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Sample records for cigarette smoke-related end-points

  1. Modulation of cigarette smoke-related end-points in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Flora, Silvio; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Camoirano, Anna; Bennicelli, Carlo; Bagnasco, Maria; Cartiglia, Cristina; Tampa, Elena; Longobardi, Maria Grazia; Lubet, Ronald A.; Izzotti, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer and the increase of other tumours and chronic degenerative diseases associated with tobacco smoking have represented one of the most dramatic catastrophes of the 20th century. The control of this plague is one of the major challenges of preventive medicine for the next decades. The imperative goal is to refrain from smoking. However, chemoprevention by dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy, which can be targeted not only to current smokers but also to former smokers and passive smokers. This article summarises the results of studies performed in our laboratories during the last 10 years, and provides new data generated in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans. We compared the ability of 63 putative chemopreventive agents to inhibit the bacterial mutagenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke. Modulation by ethanol and the mechanisms involved were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Several studies evaluated the effects of dietary chemopreventive agents towards smoke-related intermediate biomarkers in various cells, tissues and organs of rodents. The investigated end-points included metabolic parameters, adducts to haemoglobin, bulky adducts to nuclear DNA, oxidative DNA damage, adducts to mitochondrial DNA, apoptosis, cytogenetic damage in alveolar macrophages, bone marrow and peripheral blood erytrocytes, proliferation markers, and histopathological alterations. The agents tested in vivo included N-acetyl-L-cysteine, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, oltipraz, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 5,6-benzoflavone, and sulindac. We started applying multigene expression analysis to chemoprevention research, and postulated that an optimal agent should not excessively alter per se the physiological background of gene expression but should be able to attenuate the alterations produced by cigarette smoke or other carcinogens. We are working to develop an animal model for the induction of lung tumours following exposure

  2. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    OpenAIRE

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation ...

  3. Wnt5a is associated with cigarette smoke-related lung carcinogenesis via protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis.

  4. Wnt5a is associated with cigarette smoke-related lung carcinogenesis via protein kinase C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mi Whang

    Full Text Available Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC. Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis.

  5. [Burden of smoking-related disease and potential impact of cigarette price increase in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Ariel E; Caporale, Joaquín E; Alcaraz, Andrea; Augustovski, Federico; Huayanay-Falconí, Leandro; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Pichon-Riviere, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    . To calculate the burden of smoking-related disease and evaluate the potential economic and health impact of tax-induced cigarette price increase in Peru. A microsimulation model was used to estimate smoking-attributable impact on mortality, quality of life, and costs associated with heart and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, lung cancer, and another nine cancers. Three scenarios, involving increased taxes, were evaluated. . A yearly total of 16,719 deaths, 6,926 cancer diagnoses, 7,936 strokes, and 7,548 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease can be attributed to smoking in Peru. Similarly, 396,069 years of life are lost each year from premature death and disability, and the cost of treating smoking-attributable health issues rises to 2,500 million soles (PEN 2015). Currently, taxes on tobacco cover only 9.1% of this expense. If cigarette prices were to increase by 50% over the next 10 years, 13,391 deaths, 6,210 cardiovascular events, and 5,361 new cancers could be prevented, representing an economic benefit of 3,145 million (PEN) in savings in health costs and increases in tax revenues. . Smoking-attributable burden of disease and costs to the health system are very high in Peru. Higher cigarette taxes could have substantial health and economic benefits for the country.

  6. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  7. Do the affective properties of smoking-related cues influence attentional and approach biases in cigarette smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, B P; Field, M; Healy, H; Mogg, K

    2008-09-01

    Research indicates that drug-related cues elicit attention and approach biases in drug users. However, attentional biases are not unique to addiction (e.g., they are also found for emotional information). This study examined whether attentional and approach biases in cigarette smokers are mediated by the motivational salience of cues (relevance to drug-taking), rather than by their affective properties (subjective liking of the cues). Cues included pleasant and unpleasant smoking-related pictures. Attentional biases, approach tendencies and subjective evaluation of the cues were assessed on visual probe, stimulus-response compatibility and rating tasks, respectively. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed a greater attentional bias for both pleasant and unpleasant smoking-related cues presented for 2000 ms, but not for 200 ms. Smokers showed a greater approach bias for unpleasant cues, although the groups did not differ significantly in approach bias for pleasant smoking-related cues. Smokers rated both pleasant and unpleasant smoking pictures more positively than did non-smokers. Results suggest that a bias to maintain attention on smoking-related cues in young adult smokers is primarily a function of drug-relevance, rather than affective properties, of the cues. In contrast, approach tendencies and pleasantness judgements were influenced by drug use, drug-relevance and the affective properties of the cues.

  8. Influence of negative affect on selective attention to smoking-related cues and urge to smoke in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brendan P; Garner, Matthew; Hudson, Laura; Mogg, Karin

    2007-07-01

    According to recent models of addiction, negative affect plays an important role in maintaining drug dependence. The study investigated the effect of negative mood on attentional biases for smoking-related cues and smoking urge in cigarette smokers. Eye movements to smoking-related and control pictures, and manual response times to probes, were recorded during a visual probe task. Smoking urges and mood were assessed by self-report measures. Negative affect was manipulated experimentally as a within-participants independent variable; that is, each participant received negative and neutral mood induction procedures, in counterbalanced order in separate sessions, before the attentional task. There were two groups of participants: smokers and nonsmokers. Smokers showed (i) a greater tendency to shift gaze initially towards smoking-related cues, and (ii) greater urge to smoke when they were in negative mood compared with neutral mood. Manual response time data suggested that smokers showed a greater tendency than nonsmokers to maintain attention on smoking-related cues, irrespective of mood. The results offer partial support for the view that negative mood increases selective attention to drug cues, and urge to smoke, in smokers. The findings are discussed in relation to an affective processing model of negative reinforcement in drug dependence.

  9. The effects of exercise on cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Hodgson, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Smokers show heightened activation toward smoking-related stimuli and experience increased cravings which can precipitate smoking cessation relapse. Exercise can be effective for modulating cigarette cravings and attenuating reactivity to smoking cues, but the mechanism by which these effects occur remains uncertain. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomised crossover design, overnight abstinent smokers (n = 20) underwent an exercise (10-min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and passive control (seating for the same duration) treatment, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. After each treatment, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanning while viewing a random series of blocked smoking or neutral images. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. There was a significant interaction effect (treatment × time) for desire to smoke, F (2,32) = 12.5, p exercise at all time points compared with the control treatment. After both exercise and rest, significant areas of activation were found in areas of the limbic lobe and in areas associated with visual attention in response to smoking-related stimuli. Smokers showed increased activation to smoking images in areas associated with primary and secondary visual processing following rest, but not following a session of exercise. The study shows differing activation towards smoking images following exercise compared to a control treatment and may point to a neuro-cognitive process following exercise that mediates effects on cigarette cravings.

  10. Acute exercise modulates cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek

    2009-04-01

    Substances of misuse (such as nicotine) are associated with increases in activation within the mesocorticolimbic brain system, a system thought to mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Pharmacological treatments have been designed to reduce cigarette cravings during temporary abstinence. Exercise has been found to be an effective tool for controlling cigarette cravings. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomized crossover design, regular smokers (n = 10) undertook an exercise (10 min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and control (passive seating for same duration) session, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. Following treatments, participants entered a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Subjects viewed a random series of smoking and neutral images for 3 s, with an average inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) of 10 s. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. A significant interaction effect (time by group) was found, with self-reported cravings lower during and following exercise. During control scanning, significant activation was recorded in areas associated with reward (caudate nucleus), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex) and visuo-spatial attention (parietal lobe, parahippocampal, and fusiform gyrus). Post-exercise scanning showed hypo-activation in these areas with a concomitant shift of activation towards areas identified in the 'brain default mode' (Broadmanns Area 10). The study confirms previous evidence that a single session of exercise can reduce cigarette cravings, and for the first time provides evidence of a shift in regional activation in response to smoking cues.

  11. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Carpenter, Matthew J; Andrews, Jeannette O; Gray, Kevin M; Alberg, Anthony J; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-12-01

    Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, pinteractions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data.Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers.The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  13. The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yuan Yeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Methods Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations. Results The results showed that there was an income threshold effect on cigarette prices in the 28 EU countries that had a gross national income (GNI per capita lower than US$5418, with a maximum cigarette price elasticity of −1.227. The results of the simulated analysis showed that a rise of 10% in cigarette price would significantly reduce cigarette consumption as well the total death toll caused by smoking in all the observed countries, but would be most effective in Bulgaria and Romania, followed by Latvia and Poland. Additionally, an increase in the number of MPOWER tobacco control policies at the highest level of achievment would help reduce cigarette consumption. Conclusions It is recommended that all EU countries levy higher tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices, and thus in effect reduce cigarette consumption. The subsequent increase in tobacco tax revenues would be instrumental in covering expenditures related to tobacco prevention and control programs.

  14. The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Schafferer, Christian; Lee, Jie-Min; Ho, Li-Ming; Hsieh, Chi-Jung

    2017-09-21

    European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations. The results showed that there was an income threshold effect on cigarette prices in the 28 EU countries that had a gross national income (GNI) per capita lower than US$5418, with a maximum cigarette price elasticity of -1.227. The results of the simulated analysis showed that a rise of 10% in cigarette price would significantly reduce cigarette consumption as well the total death toll caused by smoking in all the observed countries, but would be most effective in Bulgaria and Romania, followed by Latvia and Poland. Additionally, an increase in the number of MPOWER tobacco control policies at the highest level of achievment would help reduce cigarette consumption. It is recommended that all EU countries levy higher tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices, and thus in effect reduce cigarette consumption. The subsequent increase in tobacco tax revenues would be instrumental in covering expenditures related to tobacco prevention and control programs.

  15. Relationships among DNA hypomethylation, Cd, and Pb exposure and risk of cigarette smoking-related urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chao-Hsiang [Department of Urology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liou, Saou-Hsing [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chiu-Shong [Department of Family Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Huei-Ju [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Li-Ching [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jhih-Sheng [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: 076308@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to heavy metals are important global health issues, especially for urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, the effects of cadmium and lead exposure, as well as the levels of DNA hypomethylation, on UC risk are limited. We evaluated the possible exposure sources of Cd and Pb and the relationship among DNA hypomethylation, urinary Cd and Pb levels, and UC risk. We recruited 209 patients with UC and 417 control patients for a hospital-based case–control study between June 2011 and August 2014. We collected environmental exposure-related information with questionnaires. Blood and urine samples were analyzed to measure the Cd and Pb exposure and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine levels as a proxy for DNA methylation. Multivariate logistic regression and 95% confidence intervals were applied to estimate the risk for UC. Study participants with high Cd and Pb exposure in blood or urine had significantly increased risk of UC, especially among the smokers. After adjusting for age and gender, the possible connections of individual cumulative cigarette smoking or herb medicine exposure with the increased levels of Cd and Pb were observed in the controls. Participants with 8.66%–12.39% of DNA hypomethylation had significantly increased risk of UC compared with those with ≥ 12.39% of DNA hypomethylation. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking and herb medicine may contribute to the internal dose of heavy metals levels. Repeat measurements of heavy metals with different study design, detailed dietary information, and types of herb medicine should be recommended for exploring UC carcinogenesis in future studies. - Highlights: • Smoking and herb medicine ingestion is associated with increased urinary Cd and Pb levels. • Urinary levels of Cd and Pb are associated with increased risk of UC. • UC carcinogenesis might have partially resulted from DNA hypomethylation.

  16. Relationships among DNA hypomethylation, Cd, and Pb exposure and risk of cigarette smoking-related urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Liu, Huei-Ju; Hsu, Li-Ching; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to heavy metals are important global health issues, especially for urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, the effects of cadmium and lead exposure, as well as the levels of DNA hypomethylation, on UC risk are limited. We evaluated the possible exposure sources of Cd and Pb and the relationship among DNA hypomethylation, urinary Cd and Pb levels, and UC risk. We recruited 209 patients with UC and 417 control patients for a hospital-based case–control study between June 2011 and August 2014. We collected environmental exposure-related information with questionnaires. Blood and urine samples were analyzed to measure the Cd and Pb exposure and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine levels as a proxy for DNA methylation. Multivariate logistic regression and 95% confidence intervals were applied to estimate the risk for UC. Study participants with high Cd and Pb exposure in blood or urine had significantly increased risk of UC, especially among the smokers. After adjusting for age and gender, the possible connections of individual cumulative cigarette smoking or herb medicine exposure with the increased levels of Cd and Pb were observed in the controls. Participants with 8.66%–12.39% of DNA hypomethylation had significantly increased risk of UC compared with those with ≥ 12.39% of DNA hypomethylation. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking and herb medicine may contribute to the internal dose of heavy metals levels. Repeat measurements of heavy metals with different study design, detailed dietary information, and types of herb medicine should be recommended for exploring UC carcinogenesis in future studies. - Highlights: • Smoking and herb medicine ingestion is associated with increased urinary Cd and Pb levels. • Urinary levels of Cd and Pb are associated with increased risk of UC. • UC carcinogenesis might have partially resulted from DNA hypomethylation.

  17. The effect of cigarette price increases on cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and smoking-related death in Africa from 1999 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Ming; Schafferer, Christian; Lee, Jie-Min; Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Hsieh, Chi-Jung

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues, and reduction in smoking-caused mortality in 36 African countries. Using panel data from the 1999-2013 Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we applied fixed-effects and random-effects regression models of panel data to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and simulate the effect of price fluctuations. Cigarette price elasticity was the highest for low-income countries and considerably lower for other African economies. The administered simulation shows that with an average annual cigarette price increase of 7.38%, the average annual cigarette consumption would decrease by 3.84%, and the average annual tobacco tax revenue would increase by 19.39%. By 2050, the number of averted smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) will be the highest in South Africa, followed by the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, and Ethiopia. Excise tax increases have a significant effect on the reduction of smoking prevalence and the number of averted smoking-attributable deaths, Low-income countries are most affected by high taxation policies.

  18. Calorimetry end-point predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a portion of the work presently in progress at Rocky Flats in the field of calorimetry. In particular, calorimetry end-point predictions are outlined. The problems associated with end-point predictions and the progress made in overcoming these obstacles are discussed. The two major problems, noise and an accurate description of the heat function, are dealt with to obtain the most accurate results. Data are taken from an actual calorimeter and are processed by means of three different noise reduction techniques. The processed data are then utilized by one to four algorithms, depending on the accuracy desired to determined the end-point

  19. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  20. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities? Field experiments in Mexico to assess pictorial warning label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers). Participants reported responses to different pictorial HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs. didactic) and the other involved manipulating image type (diseased organs vs. human suffering). Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than pictorial HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance, and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms seem to work better than those with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases.

  1. E-cigarettes May Support Smokers With High Smoking-Related Risk Awareness to Stop Smoking in the Short Run: Preliminary Results by Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Marianna; Lucchiari, Claudio; Mazzocco, Ketti; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Jemos, Costantino; Salè, Emanuela Omodeo; Spina, Stefania; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2018-04-11

    E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main aim was to assess the efficacy of the use of e-cigarettes in a tobacco cessation program with a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening. Participants were randomized into three arms: e-cigarettes (Arm 1), placebo (Arm 2), and control (Arm 3). All subjects also received a low-intensity counseling. About 25% of participants who followed a cessation program based on the use of e-cigarettes (Arm 1 and Arm 2) were abstinent after 3 months. Conversely, only about 10% of smokers in Arm 3 stopped. Participants in Arm 1 also reported a higher reduction rate (M = -11.6441, SD = 7.574) than participants in Arm 2 (M = -10.7636, SD = 8.156) and Arm 3 (M = -9.1379, SD = 8.8127). Our findings support the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes in a short-term period. E-cigarettes use led to a higher cessation rate. Furthermore, although all participants reported a significant reduction of daily cigarette consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes (including those without nicotine) allowed smokers to achieve better results. E-cigarettes increased the stopping rate as well as the reduction of daily cigarettes in participants who continued smoking. In fact, although all participants reported a significant reduction of tobacco consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes allowed smokers to achieve a better result. It could be worthwhile to associate this device with new ICT-driven models of self-management support in order to enable people to better handle behavioral changes and side effects. This is true for ready-to-quit smokers (such as our participants

  2. Cigarette smoke-related hydroquinone dysregulates MCP-1, VEGF and PEDF expression in retinal pigment epithelium in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Pons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of legal blindness in the elderly population. Debris (termed drusen below the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE have been recognized as a risk factor for dry AMD and its progression to wet AMD, which is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV. The underlying mechanism of how drusen might elicit CNV remains undefined. Cigarette smoking, oxidative damage to the RPE and inflammation are postulated to be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. To better understand the cellular mechanism(s linking oxidative stress and inflammation to AMD, we examined the expression of pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and anti-angiogenic pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF in RPE from smoker patients with AMD. We also evaluated the effects of hydroquinone (HQ, a major pro-oxidant in cigarette smoke on MCP-1, VEGF and PEDF expression in cultured ARPE-19 cells and RPE/choroids from C57BL/6 mice.MCP-1, VEGF and PEDF expression was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Low levels of MCP-1 protein were detected in RPE from AMD smoker patients relative to controls. Both MCP-1 mRNA and protein were downregulated in ARPE-19 cells and RPE/choroids from C57BL/6 mice after 5 days and 3 weeks of exposure to HQ-induced oxidative injury. VEGF protein expression was increased and PEDF protein expression was decreased in RPE from smoker patients with AMD versus controls resulting in increased VEGF/PEDF ratio. Treatment with HQ for 5 days and 3 weeks increased the VEGF/PEDF ratio in vitro and in vivo.We propose that impaired RPE-derived MCP-1-mediated scavenging macrophages recruitment and phagocytosis might lead to incomplete clearance of proinflammatory debris and infiltration of proangiogenic macrophages which along with increased VEGF/PEDF ratio favoring angiogenesis might promote drusen accumulation and

  3. End-point sharpness in thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, H J

    1967-07-01

    It is shown that the sharpness of an end-point in a thermometric titration where the simple reaction A + B right harpoon over left harpoon AB takes place, depends on Kc(A') where K is the equilibrium constant for the reaction, and c(A') is the total concentration of the titrand (A) in the reaction mixture. The end-point is sharp if, (i) the enthalpy change in the reaction is not negligible, and (ii) Kc(A') > 10(3). This shows that it should, for example, be possible to titrate 0.1 M acid, pK(A) = 10, using a thennometric end-point. Some aspects of thermometric titrimetry when Kc(A') < 10(3) are also considered.

  4. UO3 deactivation end point criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The UO 3 Deactivation End Point Criteria are necessary to facilitate the transfer of the UO 3 Facility from the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) to the office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The criteria were derived from a logical process for determining end points for the systems and spaces at the UO 3 , Facility based on the objectives, tasks, and expected future uses pertinent to that system or space. Furthermore, the established criteria meets the intent and supports the draft guidance for acceptance criteria prepared by EM-40, open-quotes U.S. Department of Energy office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Decontamination and Decommissioning Guidance Document (Draft).close quotes For the UO 3 Facility, the overall objective of deactivation is to achieve a safe, stable and environmentally sound condition, suitable for an extended period, as quickly and economically as possible. Once deactivated, the facility is kept in its stable condition by means of a methodical surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) program, pending ultimate decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). Deactivation work involves a range of tasks, such as removal of hazardous material, elimination or shielding of radiation fields, partial decontamination to permit access for inspection, installation of monitors and alarms, etc. it is important that the end point of each of these tasks be established clearly and in advance, for the following reasons: (1) End points must be such that the central element of the deactivation objective - to achieve stability - is unquestionably achieved. (2) Much of the deactivation work involves worker exposure to radiation or dangerous materials. This can be minimized by avoiding unnecessary work. (3) Each task is, in effect, competing for resources with other deactivation tasks and other facilities. By assuring that each task is appropriately bounded, DOE's overall resources can be used most fully and effectively

  5. Pathologic Cellular Events in Smoking-Related Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, Edwin [Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis.

  6. Validation of intermediate end points in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A; Freedman, L S; Schiffman, M H; Dawsey, S M

    1990-11-21

    Investigations using intermediate end points as cancer surrogates are quicker, smaller, and less expensive than studies that use malignancy as the end point. We present a strategy for determining whether a given biomarker is a valid intermediate end point between an exposure and incidence of cancer. Candidate intermediate end points may be selected from case series, ecologic studies, and animal experiments. Prospective cohort and sometimes case-control studies may be used to quantify the intermediate end point-cancer association. The most appropriate measure of this association is the attributable proportion. The intermediate end point is a valid cancer surrogate if the attributable proportion is close to 1.0, but not if it is close to 0. Usually, the attributable proportion is close to neither 1.0 nor 0; in this case, valid surrogacy requires that the intermediate end point mediate an established exposure-cancer relation. This would in turn imply that the exposure effect would vanish if adjusted for the intermediate end point. We discuss the relative advantages of intervention and observational studies for the validation of intermediate end points. This validation strategy also may be applied to intermediate end points for adverse reproductive outcomes and chronic diseases other than cancer.

  7. End points and assessments in esthetic dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Higaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Takaharu; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    There are two key considerations for successful esthetic dental treatments. This article systematically describes the two key considerations: the end points of esthetic dental treatments and assessments of esthetic outcomes, which are also important for acquiring clinical skill in esthetic dental treatments. The end point and assessment of esthetic dental treatment were discussed through literature reviews and clinical practices. Before designing a treatment plan, the end point of dental treatment should be established. The section entitled "End point of esthetic dental treatment" discusses treatments for maxillary anterior teeth and the restoration of facial profile with prostheses. The process of assessing treatment outcomes entitled "Assessments of esthetic dental treatment" discusses objective and subjective evaluation methods. Practitioners should reach an agreement regarding desired end points with patients through medical interviews, and continuing improvements and developments of esthetic assessments are required to raise the therapeutic level of esthetic dental treatments. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2005-05-01

    Surrogate end points in clinical research pose real danger. A surrogate end point is an outcome measure, commonly a laboratory test, that substitutes for a clinical event of true importance. Resistance to activated protein C, for example, has been used as a surrogate for venous thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives. Other examples of inappropriate surrogate end points in contraception include the postcoital test instead of pregnancy to evaluate new spermicides, breakage and slippage instead of pregnancy to evaluate condoms, and bone mineral density instead of fracture to assess the safety of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate. None of these markers captures the effect of the treatment on the true outcome. A valid surrogate end point must both correlate with and accurately predict the outcome of interest. Although many surrogate markers correlate with an outcome, few have been shown to capture the effect of a treatment (for example, oral contraceptives) on the outcome (venous thrombosis). As a result, thousands of useless and misleading reports on surrogate end points litter the medical literature. New drugs have been shown to benefit a surrogate marker, but, paradoxically, triple the risk of death. Thousands of patients have died needlessly because of reliance on invalid surrogate markers. Researchers should avoid surrogate end points unless they have been validated; that requires at least one well done trial using both the surrogate and true outcome. The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter.

  9. Gran method for end point anticipation in monosegmented flow titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Emerson V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic potentiometric monosegmented flow titration procedure based on Gran linearisation approach has been developed. The controlling program can estimate the end point of the titration after the addition of three or four aliquots of titrant. Alternatively, the end point can be determined by the second derivative procedure. In this case, additional volumes of titrant are added until the vicinity of the end point and three points before and after the stoichiometric point are used for end point calculation. The performance of the system was assessed by the determination of chloride in isotonic beverages and parenteral solutions. The system employs a tubular Ag2S/AgCl indicator electrode. A typical titration, performed according to the IUPAC definition, requires only 60 mL of sample and about the same volume of titrant (AgNO3 solution. A complete titration can be carried out in 1 - 5 min. The accuracy and precision (relative standard deviation of ten replicates are 2% and 1% for the Gran and 1% and 0.5% for the Gran/derivative end point determination procedures, respectively. The proposed system reduces the time to perform a titration, ensuring low sample and reagent consumption, and full automatic sampling and titrant addition in a calibration-free titration protocol.

  10. Modeling hard clinical end-point data in economic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Anuraag R; Zheng, Ying; Palencia, Roberto; Ruffolo, Antonio; Hass, Bastian; Sorensen, Sonja V

    2013-11-01

    The availability of hard clinical end-point data, such as that on cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is increasing, and as a result there is growing interest in using hard end-point data of this type in economic analyses. This study investigated published approaches for modeling hard end-points from clinical trials and evaluated their applicability in health economic models with different disease features. A review of cost-effectiveness models of interventions in clinically significant therapeutic areas (CV diseases, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases) was conducted in PubMed and Embase using a defined search strategy. Only studies integrating hard end-point data from randomized clinical trials were considered. For each study included, clinical input characteristics and modeling approach were summarized and evaluated. A total of 33 articles (23 CV, eight cancer, two respiratory) were accepted for detailed analysis. Decision trees, Markov models, discrete event simulations, and hybrids were used. Event rates were incorporated either as constant rates, time-dependent risks, or risk equations based on patient characteristics. Risks dependent on time and/or patient characteristics were used where major event rates were >1%/year in models with fewer health states (Models of infrequent events or with numerous health states generally preferred constant event rates. The detailed modeling information and terminology varied, sometimes requiring interpretation. Key considerations for cost-effectiveness models incorporating hard end-point data include the frequency and characteristics of the relevant clinical events and how the trial data is reported. When event risk is low, simplification of both the model structure and event rate modeling is recommended. When event risk is common, such as in high risk populations, more detailed modeling approaches, including individual simulations or explicitly time-dependent event rates, are

  11. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.

    2007-01-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  12. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements

  13. Low dose response analysis through a cytogenetic end-point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojtor, I.; Koeteles, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low doses were studied on human lymphocytes of various individuals. The frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked cultured lymphocytes was taken as end-point. The probability distribution of radiation-induced increment was statistically proved and identified as to be asymmetric when the blood samples had been irradiated with doses of 0.01-0.05 Gy of X-rays, similarly to that in unirradiated control population. On the contrary, at or above 1 Gy the corresponding normal curve could be accepted only reflecting an approximately symmetrical scatter of the increments about their mean value. It was found that the slope as well as the closeness of correlation of the variables considerably changed when lower and lower dose ranges had been selected. Below approximately 0.2 Gy even an unrelatedness was found betwen the absorbed dose and the increment

  14. The effective QCD phase diagram and the critical end point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ayala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential μ plane, modeling the strong interactions with the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and μ taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP to be (μCEP/Tc,TCEP/Tc∼(1.2,0.8, where Tc is the (pseudocritical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing μ. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. The results show that in the linear sigma model, the CEP's location in the phase diagram is expectedly determined solely through chiral symmetry breaking. The same is likely to be true for all other models which do not exhibit confinement, provided the proper treatment of the plasma infrared properties for the description of chiral symmetry restoration is implemented. Similarly, we also expect these corrections to be substantially relevant in the QCD phase diagram.

  15. Defining the end-point of mastication: A conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stuart, Eli M; Jones, Jim R; Bronlund, John E

    2017-10-01

    properties define the end-point texture and enduring sensory perception of the food. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed.

  17. [Vaping: a new strategy to prevent smoking-related diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    By quitting, smokers of all ages can gain substantial health benefits. No other single effort of public health is able to achieve an advantage comparable to smoking cessation on a large scale. However, conventional approaches to smoking cessation require tobacco users to completely abstain, and many smokers are unable - or have not the willingness - to achieve this goal, and then continue to smoke despite the looming negative consequences for health. But it is possible to consider another option: the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking (tobacco harm reduction) through the intake of nicotine from alternative sources safer than tobacco smoke, such as the electronic cigarette (e-cig). It is a promising product for the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking. In addition to providing nicotine through the vapour without the typical toxic and carcinogenic substances derived from combustion, the e-cig is also a good substitute for the rituals associated with the behaviour of the smoker. In this article, the author suggests that the wide dissemination of vaping behaviour can become a successful strategy to reduce smoking and preventing smoking-related diseases, advancing on how to succeed with this matter.

  18. End points for validating early warning scores in the context of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Oestergaard, D.; Lippert, A.

    2016-01-01

    with optimal treatment. This could pose a limitation to studies using these end points. We studied current expert opinion on end points for validating tools for the identification of patients in hospital wards at risk of imminent critical illness. METHODS: The Delphi consensus methodology was used. We......INTRODUCTION: When investigating early warning scores and similar physiology-based risk stratification tools, death, cardiac arrest and intensive care unit admission are traditionally used as end points. A large proportion of the patients identified by these end points cannot be saved, even...

  19. Estimated GFR Decline as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Weldegiorgis, Misghina; Inker, Lesley A

    2014-01-01

    A doubling of serum creatinine value, corresponding to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is used frequently as a component of a composite kidney end point in clinical trials in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether alternative end points defin...

  20. Consensus Statement on Diagnostic End Points for Infant Tuberculosis Vaccine Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatherill, Mark; Verver, Suzanne; Mahomed, Hassan; Barker, Lew; Behr, Marcel; Cardenas, Vicky; Eisele, Bernd; Douoguih, Macaya; Evans, Thomas G.; Eskola, Juhani; Fourie, Bernard; Grewal, Harleen; Grode, Leander; Hawkridge, Tony; Hesseling, Anneke; Hussey, Gregory; Kiringa, Grace; Landry, Bernard; Lockhart, Stephen; Marais, Ben; Måseide, Kårstein; Mayanja, Harriet; McClain, Bruce; McShane, Helen; Moyo, Sizulu; Ofori, Opokua; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Ryall, Robert P.; Sacarlal, Jahit; Sadoff, Jerry; Shea, Jacqui; Tameris, Michele; van Rie, Annelies; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Wajja, Anne; Walker, Bob; Walzl, Gerhard; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Definition of clinical trial end points for childhood tuberculosis is hindered by lack of a standard case definition. We aimed to identify areas of consensus or debate on potential end points for tuberculosis vaccine trials among human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children. Methods.

  1. A step towards standardization: A method for end-point titer determination by fluorescence index of an automated microscope. End-point titer determination by fluorescence index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Teresa; Gilio, Michele; Padula, Maria Carmela; Tramontano, Giuseppina; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Pafundi, Vito

    2018-05-01

    Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is widely considered the Gold Standard for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. However, the high inter-reader variability remains the major disadvantage associated with ANA testing and the main reason for the increasing demand of the computer-aided immunofluorescence microscope. Previous studies proposed the quantification of the fluorescence intensity as an alternative for the classical end-point titer evaluation. However, the different distribution of bright/dark light linked to the nature of the self-antigen and its location in the cells result in different mean fluorescence intensities. The aim of the present study was to correlate Fluorescence Index (F.I.) with end-point titers for each well-defined ANA pattern. Routine serum samples were screened for ANA testing on HEp-2000 cells using Immuno Concepts Image Navigator System, and positive samples were serially diluted to assign the end-point titer. A comparison between F.I. and end-point titers related to 10 different staining patterns was made. According to our analysis, good technical performance of F.I. (97% sensitivity and 94% specificity) was found. A significant correlation between quantitative reading of F.I. and end-point titer groups was observed using Spearman's test and regression analysis. A conversion scale of F.I. in end-point titers for each recognized ANA-pattern was obtained. The Image Navigator offers the opportunity to improve worldwide harmonization of ANA test results. In particular, digital F.I. allows quantifying ANA titers by using just one sample dilution. It could represent a valuable support for the routine laboratory and an effective tool to reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. European network on the determination of site end points for radiologically contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Peter; Lennon, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Nexia Solutions are currently running a small European network entitled 'European Network on the Determination of Site End Points for Radiologically Contaminated Land (ENDSEP)'. Other network members include NRG (Netherlands), UKAEA (UK), CEA (France), SOGIN (Italy), Wismut (Germany), Saxon State Agency of Environment and Geology (Germany). The network is focused on the technical and socio-economical issues associated with the determination of end points for sites potentially, or actually, impacted by radiological contamination. Such issues will cover: - Those associated with the run up to establishing a site end point; - Those associated with verifying that the end points have been met; and Those associated with post closure. The network's current high level objectives can be summarized as follows: Share experience and best practice in the key issues running up to determining site end points; Gain a better understanding of the potential effects of recent and forthcoming EU legislation; Assess consistency between approaches; Highlight potential gaps within the remit of site end point determination and management; and - Consider the formulation of research projects with a view to sharing time and expense. The programme of work revolves around the following key tasks: - Share information, experience and existing good practice. - Look to determine sustainable approaches to contaminated land site end point management. - Through site visits, gain first hand experience of determining an appropriate end point strategy, and identifying and resolving end point issues. Highlight the key data gaps and consider the development of programmes to either close out these gaps or to build confidence in the approaches taken. Production of position papers on each technical are a highlighting how different countries approach/resolve a specific problem. (authors)

  3. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, R L A; Borges, P P; Vyskočil, L

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper

  4. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Pandit, Deepak; Das, S. K.; Chowdhury, A.; Das, P.; Banerjee, D.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The β - γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in 106Rh →106Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in 106Rh →106Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  5. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vyskočil, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  6. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malling, H.V. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  7. Smoking-related knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints among new undergraduates in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-19

    Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of "Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better", the social pressure "Smoking brings comfort during celebration", and the environmental constraints "How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?" are significantly associated with smoking. The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  8. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  9. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l -1 NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed. (author)

  10. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  11. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Jaramillo Villegas, Claudia; Perez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto [Colombian Pulmonology Foundation, Bogota (Colombia); Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Cardiology Foundation, Cardiology Institute, Bogota (Colombia)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. (author)

  12. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Jaramillo Villegas, Claudia; Perez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities—spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. (author)

  13. Electrical breakthrough effect for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Soskov, Alex; Scipioni, Larry; Bassom, Neil; Sijbrandij, Sybren; Smith, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between high-energy Ga + ions and condensed matter is studied for circuit edit applications. A new 'electrical breakthrough effect' due to charging of, and Ga + penetration/doping into, dielectrics is discovered. This new effect is proposed for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edits where integrated circuit device dimensions are of a few hundred nanometers. This new end point approach is very sensitive, reliable, and precise. Most importantly, it is not sensitive to device dimensions. A series of circuit edits involving milling holes of high aspect ratio (5-30) and small cross-section area (0.01-0.25 μm 2 ) on real chips has been successfully performed using the electrical breakthrough effect as the end point method

  14. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, T., E-mail: btumpa@vecc.gov.in [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Pandit, Deepak [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Das, S.K. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chowdhury, A.; Das, P. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, D. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-12-11

    The β–γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  15. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l -1 NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing 85 Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated 85 Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct. (author)

  17. Soft modes at the critical end point in the chiral effective models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirotsugu; Ohtani, Munehisa

    2004-01-01

    At the critical end point in QCD phase diagram, the scalar, vector and entropy susceptibilities are known to diverge. The dynamic origin of this divergence is identified within the chiral effective models as softening of a hydrodynamic mode of the particle-hole-type motion, which is a consequence of the conservation law of the baryon number and the energy. (author)

  18. Is Chronic Dialysis the Right Hard Renal End Point To Evaluate Renoprotective Drug Effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegiorgis, Misghina; de Zeeuw, Dick; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Mol, Peter; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: RRT and doubling of serum creatinine are considered the objective hard end points in nephrology intervention trials. Because both are assumed to reflect changes in the filtration capacity of the kidney, drug effects, if present, are attributed to kidney protection.

  19. Impact of confinement housing on study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Geneva; Hurst, Natalie J; Kidder, Lance; Sy, Tracy L; Goodman, Laura B; Preston, Whitney D; Arnold, Samuel L M; Zambriski, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children confinement housing, and Interval Collection (IC), which permits use of box stalls. CFC mimics human challenge model methodology but it is unknown if confinement housing impacts study end-points and if data gathered via this method is suitable for generalization to human populations. Using a modified crossover study design we compared CFC and IC and evaluated the impact of housing on study end-points. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to confinement (n = 14) or box stall housing (n = 9), or were challenged with 5 x 107 C. parvum oocysts, and followed for 10 days. Study end-points included fecal oocyst shedding, severity of diarrhea, degree of dehydration, and plasma cortisol. Calves in confinement had no significant differences in mean log oocysts enumerated per gram of fecal dry matter between CFC and IC samples (P = 0.6), nor were there diurnal variations in oocyst shedding (P = 0.1). Confinement housed calves shed significantly more oocysts (P = 0.05), had higher plasma cortisol (P = 0.001), and required more supportive care (P = 0.0009) than calves in box stalls. Housing method confounds study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis. Due to increased stress data collected from calves in confinement housing may not accurately estimate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics targeting C. parvum.

  20. End-point construction and systematic titration error in linear titration curves-complexation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenegracht, P.M.J.; Duisenberg, A.J.M.

    The systematic titration error which is introduced by the intersection of tangents to hyperbolic titration curves is discussed. The effects of the apparent (conditional) formation constant, of the concentration of the unknown component and of the ranges used for the end-point construction are

  1. New supervised learning theory applied to cerebellar modeling for suppression of variability of saccade end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiko

    2013-06-01

    A new supervised learning theory is proposed for a hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units, which can approximate any continuous transformation, and applied to a cerebellar function to suppress the end-point variability of saccades. In motor systems, feedback control can reduce noise effects if the noise is added in a pathway from a motor center to a peripheral effector; however, it cannot reduce noise effects if the noise is generated in the motor center itself: a new control scheme is necessary for such noise. The cerebellar cortex is well known as a supervised learning system, and a novel theory of cerebellar cortical function developed in this study can explain the capability of the cerebellum to feedforwardly reduce noise effects, such as end-point variability of saccades. This theory assumes that a Golgi-granule cell system can encode the strength of a mossy fiber input as the state of neuronal activity of parallel fibers. By combining these parallel fiber signals with appropriate connection weights to produce a Purkinje cell output, an arbitrary continuous input-output relationship can be obtained. By incorporating such flexible computation and learning ability in a process of saccadic gain adaptation, a new control scheme in which the cerebellar cortex feedforwardly suppresses the end-point variability when it detects a variation in saccadic commands can be devised. Computer simulation confirmed the efficiency of such learning and showed a reduction in the variability of saccadic end points, similar to results obtained from experimental data.

  2. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2018-01-01

    Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications.

  3. Free Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy from Implicit Solvent End-Point Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fogolari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Free energy is the key quantity to describe the thermodynamics of biological systems. In this perspective we consider the calculation of free energy, enthalpy and entropy from end-point molecular dynamics simulations. Since the enthalpy may be calculated as the ensemble average over equilibrated simulation snapshots the difficulties related to free energy calculation are ultimately related to the calculation of the entropy of the system and in particular of the solvent entropy. In the last two decades implicit solvent models have been used to circumvent the problem and to take into account solvent entropy implicitly in the solvation terms. More recently outstanding advancement in both implicit solvent models and in entropy calculations are making the goal of free energy estimation from end-point simulations more feasible than ever before. We review briefly the basic theory and discuss the advancements in light of practical applications.

  4. End point detection in ion milling processes by sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Dorian, M.; Tabei, M.; Elsea, A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic optical emission from the sputtered material during ion milling processes can provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of the specific etched species. By monitoring the intensity of a representative emission line, the etching process can be precisely terminated at an interface. Enhancement of the etching end point is possible by using a dual-channel photodetection system operating in a ratio or difference mode. The installation of the optical detection system to an existing etching chamber has been greatly facilitated by the use of optical fibers. Using a commercial ion milling system, experimental data for a number of etching processes have been obtained. The result demonstrates that sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy offers many advantages over other techniques in detecting the etching end point of ion milling processes

  5. Kinetic titration with differential thermometric determination of the end-point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, I

    1968-06-01

    A method has been described for the determination of concentrations below 10(-4)M by applying catalytic reactions and using thermometric end-point determination. A reference solution, identical with the sample solution except for catalyst, is titrated with catalyst solution until the rates of reaction become the same, as shown by a null deflection on a galvanometer connected via bridge circuits to two opposed thermistors placed in the solutions.

  6. End Point of the Ultraspinning Instability and Violation of Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Pau; Kunesch, Markus; Lehner, Luis; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2017-04-01

    We determine the end point of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability of asymptotically flat Myers-Perry black holes in D =6 spacetime dimensions. In the nonlinear regime, this instability gives rise to a sequence of concentric rings connected by segments of black membrane on the rotation plane. The latter become thinner over time, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity in finite asymptotic time and hence a violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in asymptotically flat higher-dimensional spaces.

  7. A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuet Mei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance.

  9. Standardized End Point Definitions for Coronary Intervention Trials: The Academic Research Consortium-2 Consensus Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; McFadden, Eugène P; Farb, Andrew; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W; Spertus, John; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Morel, Marie-Angèle; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Zuckerman, Bram; Fearon, William F; Taggart, David; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vranckx, Pascal; Windecker, Stephan; Cutlip, Donald; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-14

    The Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 initiative revisited the clinical and angiographic end point definitions in coronary device trials, proposed in 2007, to make them more suitable for use in clinical trials that include increasingly complex lesion and patient populations and incorporate novel devices such as bioresorbable vascular scaffolds. In addition, recommendations for the incorporation of patient-related outcomes in clinical trials are proposed. Academic Research Consortium-2 is a collaborative effort between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe, device manufacturers, and European, US, and Asian regulatory bodies. Several in-person meetings were held to discuss the changes that have occurred in the device landscape and in clinical trials and regulatory pathways in the last decade. The consensus-based end point definitions in this document are endorsed by the stakeholders of this document and strongly advocated for clinical trial purposes. This Academic Research Consortium-2 document provides further standardization of end point definitions for coronary device trials, incorporating advances in technology and knowledge. Their use will aid interpretation of trial outcomes and comparison among studies, thus facilitating the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of these devices.

  10. Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir

    2010-01-01

    in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points......No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting...... a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more...

  11. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J; Pizacani, Barbara A; Maher, Julie E; Peterson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%-44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%-18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) or in restaurants (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) than non-Natives. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

  12. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among Alaska Native people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Rohde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse

  13. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; de Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across

  14. Criteria for use of composite end points for competing risks-a systematic survey of the literature with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manja, Veena; AlBashir, Siwar; Guyatt, Gordon

    2017-02-01

    Composite end points are frequently used in reports of clinical trials. One rationale for the use of composite end points is to account for competing risks. In the presence of competing risks, the event rate of a specific event depends on the rates of other competing events. One proposed solution is to include all important competing events in one composite end point. Clinical trialists require guidance regarding when this approach is appropriate. To identify publications describing criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk and to offer guidance regarding when a composite end point is appropriate on the basis of competing risks. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, The Cochrane's Central & Systematic Review databases including the Health Technology Assessment database, and the Cochrane's Methodology register from inception to April 2015, and candidate textbooks, to identify all articles providing guidance on this issue. Eligible publications explicitly addressed the issue of a composite outcome to address competing risks. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts for full-text review; independently reviewed full-text publications; and abstracted specific criteria authors offered for use of composite end points to address competing risks. Of 63,645 titles and abstracts, 166 proved potentially relevant of which 43 publications were included in the final review. Most publications note competing risks as a reason for using composite end points without further elaboration. None of the articles or textbook chapters provide specific criteria for use of composite end points for competing risk. Some advocate using composite end points to avoid bias due to competing risks and others suggest that composite end points seldom or never be used for this purpose. We recommend using composite end points for competing risks only if the competing risk is plausible and if it occurs with sufficiently high frequency to influence the interpretation

  15. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  16. Quantum Triple Point and Quantum Critical End Points in Metallic Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, D; Kirkpatrick, T R

    2017-12-29

    In low-temperature metallic magnets, ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) orders can exist, adjacent to one another or concurrently, in the phase diagram of a single system. We show that universal quantum effects qualitatively alter the known phase diagrams for classical magnets. They shrink the region of concurrent FM and AFM order, change various transitions from second to first order, and, in the presence of a magnetic field, lead to either a quantum triple point where the FM, AFM, and paramagnetic phases all coexist or a quantum critical end point.

  17. Potentiometric end point detection in the EDTA titrimetric determination of gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, N.; Renuka, M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Gallium is titrated in presence of known amount of Fe (III) with EDTA in HNO 3 solution at pH 2 to 3. The end point is detected potentiometrically employing a bright platinum wire - saturated calomel (SCE) reference electrode system, the redox couple being Fe (III) / Fe (II). Since Fe (III) is also titrated by EDTA, it is, therefore, subtracted from titre value to get the EDTA equivalent to gallium only. Precision and accuracy 0.2 to 0.4% was obtained in the results of gallium in the range of 8 to 2 mg. (author)

  18. Expectancies for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies among e-cigarette users (aka vapers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Marquinez, Nicole S; Correa, John B; Meltzer, Lauren R; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  19. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics, including trends in e-cigarette use; health effects of e-cigarettes, nicotine, and secondhand e-cigarette aerosol; e-cigarette marketing and advertising; and evidence-based strategies to reduce e-cigarette use among young people. ...

  2. Dysglycemia and Index60 as Prediagnostic End Points for Type 1 Diabetes Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Brandon M; Boulware, David; Geyer, Susan; Atkinson, Mark A; Colman, Peter; Goland, Robin; Russell, William; Wentworth, John M; Wilson, Darrell M; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Wherrett, Diane; Skyler, Jay S; Moran, Antoinette; Sosenko, Jay M

    2017-11-01

    We assessed dysglycemia and a T1D Diagnostic Index60 (Index60) ≥1.00 (on the basis of fasting C-peptide, 60-min glucose, and 60-min C-peptide levels) as prediagnostic end points for type 1 diabetes among Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study participants. Two cohorts were analyzed: 1 ) baseline normoglycemic oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) with an incident dysglycemic OGTT and 2 ) baseline Index60 <1.00 OGTTs with an incident Index60 ≥1.00 OGTT. Incident dysglycemic OGTTs were divided into those with (DYS/IND+) and without (DYS/IND-) concomitant Index60 ≥1.00. Incident Index60 ≥1.00 OGTTs were divided into those with (IND/DYS+) and without (IND/DYS-) concomitant dysglycemia. The cumulative incidence for type 1 diabetes was greater after IND/DYS- than after DYS/IND- ( P < 0.01). Within the normoglycemic cohort, the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes was higher after DYS/IND+ than after DYS/IND- ( P < 0.001), whereas within the Index60 <1.00 cohort, the cumulative incidence after IND/DYS+ and after IND/DYS- did not differ significantly. Among nonprogressors, type 1 diabetes risk at the last OGTT was greater for IND/DYS- than for DYS/IND- ( P < 0.001). Hazard ratios (HRs) of DYS/IND- with age and 30- to 0-min C-peptide were positive ( P < 0.001 for both), whereas HRs of type 1 diabetes with these variables were inverse ( P < 0.001 for both). In contrast, HRs of IND/DYS- and type 1 diabetes with age and 30- to 0-min C-peptide were consistent (all inverse [ P < 0.01 for all]). The findings suggest that incident dysglycemia without Index60 ≥1.00 is a suboptimal prediagnostic end point for type 1 diabetes. Measures that include both glucose and C-peptide levels, such as Index60 ≥1.00, appear better suited as prediagnostic end points. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Disparities in Smoking-Related Mortality Among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Paul D; Dube, Shanta R; Thorne, Stacy L; Garrett, Bridgette E; Homa, David M; Nez Henderson, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. No significant effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on intermediate cardiovascular end points in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    Agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are frequently used in patients with end-stage renal disease, but whether they exert beneficial cardiovascular effects is unclear. Here the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, irbesartan, were studied in hemodialysis......, and residual renal function. Brachial blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference between placebo and irbesartan. Use of additional antihypertensive medication, ultrafiltration volume, and dialysis dosage were not different. Intermediate cardiovascular end...... points such as central aortic blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, left ventricular mass index, N-terminal brain natriuretic prohormone, heart rate variability, and plasma catecholamines were not significantly affected by irbesartan treatment. Changes in systolic blood pressure during...

  5. Determination of the Acidity of Oils Using Paraformaldehyde as a Thermometric End-Point Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Mário J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the acidity of oils by catalytic thermometric titrimetry using paraformaldehyde as the thermometric end-point indicator was investigated. The sample solvent was a 1:1 (v/v mixture of toluene and 2-propanol and the titrant was 0.1 mol L-1 aqueous sodium hydroxide. Paraformaldehyde, being insoluble in the sample solvent, does not present the inconvenience of other indicators that change the properties of the solvent due to composition changes. The titration can therefore be done effectively in the same medium as the standard potentiometric and visual titration methods. The results of the application of the method to both non-refined and refined oils are presented herein. The proposed method has advantages in relation to the potentiometric method in terms of speed and simplicity.

  6. End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.

  7. Quality control for electron beam processing of polymeric materials by end-point analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraff, E.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of certain plastics, e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, can be modified selectively by ionizing radiation. One of the advantages of this treatment over chemical methods is better control of the process and the end-product properties. The most convenient method of dosimetry for monitoring quality control is post-irradiation evaluation of the plastic itself, e.g., melt index and melt point determination. It is shown that by proper calibration in terms of total dose and sufficiently reproducible radiation effects, such product test methods provide convenient and meaningful analyses. Other appropriate standardized analytical methods include stress-crack resistance, stress-strain-to-fracture testing and solubility determination. Standard routine dosimetry over the dose and dose rate ranges of interest confirm that measured product end points can be correlated with calibrated values of absorbed dose in the product within uncertainty limits of the measurements. (author)

  8. Lack of Bystander Effects From High-LET Radiation For Early Cytogenetic End Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groesser, Torsten; Cooper, Brian; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study radiation-induced bystander effects for early cytogenetic end points in various cell lines using the medium transfer technique after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation. Cells were exposed to 20 MeV/ nucleon nitrogen ions, 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions, or 575 MeV/nucleon iron ions followed by transfer of the conditioned medium from the irradiated cells to unirradiated test cells. The effects studied included DNA double-strand break induction, γ-H2AX focus formation, induction of chromatid breaks in prematurely condensed chromosomes, and micronucleus formation using DNA repair-proficient and -deficient hamster and human cell lines (xrs6, V79, SW48, MO59K and MO59J). Cell survival was also measured in SW48 bystander cells using X rays. Although it was occasionally possible to detect an increase in chromatid break levels using nitrogen ions and to see a higher number of γ-H2AX foci using nitrogen and iron ions in xrs6 bystander cells in single experiments, the results were not reproducible. After we pooled all the data, we could not verify a significant bystander effect for any of these end points. Also, we did not detect a significant bystander effect for DSB induction or micronucleus formation in these cell lines or for clonogenic survival in SW48 cells. The data suggest that DNA damage and cytogenetic changes are not induced in bystander cells. In contrast, data in the literature show pronounced bystander effects in a variety of cell lines, including clonogenic survival in SW48 cells and induction of chromatid breaks and micronuclei in hamster cells. To reconcile these conflicting data, it is possible that the epigenetic status of the specific cell line or the precise culture conditions and medium supplements, such as serum, may be critical for inducing bystander effects.

  9. Is automated kinetic measurement superior to end-point for advanced oxidation protein product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Osman; Inal, Berrin Bercik; Emre, Turker; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Altunoglu, Esma; Oguz, Gokce; Topkaya, Cigdem; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) was first described as an oxidative protein marker in chronic uremic patients and measured with a semi-automatic end-point method. Subsequently, the kinetic method was introduced for AOPP assay. We aimed to compare these two methods by adapting them to a chemistry analyzer and to investigate the correlation between AOPP and fibrinogen, the key molecule responsible for human plasma AOPP reactivity, microalbumin, and HbA1c in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). The effects of EDTA and citrate-anticogulated tubes on these two methods were incorporated into the study. This study included 93 DM II patients (36 women, 57 men) with HbA1c levels > or = 7%, who were admitted to the diabetes and nephrology clinics. The samples were collected in EDTA and in citrate-anticoagulated tubes. Both methods were adapted to a chemistry analyzer and the samples were studied in parallel. In both types of samples, we found a moderate correlation between the kinetic and the endpoint methods (r = 0.611 for citrate-anticoagulated, r = 0.636 for EDTA-anticoagulated, p = 0.0001 for both). We found a moderate correlation between fibrinogen-AOPP and microalbumin-AOPP levels only in the kinetic method (r = 0.644 and 0.520 for citrate-anticoagulated; r = 0.581 and 0.490 for EDTA-anticoagulated, p = 0.0001). We conclude that adaptation of the end-point method to automation is more difficult and it has higher between-run CV% while application of the kinetic method is easier and it may be used in oxidative stress studies.

  10. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; Van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; De Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across trials, hampering comparison between them. The aim of the DATECAN (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)-Pancreas project is to provide guidelines for standardised definition of time-to-event end-points in RCTs for pancreatic cancer. Time-to-event end-points currently used were identified from a literature review of pancreatic RCT trials (2006-2009). Academic research groups were contacted for participation in order to select clinicians and methodologists to participate in the pilot and scoring groups (>30 experts). A consensus was built after 2 rounds of the modified Delphi formal consensus approach with the Rand scoring methodology (range: 1-9). For pancreatic cancer, 14 time to event end-points and 25 distinct event types applied to two settings (detectable disease and/or no detectable disease) were considered relevant and included in the questionnaire sent to 52 selected experts. Thirty experts answered both scoring rounds. A total of 204 events distributed over the 14 end-points were scored. After the first round, consensus was reached for 25 items; after the second consensus was reached for 156 items; and after the face-to-face meeting for 203 items. The formal consensus approach reached the elaboration of guidelines for standardised definitions of time-to-event end-points allowing cross-comparison of RCTs in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of Bordetella pertussis from Clinical Samples by Culture and End-Point PCR in Malaysian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Tan Xue; Hashim, Rohaidah; Ahmad, Norazah; Abdullah, Khairul Hafizi

    2013-01-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. In vaccinating countries, infants, adolescents, and adults are relevant patients groups. A total of 707 clinical specimens were received from major hospitals in Malaysia in year 2011. These specimens were cultured on Regan-Lowe charcoal agar and subjected to end-point PCR, which amplified the repetitive insertion sequence IS481 and pertussis toxin promoter gene. Out of these specimens, 275 were positive: 4 by culture only, 6 by both end-point PCR and culture, and 265 by end-point PCR only. The majority of the positive cases were from ≤3 months old patients (77.1%) (P 0.05). Our study showed that the end-point PCR technique was able to pick up more positive cases compared to culture method.

  12. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II. Citric, tartaric, undecylenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta); Toelgyessy, J. (Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta)

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  13. A quantitative analysis of statistical power identifies obesity end points for improved in vivo preclinical study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimkhanov, J; Thompson, W C; Guo, J; Hall, K D; Musante, C J

    2017-08-01

    The design of well-powered in vivo preclinical studies is a key element in building the knowledge of disease physiology for the purpose of identifying and effectively testing potential antiobesity drug targets. However, as a result of the complexity of the obese phenotype, there is limited understanding of the variability within and between study animals of macroscopic end points such as food intake and body composition. This, combined with limitations inherent in the measurement of certain end points, presents challenges to study design that can have significant consequences for an antiobesity program. Here, we analyze a large, longitudinal study of mouse food intake and body composition during diet perturbation to quantify the variability and interaction of the key metabolic end points. To demonstrate how conclusions can change as a function of study size, we show that a simulated preclinical study properly powered for one end point may lead to false conclusions based on secondary end points. We then propose the guidelines for end point selection and study size estimation under different conditions to facilitate proper power calculation for a more successful in vivo study design.

  14. Survival End Points for Huntington Disease Trials Prior to a Motor Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; Leavitt, Blair R; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A; Stout, Julie C; Reilmann, Ralf; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Gregory, Sarah; Scahill, Rachael I; Langbehn, Douglas R; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-11-01

    Predictive genetic testing in Huntington disease (HD) enables therapeutic trials in HTT gene expansion mutation carriers prior to a motor diagnosis. Progression-free survival (PFS) is the composite of a motor diagnosis or a progression event, whichever comes first. To determine if PFS provides feasible sample sizes for trials with mutation carriers who have not yet received a motor diagnosis. This study uses data from the 2-phase, longitudinal cohort studies called Track and from a longitudinal cohort study called the Cooperative Huntington Observational Research Trial (COHORT). Track had 167 prediagnosis mutation carriers and 156 noncarriers, whereas COHORT had 366 prediagnosis mutation carriers and noncarriers. Track studies were conducted at 4 sites in 4 countries (Canada, France, England, and the Netherlands) from which data were collected from January 17, 2008, through November 17, 2014. The COHORT was conducted at 38 sites in 3 countries (Australia, Canada, and the United States) from which data were collected from February 14, 2006, through December 31, 2009. Results from the Track data were externally validated with data from the COHORT. The required sample size was estimated for a 2-arm prediagnosis clinical trial. Data analysis took place from May 1, 2016, to June 10, 2017. The primary end point is PFS. Huntington disease progression events are defined for the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale total motor score, total functional capacity, symbol digit modalities test, and Stroop word test. Of Track's 167 prediagnosis mutation carriers, 93 (55.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 40.06 (8.92) years; of the 156 noncarriers, 87 (55.7%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 45.58 (10.30) years. Of the 366 COHORT participants, 229 (62.5%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 42.21 (12.48) years. The PFS curves of the Track mutation carriers showed good external validity with the COHORT mutation carriers after adjusting for initial progression. For

  15. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Changes in the Skin Conductance Monitor as an End Point for Sympathetic Nerve Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Semih; Rana, Bhumika; Fields, Kara; Bae, James J; Mount, Lauren; Buschiazzo, Valeria; Storm, Hanne

    2017-11-01

    There is a lack of objective methods for determining the achievement of sympathetic block. This study validates the skin conductance monitor (SCM) as an end point indicator of successful sympathetic blockade as compared with traditional monitors. This interventional study included 13 patients undergoing 25 lumbar sympathetic blocks to compare time to indication of successful blockade between the SCM indices and traditional measures, clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective skin temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography, within a 30-minute observation period. Differences in the SCM indices were studied pre- and postblock to validate the SCM. SCM showed substantially greater odds of indicating achievement of sympathetic block in the next moment (i.e., hazard rate) compared with all traditional measures (clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography; P ≤ 0.011). SCM indicated successful block for all (100%) procedures, while the traditional measures failed to indicate successful blocks in 16-84% of procedures. The SCM indices were significantly higher in preblock compared with postblock measurements (P SCM is a more reliable and rapid response indicator of a successful sympathetic blockade when compared with traditional monitors. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Infrared interference patterns for new capabilities in laser end point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heason, D J; Spencer, A G

    2003-01-01

    Standard laser interferometry is used in dry etch fabrication of semiconductor and MEMS devices to measure etch depth, rate and to detect the process end point. However, many wafer materials, such as silicon are absorbing at probing wavelengths in the visible, severely limiting the amount of information that can be obtained using this technique. At infrared (IR) wavelengths around 1500 nm and above, silicon is highly transparent. In this paper we describe an instrument that can be used to monitor etch depth throughout a thru-wafer etch. The provision of this information could eliminate the requirement of an 'etch stop' layer and improve the performance of fabricated devices. We have added a further new capability by using tuneable lasers to scan through wavelengths in the near IR to generate an interference pattern. Fitting a theoretical curve to this interference pattern gives in situ measurement of film thickness. Whereas conventional interferometry would only allow etch depth to be monitored in real time, we can use a pre-etch thickness measurement to terminate the etch on a remaining thickness of film material. This paper discusses the capabilities of, and the opportunities offered by, this new technique and gives examples of applications in MEMS and waveguides

  19. End-Point Immobilization of Recombinant Thrombomodulin via Sortase-Mediated Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Weingart, Jacob; Zhang, Hailong; Ma, Yong; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-01-01

    We report an enzymatic end-point modification and immobilization of recombinant human thrombomodulin (TM), a cofactor for activation of anticoagulant protein C pathway via thrombin. First, a truncated TM mutant consisting of epidermal growth factor-like domains 4–6 (TM456) with a conserved pentapeptide LPETG motif at its C-terminal was expressed and purified in E. coli. Next, the truncated TM456 derivative was site-specifically modified with N-terminal diglycine containing molecules such as biotin and the fluorescent probe dansyl via sortase A (SrtA) mediated ligation (SML). The successful ligations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence imaging. Finally, the truncated TM456 was immobilized onto N-terminal diglycine-functionalized glass slide surface via SML directly. Alternatively, the truncated TM456 was biotinylated via SML and then immobilized onto streptavidin-functionalized glass slide surface indirectly. The successful immobilizations were confirmed by fluorescence imaging. The bioactivity of the immobilized truncated TM456 was further confirmed by protein C activation assay, in which enhanced activation of protein C by immobilized recombinant TM was observed. The sortase A-catalyzed surface ligation took place under mild conditions and is rapid occurring in a single step without prior chemical modification of the target protein. This site-specific covalent modification leads to molecules being arranged in a definitively ordered fashion and facilitating the preservation of the protein’s biological activity. PMID:22372933

  20. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O 4 -H 2 SO 4 mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H 2 SO 4 , and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures

  1. End-point detection in potentiometric titration by continuous wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Baś, Bogusław; Kubiak, Władysław W

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this work was construction of the new wavelet function and verification that a continuous wavelet transform with a specially defined dedicated mother wavelet is a useful tool for precise detection of end-point in a potentiometric titration. The proposed algorithm does not require any initial information about the nature or the type of analyte and/or the shape of the titration curve. The signal imperfection, as well as random noise or spikes has no influence on the operation of the procedure. The optimization of the new algorithm was done using simulated curves and next experimental data were considered. In the case of well-shaped and noise-free titration data, the proposed method gives the same accuracy and precision as commonly used algorithms. But, in the case of noisy or badly shaped curves, the presented approach works good (relative error mainly below 2% and coefficients of variability below 5%) while traditional procedures fail. Therefore, the proposed algorithm may be useful in interpretation of the experimental data and also in automation of the typical titration analysis, specially in the case when random noise interfere with analytical signal.

  2. CaFE: a tool for binding affinity prediction using end-point free energy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-07-15

    Accurate prediction of binding free energy is of particular importance to computational biology and structure-based drug design. Among those methods for binding affinity predictions, the end-point approaches, such as MM/PBSA and LIE, have been widely used because they can achieve a good balance between prediction accuracy and computational cost. Here we present an easy-to-use pipeline tool named Calculation of Free Energy (CaFE) to conduct MM/PBSA and LIE calculations. Powered by the VMD and NAMD programs, CaFE is able to handle numerous static coordinate and molecular dynamics trajectory file formats generated by different molecular simulation packages and supports various force field parameters. CaFE source code and documentation are freely available under the GNU General Public License via GitHub at https://github.com/huiliucode/cafe_plugin It is a VMD plugin written in Tcl and the usage is platform-independent. tingjunhou@zju.edu.cn. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be one of the terminal end points of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helvaci, M.R.; Aydin, L.Y.; Aydin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tried to understand presence of any effect of excess weight on respiratory system by means of excessive adipose tissue functioning as an endocrine organ and causing a Methodology: Mild (stage 1), moderate (stage 2), and severe (stage 3 and 4) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were detected, and compared according to the metabolic parameters in between. Results: There were 145, 56, and 34 patients in the mild, moderate, and severe COPD groups, respectively. The mean age increased gradually (52.4, 56.4, and 60.0 years) from the mild towards the severe COPD groups, respectively (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Similarly, the mean direction (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Parallel to them, the mean body mass index increased Conclusion: The metabolic syndrome includes some reversible indicators such as overweight, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and white coat hypertension for the development of terminal diseases including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke. In our opinion, COPD may be one of the terminal end points of the syndrome. (author)

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be one of the terminal end points of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helvaci, M R; Aydin, L Y; Aydin, Y

    2012-04-15

    Objective: We tried to understand presence of any effect of excess weight on respiratory system by means of excessive adipose tissue functioning as an endocrine organ and causing a Methodology: Mild (stage 1), moderate (stage 2), and severe (stage 3 and 4) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were detected, and compared according to the metabolic parameters in between. Results: There were 145, 56, and 34 patients in the mild, moderate, and severe COPD groups, respectively. The mean age increased gradually (52.4, 56.4, and 60.0 years) from the mild towards the severe COPD groups, respectively (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Similarly, the mean direction (p<0.05 nearly in all steps). Parallel to them, the mean body mass index increased Conclusion: The metabolic syndrome includes some reversible indicators such as overweight, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and white coat hypertension for the development of terminal diseases including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke. In our opinion, COPD may be one of the terminal end points of the syndrome. (author)

  5. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  6. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs : A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains

  8. A whole-blood transcriptome meta-analysis identifies gene expression signatures of cigarette smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huan, T. (Tianxiao); R. Joehanes (Roby); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Schramm (Katharina); L.C. Pilling (Luke); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Mägi (Reedik); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Homuth (Georg); R. Biffar (Reiner); U. Völker (Uwe); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); A. Peters (Annette); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); A. Metspalu (Andres); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.J. Munson (Peter); H. Lin (Honghuang); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); T. Esko (Tõnu); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Prokisch (Holger); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D. Melzer (David); D. Levy (Daniel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCigarette smoking is a leading modifiable cause of death worldwide. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking induces extensive transcriptomic changes that lead to target-organ damage and smoking-related diseases. We performed a metaanalysis of transcriptome-wide gene expression using whole

  9. Association between time to disease progression end points and overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simron Singh,1 Xufang Wang,2 Calvin HL Law1 1Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Novartis Oncology, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Overall survival can be difficult to determine for slowly progressing malignancies, such as neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether time to disease progression is positively associated with overall survival in patients with such tumors. A literature review identified 22 clinical trials in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that reported survival probabilities for both time to disease progression (progression-free survival and time to progression and overall survival. Associations between median time to disease progression and median overall survival and between treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival were analyzed using weighted least-squares regression. Median time to disease progression was significantly associated with median overall survival (coefficient 0.595; P=0.022. In the seven randomized studies identified, the risk reduction for time to disease progression was positively associated with the risk reduction for overall survival (coefficient on −ln[HR] 0.151; 95% confidence interval −0.843, 1.145; P=0.713. The significant association between median time to disease progression and median overall survival supports the assertion that time to disease progression is an alternative end point to overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. An apparent albeit not significant trend correlates treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival. Informal surveys of physicians’ perceptions are consistent with these concepts, although additional randomized trials are needed. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors, progression-free survival, disease progression, mortality

  10. Centralized adjudication of cardiovascular end points in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular pharmacologic trials: a report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Jonathan H; Turner, J Rick; Geiger, Mary Jane; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; White, William B; Sabol, Mary Beth; Stockbridge, Norman; Sager, Philip T

    2015-02-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a cardiovascular (CV) end point adjudication think tank cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Committee and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that was convened at the FDA's White Oak headquarters on November 6, 2013. Attention was focused on the lack of clarity concerning the need for end point adjudication in both CV and non-CV trials: there is currently an absence of widely accepted academic or industry standards and a definitive regulatory policy on how best to structure and use clinical end point committees (CECs). This meeting therefore provided a forum for leaders in the fields of CV clinical trials and CV safety to develop a foundation of initial best practice recommendations for use in future CEC charters. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, end point adjudication specialist groups, clinical research organizations, and active, academically based adjudicators. The manuscript presents recommendations from the think tank regarding when CV end point adjudication should be considered in trials conducted by cardiologists and by noncardiologists as well as detailing key issues in the composition of a CEC and its charter. In addition, it presents several recommended best practices for the establishment and operation of CECs. The science underlying CV event adjudication is evolving, and suggestions for additional areas of research will be needed to continue to advance this science. This manuscript does not constitute regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. E-cigarette use and willingness to smoke: a sample of adolescent non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-04-01

    There is little evidence on the consequences of using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of non-smokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking of combustible cigarettes. School-based cross-sectional survey of 2309 high school students (mean age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Non-smokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared with those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted OR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.73 to 3.19). SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking, but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Among adolescent non-smokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Evolution of Randomized Trials in Advanced/Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma: End Point Selection, Surrogacy, and Quality of Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zer, Alona; Prince, Rebecca M; Amir, Eitan; Abdul Razak, Albiruni

    2016-05-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) have used varying end points. The surrogacy of intermediate end points, such as progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and 3-month and 6-month PFS (3moPFS and 6moPFS) with overall survival (OS), remains unknown. The quality of efficacy and toxicity reporting in these studies is also uncertain. A systematic review of systemic therapy RCTs in STS was performed. Surrogacy between intermediate end points and OS was explored using weighted linear regression for the hazard ratio for OS with the hazard ratio for PFS or the odds ratio for RR, 3moPFS, and 6moPFS. The quality of reporting for efficacy and toxicity was also evaluated. Fifty-two RCTs published between 1974 and 2014, comprising 9,762 patients, met the inclusion criteria. There were significant correlations between PFS and OS (R = 0.61) and between RR and OS (R = 0.51). Conversely, there were nonsignificant correlations between 3moPFS and 6moPFS with OS. A reduction in the use of RR as the primary end point was observed over time, favoring time-based events (P for trend = .02). In 14% of RCTs, the primary end point was not met, but the study was reported as being positive. Toxicity was comprehensively reported in 47% of RCTs, whereas 14% inadequately reported toxicity. In advanced STS, PFS and RR seem to be appropriate surrogates for OS. There is poor correlation between OS and both 3moPFS and 6moPFS. As such, caution is urged with the use of these as primary end points in randomized STS trials. The quality of toxicity reporting and interpretation of results is suboptimal. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I. Salicylic, acetylosalicylic, benzoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyessy, J; Dillinger, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta; Harangozo, M; Jombik, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing /sup 85/Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated /sup 85/Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct.

  14. The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim

    2009-11-01

    Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. There was a significant condition x time interaction for desire to smoke, F((1,18)) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta(2) = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes.

  15. Nicotine deprivation elevates neural representation of smoking-related cues in object-sensitive visual cortex: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Anne; van Schayck, Onno C P; Vuurman, Eric F P M; Riedel, Wim J; van den Hurk, Job

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking. Current smokers (≥10 cigarettes a day) underwent two fMRI scanning sessions: one after 10 h of nicotine abstinence and the other one after smoking ad libitum. Regional blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) response was measured while participants were presented with 24 blocks of 8 colour-matched pictures of cigarettes, pencils or chairs. The functional data of 10 participants were analysed through a pattern classification approach. In bilateral LOC clusters, the classifier was able to discriminate between patterns of activity elicited by visually similar smoking-related (cigarettes) and neutral objects (pencils) above empirically estimated chance levels only during deprivation (mean = 61.0%, chance (permutations) = 50.0%, p = .01) but not during satiation (mean = 53.5%, chance (permutations) = 49.9%, ns.). For all other stimulus contrasts, there was no difference in discriminability between the deprived and satiated conditions. The discriminability between smoking and non-smoking visual objects was elevated in object-selective brain region LOC after a period of nicotine abstinence. This indicates that attention bias likely affects basic visual object processing.

  16. E-Cigarette Uptake and Marketing:A Report Commissioned by Public Health England

    OpenAIRE

    Bauld, Linda; Angus, Kathryn; De Andrade, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are battery operated devices that aim to simulate combustiblecigarettes. They don’t contain tobacco but operate by heating nicotine andother chemicals into a vapour that is inhaled. Nicotine is the addictivesubstance in tobacco but it is the many other chemicals in cigarettes that areresponsible for smoking-related diseases. Electronic cigarettes delivernicotine without the vast majority of these other chemicals, and it is for thisreason that organisations such as the Medicines a...

  17. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Nayir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert that it is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, some others assert the contrary. Although e-cigarette contains less toxic substances compared to conventional cigarette, it contains certain carcinogens existing in conventional cigarette such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. It also contains heavy metals (nickel, chrome that conventional cigarette does not contain; and therefore, raises concerns about health. E-cigarette leads to upper and lower respiratory tract irritation as well as an increased airway resistance and an increased bacterial colonization in the respiratory tract. It may also cause tahcycardia and increase diastolic blood pressure. Although e-cigarette has been found to have certain benefits in terms of smoking cessation, most of the studies have shown unfavorable results. In this collected work, the effects of e-cigarette on health and its role in smoking cessation are discussed in detail.

  18. Applying linguistic methods to understanding smoking-related conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Brown, Cati G; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-03-01

    Social media, such as Twitter, have become major channels of communication and commentary on popular culture, including conversations on our nation's leading addiction: tobacco. The current study examined Twitter conversations following two tobacco-related events in the media: (1) President Obama's doctor announcing that he had quit smoking and (2) the release of a photograph of Miley Cyrus (a former Disney child star) smoking a cigarette. With a focus on high-profile individuals whose actions can draw public attention, we aimed to characterise tobacco-related conversations as an example of tobacco-related public discourse and to present a novel methodology for studying social media. Tweets were collected 11-13 November 2011 (President Obama) and 1-3 August 2011 (Miley Cyrus) and analysed for relative frequency of terms, a novel application of a linguistic methodology. The President Obama data set (N=2749 tweets) had conversations about him quitting tobacco as well as a preponderance of information on political activity, links to websites, racialised terms and mention of marijuana. Websites and terms about Obama's smoke-free status were most central to the conversation. In the Miley Cyrus data (N=4746 tweets), terms that occurred with the greatest relative frequency were positive, emotional and supportive of quitting (eg, love, and please), with words such as 'love' most central to the conversation. People are talking about tobacco-related issues on Twitter, and semantic network analysis can be used to characterise on-line conversations. Future interventions may be able to harness social media and major current events to raise awareness of smoking-related issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma mutation profile in smokers with smoking-related interstitial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primiani A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Primiani,1 Dora Dias-Santagata,1 A John Iafrate,1 Richard L Kradin1,2 1Pathology Service, 2Pulmonary Medicine/Critical Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Cigarette smoking is an established cause of lung cancer. However, pulmonary fibrosis is also an independent risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF has recently been reported. We hypothesized that adenocarcinomas in lungs with SRIF might show distinct molecular changes and examined the molecular phenotype of 168 resected lung adenocarcinomas in lungs with and without SRIF. The diagnosis of SRIF was determined by histological examination, based on the presence of alveolar septal thickening, due to pauci-inflamed, hyalinized, “ropy” collagen, in areas of lung greater than 1 cm away from the tumor. Tumors were concomitantly examined genotypically for mutations in genes frequently altered in cancer, including EGFR and KRAS, by SNaPshot and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for possible ALK rearrangements. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ROS1 rearrangement (n=36 and/or MET amplification (n=31 were performed when no mutation was identified by either SNaPshot or ALK analysis. Sixty-five cases (38.7% showed SRIF, which was distributed in all lobes of the lungs examined. No differences were observed in sex, average age, or smoking history in patients with and without SRIF. There was no difference in either the percent or types of adenocarcinoma genetic mutations in patients with SRIF versus those without. This data suggests that SRIF does not represent an independent risk factor for the development of the major known and targeted mutations seen in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, additional research is required to investigate the potential significance of SRIF in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Keywords: lung, cancer, smoking, SRIF

  20. Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The two-state Deutsch-Jozsa algortihm used to demonstrate the utility of free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory. Research highlights: → Free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) was constructed. → The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. → The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361 (2009) 106]. → The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. → The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields. - Abstract: An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor

  1. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Nayir; Burak Karacabey; Onder Kirca; Mustafa Ozdogan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert ...

  2. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group.

  3. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Tsorng-Chyi; Ye, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2004-12-14

    This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5%) reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT 3 dollars per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%). The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  4. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  5. The effect of adherence to statin therapy on cardiovascular mortality: quantification of unmeasured bias using falsification end-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Bijlsma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the clinical effectiveness of statins on cardiovascular mortality in practice, observational studies are needed. Control for confounding is essential in any observational study. Falsification end-points may be useful to determine if bias is present after adjustment has taken place. Methods We followed starters on statin therapy in the Netherlands aged 46 to 100 years over the period 1996 to 2012, from initiation of statin therapy until cardiovascular mortality or censoring. Within this group (n = 49,688, up to 16 years of follow-up, we estimated the effect of adherence to statin therapy (0 = completely non-adherent, 1 = fully adherent on ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular disease (ICD10-codes I20-I25 and I60-I69 as well as respiratory and endocrine disease mortality (ICD10-codes J00-J99 and E00-E90 as falsification end points, controlling for demographic factors, socio-economic factors, birth cohort, adherence to other cardiovascular medications, and diabetes using time-varying Cox regression models. Results Falsification end-points indicated that a simpler model was less biased than a model with more controls. Adherence to statins appeared to be protective against cardiovascular mortality (HR: 0.70, 95 % CI 0.61 to 0.81. Conclusions Falsification end-points helped detect overadjustment bias or bias due to competing risks, and thereby proved to be a useful technique in such a complex setting.

  6. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. A comparative assessment of e-cigarette aerosols and cigarette smoke on in vitro endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Jaunky, Tomasz; Hewitt, Katherine; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Fearon, Ian M; Gaca, Marianna

    2017-08-05

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several diseases. There has been a steep increase in the use of e-cigarettes that may offer a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. In vitro models of smoking-related diseases may provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms associated with tobacco use and could be used to assess e-cigarettes. We previously reported the application of a 'scratch wound' assay, measuring endothelial cell migration rate following artificial wounding, in the presence or absence of cigarette smoke extracts. This study reports the comparative effects of two commercial e-cigarette products (Vype ePen and Vype eStick) and a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) on endothelial migration in vitro. Puff-matched extracts were generated using the Health Canada Intense (HCI) regime for cigarettes and a modified HCI for e-cigarettes. Exposure to 3R4F extract (20h) induced concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell migration, with complete inhibition at concentrations >20%. E-cigarette extracts did not inhibit migration, even at double the 3R4F extract nicotine concentration, allowing cells to migrate into the wounded area. Our data demonstrate that e-cigarettes do not induce the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro when compared to 3R4F. The scratch wound assay enables the comparative assessment between tobacco and nicotine products in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  9. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  10. The use of a radioactive tracer for the determination of distillation end point in a coke oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, N.; Capannesi, G.; Ciavola, C.; Sedda, F.

    1995-01-01

    A novel high precision detection method for the determination of the distillation end point of the coking process (usually in the 950 deg C range) has been developed. The system is based on the use of a metallic capsule that melts at a fixed temperature and releases a radioactive gas tracer ( 133 Xe) in the stream of the distillation gas. A series of tests on a pilot oven confirmed the feasibility of the method on industrial scale. Application of the radioactive tracer method to the staging and monitoring in the coking process appears to be possible. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  12. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  13. GFR Decline as an Alternative End Point to Kidney Failure in Clinical Trials : A Meta-analysis of Treatment Effects From 37 Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inker, Lesley A.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Mondal, Hasi; Schmid, Christopher H.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Noubary, Farzad; Coresh, Josef; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increased interest in using alternative end points for trials of kidney disease progression. The currently established end points of end-stage renal disease and doubling of serum creatinine level, equivalent to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), are

  14. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  15. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  16. End points of planar reaching movements are disrupted by small force pulses: an evaluation of the hypothesis of equifinality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, F C; Rymer, W Z

    2000-11-01

    A single force pulse was applied unexpectedly to the arms of five normal human subjects during nonvisually guided planar reaching movements of 10-cm amplitude. The pulse was applied by a powered manipulandum in a direction perpendicular to the motion of the hand, which gripped the manipulandum via a handle at the beginning, at the middle, or toward the end the movement. It was small and brief (10 N, 10 ms), so that it was barely perceptible. We found that the end points of the perturbed motions were systematically different from those of the unperturbed movements. This difference, dubbed "terminal error," averaged 14.4 +/- 9.8% (mean +/- SD) of the movement distance. The terminal error was not necessarily in the direction of the perturbation, although it was affected by it, and it did not decrease significantly with practice. For example, while perturbations involving elbow extension resulted in a statistically significant shift in mean end-point and target-acquisition frequency, the flexion perturbations were not clearly affected. We argue that this error distribution is inconsistent with the "equilibrium point hypothesis" (EPH), which predicts minimal terminal error is determined primarily by the variance in the command signal itself, a property referred to as "equifinality." This property reputedly derives from the "spring-like" properties of muscle and is enhanced by reflexes. To ensure that terminal errors were not due to mid-course voluntary corrections, we only accepted trials in which the final position was already established before such a voluntary response to the perturbation could have begun, that is, in a time interval shorter than the minimum reaction time (RT) for that subject. This RT was estimated for each subject in supplementary experiments in which the subject was instructed to move to a new target if perturbed and to the old target if no perturbation was detected. These RT movements were found to either stop or slow greatly at the original

  17. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (padvertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (padvertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; padvertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (padvertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  18. An application of the 'end-point' method to the minimum critical mass problem in two group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    A two group integral equation derived using transport theory, which describes the fuel distribution necessary for a flat thermal flux and minimum critical mass, is solved by the classical end-point method. This method has a number of advantages and in particular highlights the changing behaviour of the fissile mass distribution function in the neighbourhood of the core-reflector interface. We also show how the reflector thermal flux behaves and explain the origin of the maximum which arises when the critical size is less than that corresponding to minimum critical mass. A comparison is made with diffusion theory and the necessary and somewhat artificial presence of surface delta functions in the fuel distribution is shown to be analogous to the edge transients that arise naturally in transport theory

  19. The upgrade of the multiwire drift chamber readout of the HADES experiment at GSI: the optical end point board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantola, Attilio; Michel, Jan; Muentz, Christian; Stroth, Joachim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Froehlich, Ingo; Stroebele, Herbert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Kolb, Burkhard; Traxler, Michael [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Palka, Marek [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Wuestenfeld, Joern [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    One of the goal of the HADES upgrade project is the realization of a new data acquisition scheme for the 24 Multiwire Drift Chambers (MDCs), which allows to increase the readout speed of the 40.000 TDC channels. On the existing MDC Front End Electronic (FEE) side an Optical End Point Board (OEPB) has been designed to control configuration and readout of the chamber's TDCs. The OEPB uses Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) for data transmission, which results in total electromagnetic immunity, amazing simplicity in handling and low power consumption. The employment of a Lattice ECP2/M FPGA with SERDES manages serial data transmission and its large resources allow for the storage of several events close-to-front-end. As 400 OEPBs will be located in the detector acceptance, dedicated FPGA hardware is used to detect Single Event Upsets (SEUs).

  20. Some thoughts on the nature of chromosomal aberrations and their use as a quantitative end-point for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A vital condition when chromosomal aberrations are to be used as a quantitative end-point (e.g. for constructing a dose response curve) is that a specific dose must produce a specific yield of aberrations under a given set of experimental conditions. In practice, there are very few cell systems where this condition is met. The majority show significant variations in observed yield with time between irradiation and sampling, indicative of variable radiosensitivity within the cell population. The profile of this yield time curve is determined by the cell-cycle kinetics and therefore is itself subject to modification by radiation through mitotic delay and perturbation. Thus in such heterogeneous populations, each increment of dose not only induces more aberrations, but at the same time modifies the recovered yield per cell. This has an obvious bearing upon the interpretation of the shape of any dose-response curve obtained

  1. Evaluation of Short-Term Changes in Serum Creatinine Level as a Meaningful End Point in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Steven G; Zabetian, Azadeh; Ferket, Bart S; Zhou, Jing; Testani, Jeffrey M; Garg, Amit X; Parikh, Chirag R

    2016-08-01

    Observational studies have shown that acute change in kidney function (specifically, AKI) is a strong risk factor for poor outcomes. Thus, the outcome of acute change in serum creatinine level, regardless of underlying biology or etiology, is frequently used in clinical trials as both efficacy and safety end points. We performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials to quantify the relationship between positive or negative short-term effects of interventions on change in serum creatinine level and more meaningful clinical outcomes. After a thorough literature search, we included 14 randomized trials of interventions that altered risk for an acute increase in serum creatinine level and had reported between-group differences in CKD and/or mortality rate ≥3 months after randomization. Seven trials assessed interventions that, compared with placebo, increased risk of acute elevation in serum creatinine level (pooled relative risk, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 1.89), and seven trials assessed interventions that, compared with placebo, reduced risk of acute elevation in serum creatinine level (pooled relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.74). However, pooled risks for CKD and mortality associated with interventions did not differ from those with placebo in either group. In conclusion, several interventions that affect risk of acute, mild to moderate, often temporary elevation in serum creatinine level in placebo-controlled randomized trials showed no appreciable effect on CKD or mortality months later, raising questions about the value of using small to moderate changes in serum creatinine level as end points in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Predicting the outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg through skin test end-point titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, S; Businco, A Di Rienzo; Alessandri, C; Panetta, V; Restani, P; Matricardi, P M

    2009-08-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the diagnostic 'gold standard' of food allergies but it is laborious and time consuming. Attempts to predict a positive OFC through specific IgE assays or conventional skin tests so far gave suboptimal results. To test whether skin test with titration curves predict with enough confidence the outcome of an oral food challenge. Children (n=47; mean age 6.2 +/- 4.2 years) with suspected and diagnosed allergic reactions to hen's egg (HE) were examined through clinical history, physical examination, oral food challenge, conventional and end-point titrated skin tests with HE white extract and determination of serum specific IgE against HE white. Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges were calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HE white using IgE concentration, weal size and end-point titration (EPT). OFC was positive (Sampson's score >or=3) in 20/47 children (42.5%). The area under the ROC curve obtained with the EPT method was significantly bigger than the one obtained by measuring IgE-specific antibodies (0.99 vs. 0.83, P<0.05) and weal size (0.99 vs. 0.88, P<0.05). The extract's dilution that successfully discriminated a positive from a negative OFC (sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%) was 1 : 256, corresponding to a concentration of 5.9 microg/mL of ovotransferrin, 22.2 microg/mL of ovalbumin, and 1.4 microg/mL of lysozyme. EPT is a promising approach to optimize the use of skin prick tests and to predict the outcome of OFC with HE in children. Further studies are needed to test whether this encouraging finding can be extended to other populations and food allergens.

  3. The end point of the first-order phase transition of the SU(2) gauge-Higgs model on a four-dimensional isotropic lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Y.; Csikor, F.; Fodor, Z.; Ukawa, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report results of a study of the end point of the electroweak phase transition of the SU(2) gauge-Higgs model defined on a four-dimensional isotropic lattice with N t = 2. Finite-size scaling study of Lee-Yang zeros yields λ c = 0.00116(16) for the end point. Combined with a zero-temperature measurement of Higgs and W boson masses, this leads to M H,c = 68.2 ± 6.6 GeV for the critical Higgs boson mass. An independent analysis of Binder cumulant gives a consistent value λ c = 0.00102(3) for the end point

  4. Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: findings from the ITC Korea Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults.

  5. An Intersectional Analysis of Women's Experiences of Smoking-Related Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandafilidis, Zoi; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Huppatz, Kate

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we explore how young women encounter and counter discourses of smoking-related stigma. Twenty-seven young Australian women, smokers and ex-smokers, took part in interviews. A sub-sample of 18 participants took photographs to document their smoking experience, and took part in a second interview. Data were analyzed through Foucauldian discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified: "smoking as stigmatized," "the smoking double standard," "smoking as lower class," and "smokers as bad mothers." The women negotiated stigma in a variety of ways, shifting between agreeing, disagreeing, challenging, and displacing stigma onto "other" smokers. These experiences and negotiations of smoking-related stigma were shaped by intersecting identities, including gender, cultural background, social class, and mothering, which at times, compounded levels of stigmatization. It is concluded that tobacco control measures should consider the negative implications of smoking-related stigma, and the potential for women to experience compounding levels of stigma.

  6. Assessing the Impact of the National Smoking Ban in Indoor Public Places in China: Evidence from Quit Smoking Related Online Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Emery, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China. PMID:23776504

  7. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  8. End-point effector stress mediators in neuroimmune interactions: their role in immune system homeostasis and autoimmune pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Stanislava; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Leposavic, Gordana

    2012-04-01

    Much evidence has identified a direct anatomical and functional link between the brain and the immune system, with glucocorticoids (GCs), catecholamines (CAs), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) as its end-point mediators. This suggests the important role of these mediators in immune system homeostasis and the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, although it is clear that these mediators can modulate lymphocyte maturation and the activity of distinct immune cell types, their putative role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not yet completely understood. We have contributed to this field by discovering the influence of CAs and GCs on fine-tuning thymocyte negative selection and, in particular, by pointing to the putative CA-mediated mechanisms underlying this influence. Furthermore, we have shown that CAs are implicated in the regulation of regulatory T-cell development in the thymus. Moreover, our investigations related to macrophage biology emphasize the complex interaction between GCs, CAs and NPY in the modulation of macrophage functions and their putative significance for the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  9. Angiographic core laboratory reproducibility analyses: implications for planning clinical trials using coronary angiography and left ventriculography end-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigen, Terje K; Claudio, Cheryl; Abbott, David; Schulzer, Michael; Burton, Jeff; Tymchak, Wayne; Buller, Christopher E; John Mancini, G B

    2008-06-01

    To assess reproducibility of core laboratory performance and impact on sample size calculations. Little information exists about overall reproducibility of core laboratories in contradistinction to performance of individual technicians. Also, qualitative parameters are being adjudicated increasingly as either primary or secondary end-points. The comparative impact of using diverse indexes on sample sizes has not been previously reported. We compared initial and repeat assessments of five quantitative parameters [e.g., minimum lumen diameter (MLD), ejection fraction (EF), etc.] and six qualitative parameters [e.g., TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) or thrombus grade (TTG), etc.], as performed by differing technicians and separated by a year or more. Sample sizes were calculated from these results. TMPG and TTG were also adjudicated by a second core laboratory. MLD and EF were the most reproducible, yielding the smallest sample size calculations, whereas percent diameter stenosis and centerline wall motion require substantially larger trials. Of the qualitative parameters, all except TIMI flow grade gave reproducibility characteristics yielding sample sizes of many 100's of patients. Reproducibility of TMPG and TTG was only moderately good both within and between core laboratories, underscoring an intrinsic difficulty in assessing these. Core laboratories can be shown to provide reproducibility performance that is comparable to performance commonly ascribed to individual technicians. The differences in reproducibility yield huge differences in sample size when comparing quantitative and qualitative parameters. TMPG and TTG are intrinsically difficult to assess and conclusions based on these parameters should arise only from very large trials.

  10. Use of Electronic Cigarettes Among U.S. Adults With Medical Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Gina R; Kalkhoran, Sara; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2017-06-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rising in the U.S. Smokers with comorbidities may increasingly use e-cigarettes if they believe e-cigarettes reduce smoking-related harm. This study examined e-cigarette use among adults with medical comorbidities. In 2016, this study analyzed 68,136 U.S. adults in the 2014 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Prevalent e-cigarette use by medical comorbidities and adjusted odds of e-cigarette use were calculated. Among current cigarette smokers, ever use of e-cigarettes was more often reported by adults with one or more medical comorbidity versus those without comorbidity (18-24 years: 73.5% vs 61.4%; 25-44 years: 60.6% vs 54.3%; 45-64 years: 46.5% vs 40.3%; ≥65 years: 35.2% vs 19.4%; all pe-cigarette use more often than those without comorbidity (25-44 years, 17.8% vs 14.3%, p=0.03; 45-64 years, 15.9% vs 11.5%, p=0.02). Current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and cardiovascular disease had higher odds of ever e-cigarette use versus those without comorbidity. Current smokers with asthma and cardiovascular disease had higher odds of current e-cigarette use. Former smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had higher odds of ever and current e-cigarette use and former smokers with cancer had lower odds of current e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use by current and former smokers with medical comorbidities is substantial, especially among individuals with chronic lung or cardiovascular disease. Clinicians should routinely ask these patients about e-cigarette use, actively consider all pathways to help their patients quit combustible cigarettes, and recommend evidence-based treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking-related correlates of psychomotor restlessness and agitation in a community sample of daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jordan A; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-03-01

    Psychomotor restlessness and agitation (PMA) is a putatively important, yet understudied, psychopathologic correlate of smoking. The scant smoking research on PMA previously conducted has been narrow in scope and conducted among psychiatric patients. To examine the generalizability and relevance of PMA to smoking, this cross-sectional study investigated associations between PMA and a variety of smoking processes in a community sample. Participants in this study were non-treatment-seeking smokers (N = 254, ≥10 cig/day, M age = 44 years) from the community without an active mood disorder. At baseline, they completed a PMA symptom checklist, a composite depressive symptom index, and a battery of smoking questionnaires. Linear regression models adjusting for depressive symptoms and demographics indicated that PMA level was positively associated with severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during prior quit attempts (β = .18, p smoke for negative reinforcement (β = .14, p smoking expectancies for negative reinforcement (β = .17, p smoking chronicity, frequency, or dependence severity. Smokers with elevated PMA appear to experience greater smoking-induced affect modulation and nicotine withdrawal than the average smoker, regardless of other depressive symptoms. Given that PMA differentiates a qualitatively unique profile of smoking characteristics, PMA warrants consideration in tobacco addiction research and practice. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Changes in tar yields and cigarette design in samples of Chinese cigarettes, 2009 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Liane M; Zwierzchowski, Benjamin A; Caruso, Rosalie V; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Jiang; Fong, Geoffrey T; O'Connor, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    China is home to the greatest number of smokers as well as the greatest number of smoking-related deaths. An active and growing market of cigarettes marketed as 'light' or 'low tar' may keep health-concerned smokers from quitting, wrongly believing that such brands are less harmful. This study sought to observe changes in cigarette design characteristics and reported tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) levels in a sample of cigarette brands obtained in seven Chinese cities from 2009 to 2012. Cigarettes were purchased and shipped to Roswell Park Cancer Institute, where 91 pairs of packs were selected for physical cigarette design characteristic testing and recording of TNCO values. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS, and was initially characterised using descriptive statistics, correlations and generalised estimating equations to observe changes in brand varieties over time. Reported TNCO values on packs saw mean tar, nicotine and CO levels decrease from 2009 to 2012 by 7.9%, 4.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Ventilation was the only cigarette design feature that significantly changed over time (p<0.001), with an increase of 31.7%. Significant predictors of tar and CO yield overall were ventilation and per-cigarette tobacco weight, while for nicotine tobacco moisture was also an independent predictor of yield. The use of ventilation to decrease TNCO emissions is misleading smokers to believe that they are smoking a 'light/low' tar cigarette that is healthier, and is potentially forestalling the quitting behaviours that would begin to reduce the health burden of tobacco in China, and so should be prohibited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Does Adding Information on Toxic Constituents to Cigarette Pack Warnings Increase Smokers' Perceptions about the Health Risks of Smoking? A Longitudinal Study in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Lipkus, Isaac; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States include varying information about toxic cigarette smoke constituents and smoking-related health risks. HWL information changed more recently in Australia, Canada, and Mexico than in the United States. Aims: To investigate whether…

  14. UST-ID robotics: Wireless communication and minimum conductor technology, and end-point tracking technology surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a technology review of the current state-of-the-art in two technologies applicable to the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The first review is of wireless and minimal conductor technologies for in-tank communications. The second review is of advanced concepts for independent tool-point tracking. This study addresses the need to provide wireless transmission media or minimum conductor technology for in-tank communications and robot control. At present, signals are conducted via contacting transmission media, i.e., cables. Replacing wires with radio frequencies or invisible light are commonplace in the communication industry. This technology will be evaluated for its applicability to the needs of robotics. Some of these options are radio signals, leaky coax, infrared, microwave, and optical fiber systems. Although optical fiber systems are contacting transmission media, they will be considered because of their ability to reduce the number of conductors. In this report we will identify, evaluate, and recommend the requirements for wireless and minimum conductor technology to replace the present cable system. The second section is a technology survey of concepts for independent end-point tracking (tracking the position of robot end effectors). The position of the end effector in current industrial robots is determined by computing that position from joint information, which is basically a problem of locating a point in three-dimensional space. Several approaches are presently being used in industrial robotics, including: stereo-triangulation with a theodolite network and electrocamera system, photogrammetry, and multiple-length measurement with laser interferometry and wires. The techniques that will be evaluated in this survey are advanced applications of the aforementioned approaches. These include laser tracking (3-D and 5-D), ultrasonic tracking, vision-guided servoing, and adaptive robotic visual tracking

  15. Constraints on grip selection in hemiparetic cerebral palsy: effects of lesional side, end-point accuracy, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Bert; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Rosenbaum, David A

    2004-04-01

    This study was concerned with selection criteria used for grip planning in adolescents with left or right hemiparetic cerebral palsy. In the first experiment, we asked participants to pick up a pencil and place the tip in a pre-defined target region. We varied the size of the target to test the hypothesis that increased end-point precision demands would favour the use of a grip that affords end-state comfort. In the second experiment, we studied grip planning in three task contexts that were chosen to let us test the hypothesis that a more functional task context would likewise promote the end-state comfort effect. When movements were performed with the impaired hand, we found that participants with right hemiparesis (i.e., left brain damage) aimed for postural comfort at the start rather than at the end of the object-manipulation phase in both experiments. By contrast, participants with left hemiparesis (i.e., right brain damage) did not favour a particular selection criterion with the impaired hand in the first experiment, but aimed for postural comfort at the start in the second experiment. When movements were performed with the unimpaired hand, grip selection criteria again differed for right and left hemiparetic participants. Participants with right hemiparesis did not favour a particular selection criterion with the unimpaired hand in the first experiment and only showed the end-state comfort effect in the most functional tasks of the second experiment. By contrast, participants with left hemiparesis showed the end-state comfort effect in all conditions of both experiments. These data suggest that the left hemisphere plays a special role in action planning, as has been recognized before, and that one of the deficits accompanying left brain damage is a deficit in forward movement planning, which has not been recognized before. Our findings have both theoretical and clinical implications.

  16. Application of a computer model to predict optimum slaughter end points for different biological types of feeder cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L

    1995-10-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to predict slaughter end points of different genotypes of feeder cattle, where profit/rotation and profit/day were maximized. Growth, feed intake, and carcass weight and composition were simulated for 17 biological types of steers. Distribution of carcass weight and proportion in four USDA quality and five USDA yield grades were obtained from predicted carcass weights and composition. Average carcass value for each genotype was calculated from these distributions under four carcass pricing systems that varied from value determined on quality grade alone to value determined on yield grade alone. Under profitable market conditions, rotation length was shorter and carcass weights lighter when the producer's goal was maximum profit/day, compared with maximum profit/rotation. A carcass value system based on yield grade alone resulted in greater profit/rotation and in lighter and leaner carcasses than a system based on quality grade alone. High correlations ( > .97) were obtained between breed profits obtained with different sets of input/output prices and carcass price discount weight ranges. This suggests that breed rankings on the basis of breed profits may not be sensitive to changes in input/output market prices. Steers that were on a grower-stocker system had leaner carcasses, heavier optimum carcass weight, greater profits, and less variation in optimum carcass weights between genotypes than steers that were started on a high-energy finishing diet at weaning. Overall results suggest that breed choices may change with different carcass grading and value systems and postweaning production systems. This model has potential to provide decision support in marketing fed cattle.

  17. Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholeif, S A

    2001-06-01

    A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented. It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors. A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points. Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods, such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method.

  18. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  20. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  1. Health warnings on tobacco packaging in Italy: do they describe all possible smoking-related conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Colamesta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to evaluate the adherence between the health warnings on tobacco products in Italy and the smoking-related conditions known in the scientific literature. The Legislative Decree 2003 and 2012 established the general and the additional warnings on tobacco packaging. Regarding the smoking-related conditions, the health damages presented in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC report are reported. Also a narrative review was performed. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood neurobehavioral disorders are well reported in the textual health warning. Also there is at least one message indicating that the exposure of secondhand smoke is harmful. Conversely, several smoking-related cancers and other adverse health effects (diabetes, hip fractures, low bone density in postmenopausal women, rheumatoid arthritis, mental decline, acne and allergy, etc are not considered. The health warnings represent an important mean for communicating that may change smokers’ attitudes and behaviours, therefore, it’s important to implement them, also considering the introduction of graphical warnings, to maintain their effectiveness over time.

  2. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. Methods College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. Results First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Conclusions Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals’ social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals’ social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  3. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ahmmad, Zobayer; Pye, Mu; Gull, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals' social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals' social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  4. Biomarkers of Host Response Predict Primary End-Point Radiological Pneumonia in Tanzanian Children with Clinical Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Erdman

    Full Text Available Diagnosing pediatric pneumonia is challenging in low-resource settings. The World Health Organization (WHO has defined primary end-point radiological pneumonia for use in epidemiological and vaccine studies. However, radiography requires expertise and is often inaccessible. We hypothesized that plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation may be useful surrogates for end-point pneumonia, and may provide insight into its biological significance.We studied children with WHO-defined clinical pneumonia (n = 155 within a prospective cohort of 1,005 consecutive febrile children presenting to Tanzanian outpatient clinics. Based on x-ray findings, participants were categorized as primary end-point pneumonia (n = 30, other infiltrates (n = 31, or normal chest x-ray (n = 94. Plasma levels of 7 host response biomarkers at presentation were measured by ELISA. Associations between biomarker levels and radiological findings were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable logistic regression. Biomarker ability to predict radiological findings was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Classification and Regression Tree analysis.Compared to children with normal x-ray, children with end-point pneumonia had significantly higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and Chitinase 3-like-1, while those with other infiltrates had elevated procalcitonin and von Willebrand Factor and decreased soluble Tie-2 and endoglin. Clinical variables were not predictive of radiological findings. Classification and Regression Tree analysis generated multi-marker models with improved performance over single markers for discriminating between groups. A model based on C-reactive protein and Chitinase 3-like-1 discriminated between end-point pneumonia and non-end-point pneumonia with 93.3% sensitivity (95% confidence interval 76.5-98.8, 80.8% specificity (72.6-87.1, positive likelihood ratio 4.9 (3.4-7.1, negative likelihood ratio 0

  5. Guidelines for the definition of time-to-event end points in renal cell cancer clinical trials: results of the DATECAN project†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, A; Negrier, S; Sylvester, R; Joniau, S; Mulders, P; Powles, T; Bex, A; Bonnetain, F; Bossi, A; Bracarda, S; Bukowski, R; Catto, J; Choueiri, T K; Crabb, S; Eisen, T; El Demery, M; Fitzpatrick, J; Flamand, V; Goebell, P J; Gravis, G; Houédé, N; Jacqmin, D; Kaplan, R; Malavaud, B; Massard, C; Melichar, B; Mourey, L; Nathan, P; Pasquier, D; Porta, C; Pouessel, D; Quinn, D; Ravaud, A; Rolland, F; Schmidinger, M; Tombal, B; Tosi, D; Vauleon, E; Volpe, A; Wolter, P; Escudier, B; Filleron, T

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the use of intermediate time-to-event end points (TEEs) is increasingly common, yet their choice and definitions are not standardized. This limits the usefulness for comparing treatment effects between studies. The aim of the DATECAN Kidney project is to clarify and recommend definitions of TEE in renal cell cancer (RCC) through a formal consensus method for end point definitions. A formal modified Delphi method was used for establishing consensus. From a 2006-2009 literature review, the Steering Committee (SC) selected 9 TEE and 15 events in the nonmetastatic (NM) and metastatic/advanced (MA) RCC disease settings. Events were scored on the range of 1 (totally disagree to include) to 9 (totally agree to include) in the definition of each end point. Rating Committee (RC) experts were contacted for the scoring rounds. From these results, final recommendations were established for selecting pertinent end points and the associated events. Thirty-four experts scored 121 events for 9 end points. Consensus was reached for 31%, 43% and 85% events during the first, second and third rounds, respectively. The expert recommend the use of three and two endpoints in NM and MA setting, respectively. In the NM setting: disease-free survival (contralateral RCC, appearance of metastases, local or regional recurrence, death from RCC or protocol treatment), metastasis-free survival (appearance of metastases, regional recurrence, death from RCC); and local-regional-free survival (local or regional recurrence, death from RCC). In the MA setting: kidney cancer-specific survival (death from RCC or protocol treatment) and progression-free survival (death from RCC, local, regional, or metastatic progression). The consensus method revealed that intermediate end points have not been well defined, because all of the selected end points had at least one event definition for which no consensus was obtained. These clarified definitions of TEE should become standard practice in

  6. Biomarkers of Host Response Predict Primary End-Point Radiological Pneumonia in Tanzanian Children with Clinical Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Laura K.; D’Acremont, Valérie; Hayford, Kyla; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Hongoa, Philipina; Alamo, Leonor; Streiner, David L.; Genton, Blaise; Kain, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing pediatric pneumonia is challenging in low-resource settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined primary end-point radiological pneumonia for use in epidemiological and vaccine studies. However, radiography requires expertise and is often inaccessible. We hypothesized that plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation may be useful surrogates for end-point pneumonia, and may provide insight into its biological significance. Methods We studied children with WHO-defined clinical pneumonia (n = 155) within a prospective cohort of 1,005 consecutive febrile children presenting to Tanzanian outpatient clinics. Based on x-ray findings, participants were categorized as primary end-point pneumonia (n = 30), other infiltrates (n = 31), or normal chest x-ray (n = 94). Plasma levels of 7 host response biomarkers at presentation were measured by ELISA. Associations between biomarker levels and radiological findings were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable logistic regression. Biomarker ability to predict radiological findings was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Classification and Regression Tree analysis. Results Compared to children with normal x-ray, children with end-point pneumonia had significantly higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and Chitinase 3-like-1, while those with other infiltrates had elevated procalcitonin and von Willebrand Factor and decreased soluble Tie-2 and endoglin. Clinical variables were not predictive of radiological findings. Classification and Regression Tree analysis generated multi-marker models with improved performance over single markers for discriminating between groups. A model based on C-reactive protein and Chitinase 3-like-1 discriminated between end-point pneumonia and non-end-point pneumonia with 93.3% sensitivity (95% confidence interval 76.5–98.8), 80.8% specificity (72.6–87.1), positive likelihood ratio 4.9 (3.4–7

  7. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  8. Preventing or reducing smoking-related complications in otologic and neurotologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Samy, Ravi N

    2015-10-01

    To discuss effects of smoking on otologic surgery in an era of electronic (e-) cigarettes and proposals for legalization of marijuana. Physiologic mechanisms and clinical outcomes are presented. Tobacco smoke can cause a variety of tissue effects that may adversely impact otologic surgery outcomes. Results in tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia are inferior in smokers compared with nonsmokers. More recent data show that in cartilage tympanoplasty, graft incorporation rates in smokers may approach those of nonsmokers. However, these results may not be as durable long-term in smokers. Evidence from nonotologic studies suggests that smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy may reduce perioperative morbidity. No data are available on electronic cigarettes and otologic outcomes; however, based on the pathophysiologic mechanisms of tobacco smoking, electronic cigarettes are likely a safer alternative. Marijuana smoke also needs to be considered as more states consider legalization. Cigarette smoking negatively influences otologic surgery results, mostly because of tobacco combustion byproducts. Counseling and, if needed, pharmacologic measures to reduce smoking are recommended. E-cigarettes that deliver nicotine in water vapor may be safer than tobacco smoking. Our review contributes to the discussion of how the trends of e-cigarette use and marijuana legalization will unfold in the future to affect our patients' outcomes.

  9. Impact of E-cigarettes on Smoking and Related Outcomes in Veteran Smokers With Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gerald W; Hefner, Kathryn; Jatlow, Peter I; Rosenheck, Robert A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Compared to the general U.S. population, smokers with comorbid psychiatric and/or substance use disorders have lower quit rates after evidence-based treatments and disproportionately high smoking-related deaths. Improved modalities for reducing tobacco-related harm in this subpopulation are needed. Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can now deliver physiologically relevant levels of nicotine to consumers, they represent an additional nicotine delivery system that could be used in cessation interventions. While current data suggest that the use of e-cigarettes by smokers promotes a reduction in combustible cigarette use, smoking quit rates through use of e-cigarettes appears to be low. The goal of this study was to examine impact of e-cigarette use on combustible tobacco use as well as on the readiness to quit smoking and changes in nicotine dependence in a multimorbid population. We conducted a 4-week, open-label study in 43 military veteran smokers who had no immediate intention to stop smoking and were currently receiving psychiatric services from the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. Participants were provided with a study e-cigarette they could use ad libitum along with other tobacco products and were encouraged to attend weekly laboratory visits and a one-month follow-up visit. Main outcome measures were number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), the frequency of e-cigarette use, the amount of money spent on combustible cigarettes (U.S. dollars/week), alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and urine cotinine levels. Mean e-cigarette use was 5.7 days per week and only 9% of participants used the e-cigarette for fewer than 4 days per week. Significant reductions in breath CO (9.3 ppm to 7.3 ppm, p combustible cigarette use. E-cigarettes appear to be a viable harm reduction modality in smokers with psychiatric comorbidities.

  10. The impact of state fire safe cigarette policies on fire fatalities, injuries, and incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, David H; Shults, Chris

    Cigarettes are a leading cause of civilian deaths in home fires. Over the last decade, state fire service leaders and allied interest groups succeeded in persuading state lawmakers to require manufacturers to sell only low-ignition strength or "fire safe" cigarettes as a strategy to reduce these fatalities and the injuries and losses that stem from them. This article examines whether the states' fire safe cigarette laws actually helped to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce the incidence of home fires ignited by cigarettes left unattended by smokers. Controlling for the effects of key demographic, social, economic, and housing variables, this study finds that the states' fire-safe cigarette policies had significant impacts on reducing the rate of smoking-related civilian fire deaths and the incidence of fires started by tobacco products. The findings also suggest that the states' fire safe cigarette policies may have helped to reduce the rate of smoking-related fire injuries. The study shows that collective actions by leaders in the fire service across the states can result in meaningful policy change that protects lives and advances public safety even when a political consensus for action is absent at the national level.

  11. Effects of drinker self-schema on drinking- and smoking-related information processing and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuie; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen

    2018-01-02

    Co-occurrence of drinking and smoking is prevalent in undergraduate students. A drinker self-schema-cognition about the self as the drinker-is a common identity in undergraduates and a well-known predictor of drinking behaviors. Given that smoking commonly occurs in the context of drinking, a drinker self-schema may be a cognitive mechanism to motivate co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use (i.e., cross-substance facilitation hypothesis). This study was to determine whether the drinker self-schema influences the processing of drinking- and smoking-related information and facilitates the co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students who drink and smoke but do not self-identify as smokers. This study was the second phase of a 2-phase study. Of the 330 who completed phase 1 (online survey), 99 completed the phase 2 study. Phase 2 was an in-person session that included a computerized information processing task to measure endorsements and response latencies for drinking- and smoking-related attributes, and a computerized Timeline Followback that was used to measure 90-day alcohol- and tobacco-use behaviors. The 5-item drinker self-schema scale, administered in phase 1, was used to measure the strength of the drinker self-schema. A higher drinker self-schema score was associated with more endorsements of positive attributes for drinking and smoking, fewer endorsements of negative attributes for smoking, faster processing of agreements with positive alcohol-use-related attributes, higher levels of drinking and smoking, and more days of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the cross-substance facilitation hypothesis that the drinker self-schema facilitates the processing of not only drinking-related but also smoking-related stimuli and behaviors. Undergraduates who have higher drinker self-schema scores may be vulnerable to co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use.

  12. A Nationwide Assessment of the Association of Smoking Bans and Cigarette Taxes With Hospitalizations for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, and Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vivian; Ross, Joseph S; Steiner, Claudia A; Mandawat, Aditya; Short, Marah; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-12-01

    Multiple studies claim that public place smoking bans are associated with reductions in smoking-related hospitalization rates. No national study using complete hospitalization counts by area that accounts for contemporaneous controls including state cigarette taxes has been conducted. We examine the association between county-level smoking-related hospitalization rates and comprehensive smoking bans in 28 states from 2001 to 2008. Differences-in-differences analysis measures changes in hospitalization rates before versus after introducing bans in bars, restaurants, and workplaces, controlling for cigarette taxes, adjusting for local health and provider characteristics. Smoking bans were not associated with acute myocardial infarction or heart failure hospitalizations, but lowered pneumonia hospitalization rates for persons ages 60 to 74 years. Higher cigarette taxes were associated with lower heart failure hospitalizations for all ages and fewer pneumonia hospitalizations for adults aged 60 to 74. Previous studies may have overestimated the relation between smoking bans and hospitalizations and underestimated the effects of cigarette taxes.

  13. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation on Smoking-Related Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Stommel, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation. The analyses included U.S. population of current and former smokers aged ≥30 years (N=90,278; population estimate, 73.4 million). The analysis relied on fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Among the U.S. population of smokers, 7.3% started smoking before age 13 years, 11.0% at ages 13-14 years, 24.2% at ages 15-16 years, 24.5% at ages 17-18 years, 14.5% at ages 19-20 years, and 18.5% at ages ≥21 years. Early smoking initiation before age 13 years was associated with increased risks for cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.67) and pulmonary (OR=1.79) diseases as well as smoking-related cancers (OR=2.1) among current smokers; the risks among former smokers were cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.38); pulmonary (OR=1.89); and cancers (OR=1.44). Elevated mortality was also related to early smoking initiation among both current (hazard ratio, 1.18) and former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.19). Early smoking initiation increases risks of experiencing smoking-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. These risks are independent of demographic characteristics, SES, health behaviors, and subsequent smoking intensity. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should be implemented to prevent smoking initiation and promote cessation among youth. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting health (implicitly)? A longitudinal content analysis of implicit health information in cigarette advertising, 1954-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Choi, Hojoon; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2010-10-01

    Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five distinct smoking eras covering the years 1954-2003. Analysis of 1,135 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage probability sampling of three popular consumer magazines found that the level of implicit health information (i.e., "light" cigarette, cigarette pack color, verbal and visual health cues, cigarette portrayals, and human model-cigarette interaction) in post-Master Settlement Agreement [MSA] era ads is similar to the level in ads from early smoking eras. Specifically, "light" cigarettes were frequently promoted, and presence of light colors in cigarette packs seemed dominant after the probroadcast ban era. Impressionistic verbal health cues (e.g., soft, mild, and refreshing) appeared more frequently in post-MSA era ads than in pre-MSA era ads. Most notably, a majority of the cigarette ads portrayed models smoking, lighting, or offering a cigarette to others. The potential impact of implicit health information is discussed in the contexts of social cognition and Social Cognitive Theory. Policy implications regarding our findings are also detailed.

  15. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tob...

  16. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  17. Validation of smoking-related virtual environments for cue exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-García, Marta; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Craving is considered one of the main factors responsible for relapse after smoking cessation. Cue exposure therapy (CET) consists of controlled and repeated exposure to drug-related stimuli in order to extinguish associated responses. The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of 7 virtual reality environments for producing craving in smokers that can be used within the CET paradigm. Forty-six smokers and 44 never-smokers were exposed to 7 complex virtual environments with smoking-related cues that reproduce typical situations in which people smoke, and to a neutral virtual environment without smoking cues. Self-reported subjective craving and psychophysiological measures were recorded during the exposure. All virtual environments with smoking-related cues were able to generate subjective craving in smokers, while no increase was observed for the neutral environment. The most sensitive psychophysiological variable to craving increases was heart rate. The findings provide evidence of the utility of virtual reality for simulating real situations capable of eliciting craving. We also discuss how CET for smoking cessation can be improved through these virtual tools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET): development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Many smokers believe that smoking helps them to control their weight, and concerns about weight gain can interfere with smoking cessation. As researchers typically assess general weight concerns, a measure specific to smoking-related weight concerns is needed. The Smoking-related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) was created by generating items from 4 content domains: Hunger, Craving, Overeating, and Body Image. Female undergraduate smokers (N = 280) rated their postcessation weight gain concern and completed the SWEET, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26, Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), and Body Shape Questionnaire. Factor analysis of the initial items suggested a 4-factor solution, suggesting 4 subscales: Smoking to suppress appetite, smoking to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and withdrawal-related appetite increases. Based on these results, the SWEET subscales were revised and shortened. The resulting 10-item SWEET showed excellent internal consistency (total α = .94; mean α = .86) and evidence of validity by predicting smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns (ps < .05). Smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns were significantly predicted by the SWEET while controlling for existing measures of postcessation weight gain concern. The SWEET appears to be a reliable and valid measure of tendencies to smoke in response to body image concern and nicotine withdrawal and as a way to control appetite and overeating.

  19. What's in a Cigarette?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toluene - used to manufacture paint What's in an e-cigarette? Get the facts about nicotine, flavorings, colorings and other chemicals found in e-cigarettes. Find out more » Learn about the American Lung ...

  20. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane ePotvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  1. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  2. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Ho Jee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC: −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6 and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2. The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8 and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7 and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC: −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8. By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  3. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  4. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Blanton

    Full Text Available Graphic warnings (GWs on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance. One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions.Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers were assessed before and after message exposure.GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes, and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes. Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers. No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup.Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  5. Manage Emotions Without Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you used to reach for a cigarette after a tough day at the office. Or found comfort in the companionship of a cigarette on a lonely night. Maybe you used to have cigarettes available as one way to help you deal with uncomfortable emotions.

  6. Estimated GFR Decline as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Failure : A Post Hoc Analysis From the Reduction of End Points in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) Study and Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; Weldegiorgis, Misghina; Inker, Lesley A.; Gansevoort, Ron; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Mondal, Hasi; Coresh, Josef; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Background: A doubling of serum creatinine value, corresponding to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is used frequently as a component of a composite kidney end point in clinical trials in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether alternative end

  7. The effect of pictorial warnings on cigarette packages on attentional bias of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Wilden, Sophia; Schneider, Sven; Rockenbach, Christine; Dinter, Christina; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hermann, Derik; Wagner, Michael; Winterer, Georg; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-04-01

    Given that previous studies demonstrated that smoking-related cues (like cigarette packages) grab the attention of smokers and thereby contribute to craving and tobacco seeking we investigated how pictorial health warnings presented on cigarette packages affect attention allocation towards cigarette packages. The WHO advises the use of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages. However, at present no experimental studies are available investigating if pictorial warnings modulate incentive properties of cigarette packages. Fifty-nine tobacco smokers and 55 non-smokers performed a visual dot probe task to assess attention allocation towards cigarette packages with and without health warnings. Smokers were divided a priori in a group of light smokers (smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day; n=20). Psychometric measures on anxiety and nicotine craving were administered. Light smokers showed an attentional bias towards packages without pictorial warnings while no effects were observed in the other groups. In heavy smokers attention allocation towards pictorial health warnings was associated with an increase of craving and anxiety. The results have a potential public health perspective as pictorial health warnings might be an effective strategy to reduce attentional bias towards cigarette packages of light smokers, while counterproductive effects in heavy smokers warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for e-cigarette users?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Luca; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Among Italian smokers--about 10 millions in 2013--about 600,000 began using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27% reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute myocardial infarction - AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or, if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

  9. E-Cigarette Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegin, Gulay; Mekala, Hema Madhuri; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Lippmann, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful. E-cigarettes may be safer than tobacco products, but repeated prolonged exposure to their aerosols has its own considerable potential risk. The long-term health consequences of their use remain to be established. Physicians should vigorously discourage the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco products, with special emphasis on abstinence for younger people and during pregnancy or lactation.

  10. E-Cigarette Aerosol Exposure Induces Reactive Oxygen Species, DNA Damage, and Cell Death in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chastain; Majeste, Andrew; Hanus, Jakub; Wang, Shusheng

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoking remains one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Vascular cell death and dysfunction is a central or exacerbating component in the majority of cigarette smoking related pathologies. The recent development of the electronic nicotine delivery systems known as e-cigarettes provides an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking; however, the potential vascular health risks of e-cigarette use remain unclear. This study evaluates the effects of e-cigarette aerosol extract (EAE) and conventional cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). A laboratory apparatus was designed to produce extracts from e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes according to established protocols for cigarette smoking. EAE or conventional CSE was applied to human vascular endothelial cells for 4-72 h, dependent on the assay. Treated cells were assayed for reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, cell viability, and markers of programmed cell death pathways. Additionally, the anti-oxidants α-tocopherol and n-acetyl-l-cysteine were used to attempt to rescue e-cigarette induced cell death. Our results indicate that e-cigarette aerosol is capable of inducing reactive oxygen species, causing DNA damage, and significantly reducing cell viability in a concentration dependent fashion. Immunofluorescent and flow cytometry analysis indicate that both the apoptosis and programmed necrosis pathways are triggered by e-cigarette aerosol treatment. Additionally, anti-oxidant treatment provides a partial rescue of the induced cell death, indicating that reactive oxygen species play a causal role in e-cigarette induced cytotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of stereotactic dosimetric end points on overall survival for Stage I non–small cell lung cancer: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulryan, Kathryn; Leech, Michelle; Forde, Elizabeth, E-mail: eforde@tcd.ie

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers a high biologically effective dose while minimizing toxicities to surrounding tissues. Within the scope of clinical trials and local practice, there are inconsistencies in dosimetrics used to evaluate plan quality. The purpose of this critical review was to determine if dosimetric parameters used in SBRT plans have an effect on local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. A database of relevant trials investigating SBRT for patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer was compiled, and a table of dosimetric variables used was created. These parameters were compared and contrasted for LC, OS, and toxicities. Dosimetric end points appear to have no effect on OS or LC. Incidences of rib fractures correlate with a lack of dose-volume constraints (DVCs) reported. This review highlights the great disparity present in clinical trials reporting dosimetrics, DVCs, and toxicities for lung SBRT. Further evidence is required before standard DVCs guidelines can be introduced. Dosimetric end points specific to stereotactic treatment planning have been proposed but require further investigation before clinical implementation.

  12. Swimming speed alteration of Artemia sp. and Brachionus plicatilis as a sub-lethal behavioural end-point for ecotoxicological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaventa, Francesca; Gambardella, Chiara; Di Fino, Alessio; Pittore, Massimiliano; Faimali, Marco

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibility to improve a new behavioural bioassay (Swimming Speed Alteration test-SSA test) using larvae of marine cyst-forming organisms: e.g. the brine shrimp Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Swimming speed was investigated as a behavioural end-point for application in ecotoxicology studies. A first experiment to analyse the linear swimming speed of the two organisms was performed to verify the applicability of the video-camera tracking system, here referred to as Swimming Behavioural Recorder (SBR). A second experiment was performed, exposing organisms to different toxic compounds (zinc pyrithione, Macrotrol MT-200, and Eserine). Swimming speed alteration was analyzed together with mortality. The results of the first experiment indicate that SBR is a suitable tool to detect linear swimming speed of the two organisms, since the values have been obtained in accordance with other studies using the same organisms (3.05 mm s(-1) for Artemia sp. and 0.62 mm s(-1) for B. plicatilis). Toxicity test results clearly indicate that swimming speed of Artemia sp. and B. plicatilis is a valid behavioural end-point to detect stress at sub-lethal toxic substance concentrations. Indeed, alterations in swimming speed have been detected at toxic compound concentrations as low as less then 0.1-5% of their LC(50) values. In conclusion, the SSA test with B. plicatilis and Artemia sp. can be a good behavioural integrated output for application in marine ecotoxicology and environmental monitoring programs.

  13. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory 'Hardness' and 'Chewiness' Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    Texture and 'tenderness' in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers' satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of 'chewiness' (9-points) and 'hardness' (7-points) were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for 'chewiness' and 'hardness' are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  14. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory ‘Hardness’ and ‘Chewiness’ Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sasaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of ‘chewiness’ (9-points and ‘hardness’ (7-points were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  15. Smoking-related health behaviors of employees and readiness to quit: basis for health promotion interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Carol H; Plach, Sandra K; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp; Cashin, Susan E; Kelber, Sheryl; Cisler, Ron A; Weis, Jo M

    2005-06-01

    This report describes patterns of cigarette smoking and interest in smoking cessation programs among employees in a public worksite (n = 6,000) and a private worksite (n = 14,000). Of the 622 employees who attended an employee assistance program (EAP) orientation, 110 (18%) were current smokers. A significantly greater proportion of public employees smoked cigarettes, smoked more heavily, and evaluated their health more poorly compared to private employees. Smokers in both sites were over-represented in unskilled positions. Regardless of worksite, respondents who smoked had similar desires to quit or cut down and were annoyed by the comments of others, felt guilty about smoking, awakened with a desire to smoke, and felt they had a smoking problem. Overall, more than one third of individuals were interested in joining a smoking cessation program. Occupational health nurses may use these findings to design and implement smoking cessation interventions in their workplaces.

  16. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Robinson, Edward

    2016-07-11

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  17. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. D’Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Methods Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Results Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %–95 % of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %–40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %–38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %–20 % in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %–96 % and e-cigarette use groups (11 %–83 %; dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %–89 %. Exhaled NO increases (46 %–63 % were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  18. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in breast cancer trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Cameron, D; Poortmans, P; Asselain, B; Azria, D; Cardoso, F; A'Hern, R; Bliss, J; Bogaerts, J; Bonnefoi, H; Brain, E; Cardoso, M J; Chibaudel, B; Coleman, R; Cufer, T; Dal Lago, L; Dalenc, F; De Azambuja, E; Debled, M; Delaloge, S; Filleron, T; Gligorov, J; Gutowski, M; Jacot, W; Kirkove, C; MacGrogan, G; Michiels, S; Negreiros, I; Offersen, B V; Penault Llorca, F; Pruneri, G; Roche, H; Russell, N S; Schmitt, F; Servent, V; Thürlimann, B; Untch, M; van der Hage, J A; van Tienhoven, G; Wildiers, H; Yarnold, J; Bonnetain, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Bellera, C; Dabakuyo-Yonli, T S

    2015-05-01

    Using surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival, is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials. However, the definitions of several of these time-to-event (TTE) end points are imprecisely which limits interpretation and cross-trial comparisons. The estimation of treatment effects may be directly affected by the definitions of end points. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for randomized cancer clinical trials (RCTs) in breast cancer. A literature review was carried out to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of randomized trials or guidelines. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points based on a validated consensus method that formalize the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definitions of TTE end points commonly used in RCTs for breast cancer are provided for non-metastatic and metastatic settings. The use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparisons of trial results and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to those involved in the design, conducting, reporting, or assessment of RCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Use of electronic cigarettes and alternative tobacco products among Romanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Foley, Kristie L; Pénzes, Melinda; Paulik, Edit; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan; Ábrám, Zoltán; Bálint, Jozsef; Urbán, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To assess socio-demographic and smoking-related correlates of e-cigarette and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) use in a multi-ethnic group of adolescents in Tîrgu Mures, Romania. The cross-sectional study included 1835 high school students from Tirgu Mures, Romania. Socio-demographic variables and data about smoking and e-cigarettes and ATP use were collected using an online questionnaire. Chi-square tests or one-way ANOVA were applied to compare never smokers, non-current smokers, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of e-cigarettes and ATP use. The most frequently tried non-cigarette nicotine and tobacco products were e-cigarette (38.5 %), cigar (31.4 %) and waterpipe (21.1 %). Ever trying and current use of cigarettes were the most important correlates of e-cigarette and ATPs use. Sex, ethnicity, sensation seeking and perceived peer smoking were correlates of several ATPs use. The results of this study may inform the development of tailored tobacco control programs.

  20. Electronic cigarette: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal addictive component of tobacco smoke is nicotine. The mechanisms of nicotine addiction are highly complex and are responsible for maintenance of smoking behaviour. Use of electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine containing vapor has increased rapidly across the world. They are marketed as a "healthier alternatives" to conventional cigarettes. There is extensive debate over long-term safety and efficacy of these devices on public health. Studies show that the vapor generated from the E-cigarettes has a variable amount of nicotine and potential harmful toxins. Until robust research demonstrates the safety of E-cigarettes and efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as safe smoking cessation tool is unclear. This review highlights the recent data regarding E-cigarettes toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation.

  1. Inter-laboratory assessment by trained panelists from France and the United Kingdom of beef cooked at two different end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Micol, Didier; Picard, Brigitte; Terlouw, Claudia E M; Moloney, Aidan P; Juin, Hervé; Meteau, Karine; Scollan, Nigel; Richardson, Ian; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Eating quality of the same meat samples from different animal types cooked at two end-point cooking temperatures (55°C and 74°C) was evaluated by trained panels in France and the United Kingdom. Tenderness and juiciness scores were greater at 55°C than at 74°C, irrespective of the animal type and location of the panel. The UK panel, independently of animal type, gave greater scores for beef flavour (+7 to +24%, PFrench panel was higher at 74°C than at 55°C (+26%, Pcooking beef at a lower temperature increased tenderness and juiciness, irrespective of the location of the panel. In contrast, cooking beef at higher temperatures increased beef flavour and decreased abnormal flavour for the UK panelists but increased abnormal flavour for the French panel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  4. At-line determination of pharmaceuticals small molecule's blending end point using chemometric modeling combined with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Jagdish; Strong, Richard; Boulas, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    This article summarizes the development and validation of a Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) method for the rapid at-line prediction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a powder blend to optimize small molecule formulations. The method was used to determine the blend uniformity end-point for a pharmaceutical solid dosage formulation containing a range of API concentrations. A set of calibration spectra from samples with concentrations ranging from 1% to 15% of API (w/w) were collected at-line from 4000 to 12,500 cm- 1. The ability of the FT-NIR method to predict API concentration in the blend samples was validated against a reference high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The prediction efficiency of four different types of multivariate data modeling methods such as partial least-squares 1 (PLS1), partial least-squares 2 (PLS2), principal component regression (PCR) and artificial neural network (ANN), were compared using relevant multivariate figures of merit. The prediction ability of the regression models were cross validated against results generated with the reference HPLC method. PLS1 and ANN showed excellent and superior prediction abilities when compared to PLS2 and PCR. Based upon these results and because of its decreased complexity compared to ANN, PLS1 was selected as the best chemometric method to predict blend uniformity at-line. The FT-NIR measurement and the associated chemometric analysis were implemented in the production environment for rapid at-line determination of the end-point of the small molecule blending operation. FIGURE 1: Correlation coefficient vs Rank plot FIGURE 2: FT-NIR spectra of different steps of Blend and final blend FIGURE 3: Predictions ability of PCR FIGURE 4: Blend uniformity predication ability of PLS2 FIGURE 5: Prediction efficiency of blend uniformity using ANN FIGURE 6: Comparison of prediction efficiency of chemometric models TABLE 1: Order of Addition for Blending Steps

  5. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Production of Cue-Specific Craving for Cigarettes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Germeroth, Lisa J; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    The cue-reactivity procedure has demonstrated that smokers respond with increases in subjective craving in the presence of smoking-related cues. Virtual reality is an emerging mode of cue presentation for cue-reactivity research. Despite the successful implementation of virtual reality during the last decade, no systematic review has investigated the magnitude of effects across studies. This research systematically reviewed findings from studies using virtual reality in cigarette craving assessment. Eligible studies assessed subjective craving for cigarettes in smokers exposed to smoking-related and neutral environments. Cohen's d was used to assess differences in craving between smoking-related and nonsmoking-related virtual environments. A random effects approach was used to combine effect sizes. A total of 18 studies involving 541 smokers was included in the final analyses. Environments with smoking-related cues produced significant increases in craving relative to environments without smoking-related cues. The mean overall effect size (Cohen's d) was 1.041 (SE = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.28, Z = 8.68, P virtual reality can produce strong increases in craving among cigarette smokers. This strong cue-reactivity effect, which was comparable in magnitude to the craving effect sizes found with more conventional modes of cue presentation, supports the use of virtual reality for the generation of robust cue-specific craving in cue-reactivity research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  7. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  8. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  9. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  10. The radioactive cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulatowski, J.; Skwarzec, B.

    2002-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb on lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumption of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination in fourteen most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% total cigarette consumption in Poland, are presented and discussed. Moreover, polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco, ash, fresh filter and post smoking filter. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb (each of them). The highest 210 Po content per sample was found in the cheep 'Popularne' brand (24.12 mBq), the lowest in 'Caro' (4.23 mBq). The mean values and annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke 2 packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv/y) in comparison with intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland. (author)

  11. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; Phillips, Elyse; Gentzke, Andrea S; Homa, David M; Babb, Stephen D; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J

    2018-01-19

    The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1),* CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2016, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 15.5%, which was a significant decline from 2005 (20.9%); however, no significant change has occurred since 2015 (15.1%). In 2016, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male, aged 25-64 years, American Indian/Alaska Native or multiracial, had a General Education Development (GED) certificate, lived below the federal poverty level, lived in the Midwest or South, were uninsured or insured through Medicaid, had a disability/limitation, were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), or had serious psychological distress. During 2005-2016, the percentage of ever smokers who quit smoking increased from 50.8% to 59.0%. Proven population-based interventions are critical to reducing the health and economic burden of smoking-related diseases among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (1,2).

  12. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  13. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  14. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-07-01

    One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared with 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared with never users (odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends' use of and positive attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual's e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking Behavior Among Trauma-Exposed Daily Smokers: The Explanatory Role of Smoking-Related Avoidance and Inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Zvolensky, Michael J; Salazar, Adriana; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe that anxiety-related sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with smoking processes and poorer clinical outcomes among trauma-exposed smokers. Yet the specific mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility is a construct implicated in multiple manifestations of mood regulation that may underlie smoking behavior. The current study examined the explanatory role of smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility in terms of the relation between AS and indices of smoking behavior among trauma-exposed smokers. The sample consisted of 217 treatment-seeking adult smokers (44% female; M age = 37.8; SD = 13.2; age range: 18-65 years), who were exposed to at least one lifetime Criterion A trauma event (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR] Criterion A for trauma exposure). Bootstrap analysis (5,000 re-samples) revealed that AS was indirectly related to the (a) number of cigarettes smoked per day, (b) number of years being a daily smoker, (c) number of failed quit attempts, and (d) heaviness of smoking index among trauma-exposed smokers through its relation with smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility may be an important construct in better understanding AS-smoking relations among trauma-exposed smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility account for relations between AS and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome) in the context of trauma and smoking comorbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellera, C A; Penel, N; Ouali, M; Bonvalot, S; Casali, P G; Nielsen, O S; Delannes, M; Litière, S; Bonnetain, F; Dabakuyo, T S; Benjamin, R S; Blay, J-Y; Bui, B N; Collin, F; Delaney, T F; Duffaud, F; Filleron, T; Fiore, M; Gelderblom, H; George, S; Grimer, R; Grosclaude, P; Gronchi, A; Haas, R; Hohenberger, P; Issels, R; Italiano, A; Jooste, V; Krarup-Hansen, A; Le Péchoux, C; Mussi, C; Oberlin, O; Patel, S; Piperno-Neumann, S; Raut, C; Ray-Coquard, I; Rutkowski, P; Schuetze, S; Sleijfer, S; Stoeckle, E; Van Glabbeke, M; Woll, P; Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S

    2015-05-01

    The use of potential surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival (DFS) or time-to-treatment failure (TTF) is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer. However, the definition of time-to-event (TTE) end points is rarely precise and lacks uniformity across trials. End point definition can impact trial results by affecting estimation of treatment effect and statistical power. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End points in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for RCT in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We first carried out a literature review to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of RCT. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points. Recommendations were developed through a validated consensus method formalizing the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definition of TTE end points commonly used in RCT for sarcomas and GIST are provided for adjuvant and metastatic settings, including DFS, TTF, time to progression and others. Use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparison of trials' results, and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to research scientists involved in the design, conduct, reporting or assessment of RCT such as investigators, statisticians, reviewers, editors or regulatory authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cigarette Purchasing Patterns, Readiness to Quit, and Quit Attempts Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighting, Quentaxia; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; LeBlanc, Hannah; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2017-11-07

    Cigarette purchasing patterns may be linked with greater readiness to make a quit attempt and more quit attempts among domiciled samples. However, little is known about the cigarette purchasing patterns of homeless smokers or their potential relations to quitting intention and behaviors. This study redressed this gap among a convenience sample of homeless adult smokers from a large shelter in Dallas, Texas. Participants (N = 207; Mage = 43; 71.5% male) smoked ≥100 cigarettes over the lifetime and endorsed current daily smoking. Variables assessed included cigarette dependence (time to first cigarette of the day), monthly income, quantity of cigarettes most recently purchased, average money spent on cigarettes weekly, readiness/motivation to quit smoking, and the number intentional quit attempts lasting ≥24h in the past year. Regression analyses were conducted to characterize associations of cigarette purchasing patterns with readiness to quit and quit attempts controlling for sex, age, cigarette dependence, and income. Most participants purchased cigarettes by the pack (61.4%), and more than half the sample spent ≤$20 on cigarettes per week. Results indicated that spending less money per week on cigarettes was associated with greater readiness to quit (P = .016), even when controlling for income, cigarette dependence, and other covariates. Stratified analyses indicated that this association was significant only for homeless smokers reporting no regular monthly income. Homeless daily smokers with no reported income who spend little money on cigarettes may make particularly apt targets for cessation interventions due to potential associations with quitting motivation. Adults who are homeless smoke at greater rates and quit at lower rates than domiciled adults, leading to significant smoking-related health disparities among this group. Findings suggest that cigarette purchasing patterns are linked with readiness to quit smoking among smokers who are homeless

  18. [Promissing role of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2008-01-01

    Humans are highly adapted to consuming probiotics. Trehalose ("mushroom" sugar) is probably an important reserve compound and stress-responsible metabolite (increases bile and gastric acid resistance) of probiotic bacteria's and trehalase activity, in contrast to lactase activity, is preserved in all human populations, even those not consuming mushrooms. Among traditional Melanesian horticulturists, of whom 4/5 are daily smokers, the diet is rich in pre- and probiotics and there is absence of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Indoor air pollution is an important cancer risk factor. Over thousands of years, the controlled use of fire for preparing meals has resulted in exposure to smoke pollution (biomass fuels produce up to 100 times more respirable particles compared to gas ovens). Simultaneously, up until the 20th century, the only commonly available and inexpensive way of preserving food was fermentation and drying. Probiotics may protect the detoxification function of the kidney and liver. Furthermore, it can be speculated that probiotics may help in adaptation to smoke pollution generated during cooking, heating but also tobacco smoking. Smoking is the most important lifestyle risk factor for bladder cancer and the consumption of probiotic foods reduces the risk of this cancer in humans. Probiotics may restore natural killer cell activity which is lowered in smokers. In one study it was observed that a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum could be also useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in smokers. There is no sufficient data from clinical trials to recommend the routine use of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases. More research is needed to investigate the role of probiotics in this area.

  19. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  20. How is the effect of adolescent e-cigarette use on smoking onset mediated: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Schweitzer, Rebecca J

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarette use by adolescents has been related to onset of cigarette smoking but there is little knowledge about the process(es) through which this occurs. Accordingly, we tested the role of cognitive and social factors for mediating the relation between e-cigarette use and smoking onset. A school-based survey was conducted with a baseline sample of 2,338 students in Hawaii (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) who were surveyed in 2013 (Time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (Time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, cigarette smoking, demographic covariates, and 4 hypothesized mediators: smoking-related expectancies, prototypes, and peer affiliations as well as marijuana use. The primary structural modeling analysis, based on initial never-smokers, used an autoregressive model (entering T2 mediator values adjusted for T1 values) to test for mediational pathways in the relation between e-cigarette use at T1 and cigarette smoking status at T2. Results showed that e-cigarette use was related to all of the mediators. Tests of indirect effects indicated that changes in expectancies, affiliations, and marijuana use were significant pathways in the relation between e-cigarette use and smoking onset. A direct effect from e-cigarette use to smoking onset was nonsignificant. Findings were replicated across autoregressive and prospective models. We conclude that the relation between adolescent e-cigarette use and smoking onset is in part attributable to cognitive and social processes that follow from e-cigarette use. Further research is needed to understand the relative role of nicotine and psychosocial factors in smoking onset. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Molecular recognition in a diverse set of protein-ligand interactions studied with molecular dynamics simulations and end-point free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O

    2013-10-28

    End-point free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA provide a detailed understanding of molecular recognition in protein-ligand interactions. The binding free energy can be used to rank-order protein-ligand structures in virtual screening for compound or target identification. Here, we carry out free energy calculations for a diverse set of 11 proteins bound to 14 small molecules using extensive explicit-solvent MD simulations. The structure of these complexes was previously solved by crystallography and their binding studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data enabling direct comparison to the MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA calculations. Four MM-GBSA and three MM-PBSA calculations reproduced the ITC free energy within 1 kcal·mol(-1) highlighting the challenges in reproducing the absolute free energy from end-point free energy calculations. MM-GBSA exhibited better rank-ordering with a Spearman ρ of 0.68 compared to 0.40 for MM-PBSA with dielectric constant (ε = 1). An increase in ε resulted in significantly better rank-ordering for MM-PBSA (ρ = 0.91 for ε = 10), but larger ε significantly reduced the contributions of electrostatics, suggesting that the improvement is due to the nonpolar and entropy components, rather than a better representation of the electrostatics. The SVRKB scoring function applied to MD snapshots resulted in excellent rank-ordering (ρ = 0.81). Calculations of the configurational entropy using normal-mode analysis led to free energies that correlated significantly better to the ITC free energy than the MD-based quasi-harmonic approach, but the computed entropies showed no correlation with the ITC entropy. When the adaptation energy is taken into consideration by running separate simulations for complex, apo, and ligand (MM-PBSAADAPT), there is less agreement with the ITC data for the individual free energies, but remarkably good rank-ordering is observed (ρ = 0.89). Interestingly, filtering MD snapshots by prescoring

  2. Radiographic Progression-Free Survival as a Clinically Meaningful End Point in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: The PREVAIL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana E; Beer, Tomasz M; Loriot, Yohann; Higano, Celestia S; Armstrong, Andrew J; Sternberg, Cora N; de Bono, Johann S; Tombal, Bertrand; Parli, Teresa; Bhattacharya, Suman; Phung, De; Krivoshik, Andrew; Scher, Howard I; Morris, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Drug development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has been limited by a lack of clinically relevant trial end points short of overall survival (OS). Radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) as defined by the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 (PCWG2) is a candidate end point that represents a clinically meaningful benefit to patients. To demonstrate the robustness of the PCWG2 definition and to examine the relationship between rPFS and OS. PREVAIL was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational study that enrolled 1717 chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer from September 2010 through September 2012. The data were analyzed in November 2016. Patients were randomized 1:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo until confirmed radiographic disease progression or a skeletal-related event and initiation of either cytotoxic chemotherapy or an investigational agent for prostate cancer treatment. Sensitivity analyses (SAs) of investigator-assessed rPFS were performed using the final rPFS data cutoff (May 6, 2012; 439 events; SA1) and the interim OS data cutoff (September 16, 2013; 540 events; SA2). Additional SAs using investigator-assessed rPFS from the final rPFS data cutoff assessed the impact of skeletal-related events (SA3), clinical progression (SA4), a confirmatory scan for soft-tissue disease progression (SA5), and all deaths regardless of time after study drug discontinuation (SA6). Correlations between investigator-assessed rPFS (SA2) and OS were calculated using Spearman ρ and Kendall τ via Clayton copula. In the 1717 men (mean age, 72.0 [range, 43.0-93.0] years in enzalutamide arm and 71.0 [range, 42.0-93.0] years in placebo arm), enzalutamide significantly reduced risk of radiographic progression or death in all SAs, with hazard ratios of 0.22 (SA1; 95% CI, 0.18-0.27), 0.31 (SA2; 95% CI, 0.27-0.35), 0.21 (SA3; 95% CI, 0.18-0.26), 0.21 (SA4; 95% CI, 0.17-0.26), 0

  3. Comet assay with gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis end point tools for biomonitoring of water antibiotic contamination: Biological treatment is a reliable process for detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Zouiten, Amina; Dridi, Dorra; Tahrani, Leyla; Zouiten, Dorra; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the ability of Pseudomonas peli to treat industrial pharmaceuticals wastewater (PW). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis revealed the presence, in this PW, of a variety of antibiotics such as sulfathiazole, sulfamoxole, norfloxacine, cloxacilline, doxycycline, and cefquinome.P. peli was very effective to be grown in PW and inducts a remarkable increase in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (140.31 and 148.51%, respectively). On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after 24 h of shaking incubation with P. peli, was evaluated in vivo in the Mediterranean wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (pbody weight (b.w.); 0.33 ml/kg b.w. of PW, respectively. However, genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested with the PW obtained after incubation with P. peli We can conclude that using comet assay genotoxicity end points are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of water. Also, it could be concluded that P. peli can treat and detoxify the studied PW. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Pressure Injury Progression and Factors Associated With Different End-Points in a Home Palliative Care Setting: A Retrospective Chart Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; D'Angelo, Daniela; Piredda, Michela; Petitti, Tommasangelo; Lamarca, Luciano; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Dante, Angelo; Lusignani, Maura; Matarese, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses show the highest prevalence for pressure injuries. In the palliative care setting, the ultimate goal is injury healing, but equally important is wound maintenance, wound palliation (wound-related pain and symptom management), and primary and secondary wound prevention. To describe the course of healing for pressure injuries in a home palliative care setting according to different end-points, and to explore patient and caregiver characteristics and specific care activities associated with their achievement. Four-year retrospective chart review of 669 patients cared for in a home palliative care service, of those 124 patients (18.5%) had at least one pressure injury with a survival rate less than or equal to six months. The proportion of healed pressure injuries was 24.4%. Of the injuries not healed, 34.0% were in a maintenance phase, whereas 63.6% were in a process of deterioration. Body mass index (P = 0.0014), artificial nutrition (P = 0.002), and age pay attention to artificial nutrition, continuous deep sedation, and the caregiver's role and gender. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español E-Cigarettes KidsHealth / For Parents / E-Cigarettes What's in this ... Print en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes are devices marketed as a safe ...

  7. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  8. Cigarette Design Features: Effects on Emission Levels, User Perception, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Richter, Patricia A; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Christina V; Watson, Clifford H

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information. Whereas filter ventilation results in lower machine-generated emissions, it also leads to perceptions of lighter taste and relative safety in smokers who can unwittingly employ more intense smoking behavior to obtain the desired amount of nicotine and sensory appeal. Filter additives that modify smoke emissions can also modify sensory cues, resulting in changes in smoking behavior. Flavor capsules increase the cigarette's appeal and novelty, and lead to misperceptions of reduced harm. Slim cigarettes have lower yields of some smoke emissions, but smoking behavior can be more intense than with standard cigarettes. Physical design features significantly impact machine-measured emission yields in cigarette smoke, product appeal, smoking behaviors, and exposures in smokers. The influence of current and emerging design features is important in understanding the effectiveness of regulatory actions to reduce smoking-related harm.

  9. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  10. Data on polymorphisms in CYP2A6 associated to risk and predispose to smoking related variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. López-Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1137115, rs1801272 and rs28399433 rs4105144 in CYP2A6 associated to smoking related variables in Mexican Mestizo smokers (Pérez-Rubio et al., 2017 [1]. These SNPs were selected due to previous associations with other populations. Mexican Mestizo smokers were classified according their smoking pattern. A genetic association test was performed. Keywords: CYP2A6, Smoking, Nicotine addiction

  11. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. INCREASED CIGARETTE TAX IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCTIONS IN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN A LONGITUDINAL U.S. SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette taxation has been recognized as one of the most significant policy instruments to reduce smoking. Smoking and drinking are highly comorbid behaviors, and the public health benefits of cigarette taxation may extend beyond smoking-related outcomes to impact alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test whether increases in cigarette taxes are associated with reductions in alcohol consumption among smokers using a large, prospective U.S. sample. Method Our sample included 21,473 alcohol consumers from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate whether increases in cigarette taxes between Waves I (2001–2002) and II (2004–2005) were associated with reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, adjusting for demographics, baseline alcohol consumption, and alcohol price. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, hazardous drinking status, and age and income group. Results Increases in cigarette taxes were associated with modest reductions in typical quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking among smokers. Cigarette taxation was not associated with changes in alcohol consumption among non-smokers. In analyses stratified by sex, the inverse associations of cigarette taxes with typical quantity and binge drinking frequency were found only for male smokers. Further, the inverse association of cigarette taxation and alcohol consumption was stronger among hazardous drinkers (translating into approximately 1/2 a drink less alcohol consumption per episode), young adult smokers, and smokers in the lowest income category. Conclusions Findings from this longitudinal, epidemiological study suggest increases in cigarette taxes are associated with modest to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption among vulnerable groups. Additional research is needed to further quantify the public health benefits of cigarette

  13. Sensitivity of predictions in an effective model: Application to the chiral critical end point position in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biguet, Alexandre; Hansen, Hubert; Brugiere, Timothee; Costa, Pedro; Borgnat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the position of the chiral critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is under debate. While it is possible to predict its position by using effective models specifically built to reproduce some of the features of the underlying theory (QCD), the quality of the predictions (e.g., the CEP position) obtained by such effective models, depends on whether solving the model equations constitute a well- or ill-posed inverse problem. Considering these predictions as being inverse problems provides tools to evaluate if the problem is ill-conditioned, meaning that infinitesimal variations of the inputs of the model can cause comparatively large variations of the predictions. If it is ill-conditioned, it has major consequences because of finite variations that could come from experimental and/or theoretical errors. In the following, we shall apply such a reasoning on the predictions of a particular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the mean field + ring approximations, with special attention to the prediction of the chiral CEP position in the (T-μ) plane. We find that the problem is ill-conditioned (i.e. very sensitive to input variations) for the T-coordinate of the CEP, whereas, it is well-posed for the μ-coordinate of the CEP. As a consequence, when the chiral condensate varies in a 10MeV range, μ CEP varies far less. As an illustration to understand how problematic this could be, we show that the main consequence when taking into account finite variation of the inputs, is that the existence of the CEP itself cannot be predicted anymore: for a deviation as low as 0.6% with respect to vacuum phenomenology (well within the estimation of the first correction to the ring approximation) the CEP may or may not exist. (orig.)

  14. Photo-neutron reaction cross-section for 93Nb in the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12–16 and 45–70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G.N.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Tatari, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.C.; John, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Junghans, A.; Shin, S.G.; Key, Y.; Wagner, A.; Lee, M.W.; Goswami, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2013-01-01

    The photo-neutron cross-sections of 93 Nb at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12, 14 and 16 MeV as well as 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70 MeV have been determined by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques using the 20 MeV electron linac (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and 100 MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The 93 Nb(γ, xn, x=1–4) reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using computer code TALYS 1.4. The flux-weighted average values were obtained from the experimental and the theoretical (TALYS) values based on mono-energetic photons. The experimental values of present work are in good agreement with the flux-weighted theoretical values of TALYS 1.4 but are slightly higher than the flux-weighted experimental data of mono-energetic photons. It was also found that the theoretical and the experimental values of present work and literature data for the 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections increase from the threshold values to a certain energy, where other reaction channels opens. However, the increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections are sharper compared to 93 Nb(γ, 3n) and 93 Nb(γ, 4n) reaction cross-sections. The sharp increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections from the threshold value up to 17–22 MeV is due to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) effect besides the role of excitation energy. After a certain values, the individual 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reaction channels

  15. Comparison of burrowing and stimuli-evoked pain behaviors as end-points in rat models of inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eMuralidharan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. Briefly, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the burrowing environment and trained over a 5-day period. Rats that burrowed ≤450g of gravel on any two days of the individual training phase were excluded from the study. The remaining rats received either a unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA or saline, or underwent unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve- or sham-surgery. Baseline burrowing behavior and evoked pain behaviors were assessed prior to model induction, and twice-weekly until study completion on day 14. For FCA- and CCI-rats, but not the corresponding groups of sham-rats, evoked mechanical hypersensitivity developed in a temporal manner in the ipsilateral hindpaws. Although burrowing behavior also decreased in a temporal manner for both FCA- and CCI-rats, there was considerable inter-animal variability. By contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hindpaws of FCA- and CCI-rats respectively, exhibited minimal inter-animal variability. Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. However, large group sizes are needed to ensure studies are adequately powered due to considerable inter-animal variability.

  16. Modest blood pressure reduction with valsartan in acute ischemic stroke: a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Sun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kang, Dong-Wha; Park, Jong-Moo; Bae, Hee-Joon; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of modest blood pressure (BP) reduction with valsartan within 48 h after symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke and high BP. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial. A total of 393 subjects were recruited at 28 centers and then randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive valsartan (n = 195) or no treatment (n = 198) for seven-days after presentation. The primary outcome was death or dependency, defined as a score of 3-6 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days after symptom onset. Early neurological deterioration (END) within seven-days and 90-day major vascular events were also assessed. There were 372 patients who completed the 90-day follow-up. The valsartan group had 46 of 187 patients (24·6%) with a 90-day mRS 3-6, compared with 42 of 185 patients (22·6%) in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 1·11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·69-1·79; P = 0·667). The rate of major vascular events did not differ between groups (OR, 1·41; 95% CI, 0·44-4·49; P = 0·771). There was a significant increase of END in the valsartan group (OR, 2·43; 95% CI, 1·25-4·73; P = 0·008). Early reduction of BP with valsartan did not reduce death or dependency and major vascular events at 90 days, but increased the risk of END. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  17. Sensitivity of predictions in an effective model: Application to the chiral critical end point position in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biguet, Alexandre; Hansen, Hubert; Brugiere, Timothee [Universite Claude Bernard de Lyon, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Costa, Pedro [Universidade de Coimbra, Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Borgnat, Pierre [CNRS, l' Ecole normale superieure de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-09-15

    The measurement of the position of the chiral critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is under debate. While it is possible to predict its position by using effective models specifically built to reproduce some of the features of the underlying theory (QCD), the quality of the predictions (e.g., the CEP position) obtained by such effective models, depends on whether solving the model equations constitute a well- or ill-posed inverse problem. Considering these predictions as being inverse problems provides tools to evaluate if the problem is ill-conditioned, meaning that infinitesimal variations of the inputs of the model can cause comparatively large variations of the predictions. If it is ill-conditioned, it has major consequences because of finite variations that could come from experimental and/or theoretical errors. In the following, we shall apply such a reasoning on the predictions of a particular Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the mean field + ring approximations, with special attention to the prediction of the chiral CEP position in the (T-μ) plane. We find that the problem is ill-conditioned (i.e. very sensitive to input variations) for the T-coordinate of the CEP, whereas, it is well-posed for the μ-coordinate of the CEP. As a consequence, when the chiral condensate varies in a 10MeV range, μ {sub CEP} varies far less. As an illustration to understand how problematic this could be, we show that the main consequence when taking into account finite variation of the inputs, is that the existence of the CEP itself cannot be predicted anymore: for a deviation as low as 0.6% with respect to vacuum phenomenology (well within the estimation of the first correction to the ring approximation) the CEP may or may not exist. (orig.)

  18. Estimating the Cost of Preeclampsia in the Healthcare System: Cross-Sectional Study Using Data From SCOPE Study (Screening for Pregnancy End Points).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aimée; McHugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Kenny, Louise C; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Khashan, Ali S; Dempsey, Eugene; Fahy, Ciara; O'Neill, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the cost of preeclampsia from the national health payer's perspective using secondary data from the SCOPE study (Screening for Pregnancy End Points). SCOPE is an international observational prospective study of healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies. Using data from the Irish cohort recruited between November 2008 and February 2011, all women with preeclampsia and a 10% random sample of women without preeclampsia were selected. Additional health service use data were extracted from the consenting participants' medical records for maternity services which were not included in SCOPE. Unit costs were based on estimates from 3 existing Irish studies. Costs were extrapolated to a national level using a prevalence rate of 5% to 7% among nulliparous pregnancies. Within the cohort of 1774 women, 68 developed preeclampsia (3.8%) and 171 women were randomly selected as controls. Women with preeclampsia used higher levels of maternity services. The average cost of a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia was €5243 per case compared with €2452 per case for an uncomplicated pregnancy. The national cost of preeclampsia is between €6.5 and €9.1 million per annum based on the 5% to 7% prevalence rate. Postpartum care was the largest contributor to these costs (€4.9-€6.9 million), followed by antepartum care (€0.9-€1.3 million) and peripartum care (€0.6-€0.7 million). Women with preeclampsia generate significantly higher maternity costs than women without preeclampsia. These cost estimates will allow policy-makers to efficiently allocate resources for this pregnancy-specific condition. Moreover, these estimates are useful for future research assessing the cost-effectiveness of preeclampsia screening and treatment. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin in the preoperative multimodality treatment of rectal cancer: surgical end points from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Michael J; Colangelo, Linda H; Beart, Robert W; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Allegra, Carmen J; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C; Shields, Anthony F; Landry, Jerome C; Ryan, David P; Parda, David S; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M; Moore, Dennis F; Mullane, Michael R; Marchello, Benjamin T; Ward, Patrick J; Wozniak, Timothy F; Roh, Mark S; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-06-20

    The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m(2), 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. The usefulness of cytogenetic parameters, level of p53 protein and endogenous glutathione as intermediate end-points in raw betel-nut genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpawat, K; Chatterjee, A

    2003-07-01

    Betel-nut (BN) chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazards to a large population worldwide. Genotoxicity of betel alkaloids, polyphenol and tannin fractions have been reported. It has been shown earlier that BN ingredients altered the level of endogenous glutathione (GSH) which could modulate the host susceptibility to the action of other chemical carcinogens. The north-east Indian variety of BN, locally known as 'kwai', is raw, wet and consumed unprocessed with betel-leaf and slaked lime and contains higher alkaloids, polyphenol and tannins as compared to the dried one. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of DNA damage, pattern of cell kinetics, the level of p53-protein and endogenous GSH in kwai chewers in the tribal population of Meghalaya state in the northeastern region of India with an aim to see whether these end-points could serve as biomarkers of genetic damage of relevance for genotoxic/carcinogenic process. The present data show higher DNA damage, delay in cell kinetics, p53 expression and lower GSH-level in heavy chewers (HC) than nonchewers (NC). The influence of bleomycin (BLM) on chromatid break induction in G2-phase of peripheral blood lymphocytes in NC and HC has been analysed to determine individual susceptibility to carcinogenic assaults. HC showed higher induction of chromatid breaks than NC. Risk assessment in this study suggests an interaction between carcinogen exposure and mutagen sensitivity measures, risk estimates being higher in those individuals who both consume kwai and express sensitivity to free radical oxygen damage in vitro. From this study it seems that besides cytogenetical parameters, the level of endogenous GSH and the level of p53 protein could act as effective biomarkers for kwai chewers.

  1. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, I; Brahme, A; Andreo, P; Gudowski, W; Kierkegaard, J

    1999-09-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm3. The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)+/-0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3He and 4He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15+/-0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60Co radiation.

  2. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska, I.; Brahme, A.; Andreo, P.; Gudowski, W.; Kierkegaard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm 3 . The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)±0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3 He and 4 He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15±0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60 Co radiation. (author)

  3. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  4. Hospitalized Smokers’ Expectancies for Electronic Cigarettes versus Tobacco Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Cases, Mallory G.; Thorne, Christopher B.; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Kohler, Connie L.; Bailey, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare hospitalized smokers’ expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Methods Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Results Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies for the health risks of e-cigarettes (p < .001, Cohen's d = −2.07) as well as the ability of e-cigarettes to relieve negative affect (p < .001, Cohen's d = −1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.83), and taste pleasant (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p < .001, adjusted β = .34), relieve negative affect (p < .001, adjusted β = .32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, adjusted β = .31). Conclusions Hospitalizedtobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25452052

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities. PMID:27754449

  6. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease.

  7. A Prospective Cohort Study of Cigarette Prices and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L; Diver, W Ryan; Stoklosa, Michal; Flanders, W Dana; Westmaas, J Lee; Jemal, Ahmedin; Drope, Jeffrey M; Gapstur, Susan M; Jacobs, Eric J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Cigarette price increases effectively prevent smoking initiation and reduce cigarette consumption among young smokers. However, the impact of cigarette prices on smoking cessation among older smokers is less clear, particularly for those aged 65 years and older, a group that is at highest risk of smoking-related disease and will almost double in the United States between 2012 and 2050. Methods: Biennial questionnaires administered between 1997 and 2013 assessed smoking status for 9,446 Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort participants who were ≥50 years old and lived in Washington, DC, and 48 states. For each interval between biennial questionnaires, change in price per pack and average price level per pack were calculated. The separate associations between these price variables and smoking cessation during the same time interval were determined. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, each $1.00 price increase was associated with a 9% higher rate of quitting [rate ratio (RR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14). Each $1.00 increase in average price was associated with a 6% higher rate of quitting (RR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10). The association with average price was strongest among smokers aged 65 years and older (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11) and, for price change, for smokers with no major prevalent disease (RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19). Conclusions: These results suggest that increasing cigarette prices will promote quitting even among smokers aged 65 years and older. Impact: Increasing cigarette prices through higher taxes could reduce smoking rates among older adults and decrease risk of smoking-related cancers and diseases in this high-risk group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1071-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Restrictions on the use of e-cigarettes in public and private places-current practice and support among adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; McNeill, Ann; Arnott, Deborah; Cheeseman, Hazel

    2017-08-01

    Debates around policies regulating e-cigarette use make it important to obtain an overview of current practice, people's attitudes and correlates of policy support. Aims were to assess (i) current practices for e-cigarette use in homes and workplaces; (ii) characteristics associated with allowing e-cigarette use in the home; and (iii) level of, and characteristics associated with, support for extending smoke-free legislation to include e-cigarettes. Online survey in 2016, n = 11 389 adults in Great Britain. Descriptives for all measures; multivariable logistic regressions assessed correlates of allowing e-cigarette use and support for extension of legislation. Most (79%) reporting on workplace policies reported some level of restrictions on e-cigarette use. Small majorities would not allow e-cigarette use in their home (58%) and supported an extension of smoke-free legislation (52%; 21% opposed). Allowing use was less likely and supporting an extension more likely among men, respondents from a higher socio-economic status, ex-smokers, never-smokers, non-users of e-cigarettes and respondents with increased perceived harm of e-cigarettes or nicotine (all P e-cigarette use. Over half of adults would not allow use of e-cigarettes in their home and support prohibiting the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free places. Adjusting for socio-demographics, more restrictive attitudes are more common among never-smokers, never-users and those with increased perception of relative harms of e-cigarettes or nicotine as cause of smoking-related illness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. [Does elitism of school influence the smoking-related health behaviour among grammar school students?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwicki, Wojciech; Gołda, Ryszard; Domaniewska, Jolanta; Skok, Zdzisław; Jarzemski, Piotr; Przybylski, Grzegorz; Domaniewski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was connected with smoking health behaviour estimation among public (SZP) and nonpublic (SZN) grammar school students. The analysis of 156 anonymous questionnaires was made. Questionnaires contained questions of parents' education, material situation of family, physical education, social relations with family and peers and positive or negative perception of smoking. In total trial we observed a strong positive correlation between style of smoking or number of smoked cigarettes and positive perception of smoking (r = 0.62 or r = 0.36 respectively). The latter correlated significantly with family presence of smoking (r = 0.18). Percentages of smoking students of SZP and SZN differed and amounted 22% and 18% respectively. Within I/II SZP classes the smoking depended on material position of family (r = 0.28) and positive perception of smoking (r = 0.68). Among students of III SZP classes the dependence on material situation was stronger (r = 0.49), while students of III SZN classes became to perceive smoking more positive (r = 0.82). Social relations of students of I/II SZN classes were inversely proportional to prevalence of smoking in their families. Smoking students of III SZN classes worked out much more variously in comparison with pupils of SZP. The main motivation of smoking within school students was the positive perception of smoking. The differences of smoking prevalence within both types of school probably formed in the families and observed in I/II classes pupils, vanished during the time of III class of studying. Elitism of school do not protect the student from smoking: during the time of III SZN class the smoking receives clearly positive appearance and became established. Probably existing antinicotinic school programs should much more decidedly deliver the negative appearance of health effects of smoking.

  10. Prevalence and reasons for use of electronic cigarettes among smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Karin; Hoving, Ciska; Nagelhout, Gera E; de Vries, Hein; van den Putte, Bas; Candel, Math J J M; Borland, Ron; Willemsen, Marc C

    2015-06-01

    Not much is known about how people in the Netherlands respond to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); how many know about them, which people try them, keep using them and why, and what are changes over time regarding awareness and use? We used samples of smokers aged 15 years and older from 2008 (n=1820), 2010 (n=1702), 2013 (n=1530), and 2014 (n=1550) as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Reasons for use and characteristics of smokers were examined using the sample from 2014. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between smoking-related variables with ever trying e-cigarettes and current e-cigarette use. In 2014, 91.4% of Dutch smokers reported being aware of e-cigarettes (97.1% in 2008, 89.2% in 2010, and 85.5% in 2013), 40.0% reported having ever tried them (13.4% in 2008, 14.5% in 2010, and 19.6% in 2013), and 15.9% were currently using them (4.0% in 2008, 1% in 2010, and 3.9% in 2013). The main reason given for using e-cigarettes was to reduce the number of regular cigarettes smoked per day (79%). Ever trying e-cigarettes among those aware of e-cigarettes was associated with being young, smoking more regular cigarettes per day, having made a quit attempt in the last year, having used smoking cessation pharmacotherapy in the last year, and reporting high awareness of the price of regular cigarettes. Smokers who kept using e-cigarettes had a higher educational background, had higher harm awareness for the health of others, and were less likely to have a total smoking ban at home. E-cigarettes are increasingly used by Dutch smokers. Commonly endorsed motivations for current e-cigarette use were to reduce tobacco smoking and because e-cigarettes are considered to be less harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Test-retest reliability of the KINARM end-point robot for assessment of sensory, motor and neurocognitive function in young adult athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron S Mang

    Full Text Available Current assessment tools for sport-related concussion are limited by a reliance on subjective interpretation and patient symptom reporting. Robotic assessments may provide more objective and precise measures of neurological function than traditional clinical tests.To determine the reliability of assessments of sensory, motor and cognitive function conducted with the KINARM end-point robotic device in young adult elite athletes.Sixty-four randomly selected healthy, young adult elite athletes participated. Twenty-five individuals (25 M, mean age±SD, 20.2±2.1 years participated in a within-season study, where three assessments were conducted within a single season (assessments labeled by session: S1, S2, S3. An additional 39 individuals (28M; 22.8±6.0 years participated in a year-to-year study, where annual pre-season assessments were conducted for three consecutive seasons (assessments labeled by year: Y1, Y2, Y3. Forty-four parameters from five robotic tasks (Visually Guided Reaching, Position Matching, Object Hit, Object Hit and Avoid, and Trail Making B and overall Task Scores describing performance on each task were quantified.Test-retest reliability was determined by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs between the first and second, and second and third assessments. In the within-season study, ICCs were ≥0.50 for 68% of parameters between S1 and S2, 80% of parameters between S2 and S3, and for three of the five Task Scores both between S1 and S2, and S2 and S3. In the year-to-year study, ICCs were ≥0.50 for 64% of parameters between Y1 and Y2, 82% of parameters between Y2 and Y3, and for four of the five Task Scores both between Y1 and Y2, and Y2 and Y3.Overall, the results suggest moderate-to-good test-retest reliability for the majority of parameters measured by the KINARM robot in healthy young adult elite athletes. Future work will consider the potential use of this information for clinical assessment of concussion

  12. Development of a versatile tool for the simultaneous differential detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars by End Point and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegli, Stefania; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Libelli, Ilaria Marsili; Santilli, Elena

    2010-05-28

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive knot disease. The strains isolated from oleander and ash belong to the pathovars nerii and fraxini, respectively. When artificially inoculated, pv. savastanoi causes disease also on ash, and pv. nerii attacks also olive and ash. Surprisingly nothing is known yet about their distribution in nature on these hosts and if spontaneous cross-infections occur. On the other hand sanitary certification programs for olive plants, also including P. savastanoi, were launched in many countries. The aim of this work was to develop several PCR-based tools for the rapid, simultaneous, differential and quantitative detection of these P. savastanoi pathovars, in multiplex and in planta. Specific PCR primers and probes for the pathovars savastanoi, nerii and fraxini of P. savastanoi were designed to be used in End Point and Real-Time PCR, both with SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries. The specificity of all these assays was 100%, as assessed by testing forty-four P. savastanoi strains, belonging to the three pathovars and having different geographical origins. For comparison strains from the pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea of P. savastanoi and bacterial epiphytes from P. savastanoi host plants were also assayed, and all of them tested always negative. The analytical detection limits were about 5 - 0.5 pg of pure genomic DNA and about 102 genome equivalents per reaction. Similar analytical thresholds were achieved in Multiplex Real-Time PCR experiments, even on artificially inoculated olive plants. Here for the first time a complex of PCR-based assays were developed for the simultaneous discrimination and detection of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, pv. nerii and pv. fraxini. These tests were shown to be highly reliable, pathovar-specific, sensitive, rapid and able to quantify these pathogens, both in multiplex reactions and in vivo. Compared with the other methods already available for P. savastanoi, the identification

  13. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-02-16

    In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18-45 years old. The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364) in the sample of higher education young adult males Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  14. Radionuclides in cigarettes may lead to carcinogenesis via p16INK4a inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prueitt, Robyn L.; Goodman, Julie E.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that tobacco smoke is responsible for the vast majority of lung cancers worldwide. There are many known and suspected carcinogens present in cigarette smoke, including α-emitting radioisotopes. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased lung cancer risk is associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, and it is estimated that the majority of smoking-induced lung cancers may be at least partly attributable to the inhaled and deposited radiation dose from radioisotopes in the cigarette smoke itself. Recent research shows that silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p16 INK4a (p16) by promoter methylation plays a role in smoking-related lung cancer. Inactivation of p16 has also been associated with lung cancer incidence in radiation-exposed workers, suggesting that radionuclides in cigarette smoke may be acting with other compounds to cause smoking-induced lung cancer. We evaluated the mechanism of ionizing radiation as an accepted cause of lung cancer in terms of its dose from tobacco smoke and silencing of p16. Because both radiation and cigarette smoking are associated with inactivation of p16, and p16 inactivation has been shown to play a major role in carcinogenesis, ionizing radiation from cigarette smoke likely plays a role in lung cancer risk. How large a role it plays, relative to chemical carcinogens and other modes of action, remains to be elucidated

  15. Carbonyl Emissions in E-cigarette Aerosol: A Systematic Review and Methodological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonyl emissions from tobacco cigarettes represent a substantial health risk contributing to smoking-related morbidity and mortality. As expected, this is an important research topic for tobacco harm reduction products, in an attempt to compare the relative risk of these products compared to tobacco cigarettes. In this study, a systematic review of the literature available on PubMed was performed analyzing the studies evaluating carbonyl emissions from e-cigarettes. A total of 32 studies were identified and presented. We identified a large diversity of methodologies, with substantial discrepancies in puffing patterns, aerosol collection and analytical methods as well as reported units of measurements. Such discrepancies make comparisons difficult, and in some cases the accuracy of the findings cannot be determined. Importantly, control for the generation of dry puffs was not performed in the vast majority of studies, particularly in studies using variable power devices, which could result in testing conditions and reported carbonyl levels that have no clinical relevance or context. Some studies have been replicated, verifying the presence of dry puff conditions. Whenever realistic use conditions were ensured, carbonyl emissions from e-cigarettes were substantially lower than tobacco cigarette smoke, while newer generation (bottom-coil, cotton wick atomizers appeared to emit minimal levels of carbonyls with questionable clinical significance in terms of health risk. However, extremely high levels of carbonyl emissions were reported in some studies, and all these studies need to be replicated because of potentially important health implications.

  16. Methyl vinyl ketone, a toxic ingredient in cigarette smoke extract, modifies glutathione in mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiyama, Shizuyo; Takahashi, Yuta; Hatai, Mayuko; Honda, Chie; Suwa, Kiyoko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru; Date, Sachiko; Masujima, Tsutomu; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many harmful chemicals, which contribute to the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke is well documented, but the definitive mechanism behind its toxicity remains unknown. Ingredients in cigarette smoke are known to deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cellular thiol antioxidant, and to cause oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytotoxicity in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma (B16-BL6) cells using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CSE and ingredients in cigarette smoke, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and crotonaldehyde (CA), reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, CSE and the ingredients (m/z 70, each) irreversibly reacted with GSH (m/z 308) to form GSH adducts (m/z 378) in cells and considerably decreased cellular GSH levels at concentrations that do not cause cell death. Mass spectral data showed that the major product formed in cells exposed to CSE was the GSH-MVK adduct via Michael-addition and was not the GSH-CA adduct. These results indicate that MVK included in CSE reacts with GSH in cells to form the GSH-MVK adduct, and thus a possible reason for CSE-induced cytotoxicity is a decrease in intracellular GSH levels.

  17. Cigarette smoke retention and bronchodilation in patients with COPD. A controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Wouter D; Heijdra, Yvonne; Lenders, Jacques W M; Klerx, Walther; Akkermans, Reinier; van der Pouw, Anouschka; van Weel, Chris; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schermer, Tjard R J

    2013-01-01

    Bronchodilators are the cornerstone for symptomatic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many patients use these agents while persisting in their habit of cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that bronchodilators increase pulmonary retention of cigarette smoke and hence the risk of smoking-related (cardiovascular) disease. Our aim was to investigate if bronchodilation causes increased pulmonary retention of cigarette smoke in patients with COPD. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial, in which COPD patients smoked cigarettes during undilated conditions at one session and maximal bronchodilated conditions at the other session. Co-primary outcomes were pulmonary tar and nicotine retention. We performed a secondary analysis that excludes errors due to possible contamination. Secondary outcomes included the biomarkers C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, and smoke inhalation patterns. Of 39 randomized patients, 35 patients completed the experiment and were included in the final analysis. Bronchodilation did not significantly increase tar retention (-4.5%, p = 0.20) or nicotine retention (-2.6%, p = 0.11). Secondary analysis revealed a potential reduction of retention due to bronchodilation: tar retention (-3.8%, p = 0.13), and nicotine retention (-3.4%, p = 0.01). Bronchodilation did not modify our secondary outcomes. Our results do not support the hypothesis that cigarette tar and nicotine retention in COPD patients is increased by bronchodilation, whereas we observed a possibility towards less retention. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00981851. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  19. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gravely

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%, Republic of Korea (2010: 79%, United States (2010: 73%, Australia (2013: 66%, Malaysia (2011: 62%, United Kingdom (2010: 54%, Canada (2010: 40%, Brazil (2013: 35%, Mexico (2012: 34%, and China (2009: 31%, in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%, Malaysia (19%, Netherlands (18%, United States (15%, Republic of Korea (11%, United Kingdom (10%, Mexico (4%, Canada (4%, Brazil (3%, and China (2%, and in current use (Malaysia (14%, Republic of Korea (7%, Australia (7%, United States (6%, United Kingdom (4%, Netherlands (3%, Canada (1%, and China (0.05%. Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine, and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette

  20. Awareness, trial, and current use of electronic cigarettes in 10 countries: Findings from the ITC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C K; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Perez, Cristina; Omar, Maizurah; Hummel, Karin

    2014-11-13

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 37%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Brazil (8%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)) [corrected]. The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette awareness and trial

  1. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  2. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara E. McGee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. Methods A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0, and at 8 months (T1 and one year post-intervention (T2. Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student, adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18 were conducted at T1. Results 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08–0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02–0.17 or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11–0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07–0.52. At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21–1.23. Intervention participants were more likely to ‘definitely’ believe that: ‘it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that’ (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07–1.33, ‘it is difficult to quit smoking once started’ (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38–1.76, ‘smoke from other peoples’ cigarettes is harmful’ (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20–2.08, ‘smoking affects sports performance’ (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59–1.88 and ‘smoking makes ‘no difference

  3. Effect of a sport-for-health intervention (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among 9-10 year old primary school children: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ciara E; Trigwell, Joanne; Fairclough, Stuart J; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna; Ussher, Michael; Foweather, Lawrence

    2016-05-26

    Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines. Data were collected pre-intervention (T0), and at 8 months (T1) and one year post-intervention (T2). Smoking-related intentions and cognitions were assessed using an online questionnaire. Intervention effects were analysed using multi-level modelling (school, student), adjusted for baseline values and potential confounders. Mixed-sex focus groups (n = 18) were conducted at T1. 961 children completed all assessments and were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between the two study groups for non-smoking intentions (T1: β = 0.02, 95 % CI = -0.08-0.12; T2: β = 0.08, 95 % CI = -0.02-0.17) or for cigarette refusal self-efficacy (T1: β = 0.28, 95 % CI = -0.11-0.67; T2: β = 0.23, 95 % CI = -0.07-0.52). At T1 there was a positive intervention effect for cigarette refusal self-efficacy in girls (β = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.21-1.23). Intervention participants were more likely to 'definitely' believe that: 'it is not safe to smoke for a year or two as long as you quit after that' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.33), 'it is difficult to quit smoking once started' (RR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.38-1.76), 'smoke from other peoples' cigarettes is harmful' (RR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.08), 'smoking affects sports performance' (RR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.59-1.88) and 'smoking makes 'no difference' to weight' (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI = 1.86-2.44). At T2, significant between

  4. "It's Easy to Get Fags": A Qualitative Study of Disadvantaged Young People's Perspectives on Cigarette Availability and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjelta, Thomas; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda

    2017-11-07

    Reducing young people's access to cigarettes is a key element of smoking prevention policies. This article explores how young people source cigarettes following the increase in the UK minimum age of sale from 16 to 18 years. Semi-structured individual, paired and triadic interviews with 60 disadvantaged young people aged between 12 and 17. Participants were recruited from clubs and voluntary organizations offering advice and support to disadvantaged young people. Most participants said they sourced cigarettes from shops, but understandings of "buying cigarettes from shops" included using intermediaries for proxy purchases. Access from social sources was contingent on reciprocation, and blackmarket sources were avoided. The distinction between potential and actual sources reflected participants concerns about their presentation of self. Those who bought cigarettes directly from shops accrued status and power in negotiating social hierarchies. Participants therefore highlighted their smoking related competencies, that is, ability to secure regular retail access to tobacco, while downplaying the significant difficulties they experienced. The presentational dimension of youth cigarette access highlights a need for caution in associating self-reported changes in young people's cigarette sources straightforwardly with access policies. The conflation of direct retail purchases with proxy purchases, and the interrelationship between commercial and social cigarette sources also raises issues for interpreting data on "usual" cigarette sources from national surveys. Findings suggest that some young people may still be both reliant on making retail cigarette purchases following the increase in the age of sale in the United Kingdom, and experiencing significant difficulties making these. This study highlights the self-presentational dimension of youth cigarette access in a particular community context, and the important distinction between the apparent range of sources

  5. A Case Study Application of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Frameworks to Facilitate the Integration of Human Health and Ecological End Points for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  6. Plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular events in the Treating to New Targets and Incremental Decrease in End-Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering trials of statins in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Ole; Holme, Ingar; Fayyad, Rana

    2009-01-01

    We determined the ability of in-trial measurements of triglycerides (TGs) to predict new cardiovascular events (CVEs) using data from the Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) and Treating to New Targets (TNT) trials. The trials compared atorvastatin 80 mg...

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Webb Hooper

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p < 0.001. However, African American/Black ever users were more likely to report plans to continue using e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01. African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03 and Hispanics (p = 0.48. White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02. In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2016-10-14

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01). African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites ( p = 0.03) and Hispanics ( p = 0.48). White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics ( p = 0.02). In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  9. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Donny, Eric C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2017-01-01

    The reduced nicotine content cigarette and the emergence of non-combusted nicotine products like e-cigarettes should be viewed not as alternatives but as complementary components of regulatory interventions that could virtually end combusted tobacco use. PMID:27555354

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  11. Attitudinal and behavioral differences between cigarette users who do and do not identify as "smokers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael B; Lin, Linda; White, Madeleine; Alfonso-Barry, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The current research aimed to understand differences in smoking-related identity among college students and to illustrate the distinct characteristics of nonidentified smokers (NIS). Students from 2 colleges in Massachusetts (N = 538; April 2016). Respondents reported by online survey whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and if they self-identified as smokers. Nonsmokers (NIS) and identified smokers (IS) were then compared on their smoking attitudes and behavior. NIS made up 12.5% of the sample and 64% of all tobacco users. NIS perceived themselves as less addicted and were more confident in their ability to quit smoking. They also were less likely to smoke alone, buy their own cigarettes, or have friends who smoked. College health officials can best motivate NIS to quit smoking by focusing on peer norms and the potential of long-term addiction.

  12. Adolescent perceptions of cigarette appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    To reduce the possibility of cigarette appearance misleading consumers about harm caused by the product, the European Commission's draft Tobacco Products Directive proposed banning cigarettes implied a more pleasant and palatable smoke for young smokers. A long brown cigarette was viewed as particularly unattractive and communicated a stronger and more harmful product. This exploratory study provides some support that standardising cigarette appearance could reduce the appeal of cigarettes in adolescents and reduce the opportunity for stick design to mislead young smokers in terms of harm. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  14. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  15. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. [Focus on electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghino, Biagio; Pacifici, Roberta; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Palmi, Ilaria; Solimini, Renata; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear regulation on electronic cigarettes (e-cig); their health effects are not yet fully investigated and there is insufficient standardisation and quality control of the product. Moreover, the e-cig could be a gateway for young people to nicotine addiction and traditional cigarette smoking. In Italy, the Ministry of Health banned the sale of e-cig with nicotine firstly to adolescents aged marketing of e-cigs, to make them less attractive, to forbid their use in enclosed areas, and prevent them from being promoted. E-cigs, however, seem to be much less dangerous than traditional cigarettes, although the few studies conducted are not sufficient to demonstrate either a clear therapeutic efficacy of e-cig or their total harmlessness. If e-cig had a known content, were made according to clear rules and in certified laboratories, without toxic substances, it could be used to help heavy smokers to quit, or at least to reduce smoking habits. There is a large proportion of smokers who are unable to quit. The revision of the European Directive (the proposal is being evaluated and we are waiting for its final approval) on tobacco recommends free sale for a minority of e-cigs only, those with a nicotine content e-cig and the much more dangerous tobacco cigarettes are still sold without any restriction.

  18. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  19. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2017-12-01

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents Not Susceptible to Using Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Osman, Amira; Ranney, Leah M.; Heck, Courtney; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible ...

  2. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-01-01

    Background Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users...

  3. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers. Cigarette...

  4. Multielement determination in a Chinese cigarette brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cigarette brand manufactured in the Republic of China was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 27 elements in cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper, cigarette filter before and after smoking and in the dropped ash. The results were compared to the literature values for American and other international cigarette brands. (author) 28 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quester Pascale G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504, 2006 (n = 525, 2007 (n = 414 and 2008 (n = 464. Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact.

  6. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  7. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  8. E-Cigarettes and the Use of Conventional Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Nies, Alina; Goecke, Michaela; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2018-04-06

    In 2015, 12.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds in Germany had reportedly already tried e-cigarette smoking at least once. We carried out a study of the "gateway" hypothesis, according to which the use of e-cigarettes can motivate adolescents to start smoking conventional cigarettes. During the 2015/2016 school year, 2186 tenth-graders in the German states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 6-month period (mean age 15.5 years, standard deviation 0.65; 53.6% female). 14.3% of the survey population (313 adolescents) said at the start of the survey period that they had already tried e-cigarettes at least once. By the end of the survey period, 12.3% (268) of those who had never smoked before had begun to experiment with conventional cigarettes. The risk of beginning such experimentation was 2.2 times higher among e-cigarette users. This association remained (relative risk = 2.18 [1.65; 2.83]) after statistical control for age, sex, state, immigrant background, type of school, socioeconomic status, various personality traits (sensation-seeking, impulsivity, anxiety, hopelessness, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the use of alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs. Further analysis revealed that the association between the use of e-cigarettes and the onset of conventional cigarette smoking was stronger among adolescents with low sensation-seeking scores and without any experience of alcohol intoxication. Among adolescents who have never smoked, experimentation with conventional cigarettes is more common in those who have used e-cigarettes. This effect seems to be stronger among adolescents who, in general, have a lower risk of starting to smoke. The 6-month observation period of this study is too short to allow any inference regarding a connection between e-cigarette use and the development of tobacco dependence.

  9. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  10. Mass Spectrometric Approaches to the Identification of Potential Ingredients in Cigarette Smoke Causing Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiyama, Shizuyo; Kunitomo, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many harmful chemicals that contribute to the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies have been done to identify cytotoxic chemicals in cigarette smoke and elucidate the onset of the above-mentioned diseases caused by smoking. However, definitive mechanisms for cigarette smoke toxicity remain unknown. As candidates for cytotoxic chemicals, we have recently found methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and acetic anhydride in nicotine/tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) using L-tyrosine (Tyr), an amino acid with highly reactive hydroxyl group. The presence of MVK and acetic anhydride in CSE was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We also found new reaction products formed in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma (B16-BL6) cells treated with CSE using LC/MS. These were identified as glutathione (GSH) conjugates of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, MVK, crotonaldehyde (CA), and acrolein (ACR), by the mass value and product ion spectra of these new products. ACR and MVK are type-2 alkenes, which are well known as electron acceptors and form Michael-type adducts to nucleophilic side chain of amino acids on peptides. These α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds may have a key role in CSE-induced cell death.

  11. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  12. Exploring smoking, mental health and smoking-related disease in a nationally representative sample of older adults in Ireland - A retrospective secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Annette; Strawbridge, Judith D; Clancy, Luke; Doyle, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death among individuals with mental health difficulties (MHD). The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of smoking on the physical health of older adults with MHD in Ireland and to explore the extent to which smoking mediated or moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related diseases. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 8175 community-dwelling adults aged 50 and over from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was undertaken. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between MHD, smoking (current/past/never) and smoking-related diseases (respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, smoking-related cancers). A number of variables were employed to identify individuals with MHD, including prescribed medication, self-reported diagnoses and self-report scales. MHD was associated with current (RRRs ranging from 1.84 [1.50 to 2.26] to 4.31 [2.47 to 7.53]) and former (RRRs ranging from 1.26 [1.05 to 1.52] to 1.99 [1.19 to 3.33]) smoking and also associated with the presence of smoking-related disease (ORs ranging from 1.24 [1.01 to 1.51] to 1.62 [1.00 to 2.62]). Smoking did not mediate and rarely moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related disease. Older adults in Ireland with MHD are more likely to smoke than those without such difficulties. They also experience higher rates of smoking-related disease, although smoking had no mediating and no consistent moderating role in these analyses. Findings underscore the need for attention to the physical health of those with MHD including support in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Quantitative Epigenetic Approach for the Assessment of Cigarette Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert ePhilibert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency . Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic (ROC area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking and smoking related disorders.

  14. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels ...

  15. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000761.htm E-cigarettes and E-hookahs To use the sharing features ... cigarettes because they believe these devices are safe. E-cigarettes and Children Many experts also have concerns about ...

  16. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  17. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson George

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights", including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376 about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%, that "lights" are less harmful (42%, and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%. Overall most "lights" smokers (60% had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96. While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively. In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women

  19. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter resea...

  20. E-cigarette use, perceptions, and cigarette smoking intentions in a community sample of young adult nondaily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-05-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. Although e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions, and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (N = 348, 57% male) aged 18 to 24 years were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included nondaily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline, and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22% to 33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  2. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes.

  3. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  4. Diferencias tomográficas y funcionales entre la EPOC severa relacionada con humo de leña y con cigarrillo Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio González-García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: La exposición a humo de leña es factor de riesgo para EPOC. A diferencia de la EPOC por cigarrillo (EPOC-C, para un mismo nivel de obstrucción, en la EPOC por leña (EPOC-L, la DLCO está menos disminuida, sugiriendo menos enfisema. Por tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los hallazgos en la TCAR en mujeres con EPOC-L y con EPOC- C. MÉTODOS: Veintidós mujeres con EPOC severa (VEF1/CVF OBJECTIVE: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. METHODS: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50% were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12 and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10. The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT; and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA, the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans howed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO

  5. Tobacco cigarette use versus electronic cigarette use: determinants of smoking and vaping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Romijnders; Marlieke Beijaert; Liesbeth van Osch; Hein de Vries; Reinskje Talhout

    2018-01-01

    Background It is important to know why individuals use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) compared to tobacco cigarettes. This comparison provides policy makers with opportunities to target different types of users. This study examined behavioral determinants associated with both tobacco and e-cigarette use. Differences between non-users (neither e-cigarette users nor smokers), smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users were assessed for tobacco use versus e-cigarette u...

  6. A smoking-related background helps moderate smokers to focus: An event-related potential study using a Go-NoGo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  8. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  9. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  10. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis combined with pulmonary emphysema: computed tomography-pathologic correlative study using lobectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hideji; Tanaka, Tomonori; Murata, Kiyoshi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Sonoda, Akinaga; Takahashi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and pathologic correlation of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT) findings in smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) with pulmonary emphysema. Our study included 172 consecutive patients who underwent TSCT and subsequent lobectomy. TSCT findings including clustered cysts with visible walls (CCVW) and ground-glass attenuation with/without reticulation (GGAR) were evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers and among lung locations. TSCT findings, especially CCVW, were also compared with histological findings using lobectomy specimens. The incidence of CCVW and GGAR was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (34.1% and 40.7%, respectively, vs 2.0% and 12.2%). CCVW and GGAR were frequently found in the lower and peripheral zones. Histologically, CCVW corresponded more often with SRIF with emphysema than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, 63.3% vs 30%). CCVW of irregular size and shape were seen in 19 of 20 SRIF with emphysema and in seven of nine UIP-manifested areas with similar round cysts. A less-involved subpleural parenchyma was observed more frequently in SRIF with emphysema. SRIF with emphysema is a more frequent pathological finding than UIP in patients with CCVW on TSCT. The irregular size and shape of CCVW and a less-involved subpleural parenchyma may be a clue suggesting the presence of SRIF with emphysema.

  11. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  12. Know More About Menthol Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Quit Why Do You Want to Quit? Health Effects Benefits of Quitting How Much Will You Save How Smoking Affects Your Workout Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes Know More About Menthol Cigarettes Quitting Dip Stay ...

  13. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  14. Difference in Composite End Point of Readmission and Death Between Malnourished and Nonmalnourished Veterans Assessed Using Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Clinical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Lynn D; Shaw, Robert F; Fabri, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between malnutrition and poor outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to explore the difference in the composite end point of readmission rate or mortality rate between hospitalized veterans with and without malnutrition. This was a retrospective chart review comparing veterans with malnutrition based on a modified version of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition consensus characteristics that used 5 of the 6 clinical characteristics to a matched control group of nonmalnourished veterans based on age, admitting service, and date of admission who were admitted between August 1, 2012, and December 1, 2014. Data were extracted from the medical record. Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors of outcomes. In total, 404 patients were included in the final analysis. All end points were found to be statistically significant. The malnourished group was more likely to meet the composite end point (odds ratio [OR], 5.3), more likely to be readmitted within 30 days (OR, 3.4), more likely to die within 90 days of discharge (OR, 5.5), and more likely to have a length of stay >7 days (OR, 4.3) compared with the nonmalnourished group. Length of stay was significantly longer in the malnourished group, 9.80 (11.5) vs 4.38 (4.5) days. Malnutrition was an independent risk factor for readmission within 30 days or death within 90 days of discharge. Malnourished patients had higher rates of readmission, higher mortality rates, and longer lengths of stay and were more likely to be discharged to nursing homes.

  15. Receptivity to e-cigarette marketing, harm perceptions, and e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-01-01

    To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.

  16. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  17. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  18. Combustible cigarettes cost less to use than e-cigarettes: global evidence and tax policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-03-01

    Some scholars suggest that price differences between combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which could reduce tobacco-related death and disease. Currently, in most jurisdictions, e-cigarettes are not subject to the same excise taxes as combustible cigarettes, potentially providing the category with a price advantage over combustible cigarettes. This paper tests whether e-cigarettes tax advantage has translated into a price advantage. In a sample of 45 countries, the price of combustible cigarettes, disposable e-cigarettes and rechargeable cigarettes were compared. Comparable units of combustible cigarettes cost less than disposable e-cigarettes in almost every country in the sample. While the e-liquids consumed in rechargeable e-cigarettes might cost less per comparable unit than combustible cigarettes, the initial cost to purchase a rechargeable e-cigarette presents a significant cost barrier to switching from smoking to vaping. Existing prices of e-cigarettes are generally much higher than of combustible cigarettes. If policymakers wish to tax e-cigarettes less than combustibles, forceful policy action-almost certainly through excise taxation-must raise the price of combustible cigarettes beyond the price of using e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the following...

  20. Beyond light and mild: cigarette brand descriptors and perceptions of risk in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron; Cummings, Michael K; O'Connor, Richard J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-06-01

    To examine perceptions of risk related to type of cigarette brand. Cross-sectional findings from wave 5 of the ITC Four Country Survey, conducted with nationally representative samples of smokers in 2006. A total of 8243 current and former adult (≥18 years) smokers from Canada (n=2022), the United States (n=2034), the United Kingdom (n=2019) and Australia (n=2168). Outcomes included beliefs about the relative risks of cigarettes, including perceptions of 'own' brand. Correlates included socio-demographic, smoking-related covariates and brand characteristics. One-fifth of smokers believed incorrectly that 'some cigarette brands could be less harmful' than others. False beliefs were higher in both the United States and United Kingdom compared to Canada and Australia. Smokers of 'light/mild', 'slim' and 100 mm/120 mm cigarettes were more likely to believe that some cigarettes could be less harmful [odds ratio (OR)=1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.12-1.48 and that their own brand might be a little less harmful (OR=2.61, 95% CI=2.01-3.41). Smokers of 'gold', 'silver', 'blue' or 'purple' brands were more likely to believe that their 'own brand might be a little less harmful' compared to smokers of 'red' or 'black' brands (OR=12.48, 95% CI=1.45-107.31). Despite current prohibitions on the words 'light' and 'mild', smokers in western countries continue to falsely believe that some cigarette brands may be less harmful than others. These beliefs are associated with descriptive words and elements of package design that have yet to be prohibited, including the names of colours and long, slim cigarettes. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. German EstSmoke: estimating adult smoking-related costs and consequences of smoking cessation for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Diana; Gilbody, Simon; Winkler, Volker; Ali, Shehzad

    2018-01-01

    We compared predicted life-time health-care costs for current, never and ex-smokers in Germany under the current set of tobacco control polices. We compared these economic consequences of the current situation with an alternative in which Germany were to implement more comprehensive tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) guidelines. German EstSmoke, an adapted version of the UK EstSmoke simulation model, applies the Markov modelling approach. Transition probabilities for (re-)currence of smoking-related diseases were calculated from large German disease-specific registries and the German Health Update (GEDA 2010). Estimations of both health-care costs and effect sizes of smoking cessation policies were taken from recent German studies and discounted at 3.5%/year. Germany. German population of prevalent current, never and ex-smokers in 2009. Life-time cost and outcomes in current, never and ex-smokers. If tobacco control policies are not strengthened, the German smoking population will incur €41.56 billion life-time excess costs compared with never smokers. Implementing tobacco control policies consistent with WHO FCTC guidelines would reduce the difference of life-time costs between current smokers and ex-smokers by at least €1.7 billion. Modelling suggests that the life-time healthcare costs of people in Germany who smoke are substantially greater than those of people who have never smoked. However, more comprehensive tobacco control policies could reduce health-care expenditures for current smokers by at least 4%. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  4. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  5. Interactions between ethanol and cigarette smoke in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nikolov, Manasi; La Maestra, S.; Micale, Rosanna T.; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cigarette smoke and ethanol are known to synergize in the upper aerodigestive tract. • Their interactions in the lower respiratory tract have poorly been explored. • Prenatal and postnatal treatments of mice with ethanol caused pulmonary alterations. • However, ethanol attenuated smoke-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in lung. • The interaction between smoke and alcohol depends on life stage and target tissue. - Abstract: Both ethanol and cigarette smoke are classified as human carcinogens. They can synergize, especially in tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract that are targeted by both agents. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ethanol and smoke in the respiratory tract, either following transplacental exposure and/or postnatal exposure. We designed two consecutive studies in mouse models by exposing Swiss H mice to oral ethanol and/or inhaled mainstream cigarette smoke for up to 4 months, at various prenatal and postnatal life stages. Clastogenic effects and histopathological alterations were evaluated after 4 and 8 months, respectively. Ethanol was per se devoid of clastogenic effects in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. However, especially in mice exposed both transplacentally throughout pregnancy and in the postnatal life, ethanol administration was associated not only with liver damage but also with pro-angiogenetic effects in the lung by stimulating the proliferation of blood vessels. In addition, these mice developed pulmonary emphysema, alveolar epithelial hyperplasias, microadenomas, and benign tumors. On the other hand, ethanol interfered in the lung carcinogenesis process resulting from the concomitant exposure of mice to smoke. In fact, ethanol significantly attenuated some smoke-related preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the respiratory tract, such as alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, microadenomas, and even malignant tumors. In addition, ethanol

  6. Increased exhalation of hydrogen peroxide in healthy subjects following cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Baltazar Guatura

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Increased hydrogen peroxide has been described in the expired breath condensate (H2O2-E of several lung conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. This technique has been advocated as being a simple method for documenting airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate H2O2-E in healthy cigarette smokers, and to determine the acute effects of the consumption of one cigarette on H2O2-E levels. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective, controlled trial. SETTING: A pulmonary function laboratory in a University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two groups of healthy volunteers: individuals who had never smoked (NS; n=10; 4 men; age = 30.6 ± 6.2 years and current cigarette smokers (S; n=12; 7 men; age = 38.7 ± 9.8. None of the volunteers had respiratory symptoms and all showed normal spirometric tests. INTERVENTION: Expired air was collected from all volunteers through a face mask and a plastic collecting system leading into a flask with dry ice and pure ethanol. Samples from the group S were collected twice, before and half an hour after the combustion of one cigarette. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Expired hydrogen peroxide using the Gallati and Pracht method. RESULTS: The S and NS groups showed comparable levels of H2O2-E at basal conditions [NS = 0.74 muM (DP 0.24 vs. S = 0.75 muM (DP 0.31]. The smokers showed a significant increase in H2O2-E levels half an hour after the consumption of only one cigarette [0.75 muM (DP 0.31 vs. 0.95 muM (DP 0.22]. CONCLUSION: The present results are consistent with the concept that smokers increase oxidative stress with elevated production of reactive oxygen species, contributing to the development of smoking-related disorders.

  7. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  8. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-12-15

    In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC.

  9. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mendy, Vincent L.; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an ...

  10. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess w...

  11. E-Cigarette Marketing and Communication: How E-Cigarette Companies Market E-Cigarettes and the Public Engages with E-cigarette Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren; Glasser, Allison M; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Pearson, Jennifer L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2018-01-05

    Given the lack of regulation on marketing of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the U.S. and the increasing exchange of e-cigarette-related information online, it is critical to understand how e-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and how the public engages with e-cigarette information. Results are from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on e-cigarettes via a PubMed search through June 1, 2017. Search terms included: "e-cigarette*" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "vape" OR "vaping." Experimental studies, quasi-experimental studies, observational studies, qualitative studies, and mixed methods studies providing empirical findings on e-cigarette marketing and communication (i.e., non-marketing communication in the public) were included. One hundred twenty-four publications on e-cigarette marketing and communication were identified. They covered topics including e-cigarette advertisement claims/promotions and exposure/receptivity, the effect of e-cigarette advertisements on e-cigarette and cigarette use, public engagement with e-cigarette information, and the public's portrayal of e-cigarettes. Studies show increases in e-cigarette marketing expenditures and online engagement through social media over time, that e-cigarettes are often framed as an alternative to combustible cigarettes, and that e-cigarette advertisement exposure may be associated with e-cigarette trial in adolescents and young adults. Few studies examine the effects of e-cigarette marketing on perceptions and e-cigarette and cigarette use. Evidence suggests that exposure to e-cigarette advertisements affects perceptions and trial of e-cigarettes, but there is no evidence that exposure affects cigarette use. No studies examined how exposure to e-cigarette communication, particularly misleading or inaccurate information, impacts e-cigarette and tobacco use behaviors. The present article provides a comprehensive review of e-cigarette

  12. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a similar pattern. The validation of a surrogate endpoint requires extensive research, including randomized controlled trials (RCT assessing clinical relevant endpoints. The validity of a surrogate parameter is rather technology-specific than disease-specific. Thus – even in the case of apparently similar technologies – it is necessary to validate the surrogate for every single technology (i. e. for every single active agent. The use of surrogate endpoints in the assessment of the benefit of health technologies is still to be seen very critically.

  13. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  14. Effectiveness of a television advertisement campaign on giving cigarettes in a chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Hu, Yihe; Xu, Guanqun; Ma, Jiuhua; Shi, Zumin

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement "Giving cigarettes is giving harm" were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18-45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort.

  15. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths' intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships.

  16. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships. PMID:28042523

  17. Examining the interrelationships between social anxiety, smoking to cope, and cigarette craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; VanderVeen, Joseph W; Cohen, Lee M; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Morrell, Holly E R

    2012-08-01

    Smokers with symptoms of social anxiety often report smoking as a way to cope with negative affect. These individuals have lower success rates when attempting cessation compared with the general population. However, there is a paucity of research examining the role of social anxiety in nicotine dependence. The present study explored the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, smoking to cope with these symptoms during social situations (STC), and cigarette craving. Thirty-eight participants completed measures of social anxiety and STC at baseline. Cigarette craving was subsequently assessed pre and post exposure to smoking-related images during periods of nicotine satiation and deprivation. Regression analyses revealed that greater symptoms of social anxiety predicted the frequency of STC behaviors and the number of cigarettes participants thought they would need in order to feel more comfortable in social situations. Symptoms of social anxiety and several behaviors associated with STC (e.g., avoiding social situations in which smoking is not permitted) predicted increases in craving during nicotine deprivation, but not satiation. These findings suggest that symptoms of social anxiety and STC behaviors may play a role in the maintenance of smoking behaviors. Further, targeting symptoms of social anxiety within the context of smoking cessation treatment may be particularly helpful and may improve the rates of smoking cessation among individuals with symptoms of social anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  19. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  20. Health care professional and cigarette cessation volunteers knowledge, attitude and practice on e-cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Sharifi

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) are new phenomenon that has been widely accepted. E- Cigarettes are more popular that has become one of the preferable rout of smoking cessation in patients. Further researches are required for future advice on e-cigarette use.To determine Health Care Professional and Cigarette Cessation Volunteers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on e-Cigarettes Methods In a cross-sectional description study, 147 medical professional ...

  1. EAMJ April Cigarette.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... associated with smoking compared to their non- smoking ... CIGARETTE SMOKING AND ORAL HEALTH AMONG HEALTHCARE STUDENTS. P. Komu, BDS (Nbi), ..... Ashwin, A. P., Hill, K., Balras, V., et al.A comparison.

  2. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  3. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  4. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products come in kid-friendly flavors (including grape, chocolate, bubble gum, and gummy bear). E-cigarette advertising ... a tobacco telephone quit line), approved nicotine replacement therapies (eg, patch, gum, or inhaler), and oral nonnicotine ...

  5. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May S. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05. Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95] and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33] at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies.

  6. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, May S.; Hall, Marissa G.; Parada, Humberto; Peebles, Kathryn; Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded) or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz). Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05). Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95]) and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33]) at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies. PMID:29053574

  7. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  8. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  9. E-Cigarette Use, Perceptions, and Cigarette Smoking Intentions in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Daily Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. While e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (n = 348, 57% male) aged 18–24 were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included non-daily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22–33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. PMID:28125242

  10. Young adults' experiences of neighbourhood smoking-related norms and practices: A qualitative study exploring place-based social inequalities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Lapalme, Josée; McCready, Geneviève; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    In this qualitative exploratory study we asked how smoking among young adults relates to the local neighbourhood context to better understand place-based social inequalities in smoking. We used data collected through focus groups with young adults from four economically diverse neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada. Using the collective lifestyles framework to guide data analysis, we examined within and between neighbourhood social norms, practices, and agency. We found that some smoking-related social norms, practices and agency were particular to neighbourhoods of the same socio-economic status (SES). For example, permissive smoking-related social norms in low-SES neighbourhoods made it difficult to avoid smoking but also reduced local experiences of smoking-related stigma and isolation. In high-SES neighbourhoods, strong anti-smoking norms led to smoking in secret and/or amidst 'acceptable' social settings. Findings may inform future investigations and local-level interventions focused on this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective processing of smoking-related cues in smokers: manipulation of deprivation level and comparison of three measures of processing bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2002-12-01

    Recent theories of addiction suggest that an attentional bias for drug-related cues plays an important role in maintaining drug-taking behaviours. A key feature of the present study is that it used three different measures of processing bias for linguistic and pictorial smoking-related cues: masked and unmasked conditions of the modified Stroop task, and a pictorial version of the visual probe task. Participants were smokers (n = 27), who were tested twice, with deprivation level manipulated as a within-subjects variable. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 h before one session, and to smoke normally before the other. Results were consistent with an attentional bias for smoking-related pictures on the visual probe task, and for smoking-related words in the unmasked condition of the modified Stroop task. The latter bias was most strongly predicted by self-reported urge to smoke, rather than by the deprivation manipulation. There was no evidence of a preconscious bias for smoking cues. The three measures of cognitive bias (from masked and unmasked Stroop and visual probe tasks) were not significantly correlated with each other, which suggests they may tap different underlying mechanisms. We discuss the results with respect to conceptualizations of selective attention, addiction and motivational states in general.

  12. Memory retrieval of smoking-related images induce greater insula activation as revealed by an fMRI-based delayed matching to sample task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Amy C; Ross, Robert S; Farmer, Stacey; Frederick, Blaise B; Nickerson, Lisa D; Lukas, Scott E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-03-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic and difficult to treat disorder. While environmental stimuli associated with smoking precipitate craving and relapse, it is unknown whether smoking cues are cognitively processed differently than neutral stimuli. To evaluate working memory differences between smoking-related and neutral stimuli, we conducted a delay-match-to-sample (DMS) task concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nicotine-dependent participants. The DMS task evaluates brain activation during the encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of working memory. Smoking images induced significantly more subjective craving, and greater midline cortical activation during encoding in comparison to neutral stimuli that were similar in content yet lacked a smoking component. The insula, which is involved in maintaining nicotine dependence, was active during the successful retrieval of previously viewed smoking versus neutral images. In contrast, neutral images required more prefrontal cortex-mediated active maintenance during the maintenance period. These findings indicate that distinct brain regions are involved in the different phases of working memory for smoking-related versus neutral images. Importantly, the results implicate the insula in the retrieval of smoking-related stimuli, which is relevant given the insula's emerging role in addiction. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Vincent L; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X 2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000-$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2%) of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1%) of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was "to cut down or quit smoking."

  14. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000–$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2% of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1% of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was “to cut down or quit smoking.”

  15. A probabilistic risk assessment approach used to prioritize chemical constituents in mainstream smoke of cigarettes sold in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianping; Marano, Kristin M; Wilson, Cody L; Liu, Huimin; Gan, Huamin; Xie, Fuwei; Naufal, Ziad S

    2012-03-01

    The chemical and physical complexity of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS) presents a challenge in the understanding of risk for smoking-related diseases. Quantitative risk assessment is a useful tool for assessing the toxicological risks that may be presented by smoking currently available commercial cigarettes. In this study, yields of a selected group of chemical constituents were quantified in machine-generated MSS from 30 brands of cigarettes sold in China. Using constituent yields, exposure estimates specific to and representative of the Chinese population, and available dose-response data, a Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate probability distributions for incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), hazard quotient (HQ), and margin of exposure (MOE) values for each constituent as appropriate. Measures of central tendency were extracted from the outcome distributions and constituents were ranked according to these three risk assessment indices. The constituents for which ILCR >10(-4), HQ >1, and MOE risk contributed by each MSS constituent, this approach provides a plausible and objective framework for the prioritization of toxicants in cigarette smoke and is valuable in guiding tobacco risk management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IMPACT OF THE “GIVING CIGARETTES IS GIVING HARM” CAMPAIGN ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF CHINESE SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F.; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chang, Yvette; Walsemann, Katrina M.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To date there is limited published evidence on the efficacy of tobacco control mass media campaigns in China. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign “Giving Cigarettes is Giving Harm” (GCGH) on Chinese smokers’ knowledge of smoking-related harms and attitudes toward cigarette gifts. Methods Population-based, representative data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort of 3,709 adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in six Chinese cities before and after the campaign. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between campaign exposure and attitudes about cigarettes as gifts measured post-campaign. Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the effects of campaign exposure on post-campaign knowledge, adjusting for pre-campaign knowledge. Findings Fourteen percent (n=335) of participants recalled the campaign within the cities where the GCGH campaign was implemented. Participants in the intervention cities who recalled the campaign were more likely to disagree that cigarettes are good gifts (71% vs. 58%, pcampaign-targeted knowledge than those who did not recall the campaign (Mean=1.97 vs. 1.62, pcampaign-targeted knowledge were similar in both cities, perhaps due to a secular trend, low campaign recall, or contamination issues. Conclusions These findings suggest that the GCGH campaign increased knowledge of smoking harms, which could promote downstream cessation. Findings provide evidence to support future campaign development to effectively fight the tobacco epidemic in China. PMID:24813427

  17. Individual patient data analysis of progression-free survival versus overall survival as a first-line end point for metastatic colorectal cancer in modern randomized trials: findings from the analysis and research in cancers of the digestive system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; de Gramont, Aimery; Grothey, Axel; Zalcberg, John; Chibaudel, Benoist; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Seymour, Matthew T; Adams, Richard; Saltz, Leonard; Goldberg, Richard M; Punt, Cornelis J A; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Hoff, Paulo M; Hecht, Joel Randolph; Hurwitz, Herbert; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Porschen, Rainer; Tebbutt, Niall C; Fuchs, Charles; Souglakos, John; Falcone, Alfredo; Tournigand, Christophe; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F; Heinemann, Volker; Van Cutsem, Eric; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Buyse, Marc; Sargent, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Progression-free survival (PFS) has previously been established as a surrogate for overall survival (OS) for first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Because mCRC treatment has advanced in the last decade with extended OS, this surrogacy requires re-examination. Individual patient data from 16,762 patients were available from 22 first-line mCRC studies conducted from 1997 to 2006; 12 of those studies tested antiangiogenic and/or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents. The relationship between PFS (first event of progression or death) and OS was evaluated by using R(2) statistics (the closer the value is to 1, the stronger the correlation) from weighted least squares regression of trial-specific hazard ratios estimated by using Cox and Copula models. Forty-four percent of patients received a regimen that included biologic agents. Median first-line PFS was 8.3 months, and median OS was 18.2 months. The correlation between PFS and OS was modest (R(2), 0.45 to 0.69). Analyses limited to trials that tested treatments with biologic agents, nonstrategy trials, or superiority trials did not improve surrogacy. In modern mCRC trials, in which survival after the first progression exceeds time to first progression, a positive but modest correlation was observed between OS and PFS at both the patient and trial levels. This finding demonstrates the substantial variability in OS introduced by the number of lines of therapy and types of effective subsequent treatments and the associated challenge to the use of OS as an end point to assess the benefit attributable to a single line of therapy. PFS remains an appropriate primary end point for first-line mCRC trials to detect the direct treatment effect of new agents. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point trial of the efficacy of allopurinol therapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart disease: protocol of the ALL-HEART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Walker, Andrew; Hawkey, Chris; Begg, Alan; Avery, Anthony; Taggar, Jaspal; Wei, Li; Struthers, Allan D; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-09-08

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common causes of death in the UK and treatment of patients with IHD costs the National Health System (NHS) billions of pounds each year. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to prevent gout that also has several positive effects on the cardiovascular system. The ALL-HEART study aims to determine whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with IHD. The ALL-HEART study is a multicentre, controlled, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial of allopurinol (up to 600 mg daily) versus no treatment in a 1:1 ratio, added to usual care, in 5215 patients aged 60 years and over with IHD. Patients are followed up by electronic record linkage and annual questionnaires for an average of 4 years. The primary outcome is the composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of allopurinol. The study will end when 631 adjudicated primary outcomes have occurred. The study is powered at 80% to detect a 20% reduction in the primary end point for the intervention. Patient recruitment to the ALL-HEART study started in February 2014. The study received ethical approval from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) REC 2 (13/ES/0104). The study is event-driven and results are expected after 2019. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Results will also be disseminated to guideline committees, NHS organisations and patient groups. 32017426, pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  20. A New Area to Fight: Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin Börekçi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is spreading like an epidemic that threatens the public health. Last one year, e-cigarette use increased by 2 times in both adults and children, and just as the cigarette ads of 1950s and 1960s, e-cigarette ads are taking place in the television, radio, internet, magazines and in the all kinds of advertising media. E-sigara should be recognized as a serious health threat, and should be fought against it. The aim of this review is to show the effects of e-cigarette on health by the scientific evidences.

  1. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-09-04

    Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users [63% men; mean age = 25.1 (Standard Deviation = 5.5)]. Almost all participants either concurrently smoked cigarettes or had been recent dual users. Data were analyzed following principles of inductive deduction. Results indicated that dual users' use of cigarettes is influenced by particular activities (e.g., before/after eating), strong craving or need for stimulation (e.g., in response to stress), places/situations (e.g., when cigarette smokers are nearby; outdoors), use of other substances (alcohol, coffee), and unavailability of an e-cigarette when needed. In addition to particular activities and places/situations that are conducive to e-cigarette use, use of e-cigarette when cigarette is not available or where cigarette smoking is not permitted emerged as contexts specific to e-cigarette use. For habitual cigarette smokers wanting to quit tobacco smoking, switching over completely to e-cigarettes may require skills of cognitive-behavioral management. Future research needs to ascertain the characteristics of dual users who use e-cigarettes as cessation aids versus as cigarette alternative when cigarette is unavailable or smoking is not permitted.

  2. Estimates of price and income elasticity in Greece. Greek debt crisis transforming cigarettes into a luxury good: an econometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantilis, Filippos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Zavras, Dimitris; Vozikis, Athanassios; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Objective During the past decades, smoking prevalence in Greece was estimated to be near or over 40%. Following a sharp fall in cigarette consumption, as shown in current data, our objective is to assess smokers’ sensitivity to cigarette price and consumer income changes as well as to project health benefits of an additional tax increase. Methods Cigarette consumption was considered as the dependent variable, with Weighted Average Price as a proxy for cigarette price, gross domestic product as a proxy for consumers’ income and dummy variables reflecting smoking restrictions and antismoking campaigns. Values were computed to natural logarithms and regression was performed. Then, four scenarios of tax increase were distinguished in order to calculate potential health benefits. Results Short-run price elasticity is estimated at −0.441 and short-run income elasticity is estimated at 1.040. Antismoking campaigns were found to have a statistically significant impact on consumption. Results indicate that, depending on the level of tax increase, annual per capita consumption could fall by at least 209.83 cigarettes; tax revenue could rise by more than €0.74 billion, while smokers could be reduced by up to 530 568 and at least 465 smoking-related deaths could be averted. Conclusions Price elasticity estimates are similar to previous studies in Greece, while income elasticity estimates are far greater. With cigarettes regarded as a luxury good, a great opportunity is presented for decisionmakers to counter smoking. Increased taxation, along with focused antismoking campaigns, law reinforcement (to ensure compliance with smoking bans) and intensive control for smuggling could invoke a massive blow to the tobacco epidemic in Greece. PMID:25564137

  3. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999-2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. UK. UK smokers. Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and 'ultra-low price' (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  5. Estimates of price and income elasticity in Greece. Greek debt crisis transforming cigarettes into a luxury good: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantilis, Filippos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Zavras, Dimitris; Vozikis, Athanassios; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-05

    During the past decades, smoking prevalence in Greece was estimated to be near or over 40%. Following a sharp fall in cigarette consumption, as shown in current data, our objective is to assess smokers' sensitivity to cigarette price and consumer income changes as well as to project health benefits of an additional tax increase. Cigarette consumption was considered as the dependent variable, with Weighted Average Price as a proxy for cigarette price, gross domestic product as a proxy for consumers' income and dummy variables reflecting smoking restrictions and antismoking campaigns. Values were computed to natural logarithms and regression was performed. Then, four scenarios of tax increase were distinguished in order to calculate potential health benefits. Short-run price elasticity is estimated at -0.441 and short-run income elasticity is estimated at 1.040. Antismoking campaigns were found to have a statistically significant impact on consumption. Results indicate that, depending on the level of tax increase, annual per capita consumption could fall by at least 209.83 cigarettes; tax revenue could rise by more than €0.74 billion, while smokers could be reduced by up to 530 568 and at least 465 smoking-related deaths could be averted. Price elasticity estimates are similar to previous studies in Greece, while income elasticity estimates are far greater. With cigarettes regarded as a luxury good, a great opportunity is presented for decisionmakers to counter smoking. Increased taxation, along with focused antismoking campaigns, law reinforcement (to ensure compliance with smoking bans) and intensive control for smuggling could invoke a massive blow to the tobacco epidemic in Greece. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Moysidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  8. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Changes in use of cigarettes and non-cigarette alternative products among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Batanova, Milena; Fernandez, Alejandra; Agarwal, Deepti

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined change in use of various smoked and smokeless non-cigarette alternative products in a sample of college students, stratified by current, or past 30-day, cigarette smoking status. Participants were 698 students from seven four-year colleges in Texas. Participants completed two waves of online surveys regarding tobacco use, knowledge, and attitudes, with 14 months between each wave. The most prevalent products used by the entire sample at Wave 1 were cigarettes, followed by hookah, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). At Wave 2, prevalence of e-cigarette use surpassed use of cigars/cigarillos/little cigars. Snus and chew/snuff/dip were relatively uncommon at both waves. Examination of change in use indicated that e-cigarette use increased across time among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Prevalence of current e-cigarette use doubled across the 14-month period to 25% among current smokers and tripled to 3% among non-cigarette smokers. Hookah use also increased across time, but only among non-cigarette smokers, whereas it decreased among current cigarette smokers. Use of all other non-cigarette alternatives remained unchanged across time. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic predictors of Wave 2 e-cigarette use, the only product that increased in use among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Results indicated that Wave 1 current cigarette use and Wave 1 current e-cigarette use, but not gender, age, or race/ethnicity, were significantly associated with Wave 2 e-cigarette use. Findings underscore the need to track changes in the use of non-cigarette alternatives and call for additional research examining the factors contributing to change in use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pankow

    Full Text Available The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG, glycerol (GL, benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice, and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG and glycerol (GL, and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  12. Effects of e-Cigarette Advertisements on Adolescents' Perceptions of Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Popova, Lucy; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-12-13

    This study examined the effect of exposure to "cigalike" (products resembling cigarettes) e-cigarette advertisements on adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. A nationally representative sample of 802 adolescents (13-17 years old) was randomly assigned to watch three e-cigarette or three control advertisements. Never-smokers who saw the e-cigarette advertisements (n = 352) reported significantly lower perceived risks of smoking than those in the control condition (n = 320). Ever-smokers (n = 130) did not show significant differences across the conditions. In subgroup analyses, current smokers (reported smoking in the past 30 days, n = 31) in the e-cigarette condition reported significantly lower perceived benefits of smoking than those in the control condition. E-cigarette advertisements can affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. Many advertisements, especially the ones promoting "cigalikes," depict e-cigarettes as being similar to cigarettes (e.g., look, flavor) but also as a solution for cigarettes' shortcomings (e.g., bad smell). While the advertisements include messages about problems posed by cigarettes, proposing e-cigarettes as a solution may decrease the perceived risks of smoking among never-smokers. It may also not be clear to adolescents whether advertisements are for cigarettes or e-cigarettes. Regulating e-cigarette advertisements to minimize adolescents' exposure may prevent potential harmful effects on never-smokers' perception of smoking.

  13. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinberg

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  14. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David

    2016-11-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual Use of E-Cigarettes and Traditional Cigarettes Among Adolescents in Taiwan, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Chang, Li-Chuan; Hsu, Chieh; Lee, Yue-Chune

    2018-02-02

    We investigated the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with traditional cigarettes among adolescents during 2014 to 2016 to identify risk factors for using e-cigarettes only, traditional cigarettes only, or both products. We used cross-sectional data from the Taiwan Global Youth Tobacco Survey, (conducted over a 3-year period by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan), which is representative of tobacco use among adolescents aged 12-18 years. The outcome variable was smoking behavior. Dependent variables included gender, grade, monthly income/allowance, parents' educational level, parents' smoking status, close friends' smoking status, use of other tobacco products, contact with cigarette/e-cigarette advertisements, and access to free cigarettes/e-cigarettes. Multinomial regression identify factors influencing the smoking behaviors of adolescents, as manifested in the use of traditional cigarettes only, e-cigarettes only, e-cigarettes with traditional cigarettes, and nonsmoking. When weighted to the population, the sample included 1723150 adolescents in 2014, 1691568 adolescents in 2015, and 1627216 adolescents in 2016. The rates averaged over three years were as follows: nonsmoking (91.6%), traditional cigarettes only (5.4%), e-cigarettes only (1.5%), and dual usage (1.6%). Among adolescents in Taiwan, the following were risk factors for dual use: male, older, high monthly allowance, smoking parents, smoking friends, use of other tobacco products, contact with cigarette advertisements, and access to free cigarettes. Our results revealed an increase in the number of adolescents using e-cigarettes with traditional cigarettes. We recommend that the government continue smoking cessation programs while maintaining control over advertisements and promotions for tobacco products. This is the first study to examine the dual use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes among adolescents in Taiwan. This study identified the

  16. The association between cigarette smoking and inflammation: The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tibuakuu

    Full Text Available To inform the study and regulation of emerging tobacco products, we sought to identify sensitive biomarkers of tobacco-induced subclinical cardiovascular damage by testing the cross-sectional associations of smoking with 17 biomarkers of inflammation in 2,702 GENOA study participants belonging to sibships ascertained on the basis of hypertension. Cigarette smoking was assessed by status, intensity (number of cigarettes per day, burden (pack-years of smoking, and time since quitting. We modeled biomarkers as geometric mean (GM ratios using generalized estimating equations (GEE. The mean age of participants was 61 ±10 years; 64.5% were women and 54.4% African American. The prevalence of smoking was 12.2%. After adjusting for potential confounders, 6 of 17 biomarkers were significantly higher among current smokers at a Bonferroni adjusted p-value threshold (p<0.003. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was the most elevated biomarker among current smokers when compared to never smokers [GM ratio = 1.39 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.57; p <0.001]. Among former smokers, each pack-year of cigarettes smoked was associated with a 0.4% higher serum level of hsCRP [GM ratio = 1.004 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.006; p = 0.002] and each 5-year lapsed since quitting was associated with a 4% lower serum level of hsCRP [GM ratio = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; p = 0.006]. However, we found no significant association of smoking intensity or burden with biomarkers of inflammation among current smokers. HsCRP appears to be the most sensitive biomarker of inflammation associated with cigarette smoking of those investigated, and could be a useful biomarker of smoking-related injury for the study and regulation of emerging tobacco products.

  17. Public health benefits from pictorial health warnings on US cigarette packs: a SimSmoke simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Mays, Darren; Yuan, Zhe; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-11-01

    While many countries have adopted prominent pictorial warning labels (PWLs) for cigarette packs, the USA still requires only small, text-only labels located on one side of the cigarette pack that have little effect on smoking-related outcomes. Tobacco industry litigation blocked implementation of a 2011 Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) rule requiring large PWLs. To inform FDA action on PWLs, this study provides research-based estimates of their public health impacts. Literature was reviewed to identify the impact of cigarette PWLs on smoking prevalence, cessation and initiation. Based on this analysis, the SimSmoke model was used to estimate the effect of requiring PWLs in the USA on smoking prevalence and, using standard attribution methods, on smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) and key maternal and child health outcomes. Available research consistently shows a direct association between PWLs and increased cessation and reduced smoking initiation and prevalence. The SimSmoke model projects that PWLs would reduce smoking prevalence by 5% (2.5%-9%) relative to the status quo over the short term and by 10% (4%-19%) over the long term. Over the next 50 years, PWLs are projected to avert 652 800 (327 000-1 190 500) SADs, 46 600 (17 500-92 300) low-birth-weight cases, 73 600 (27 800-145 100) preterm births and 1000 (400-2000) cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Requiring PWLs on all US cigarette packs would be appropriate for the protection of the public health, because it would substantially reduce smoking prevalence and thereby reduce SADs and the morbidity and medical costs associated with adverse smoking-attributable birth outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  19. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  20. E-Cigarettes and Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K. Michael; Dresler, Carolyn M.; Field, John K.; Fox, Jesme; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hanna, Nasser H.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Jassem, Jacek; Mulshine, James L.; Peters, Matthew J.; Yamaguchi, Nise H.; Warren, Graham; Zhou, Caicun

    2014-01-01

    The increasing popularity and availability of electronic cigarettes (i.e., e-cigarettes) in many countries have promoted debate among health professionals as to what to recommend to their patients who might be struggling to stop smoking or asking about e-cigarettes. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines for using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, some health professionals have urged caution about recommending them due to the limited evidence of their safety and efficacy, while others ...

  1. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the benefit-risk profile (BRP) of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) and tapentadol (TAP) in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) with a neuropathic component (NC) in routine clinical practice. This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133). Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline) and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period) adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P =0.014), due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% ( P = ns/0.031/<0.001), for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% ( P =0.043/0.018/0.001), and for quality of life in 76.6%/68.0%/50.0% vs 63.9%/54.1%/34.6% ( P =0.026/0.022/0.017). Overall, OXN vs TAP treatments were well tolerated, and proportions of patients who either maintained a normal bowel function (68.0% vs 72

  2. Emergence of electronic cigarette use in US adolescents and the link to traditional cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Russell, Michael A; Braymiller, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used by US adolescents and may be a gateway to traditional cigarette use. We examine rates of both products by age and examine differences in age-varying rates by sex and race/ethnicity. Data are from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a national sample of US middle and high school students (n=22.007); students ages 11-19 were included. Past 30-day e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use were examined as a function of age; sex and race/ethnicity were included as moderators. The age-varying association between e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use was also examined. Rates of e-cigarette use increase faster than traditional cigarette use from ages 13-16. Compared to females, males had higher rates of e-cigarette use from ages 14-17.5 and traditional cigarette use from ages 15-18. Between ages 12-14, more Hispanic adolescents used e-cigarettes compared to White or Black adolescents; after age 14 Hispanics and Whites reported similar rates, peaking at twice the rate for Blacks. Hispanic adolescents report greater traditional cigarette use versus Whites between ages 12-13, but lower rates between ages 15-18. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with traditional cigarette use, particularly during early adolescence [OR>40 before age 12]. Young Hispanic adolescents are at elevated risk for use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes during early adolescence. During early adolescence, youth using e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke traditional cigarettes compared to youth not using e-cigarettes. The study of age-varying effects holds promise for advancing understanding of disparities in health risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  4. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  5. An analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our institution's experience in treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to determine if previously analyzed clinical and treatment related prognostic factors affected outcome when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1991, 470 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with external beam RT using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment. After achieving nadir, if two consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Prognostic factors, including the total number of days in treatment, the method of diagnosis, a history of any pretreatment transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the type of boost were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up was 48 months. No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), history of any pretreatment TURP, history of diagnosis by TURP, or boost techniques. Patients diagnosed by TURP had a significant improvement in the overall rate of biochemical control (P < 0.03) compared to transrectal/transperineal biopsy. The 5-year actuarial rates were 58 versus 39%, respectively. This improvement was not evident when pretreatment PSA, T stage, or Gleason score were controlled for. On multivariate analysis, no variable was associated with outcome. When analysis was limited to a more favorable group of patients (T1/T2 tumors, pretreatment PSA ≤20 ng/ml and Gleason score <7), none of these variables were significantly predictive of biochemical control when controlling for pretreatment PSA, T stage and Gleason score. Conclusions: No significant effect of treatment time, overall time, pretreatment

  6. Re-analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, Ellen L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Hollander, Jay; Matter, Richard C.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been established as the most important prognostic factor for prostate cancer. We reviewed our experience treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to evaluate if previously defined clinical and treatment related prognostic factors remain valid when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Methods and Materials: Between 1/87 and 12/91, 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58 - 70.4 Gy) using a 4 field or arc technique. Pre- and post-treatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤ 1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment completion. After achieving nadir, if 2 consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Patients (pts) were divided into 3 groups according to total number of days on treatment: ≤ 49 days (≤ 7 weeks)- 21 pts; 50-63 days (8-9 weeks)- 429 pts; and ≥ 64 days (≥ 9 weeks)- 15 pts. Patients were also divided into groups with respect to the method of diagnosis: TURP (81 pts), or other means (399 pts). Patients were further divided into 2 groups: 1) if they had ever had a pre-treatment TURP (170 pts) or 2) if they had not (310 pts). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to boost technique: bilateral arcs (459 pts) or 4 field box (21 pts). Patients were also divided into groups according to total RT dose: ≤ 70 Gy (421 pts) or > 70 Gy (59 pts). Patients were further subdivided into 3 dose groups: 70 Gy (59 pts). Results: Median follow-up is 48 months (range 3 - 112 months). No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), or treatment time divided into

  7. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  8. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. 210 Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with 208 Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO 3 , HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The 210 Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of 210 Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of 210 Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 μSv from 210 Po and 210

  9. Influence of family and friend smoking on intentions to smoke and smoking-related attitudes and refusal self-efficacy among 9-10 year old children from deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ciara E; Trigwell, Joanne; Fairclough, Stuart J; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna; Ussher, Michael; Foweather, Lawrence

    2015-03-07

    Smoking often starts in early adolescence and addiction can occur rapidly. For effective smoking prevention there is a need to identify at risk groups of preadolescent children and whether gender-specific intervention components are necessary. This study aimed to examine associations between mother, father, sibling and friend smoking and cognitive vulnerability to smoking among preadolescent children living in deprived neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 9-10 year old children (n =1143; 50.7% girls; 85.6% White British) from 43 primary schools in Merseyside, England. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related behaviour, intentions, attitudes, and refusal self-efficacy, as well as parent, sibling and friend smoking. Data for boys and girls were analysed separately using multilevel linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for individual cognitions and school and deprivation level. Compared to girls, boys had lower non-smoking intentions (P = 0.02), refusal self-efficacy (P = 0.04) and were less likely to agree that smoking is 'definitely' bad for health (P non-smoking intentions in girls (P non-smoking intentions in girls (P < 0.01) but a positive association was found in boys (P = 0.02). Boys who had a smoking friend were less likely to 'definitely' believe that the smoke from other people's cigarettes is harmful (OR 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.91, P = 0.02). Further, boys with a smoking friend (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.69, P < 0.01) or a smoking sibling (OR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.98) were less likely to 'definitely' believe that smoking is bad for health. This study indicates that sibling and friend smoking may represent important influences on 9-10 year old children's cognitive vulnerability toward smoking. Whilst some differential findings by gender were observed, these may not be sufficient to warrant separate prevention interventions. However, further research is needed.

  10. Physicians’ views on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases: findings from cross-sectional studies from 1982–2014 in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    From 1982 to 2014, physicians’ attitudes towards the health risks of smoking improved in Estonia. However, their assessment of a causal role of smoking in smoking-related diseases was related to their own smoking habits and ethnicity. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians would require special efforts targeted at physicians. Societal pressure from a national policy could support a further decline in the social acceptability of smoking in Estonia and developments in medical education could provide continuing evidence-based information about the health effects of smoking to Estonian physicians.

  11. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Smoking-Related Attitudes and Knowledge Among Medical Students and Recent Graduates in Argentina: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M Victoria; Mejía, Raúl M; Kaplan, Celia P; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2017-05-01

    Physicians in Argentina smoke at rates similar to the general population, and do not have a clear role in tobacco control strategies. To describe the attitudes and knowledge of medical students and recent graduates towards smoking behavior in Argentina. Cross-sectional self-administered online survey conducted in 2011. Medical students and recent medical graduates from the University of Buenos Aires. Attitudes and knowledge were evaluated by responses to 16 statements regarding the effects of smoking cigarettes and the role of physicians in tobacco control. Rates of agreement with a full ban on indoor smoking in different public settings were assessed. The sample included 1659 participants (response rate: 35.1 %), 453 of whom (27.3 %) were current smokers. Only 52 % of participants agreed that doctors should set an example for their patients by not smoking, 30.9 % thought that medical advice had little effect on patients' cessation behavior, and 19.4 % believed that physicians could decline to care for smoking patients who failed to quit. In adjusted logistic regression models, current smokers had less supportive attitudes about tobacco control and were less likely than non-smokers to agree with a full indoor smoking ban in hospitals (OR: 0.30; 95 % CI 0.16-0.58), universities (OR: 0.55; 95 % CI 0.41-0.73), workplaces (OR: 0.67; 95 % CI 0.50-0.88), restaurants (OR: 0.42; 95 % CI 0.33-0.53), cafes (OR: 0.41; 95 % CI 0.33-0.51), nightclubs (OR: 0.32; 95 % CI 0.25-0.40), and bars (0.35; 95 % CI 0.28-0.45). Recent medical graduates had more accurate knowledge about cessation and were more likely to agree with a full smoking ban in recreational venues. Although most participants reported a strong anti-tobacco attitude, a proportion still failed to recognize the importance of their role as physicians in tobacco control strategies. Current smokers and current students were less likely to support indoor smoking bans. Specific educational curricula could address

  13. Cigarette and e-liquid demand and substitution in e-cigarette-naïve smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Bickel, Warren K

    2018-06-01

    Behavioral economic methods allow experimental manipulation of price and examination of its effects on tobacco product purchasing. These methods may be used to examine tobacco product abuse liability and to prospectively model possible effects of price regulation. In the present study, we examined multiple measures of behavioral economic demand for cigarettes and e-liquid for use in a second-generation electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in e-cigarette-naïve cigarette smokers. Twenty-five smokers received an e-cigarette (eGo ONE CT), sampled study e-liquid (24 mg/mL nicotine), and completed recurring sessions in which they used an experimental income to purchase real-world supplies of cigarettes and/or e-liquid. Participants also completed self-report measures of drug effects/liking. When products were available alone, we observed lower demand for e-liquid than for cigarettes. This effect was magnified when cigarettes and e-liquid were available concurrently. In additional assessments, e-liquid served as a partial substitute for cigarettes, but cigarettes did not serve as a substitute for e-liquid. Finally, participants rated e-liquid more poorly than cigarettes on several dimensions of drug effects/liking (any effects, liking, desire, and probability of continued use). We conclude that e-cigarette-naïve smokers value cigarettes more highly than e-liquid across multiple contexts and measurements. Nonetheless, participants still valued e-liquid positively and purchased it frequently, both as a substitute for cigarettes and independently of cigarettes. To understand the variables that influence transitions from exclusive smoking to either dual cigarette/e-cigarette use or exclusive e-cigarette use, future work should systematically examine the role of duration of e-liquid exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The impact of cigarette taxes and advertising on the demand for cigarettes in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Limin; Ross, Hana

    2009-06-01

    Cigarette consumption in Ukraine is increasing while the cigarettes are becoming more affordable due to low taxes and raising income. The impact of cigarette prices and taxes on cigarette consumption is unclear due to the limited research evidence using the local data. This study estimates the sensitivity of Ukraine population to cigarette prices and the affordability of cigarettes using the macro level data in order to predict the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy. Monthly time-series data available from 1997 to 2006 in Ukraine were used to estimate the generalized least square model with an AR(1) process to investigate the impact of cigarette price/tax, household income, the affordability of cigarettes and the volume of tobacco advertising on Ukraine domestic cigarette sales while controlling for other factors. Our analyses demonstrate a strong positive association between cigarette sales and household income as well as a strong positive association between cigarette sales and tobacco advertising activity. The population is found to have relatively low sensitivity to cigarette prices and cigarette taxes, but the impact of cigarettes' affordability is statistically significant, even though also of low magnitude. We speculate that the lower sensitivity to cigarette prices among Ukraine population is caused by wide price variation allowing smokers to avoid a price increase by brand substitution as well as by low costs of cigarettes, high social acceptance of smoking and limited effort to control tobacco use in Ukraine. Narrowing the cigarette price choices and increasing cigarette prices above the level of inflation and income growth by adopting the appropriate tax policy would likely increase the effectiveness of this tool for controlling the smoking rate in Ukraine as well as yield additional budget revenue gains. In addition, imposing advertising restriction may further help reducing the smoking prevalence.

  15. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  16. Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...

  17. TRAIL Activates a Caspase 9/7-Dependent Pathway in Caspase 8/10-Defective SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma Cells with Two Functional End Points: Induction of Apoptosis and PGE2 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zauli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroblastoma cell lines do not express apical caspases 8 and 10, which play a key role in mediating tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL cytotoxicity in a variety of malignant cell types. In this study, we demonstrated that TRAIL induced a moderate but significant increase of apoptosis in the caspase 8/10-deficient SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line, through activation of a novel caspase 9/7 pathway. Concomitant to the induction of apoptosis, TRAIL also promoted a significant increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release by SKN-SH cells. Moreover, coadministration of TRAIL plus indomethacin, a pharmacological inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX, showed an additive effect on SKN-SH cell death. In spite of the ability of TRAIL to promote the phosphorylation of both ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK, which have been involved in the control of COX expression/activity, neither PD98059 nor SB203580, pharmacological inhibitors of the ERKi/2 and p38/MAPK pathways, respectively, affected either PGE2 production or apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Finally, both induction of apoptosis and PGE2 release were completely abrogated by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD4mk, suggesting that both biologic end points were regulated in SK-N-SH cells through a caspase 9/7-dependent pathway.

  18. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  20. Harm Perceptions of Menthol and Nonmenthol Cigarettes Differ by Brand, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender in US Adult Smokers: Results from PATH Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Rose, Shyanika W; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Gray, Tiffany; Curry, Laurel; Villanti, Andrea C; Mays, Darren; Lindblom, Eric; Tercyak, Kenneth; Debnam, Charles; Mayo, Ashley; Perreras, Lexie

    2018-01-27

    . Further, the association between menthol smoking and harm perceptions differed by race and gender, but not by age group (young adult vs. older adult). This type of large-scale study identifies critical links between menthol smoking and harm perceptions among vulnerable smokers that will inform regulatory actions designed to decrease smoking-related harm. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  2. Cigarette Cue Attentional Bias in Cocaine-Smoking and Non-Cocaine-Using Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in cocaine users is nearly four times higher than the national prevalence and cocaine use increases cigarette smoking. The mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking in cocaine-using individuals need to be identified to promote cigarette and cocaine abstinence. Previous studies have examined the salience of cigarette and cocaine cues separately. The present aim was to determine whether cigarette attentional bias (AB) is higher in cigarettes smokers who smoke cocaine relative to individuals who only smoke cigarettes. Twenty cigarette smokers who smoke cocaine and 20 non-cocaine-using cigarette smokers completed a visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. During this task, the magnitude of cigarette and cocaine AB was assessed through orienting bias, fixation time, and response time. Cocaine users displayed an orienting bias towards cigarette cues. Cocaine users also endorsed a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect associated with cigarette craving than non-cocaine users (g = 0.6). Neither group displayed a cigarette AB, as measured by fixation time. Cocaine users, but not non-cocaine users, displayed a cocaine AB as measured by orienting bias (g = 2.0) and fixation time (g = 1.2). There were no significant effects for response time data. Cocaine-smoking cigarettes smokers display an initial orienting bias toward cigarette cues, but not sustained cigarette AB. The incentive motivation underlying cigarette smoking also differs. Cocaine smokers report more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect. Identifying differences in motivation to smoke cigarettes may provide new treatment targets for cigarette and cocaine use disorders. These results suggest that cocaine-smoking cigarette smokers display an initial orienting bias towards cigarette cues, but not sustained attention towards cigarette cues, relative to non-cocaine-using smokers. Smoked cocaine users also report a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect

  3. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Knorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  4. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  5. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  6. E-Cigarette Marketing Exposure Is Associated With E-Cigarette Use Among US Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Clendennen, Stephanie L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarettes are currently the most commonly used tobacco product among US youth. However, unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes are not subject to marketing restrictions. This study investigates the association between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and susceptibility and use of e-cigarettes in youth. Data were obtained from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 22,007 US middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between e-cigarette marketing (internet, print, retail, and TV/movies) and current and ever use as well as susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among never e-cigarette users. Exposure to each type of e-cigarette marketing was significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever and current use of e-cigarettes among middle and high school students. Exposure was also associated with susceptibility to use of e-cigarettes among current nonusers. In multivariate models, as the number of channels of e-cigarette marketing exposure increased, the likelihood of use and susceptibility also increased. Findings highlight the significant associations between e-cigarette marketing and e-cigarette use among youth and the need for longitudinal research on these relationships. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  8. The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another.

  9. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. E-cigarettes and National Adolescent Cigarette Use: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-02-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing among adolescents in the United States, with some suggesting that e-cigarettes are the cause of declining youth cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that the decline in youth smoking changed after e-cigarettes arrived on the US market in 2007. Data were collected by using cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based samples of sixth- through 12th-graders from 2004-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (samples ranged from 16 614 in 2013 to 25 324 in 2004). Analyses were conducted by using interrupted time series of ever (≥1 puff) and current (last 30 days) cigarette smoking. Logistic regression was used to identify psychosocial risk factors associated with cigarette smoking in the 2004-2009 samples; this model was then applied to estimate the probability of cigarette smoking among cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users in the 2011-2014 samples. Youth cigarette smoking decreased linearly between 2004 and 2014 (P = .009 for ever smoking and P = .05 for current smoking), with no significant change in this trend after 2009 (P = .57 and .23). Based on the psychosocial model of smoking, including demographic characteristics, willingness to wear clothing with a tobacco logo, living with a smoker, likelihood of smoking in the next year, likelihood of smoking cigarettes from a friend, and use of tobacco products other than cigarettes or e-cigarettes, the model categorized e-cigarette-only users (between 11.0% in 2012 and 23.1% in 2013) as current smokers. The introduction of e-cigarettes was not associated with a change in the linear decline in cigarette smoking among youth. E-cigarette-only users would be unlikely to have initiated tobacco product use with cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes and Intentions to Quit Among Electronic Cigarette Users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Mohamad Shakir, Sharina Mahavera; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Hoe, Victor Cw

    2016-12-01

    The rapidly increasing uptake of e-cigarettes in Malaysia as of late demands a study to identify factors leading to its increased popularity and user intentions to quit smoking e-cigarettes. A convenience sample of e-cigarette smokers visiting e-cigarette retail shops in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was recruited. The majority of e-cigarette smokers were youth in colleges or universities (39 %), and young professionals and managers (36 %). The main reasons for using e-cigarettes were to help the user quit tobacco cigarettes (88 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes (85 %) and can be used in public areas (70 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes (85 %), and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes (65 %). A total of 65.3 % of respondents expressed intentions to quit e-cigarettes. In a multivariate analysis, the respondents who earned monthly income of RM1000 or less were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.551; 95 % CI 1.022-2.355; p = 0.015] compared to the respondents who earned a monthly income of more than RM2000. The respondents who disagreed with the statement 'Smoking e-cigs is relatively cheaper compared to tobacco cigarettes' were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.548; 95 % CI 1.045-2.293; p = 0.027] compared to respondents who did not agree. e-cigarette preventive interventions should target areas related to the identified main reasons for using e-cigarettes, namely as an aid for quitting tobacco cigarettes, the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes and can be used in public areas, the idea that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes.

  12. Smokers? and E-Cigarette Users? Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Par...

  13. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  14. Online E-cigarette Marketing Claims: A Systematic Content and Legal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Berman, Micah; Hemmerich, Natalie; Carlson, Cristen; Htut, SuSandi; Slater, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen. We analyzed English-language websites where ENDS are sold for implicit and explicit health-related claims. A legal analysis determined whether such claims are permissible under the US Food and Drug Administration's regulations. The vast majority of ENDS manufacturer (N = 78) and retailer (N = 32) websites made at least one health-related claim (77% and 65%, respectively). Modified risk claims and secondhand smoke-related claims were most prevalent, with an average of 2 claims per site. Health-related claims are plentiful within ENDS manufacturer and retailer websites. Results demonstrate that these sites focus on potential benefits while minimizing or eliminating information about possible harmful effects of ENDS. These claims are subject to the current regulatory authority by the FDA, and pose a risk of misinforming consumers.

  15. E-cigarettes: facts, perceptions, and marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are perceived as an alternative to standard tobacco cigarette smoking, primarily because of the e-cigarette industry's marketing messages. However, scientific studies about e-cigarette safety and efficacy remain limited. This column presents some of the issues associated with e-cigarette use, such as potential components of regulation, perceptions that e-cigarettes can help users quit smoking, and free-wheeling marketing strategies that include expanding e-cigarette use to young people. Nurses can be a reliable source of information about e-cigarettes.

  16. Measurement of photo-neutron cross sections and isomeric yield ratios in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn){sup 89-x}Y reactions at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatari, Mansoureh [Yazd Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Physics Dept.; Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

    2017-07-01

    The flux-weighted average cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions and the isomeric yield ratios of the {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y, and {sup 85m,g}Y radionuclides produced in these reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV have been determined by an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea. The theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections for mono-energetic photons have been calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.6. Then the flux-weighted theoretical values were obtained to compare with the present data. The flux-weighted experimental and theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections increase very fast from the threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter it remains constant a while and then slowly decreases with the increase of cross sections for other reactions. Similarly, the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y and {sup 85m,g}Y in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=2-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions from the present work and literature data show an increasing trend from their respective threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy. After a certain point of energy, the isomeric yield ratios increase slowly with the bremsstrahlung energy. These observations indicate the role of excitation energy and its partitioning in different reaction channels.

  17. Utilization of the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA to distinguish the sensitizers from irritants in respect of 3 end points-lymphocyte proliferation, ear swelling, and cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancioglu, Seren; Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Karakaya, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals may result in allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we performed ex vivo local lymph node assay: bromodeoxyuridine-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LLNA: BrdU-ELISA) to compare the differences between irritation and sensitization potency of some chemicals in terms of the 3 end points: lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine profiles (interleukin 2 [IL-2], interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-5, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), and ear swelling. Different concentrations of the following well-known sensitizers and irritant chemicals were applied to mice: dinitrochlorobenzene, eugenol, isoeugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and croton oil. According to the lymph node results; the auricular lymph node weights and lymph node cell counts increased after application of both sensitizers and irritants in high concentrations. On the other hand, according to lymph node cell proliferation results, there was a 3-fold increase in proliferation of lymph node cells (stimulation index) for sensitizer chemicals and SLS in the applied concentrations; however, there was not a 3-fold increase for croton oil and negative control. The SLS gave a false-positive response. Cytokine analysis demonstrated that 4 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-5 were released in lymph node cell cultures, with a clear dose trend for sensitizers whereas only TNF-α was released in response to irritants. Taken together, our results suggest that the ex vivo LLNA: BrdU-ELISA method can be useful for discriminating irritants and allergens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  19. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  1. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  3. The Use of E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Blettner, Maria; Singer, Susanne

    2016-12-16

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a consumer product whose benefits and risks are currently debated. Advocates of the "tobacco harm reduction" strategy emphasize their potential as an aid to smoking cessation, while advocates of the precautionary principle emphasize their risks instead. There have been only a few studies to date on the prevalence of e-cigarette use in Germany. In May 2016, in collaboration with Forsa, an opinion research firm, we carried out a survey among 4002 randomly chosen persons aged 14 and older, asking them about their consumption of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine, reasons for using e-cigarettes, plans for future use, estimation of danger compared to that of tobacco products, smoking behavior, and sociodemographic features. 1.4% of the respondents used e-cigarettes regularly, and a further 2.2% had used them regularly in the past. 11.8% had at least tried them, including 32.7% of smokers and 2.3% of persons who had never smoked. 24.5% of ex-smokers who had quit smoking after 2010 had used e-cigarettes at least once. 20.7% of the respondents considered electronic cigarettes less dangerous than conventional cigarettes, 46.3% equally dangerous, and 16.1% more dangerous. An extrapolation of these data to the general population suggests that about one million persons in Germany use e-cigarettes regularly and another 1.55 million have done so in the past. The consumption of electronic cigarettes in Germany is not very widespread, but it is not negligible either. Nearly 1 in 8 Germans has tried e-cigarettes at least once. Regular consumers of e-cigarettes are almost exclusively smokers and ex-smokers.

  4. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  5. Behavioral economic substitution between conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes differs as a function of the frequency of e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sarah E; Cummings, K Michael; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-08-01

    Models measuring the interactions between consumption of conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the marketplace are becoming vital forecast tools as the popularity of e-cigarettes increases and policy on tobacco products changes. Behavioral economics, which involves the integration of psychology and consumer demand, can be used to measure individuals' purchase behavior under different marketplace conditions. Our goal was to measure hypothetical conventional cigarette and e-cigarette purchasing among smokers with varying e-cigarette use patterns. Daily cigarette smokers were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing tool. Participants were asked about their frequency of e-cigarette use and to complete hypothetical single and cross-commodity purchase tasks. Frequency of e-cigarette use differentially affected how individuals consumed both conventional and e- cigarettes in different hypothetical marketplace conditions. The present study demonstrates four main findings: 1) the demand for conventional cigarettes was the lowest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 2) the demand for e-cigarettes was the highest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 3) when both products were available together, daily e-cigarette users purchased more e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes served as a substitute for cigarettes in all groups regardless of frequency of use, and 4) the demand for conventional cigarette demand was lower in frequent e-cigarette users when e-cigarettes were concurrently available. Together, these data suggest that price and marketplace conditions will impact purchasing behavior of conventional and e-cigarettes users heterogeneously. Therefore, frequency of use patterns should be considered when implementing novel policies and/or marketplace changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neighbourhood exposure to point-of-sale price promotions for cigarettes is associated with financial stress among smokers: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Tibbits, Melissa; Soliman, Ghada A; Grimm, Brandon; Shaikh, Raees A; McCarthy, Molly; Wan, Neng; Ramos, Athena K; Correa, Antonia

    2017-11-01

    To examine the association between neighbourhood exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette price promotions and financial stress among smokers in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the USA. Survey data from 888 smokers provided information on sociodemographic and smoking related variables. Financial stress was measured with the question: 'In the last six months, because of lack of money, was there a time when you were unable to buy food or pay any important bills on time, such as electricity, telephone, credit card, rent or your mortgage? (Yes/No).' Using audit data from 504 tobacco retailers, we estimated a score of POS price promotions for each respondent by summing the different types of promotion in each store in their neighbourhood, as defined by a 1-km roadway buffer. Adjusted results provided strong support for an association between higher scores of neighbourhood POS cigarette price promotions and a higher probability of financial stress (p=0.007). Exposure to POS cigarette price promotions is associated with financial stress. This finding, coupled with previous reports that smokers with financial stress are less likely to attempt to quit or succeed in quitting smoking, suggests that POS cigarette price promotions may act as an impediment to smoking cessation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-04-22

    Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within-and between-participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' 'lived experience' of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be disseminated to the scientific and lay community through presentations

  9. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  10. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The α activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the α activity results from 210 Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial 210 Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original 210 Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the α activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents

  11. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  12. [E-Cigarettes – Friend or Foe?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russi, Erich W

    2015-07-01

    Not nicotine, but an abundant amount of toxic chemicals produced by the combustion of tobacco are the cause of well-known health problems. E-cigarette vapor contains no or only minimal quantities of potentially harmful substances. Hence it can be assumed that vaping in adults is much less harmful than smoking of cigarettes. Furthermore, no data exist that e-cigarettes will encourage youngsters to become cigarette smokers. E-cigarette vaping has the potential to reduce the daily number of cigarettes smoked or facilitates cessation of smoking in heavily nicotine-dependent smokers, who keep on smoking despite a structured smoking cessation program. Health professionals should be aware of this type of nicotine substitution, since the controversial discussion is often emotional and not evidence-based.

  13. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging.

  14. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e-cigarette

  15. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  16. Electronic Cigarettes Are as Toxic to Skin Flap Survival as Tobacco Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Aline Sabrina; Reinikovaite, Viktorija; Schmidt, Eric P; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Deleyiannis, Frederic White-Brown

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular. However, information about the health risks associated with e-cigarette use is sparse. Currently, no published studies examine the effects of chronic e-cigarette exposure on microcirculation or perfusion. Using a rat skin flap model, we examined the toxic microcirculatory effects e-cigarettes may have in comparison with tobacco cigarettes. Fifty-eight rats were randomized to either exposure to room air, tobacco cigarette smoke, medium-nicotine content (1.2%) e-cigarette vapor, or a high-nicotine content (2.4%) e-cigarette vapor. After 4 weeks of exposure, a random pattern, 3 × 9 cm skin flap was elevated on the dorsum of the rats. At 5 weeks, flap survival was evaluated quantitatively, and the rats were euthanized. Plasma was collected for nicotine and cotinine analysis, and flap tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis. Evaluation of the dorsal skin flaps demonstrated significantly increased necrosis in the vapor and tobacco groups. The average necrosis within the groups was as follows: control 19.23%, high-dose vapor 28.61%, medium-dose vapor 35.93%, and tobacco cigarette 30.15%. Although the e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette groups did not differ significantly, each individual group had significantly more necrosis than the control group (Pe-cigarette exposure groups had similar amounts of flap necrosis and hypoxia when compared with the tobacco cigarette exposure group. Nicotine-containing e-cigarette vapor is similarly toxic to skin flap survival as tobacco cigarettes.

  17. Prevalence and Perceptions of Electronic Cigarette Use during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas J; Camerota, Marie; Propper, Cathi

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The current study is the first to assess pregnant women's perceptions of e-cigarettes and the prevalence of e-cigarette use during pregnancy, using a national sample of pregnant women (N = 445) recruited online. Methods An online survey was used to assess the prevalence and perceptions of e-cigarette use among pregnant women, including perceptions of e-cigarette safety. Results In our sample, 5.62% (n = 25) of women solely used tobacco cigarettes, 6.52% (n = 29) solely used e-cigarettes, 8.54% (n = 38) used both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and 79.33% (n = 353) used neither tobacco cigarettes nor e-cigarettes during their current pregnancy. Overall, 64.27% (n = 286) of participants viewed e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes. Having seen advertisements for e-cigarettes increased likelihood of viewing them as safer than tobacco cigarettes (OR [Odds Ratio] = 2.5, p many women use e-cigarettes during pregnancy as tobacco cigarettes, that pregnant women view e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes, and that these views may be influenced by exposure to e-cigarette advertisements.

  18. Cigarette smoking decreases global microRNA expression in human alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel W Graff

    Full Text Available Human alveolar macrophages are critical components of the innate immune system. Cigarette smoking-induced changes in alveolar macrophage gene expression are linked to reduced resistance to pulmonary infections and to the development of emphysema/COPD. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs could control, in part, the unique messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles found in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers. Activation of macrophages with different stimuli in vitro leads to a diverse range of M1 (inflammatory and M2 (anti-inflammatory polarized phenotypes that are thought to mimic activated macrophages in distinct tissue environments. Microarray mRNA data indicated that smoking promoted an "inverse" M1 mRNA expression program, defined by decreased expression of M1-induced transcripts and increased expression of M1-repressed transcripts with few changes in M2-regulated transcripts. RT-PCR arrays identified altered expression of many miRNAs in alveolar macrophages of smokers and a decrease in global miRNA abundance. Stratification of human subjects suggested that the magnitude of the global decrease in miRNA abundance was associated with smoking history. We found that many of the miRNAs with reduced expression in alveolar macrophages of smokers were predicted to target mRNAs upregulated in alveolar macrophages of smokers. For example, miR-452 is predicted to target the transcript encoding MMP12, an important effector of smoking-related diseases. Experimental antagonism of miR-452 in differentiated monocytic cells resulted in increased expression of MMP12. The comprehensive mRNA and miRNA expression profiles described here provide insight into gene expression regulation that may underlie the adverse effects cigarette smoking has on alveolar macrophages.

  19. Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Katherine Kelly; Asal, Nicole J

    2014-11-01

    To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  1. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De Le?n, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product d...

  2. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's 'effectiveness' as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons.

  3. E-cigarettes: scientific and political controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Yussuf Saloojee

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The e-cigarette is touted as a disruptive technology that could make combustible cigarettes obsolete. The product, its science and politics though are controversial. Intervention or response Published journal articles, reports and conference presentations on e-cigarettes were located using PubMed, plus conference, industry and other websites. These were critically reviewed. Results and lessons learnt A number of contenti...

  4. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing w...

  5. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...

  6. Regular physical activity modifies smoking-related lung function decline and reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: We have previously reported that regular physical activity reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. We hypothesized that higher levels of regular physical activity could reduce the risk of COPD by modifying smoking-related lung function decline....... OBJECTIVE: To estimate the longitudinal association between regular physical activity and FEV(1) and FVC decline and COPD risk. METHODS: A population-based sample (n = 6,790) was recruited and assessed with respect to physical activity, smoking, lung function, and other covariates, in Copenhagen in 1981....../yr of FEV(1), P-for-trend = 0.006, and +2.6 and +7.7 ml/yr of FVC, P-for-trend function decline. Active smokers with moderate to high physical activity had...

  7. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31-40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31-40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers.

  8. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  9. Adhesion kinetics of human primary monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages: Dynamic cell adhesion measurements with a label-free optical biosensor and their comparison with end-point assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Szabó, Bálint; Horvath, Robert

    2016-09-01

    obtained with the high-temporal-resolution Epic BT, but could only provide end-point data. In contrast, complex, nonmonotonic cell adhesion kinetics measured by the high-throughput optical biosensor is expected to open a window on the hidden background of the immune cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  10. Measurement of flux-weighted average cross-sections and isomeric yield ratios for {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakilur Rahman, Md.; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Nadeem, Muhammad; Thi Hien, Nguyen; Shahid, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Yang, Sung-Chul; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Data Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Woo Lee, Man; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Yang, Gwang-Mo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Tae-Ik [Dong-A University, Department of Materials Physics, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the flux-weighted average cross-sections and the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 99m,g,100m,g,101m,g,102m,g}Rh in the {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions with th