. The genus Morganella includes two species previously reported to cause incidents of histamine fish po...

  4. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  5. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the...

  6. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black...

  7. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...

  8. Reactor scram device using fluid poison tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio; Hasegawa, Koji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the response function in the reactor scram with no wide space by injecting poisons in soluble poison guide tubes to such a liquid level as giving no effect on usual reactor operation. Constitution: Soluble poison guide tubes in a reactor are connected at their upper ends to a buffer tank and at their lower ends to a pressurizer by way of a header and an injection valve. The header is connected by way of a valve with a level meter, one end of which is connected to the buffer tank. During reactor operation, the injection valve is closed and the soluble poisons in the pressurizer vessel is maintained at a pressurized state and, while on the other hand, soluble poisons are injected by way of the header to the lower end of the soluble poison guide tubes by the opening of a valve, which is thereafter closed. Upon scram, a valve is closed to protect the level meter and pressurized poisons are rapidly filled in the guide tubes by the release of the injection valve. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Clinical observation on parathion poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    A total of 158 cases of parathion poisoning were clinically observed in Chonnam University Hospital from January, 1968 to June, 1972 with the following results. 1. The males were 133 and the females, 25 (radio, about 5:1) with 93 patients (58.9%) in the age group of 21 to 40 years old and the majority of the patients were farmers. 2. 158 cases could be divided into 38 cases of inhalation group (group I) and 120 cases of ingestion group (group II). The group I entirely occurred by accident during spraying the parathion, whereas the group II mostly developed by ingestion of the parathion for the suicide purpose. 3. During the period from 1968 to 1972, more frequent incidence of parathion poisoning showed up in 1971 and 1972. Inhalation group mostly occurred on July, August, and September, but several cases appeared sporadically in the rest of the months. 4. Most patients came to our Hospital within 4 hours after parathion poisoning and were discharged from the Hospital within one or two days after admission. Mortality was 2 cases (5.3%) out of 38 cases in inhalation group and was 26 cases (21.7%) out of 120 cases in ingestion group. 5. Clinical signs and symptoms showing high incidence were bronchorrhoea (incidence of 38.6%), dyspnea (57.6%), vomiting (62.0%), abdominal cramps (20.0%), sialorrhoea (53.8%), tachycardia (32.2%), miosis (67.7%), fasciculation (19.0%), hypertension (27.9%), drowsiness and confusion (50.0%), leukocytosis (58.3%), elevation of SGOT (23.0%), whereas mydriasis (5.7%), and proteinuria (4.0%) were low in incidence. All the ten cases (6.3%) showing involuntary defecation expired. 6. Roentgenographs of the chest were taken to 39 cases out of a total of 158 cases and revealed 21 cases (54.0%) of normal chest, 11 cases (28.0%) of bilateral pulmonary congestion, 7 cases (18.0%) of pulmonary edema or pneumonic consolidation.

  10. Fission product poisoning in KS-150 reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the KS-150 reactor was used to study reactivity changes induced by reactor poisoning with fission products Xe 135 and Sm 149 . A comparison of transients caused by the poisoning showed the following differences: (1) the duration of the transient Xe poisoning (2 days) is shorter by one order of magnitude than the duration of Sm poisoning (20 days); however, the level of Xe poisoning is greater approximately by one order than the level of the Sm poisoning; (2) the level of steady-state Xe poisoning depends on the output level of the reactor; steady-state Sm poisoning does not depend on this level; (3) following reactor shutdown Xe poisoning may increase to the maximum value of up to Δrhosub(Xe)=20% and will then gradually decrease; Sm poisoning may reach maximum values of up to Δrhosub(Sm)=2% and does not decrease. (J.B.)

  11. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  12. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  13. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...... with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  14. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  15. Acute selenium poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortridge, E H; O' Hara, P J; Marshall, P M

    1971-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six (67%) of 557 calves of approximately 150-200 kg live-weight died following subcutaneous injection of a solution containing 100 mg selenium as sodium selenite. Eight per cent of the 254 heifer calves and 56% of the 303 steers died. The calves had endured the stress of being weaned twice and held in stockyards twice as well as encountering wet weather during the 4 days before receiving the selenium. The heifer calves were also vaccinated with Br. abortus strain 19 vaccine at the same time as receiving the selenium. The clinical signs and pathological findings of circulatory failure and myocardial damage were similar to those previously reported in acute selenium poisoning.

  16. Lead poisoning in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, H M

    1963-08-17

    During the period 1957 to 1959 a considerable number of dogs were seen which were suffering from colic. Colic is not normally a condition commonly encountered in the dog, and the number of cases seen was large in proportion to the number of dogs in the population concerned. A number of other dogs exhibited nervous signs which varied from symptoms of mild anxiety to exaggerated fits. There was a certain amount of overlapping between the 2 groups in that some cases which originally only showed signs of colic later progressed to the stage where they showed nervous symptoms. The following report deals with 28 cases of lead poisoning in dogs and cats which occurred at Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia. 8 references, 4 tables.

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify...... disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: Eighty-four articles met inclusion criteria, including 1 controlled clinical trial, 3 animal studies, and 80 case reports or case series, yielding an overall very low...... quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data on 143 patients (130 sets of which could be analyzed for patient-level entry data), including 14 fatalities, were reviewed. Toxicokinetic data on 87 patients were also included. After the second round of voting, the workgroup concluded...

  18. Chronic copper poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D B

    1964-08-08

    This communication presented evidence of the elevation of plasma GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or aspartate transaminase) concentration during the development of copper toxicity in some experimental lambs, and also demonstrated that plasma GOT concentration can be used to assess the course of the disease during treatment. A group of Kerry Hill lambs were fed 1 1/2 lb per day of a proprietary concentrate containing 40 parts of copper per million on a dry-matter basis in addition to hay and water ad lib. Data was included for the plasma GOT concentrations of the lambs, bled weekly after weaning from pasture to this diet. There was some variation between the individual lambs, and in one there was no increase in plasma GOT by the 20th week when all the surviving lambs were slaughtered. The concentrations of copper found in the caudate lobe of the liver and in the kidney cortex post mortem were given. The overall findings showed that the liver gave a reliable indication of the copper status of an animal whereas the kidney cortex copper concentration was a better criterion for the diagnosis of copper poisoning and was in agreement with the results of Eden, Todd, and Grocey and Thompson. Observations demonstrated the benefits resulting from the early diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning in lambs, when treatment of affected animals may be commenced before the haemolytic crisis develops. Treatment included reducing the copper intake and dosing with ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, and the plasma GOT concentration may be used to assess the rate of recovery. 4 references, 3 tables.

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration

  1. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos, using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25% had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373–1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains, Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain, Morganella morganii (2 strains, Serratia marcescens (1 strain, Hafnia alvei (1 strain, and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain, by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  2. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  3. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  4. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  5. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...... yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 108 patients, including 12 fatalities, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that TCAs are not dialyzable and made the following recommendation: ECTR is not recommended in severe TCA poisoning (1D). The workgroup considers...

  7. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Pesticide poisonings remain a serious public .... prevent or increase threshold for the development of seizure, which ... Nigeria. Procurement of consumables and equipment ... enormous financial burden on them often leading to.

  8. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  9. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  10. Cutting system for burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Toyama, Norihide; Koshino, Yasuo; Fujii, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    Burnable poison rods attached to spent fuels are contained in a containing box and transported to a receiving pool. The burnable poison rod-containing box is provisionally situated by the operation to a handling device to a provisional setting rack in a cutting pool and attached to a cutting guide of a cutting device upon cutting. The burnable poison rod is cut only in a cutting pool water and tritium generated upon cutting is dissolved into the cutting pool water. Diffusion of tritium is thus restricted. Further, the cutting pool is isolated by a partition device from the receiving pool during cutting of the burnable poison rod. Accordingly, water in which tritium is dissolved is inhibited from moving to the receiving pool and prevail of tritium contamination can be avoided. (T.M.)

  11. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from...

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  13. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Asou, M.

    2001-01-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ( 167 Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  14. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  15. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  16. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when design...

  17. Acute pesticide poisoning: a proposed classification tool

    OpenAIRE

    Thundiyil, Josef G; Stober, Judy; Besbelli, Nida; Pronczuk, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Cases of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Developing countries are particularly susceptible due to poorer regulation, lack of surveillance systems, less enforcement, lack of training and inadequate access to information systems. Previous research has demonstrated wide variability in incidence rates for APP. This is possibly due to inconsistent reporting methodology and exclusion of occupational and non-intentional poisonings. The purpo...

  18. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Darren M.; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, ??adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti?digoxin Fab a...

  19. Accidental poisoning with detomidine and butorphanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, N

    2010-09-01

    This is a case report concerning a veterinarian who spilled detomidine and butorphanol on dermatitic hands while sedating a horse. This resulted in acute poisoning from which the patient spontaneously recovered with supportive management. Veterinarians often suffer from occupational dermatitis and handle strong sedatives with no gloves while working around unpredictable animals. Thus, this group is at risk of accidental self-poisoning from this method.

  20. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  1. Acute hexogen poisoning after occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Glanclaude, J M; Descotes, J

    1996-01-01

    Hexogen (cyclonite, RDX) nitrate explosive is an infrequent cause of poisoning. A 42-year-old man with no prior history of epilepsy experienced grand mal seizures after sieving fine hexogen (RDX) powder for four hours in an ammunition plant. Physical examination was normal on arrival at the emergency room but recurrent seizures occurred six hour after admission. EEG, CT scan and MRI were normal and the patient recovered uneventfully. The available toxicological data on this rare occupational poisoning are reviewed.

  2. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  3. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  4. Low reactivity penalty burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor burnable poison rod is described which consists of an elongated tubular sheath enclosing a neutron absorbing material which, at least during reactor operation, also encloses a neutron moderating material. The excess reactivity existing at the beginning of core life is compensated for by the depletion of the burnable poison throughout the life of the core, so that the life of the core is extended. (UK)

  5. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  6. Chronic arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Benzeeta; Goyal, Palvi; Flora, S J S; Gill, K D; Singh, Surjit

    2014-12-01

    Ayurveda, Indian traditional system of medicine, is practiced commonly in South East Asia and in many parts of the world. Many ayurvedic drugs contain heavy metals and may lead to metal toxicity. Of these, chronic lead poisoning is the most common. Chronic arsenic poisoning following the use of ayurvedic medication, though reported, is rare. We describe three patients who presented with features of chronic arsenic poisoning following prolonged ayurvedic medication use. The diagnosis of chronic arsenic poisoning was confirmed by high arsenic levels in the blood, urine, hair, and nails in all the three patients and in ayurvedic drug in two patients. The ayurvedic medication was discontinued and treatment with D-penicillamine started. At 6 months after treatment, blood arsenic levels returned to normal with clinical recovery in all of them. Arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication is much less common than lead poisoning, though mineral ayurvedic medicines may lead to it. We used D-penicillamine as chelator and all of them recovered. Whether withdrawal of medication alone or D-penicillamine also played a role in recovery is unclear and needs to be assessed.

  7. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  9. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  10. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  11. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  12. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  13. Acute poisoning with emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2004-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is the 4'-deoxy-4'-epi-methyl-amino benzoate salt of avermectin B1 (abamectin), which is similar structurally to natural fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Emamectin benzoate is being developed as a newer broad-spectrum insecticide for vegetables and has a very low application rate. The mechanism of action involves stimulation of high-affinity GABA receptors and a consequent increase in membrane chloride ion permeability. Animal studies indicate a wide margin of safety because mammalian species are much less sensitive due to lower GABA receptor affinities and relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, the literature has not reported human exposure resulting in toxicity. This paper describes a case of acute poisoning with Proclaim insecticide (Syngenta, Taiwan), consisting of 2.15% w/w emamectin benzoate in 2, 6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol and 1-hexanol. The clinical manifestation was transient gastrointestinal upset with endoscopy-proven gastric erosion and superficial gastritis, mild central nervous system depression, and aspiration pneumonia. No specific antidote exists for emamectin benzoate intoxication; this patient was treated successfully with gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, and empiric antibiotics. Drugs that enhance GABA activity such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines were avoided.

  14. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  15. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John F.; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  17. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  18. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  19. Burnable poison management in a HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, J

    1971-09-21

    It is the purpose with this paper to describe the state-of-the-art of burnable poison investigations made within the Dragon Project and to give the results of a number of calculations, which show that it is possible to control the large initial surplus reactivity of the first core and the radial power distribution with two types of burnable poison sticks with Gadolinium (one type of stick to be used in the inner core region, the other in the outer core region), where the poison will burn away so that keff always stays around the desired value 1.03, and with the radial form-factor not exceeding 1.20. The calculations made for this paper are not too accurate, especially the chosen timestep for calculating the burn-up of the burnable poison stick proved to be too large. Nevertheless, the calculations are good enough to draw the above mentioned conclusions, although they have not given the concentration of Gadolinium to be used in the burnable poison sticks very accurately.

  20. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  1. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Fuel assembly and burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji.

    1993-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having burnable poison rods arranged therein, the burnable poison comprises an elongate small outer tube and an inner tube coaxially disposed within the outer tube. Upper and lower end tubes each sealed at one end are connected to both of the upper and lower ends in the inner and the outer tubes respectively. A coolant inlet hole is disposed to the lower end tube, while a coolant leakage hole is disposed to the upper end tube. Burnable poison members are filled in an annular space. Further, the burnable poison-filling region is disposed excepting portions for 1/20 - 1/12 of the effective fuel length at each of the upper and the lower ends of the fuel rod. Then, the concentration of the burnable poisons in a region above a boundary defined at a position 1/3 - 1/2, from beneath, of the effective fuel length is made smaller than that in the lower region. This enables to suppress excess reactions of fuels to reduce the mass of the burnable neutron. Excellent reactivity control performance at the initial stage of the burning can be attained. (T.M.)

  3. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  5. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ciguatoxins: Cyclic Polyether Modulators of Voltage-gated Iion Channel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lewis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins are cyclic polyether toxins, derived from marine dinoflagellates, which are responsible for the symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. Ingestion of tropical and subtropical fin fish contaminated by ciguatoxins results in an illness characterised by neurological, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders. The pharmacology of ciguatoxins is characterised by their ability to cause persistent activation of voltage-gated sodium channels, to increase neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release, to impair synaptic vesicle recycling, and to cause cell swelling. It is these effects, in combination with an action to block voltage-gated potassium channels at high doses, which are believed to underlie the complex of symptoms associated with ciguatera. This review examines the sources, structures and pharmacology of ciguatoxins. In particular, attention is placed on their cellular modes of actions to modulate voltage-gated ion channels and other Na+-dependent mechanisms in numerous cell types and to current approaches for detection and treatment of ciguatera.

  7. Ciguatoxins: Cyclic Polyether Modulators of Voltage-gated Iion Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Graham M.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Ciguatoxins are cyclic polyether toxins, derived from marine dinoflagellates, which are responsible for the symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. Ingestion of tropical and subtropical fin fish contaminated by ciguatoxins results in an illness characterised by neurological, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders. The pharmacology of ciguatoxins is characterised by their ability to cause persistent activation of voltage-gated sodium channels, to increase neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release, to impair synaptic vesicle recycling, and to cause cell swelling. It is these effects, in combination with an action to block voltage-gated potassium channels at high doses, which are believed to underlie the complex of symptoms associated with ciguatera. This review examines the sources, structures and pharmacology of ciguatoxins. In particular, attention is placed on their cellular modes of actions to modulate voltage-gated ion channels and other Na+-dependent mechanisms in numerous cell types and to current approaches for detection and treatment of ciguatera.

  8. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  9. Poison blamed for decline of Spain's majestic Black Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    catastrophic” decline in numbers because of illegal poisoning by hunters. The use of poisoned bait to kill foxes, badgers, wild dogs, feral cats and smaller birds of prey has reduced the population by almost a half in the past decade,.

  10. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children snake venom. Four fatalities were recorded; all were intentional exposures in adults (corrosive, medications, energy drink). Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  11. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... to a specialized unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 212 unselected patients admitted from the local region. METHODS: Retrospective study based on hospital charts. The optimum threshold of serum amylase to discriminate non-survivors was identified. RESULTS: An elevated serum amylase (>100 U/L) occurred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity...

  13. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

    2008-02-16

    Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments--atropine, oximes, and diazepam--should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide.

  14. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning

  15. Fish fauna in the Krueng Geumpang River, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M.; Munira, M.; Muchlisin, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the diversity and distribution of fishes in the Krueng Geumpang River.The survey was conducted from 1st to 22nd August 2015 with six sampling locations. Fish samples were caught using gillnets and fish traps. Data analyses performed in this study were the frequency of incidence (FOI), diveristy index (H’), and dominance index (C). A total of 88 individual fishes belong to 12 species and six familia. Tor soro is the dominant species in this river. There are two species of fish that widely distributed i.e. Tor soro (FOI = 66.7 %) and Neolissochilus thienemanni (FOI = 50.0 %). The Shannon-Wienner diversity index ranged from 0.00 to 2.05. The low value of the diversity index (H’) can be caused by factors such as river morphology, poisoning, mining, and overfishing.

  16. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  17. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  18. Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. | Slater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. H. E. Slater, O.C.A. Okoye, O. Okperi, N. Rajora. Abstract. Paraquat is a salt widely used as a herbicide. Although paraquat poisoning is rare in the general population, it may be considered as one of the most toxic poisons frequently used for suicide attempts, and is ...

  19. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Deficits in Self-Poisoning Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…

  20. Profile of hospital Admissions of childhood poisoning at a North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood poisoning is an important but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric subpopulation. There is the continuous need to describe the pattern of childhood poisoning and to create public awareness on the common agents of poison in this environment. Objectives: To determine the ...

  1. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition to...

  2. Accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City: Still a problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning (AP) is a leading cause of ill – health and deaths among. Nigerian children. Reports on AP are infrequent in Nigeria. This retrospective descriptive study examined the prevailing pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City. Accidental poisonings were identified in 226 (3.3%) of the cases ...

  3. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to complying...

  4. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal Insecticide...

  5. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  6. Irradiation test of borosilicate glass burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingquan; Liao Zumin; Yang Mingjin; Lu Changlong; Huang Deyang; Zeng Wangchun; Zhao Xihou

    1991-08-01

    The irradiation test and post-irradiation examinations for borosilicate glass burnable poison are introduced. Examinations include visual examination, measurement of dimensions and density, and determination of He gas releasing and 10 B burnup. The corrosion and phenomenon of irradiation densification are also discussed. Two type glass samples have been irradiated with different levels of neutron flux. It proved that the GG-17 borosilicate glass can be used as burnable poison to replace the 10 B stainless steel in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, and it is safe, economical and reasonable

  7. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P; Fourcade, J; Ravoire, J; Bezenech, C

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  8. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  9. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  10. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  12. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  13. Relationship between shipping amounts of olive flounder aquacultured from Jejudo and the reported events of acute food poisoning by in 2015, South Korea: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Confirmation of Kudoa septempunctata (K. septempunctata as the pathogenic agent causing acute food poisoning remains under debate owing to inconsistencies in the reproducibility of experimental evidence. Higher intake of olive flounder infected with K. septempunctata would result in increased diagnosis of food poisoning by K. septempunctata, if the latter was one of the causal agents of acute food poisoning. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between the shipping amount of olive flounder aquacultured from Jejudo and the incidence of K. septempunctata food poisoning in 2015, Korea. METHODS Data of shipping amounts between March 2014 and February 2016 and of monthly reported events of Kudoa food poisoning were taken from Jejudo Fish-Culture Fisheries Cooperatives and Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Non-parametric correlation analyses were conducted. RESULTS Shipping amounts indicated the seasonal changes according to variation of consumption. Spearman’s rho and Kendall’s tau-a between the monthly shipping amounts and the reported events in 2015 were 0.39 (p=0.21 and 0.27 (p=0.20, respectively. CONCLUSIONS An independent relationship was noted between the shipping amount and the reported events, which contrasted with the claim that the virulence of K. septempunctata caused acute food poisoning.

  14. Common causes of poisoning: etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dieter; Desel, Herbert

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, German hospitals treated approximately 205 000 patients suffering from acute poisoning. Change is seen over time both in the types of poisoning that occur and in the indications for specific treatment. This article is based on a selective review of the literature, with special attention to the health reports of the German federal government, the annual reports of the GIZ-Nord Poisons Center (the poison information center for the four northwestern states of Germany, i.e. Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein), and the recommendations of international medical associations. From 1996 to 2011, the GIZ-Nord Poisons Center answered more than 450 000 inquiries, most of which involved exposures to medical drugs, chemicals, plants, foods, or cosmetics. Poisoning was clinically manifest in only a fraction of these cases. Ethanol intoxication is the commonest type of acute poisoning and suicide by medical drug overdose is the commonest type of suicide by poisoning. Death from acute poisoning is most commonly the result of either smoke inhalation or illegal drug use. Severe poisoning is only rarely due to the ingestion of chemicals (particularly detergents and cleaning products), cosmetics, or plant matter. Medical procedures that are intended to reduce the absorption of a poison or enhance its elimination are now only rarely indicated. Antidotes (e.g., atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol, naloxone, toluidine blue) are available for only a few kinds of poisoning. Randomized clinical trials of treatment have been carried out for only a few substances. Most exposures to poisons can be treated with general emergency care and, if necessary, with symptomatic intensive-care measures. Poison information centers help ensure that cases of poisoning are dealt with efficiently. The data they collect are a useful aid to toxicological assessment and can serve as a point of departure for research projects.

  15. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  16. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, K L; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  17. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  18. Synthesis of the EF-ring of ciguatoxin 3C based on the [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement and ring-closing olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akiyoshi; Fujiwara, Kenshu; Kawai, Ayako; Kawai, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Takanori

    2007-12-20

    The EF-ring segment of ciguatoxin 3C, a causative toxin of ciguatera fish poisoning, was synthesized in three major steps: 1,4-addition for the C20O-C27 bond connection, chirality transferring anti selective [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement for the construction of the anti-2-hydroxyalkyl ether part, and ring-closing olefin metathesis for the F-ring formation.

  19. First- and second-generation total synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Uehara, Hisatoshi; Maruyama, Megumi; Hirama, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    More than 20,000 people suffer annually from ciguatera seafood poisoning in subtropical and tropical regions. The extremely low content of the causative neurotoxins, designated as ciguatoxins, in fish has hampered isolation, detailed biological studies, and preparation of anti-ciguatoxin antibodies for detecting these toxins. Furthermore, the large (3 nm in length) and complex molecular structure of ciguatoxins has impeded chemists from completing their total synthesis. In this article, the f...

  20. "The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…