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Sample records for cigarette smoke exposure

  1. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  2. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium ( 210 Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210 Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g -1 , depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d -1 , and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed. (author)

  3. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  4. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    210 Po was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses of polonium were performed using 209 Po as an internal isotopic tracer. Samples were dissolved with acids, polonium plated on a silver disc and measured by alpha spectrometry using silicon surface barrier detectors. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in the cigarettes, on the ashes of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke inhaled by the smoker. 210 Po in the tobacco display concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq/g, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied between 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke from one cigarette varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, about 50 % of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po and 210 Pb in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. The average absorption of 210 Po into the blood taking all pathways into account is 0.39 Bq d -1 . This includes, namely, the ingestion of water and beverages, the ingestion of food, the inhalation of air and cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to this rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood and, after circulating in all organs, gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure of this organ. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoking are discussed. (author)

  5. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  6. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  8. Interaction of radon Exposure and cigarette smoking on cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Maoxiang; Wei, Han; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Xiujie; Cao, Zhenshan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Environmental radon and its progenies is important lung carcinogen both in occupational underground miners and in the general population. Exposure to radon often occurs combined with smoking, another most important lung carcinogen. The join biological effects of alpha- particle radiation and cigarette smoke condense (CSC) were investigated here in order to provide experimental base for medical protection from lung cancer inducing by joint exposure of radon and smoking. Immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D) were divided into 5 groups, namely normal control group (NC), alpha particles irradiation group (0.25 Gy,α), CSC administration group (1μg/ml, CSC), CSC administration (1μg/ml) before (CSC + α) and after (α + CSC) alpha particles irradiation (0.25 Gy) group. On the 35 th passage after treated by alpha particles irradiation and CSC singly or jointly, only α + CSC cells showed malignant transformation characteristics, representing anchor growing independently, losing contact inhibition, and cell cycle disordering, whereas, there were no distinct difference between cells of other groups and normal cells. Moreover, comparison to the groups treated alone with alpha particles radiation or CSC administration, in the groups of joint exposure to alpha particles radiation and CSC treatment, cell survival fractions markedly decreased, intracellular ROS levels, frequencies of comet cell generation significantly increase, and could found that cell survival fractions of group CSC administration after α particle radiation was significantly higher than that of group CSC administration before alpha particles irradiation, suggesting that interaction of radon and smoking associated with their exposure sequence. In summary, interaction of radon and smoking was synergistic effect, and which was impacted by the order of exposure. (author)

  9. Cigarette smoke exposure-associated alterations to noncoding RNA

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    Matthew Alan Maccani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures vary by timing, severity, and frequency and may have a number of deleterious effects throughout the life course. The period of in utero development, for example, is one of the most crucial stages of development during which adverse environmental exposures can both alter the growth and development of the fetus as well as lead to aberrant fetal programming, increasing disease risk. During fetal development and beyond, the plethora of exposures, including nutrients, drugs, stress, and trauma, influence health, development, and survival. Recent research in environmental epigenetics has investigated the roles of environmental exposures in influencing epigenetic modes of gene regulation during pregnancy and at various stages of life. Many relatively common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use, may have consequences for the expression and function of noncoding RNA (ncRNA, important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. A number of ncRNA have been discovered, including microRNA (miRNA, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA, and long noncoding RNA (long ncRNA. The best-characterized species of ncRNA are miRNA, the mature forms of which are ~22 nucleotides in length and capable of post-transcriptionally regulating target mRNA utilizing mechanisms based largely on the degree of complementarity between miRNA and target mRNA. Because miRNA can still negatively regulate gene expression when imperfectly base-paired with a target mRNA, a single miRNA can have a large number of potential mRNA targets and can regulate many different biological processes critical for health and development. The following review analyzes the current literature detailing links between cigarette smoke exposure and aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNA, assesses how such alterations may have consequences throughout the life course, and proposes future directions for this intriguing field of

  10. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Pappin, J.L.; Stevens, D.L.; Irby, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats were exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 mo, at which time they were exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . Rats were then subjected to whole-body counting (17-keV X-rays) periodically, beginning at day 4 after plutonium exposure, and smoke exposures or sham exposures were resumed on day 7. Clearance of plutonium from the lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed rats was significantly slower than that from the sham-exposed rats' lungs. The difference between the two groups became significant 7 days after the resumption of cigarette-smoke exposures

  11. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  12. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sutherland, J.M. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCluskey, A. [Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hansbro, P.M. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  13. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  14. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  15. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  16. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  17. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. METHODS: This is a cohort study

  18. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland

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    Hanna Mojska

    2016-07-01

    Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  19. Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine

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    McAughey John

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many recent developments of in vitro cigarette smoke systems closely replicating in vivo exposures. The Borgwaldt RM20S smoking machine (RM20S enables the serial dilution and delivery of cigarette smoke to exposure chambers for in vitro analyses. In this study we have demonstrated reliability and robustness testing of the RM20S in delivering smoke to in vitro cultures using an in-house designed whole smoke exposure chamber. Results The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells, exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2 demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber. Conclusions These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  20. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...

  1. Comparison of cigarette smoke exposure atmospheres in different puffing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Bechtold, W.E.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke generated using different puffing profiles was characterized for particle size distribution, vapor/gas concentration, and chemical composition. Three puffing profiles were compared: (1) a standard, 2-sec, 35 ml puff (SP), once per minute; (2) a puff of double the standard volume (70 mL), once per minute (DP); and (3) a double puff, twice per minute (2-DP). Results from samples collected with a multijet Mercer impactor indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of smoke particles decreased with puff volume. The concentrations of specific chemicals from gas samples (CO, CO 2 , nitrogen oxides, and small molecular weight hydrocarbons), organic vapor samples (acetone, 2-methylfuran, benzene, meta- and para-xylene, ortho-xylene, and limonene), and particulate samples (nicotine, glycerol, hydroquinone, and palmitic acid) showed good agreement among the three puffing profiles. They support a prediction that the health effects of cigarette smoke generated from 2-DP or DP profiles would not be different from those resulting from SP profiles. (author)

  2. Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy Alters Fetomaternal Cell Trafficking Leading to Retention of Microchimeric Cells in the Maternal Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Anja; Scapin, Cristina; Barone, Caroline; Tam, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure causes chronic oxidative lung damage. During pregnancy, fetal microchimeric cells traffic to the mother. Their numbers are increased at the site of acute injury. We hypothesized that milder chronic diffuse smoke injury would attract fetal cells to maternal lungs. We used a green-fluorescent-protein (GFP) mouse model to study the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on fetomaternal cell trafficking. Wild-type female mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for about 4 weeks and bred with homozygote GFP males. Cigarette smoke exposure continued until lungs were harvested and analyzed. Exposure to cigarette smoke led to macrophage accumulation in the maternal lung and significantly lower fetal weights. Cigarette smoke exposure influenced fetomaternal cell trafficking. It was associated with retention of GFP-positive fetal cells in the maternal lung and a significant reduction of fetal cells in maternal livers at gestational day 18, when fetomaternal cell trafficking peaks in the mouse model. Cells quickly clear postpartum, leaving only a few, difficult to detect, persisting microchimeric cells behind. In our study, we confirmed the postpartum clearance of cells in the maternal lungs, with no significant difference in both groups. We conclude that in the mouse model, cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy leads to a retention of fetal microchimeric cells in the maternal lung, the site of injury. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the phenotypic characteristics and function of these fetal microchimeric cells, and confirm its course in cigarette smoke exposure in humans. PMID:24832066

  3. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  4. Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

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    Scherer Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

  5. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...

  6. Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Suppresses the Unfolded Protein Response upon Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Geraghty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress provokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD subjects. The antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, counters oxidative stress induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we investigate whether GPx-1 expression deters the UPR following exposure to cigarette smoke. Expression of ER stress markers was investigated in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells isolated from nonsmoking, smoking, and COPD donors and redifferentiated at the air liquid interface. NHBE cells from COPD donors expressed heightened ATF4, XBP1, GRP78, GRP94, EDEM1, and CHOP compared to cells from nonsmoking donors. These changes coincided with reduced GPx-1 expression. Reintroduction of GPx-1 into NHBE cells isolated from COPD donors reduced the UPR. To determine whether the loss of GPx-1 expression has a direct impact on these ER stress markers during smoke exposure, Gpx-1−/− mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 year. Loss of Gpx-1 expression enhanced cigarette smoke-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Equally, induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced antioxidant expression in mouse precision-cut lung slices. Smoke inhalation also exacerbated the UPR response during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Therefore, ER stress may be an antioxidant-related pathophysiological event in COPD.

  7. Changes in neutrophil morphology and morphometry following exposure to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannan, S.; McLean, A.; Drost, E.; Gillooly, M.; Donaldson, K.; Lamb, D.; MacNee, W.

    1992-01-01

    Acute cigarette smoking delays neutrophils within the pulmonary circulation in some smokers. Evidence from an in-vitro Micropore filter model of the pulmonary capillaries indicates that this may be due to a smoke induced decrease in cell deformability. In order to determine whether changes in cell shape are associated with the observed decrease in neutrophil deformability following smoke exposure, cell morphology, using scanning electron microscopy, and morphometric measurements, made using transmission electron microscopy, were performed on aliquots of neutrophils harvested from whole blood in non-smoking subjects before and after exposure in vitro to cigarette smoke. Smoke exposure increased the maximum diameter and circumference of neutrophils, without changing their area. There was also a change in the maximum to minimum cell diameter ratio, which indicated that the cells had become less spherical. Scanning electron microscopy showed that smoke exposed cells had developed blebbing of their surface membranes, suggestive of an oxidative injury to the cell membrane rather than the shape changes associated with cell activation. These changes in the morphology and morphometry of smoke exposed neutrophils may contribute to the reduction in cell deformability induced by cigarette smoke. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1571278

  8. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno Débora C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group: nondiabetic (ND and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D, diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP. At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development.

  9. Alterations in prostacyclin and thromboxane formation by chronic cigarette smoke exposure: temporal relationships and whole smoke vs. gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubawy, W.C.; Culpepper, B.T.; Valentovic, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chronic cigarette smoke exposure in vivo causes decreased conversion of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) to prostacyclin (PGI2) by isolated aortic tissue and increased conversion to thromboxane (TXA2) by isolated platelets from rats. Alterations in the PGI2/TXA2 balance may be part of the mechanism through which smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. To study the influence of smoke exposure duration on this response, male rats were exposed daily to 10 puffs of freshly generated cigarette smoke. Animals were killed after 1, 4, 14, 28 and 57 days of smoke exposure and 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after cessation of the 57-day of smoke-exposure regimen. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels during the smoke-exposure sessions verified smoke (gas phase) inhalation. Statistically significant alterations in prostacyclin synthesis preceded those of thromboxane. A decrease of 20-25% (P less than 0.05) in PGI2 production from (/sup 14/C)AA in isolated aortic tissue was found beginning 28 days after smoke was initiated and quickly rebounded when smoke exposure was terminated. Increased production of TXA2 from (/sup 14/C)AA by isolated platelets became statistically significant (P less than 0.05) on the 57th day and returned to normal 7-14 days after cessation of smoke exposure. To determine the effect of gas phase constituents on the PGI2/TXA2 balance a second series of experiments divided male and female Sprague-Dawley rats into sham, whole smoke and gas phase groups. Gas phase was produced by passing whole smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove particulate matter. Per cent COHb averaged 1.4 for sham, 7.8 for whole smoke and 9.4 for gas phase groups.

  10. Influenza Virus-Induced Lung Inflammation Was Modulated by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Ling, Man To; Mao, Huawei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Ming; Lam, Kwok Tai; Liu, Yuan; Tu, Wenwei; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1) virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed mice, which might

  11. Influenza virus-induced lung inflammation was modulated by cigarette smoke exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    Full Text Available Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1 virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed

  12. Dose response association of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure, childhood stature, overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental

  13. Repression of CC16 by cigarette smoke (CS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Club (Clara Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP, or CC16 is produced mainly by non-ciliated airway epithelial cells including bronchiolar club cells and the change of its expression has been shown to associate with the progress and severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. In an animal model, the lack of CC16 renders the animal susceptible to the tumorigenic effect of a major CS carcinogen. A recent population-based Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Diseases (TESAOD has indicated that the low serum CC16 concentration is closely linked with the smoke-related mortality, particularly that driven by the lung cancer. However, the study of CC16 expression in well-defined smoke exposure models has been lacking, and there is no experimental support for the potential causal link between CC16 and CS-induced pathophysiological changes in the lung. In the present study, we have found that airway CC16 expression was significantly repressed in COPD patients, in monkey CS exposure model, and in CS-induced mouse model of COPD. Additionally, the lack of CC16 exacerbated airway inflammation and alveolar loss in the mouse model. Therefore, CC16 may play an important protective role in CS-related diseases.

  14. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Gingival Cell Cigarette Smoke Exposure Induces Muscle Cell Metabolic Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Baeder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke exposure compromises health through damaging multiple physiological systems, including disrupting metabolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of oral gingiva in mediating the deleterious metabolic effects of cigarette smoke exposure on skeletal muscle metabolic function. Using an in vitro conditioned medium cell model, skeletal muscle cells were incubated with medium from gingival cells treated with normal medium or medium containing suspended cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Following incubation of muscle cells with gingival cell conditioned medium, muscle cell mitochondrial respiration and insulin signaling and action were determined as an indication of overall muscle metabolic health. Skeletal muscle cells incubated with conditioned medium of CSE-treated gingival cells had a profound reduction in mitochondrial respiration and respiratory control. Furthermore, skeletal muscle cells had a greatly reduced response in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis. Altogether, these results provide a novel perspective on the mechanism whereby cigarette smoke affects systemic metabolic function. In conclusion, we found that oral gingival cells treated with CSE create an altered milieu that is sufficient to both disrupted skeletal muscle cell mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity.

  16. Assessing the Effect of Simultaneous Exposure to Noise and Cigarette Smoke on Workers’ Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Rahimpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise, as the most common pollutant in the industrial environment, can lead to hearing loss and negatively affect other organs such as the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among some workers, and can also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure to noise and cigarette smoke on the blood pressure of workers at a manufacturing factory.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 604 workers at a steel factory. Information relating to workers’ demography, employment, and risk factors were recorded. Based on the level of smoking per day, workers exposed to noise fell into one of the four following groups: 1 Non-smokers exposed to noise   Results: The prevalence of hypertension, cigarette smoking, and exposure to noise ≥85 DB was 11.6%, 15.3%, and 56.4%, respectively, among the workers. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 112.3 and 73.9 mmHg, respectively.a significant difference was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four groups (P=0.001. Posthoc test showed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3(P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated no significant difference in workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke.   Conclusion: This study demonstrates that noise is an important factor in terms of hypertension, with no significant differences observed in the prevalence of hypertension between workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. It is suggested that workers’ blood pressure should be regularly monitored in noisy environments.

  17. Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Mason, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

  18. Effect of simultaneous exposure to occupational noise and cigarette smoke on binaural hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been postulated that cigarette smoking can aggravate noise-induced hearing loss. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of concurrent exposure to cigarette smoke and occupational noise on binaural hearing impairment (BHI. In an analytic study on the workers of a large wagon manufacturing company in 2007, 622 male workers (252 smokers and 370 non-smokers, matched for other variables participated and their BHI was compared. BHI was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers (odds ratio= 5.6, P < 0.001, 95% CI =3.4-9.4. Logistic regression confirmed this significant difference as well, and showed a direct relationship between the amount of BHI and pack/years of smoking. Cigarette smoking accompanied by exposure to workplace noise may play a role in causing binaural hearing impairment, so giving up or decreasing the amount of smoking may prevent or at least delay binaural hearing impairment, and eventually reduce its compensation costs.

  19. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  20. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Carotid Arteries Calcification Index in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-07-01

    The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C). The tested group was subjected to computed tomography angiography of carotid arteries. Evaluation of the carotid arteries calcification indexes was conducted. The average value of the total calcification index of the carotid arteries (CAci) amounted to 368.28 ± 384.21. In subgroup A and B in relation to subgroup C, CAci was significantly higher. In summary, active and passive smoking in patients with essential hypertension may be associated with a higher calcification index of carotid arteries.

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  2. Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits.

  3. Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits

  4. Mast cell density in isolated monkey lungs on exposure to cigarette smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, A; Walter, S

    1982-01-01

    The density and percentage of degranulated cells of the mast cell population were studied in the isolated lungs of 25 monkeys (Macaca radiata radiata) before and after acute exposure to cigarette smoke. In each animal one lung was used as the test lung while the other lung was used as its control. In the control lungs the total mean mast cell count was 9.5/mm2 and the proportion of degranulated cells was 9.7%. In the lungs exposed to smoke the total counts were lower (7.3/mm2) and the percent...

  5. The Effects of Passive Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Survival of the Reverse Sural Fasciocutaneous Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagatullah, Abdul Nawfar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Bathusha, Mohd Shakir; Ramachandran, Anantha Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Background  The possibility of a person who had undergone surgery to be exposed to the ill effects of cigarette smoke is high, more so if the person lives with a smoker. With increasing popularity of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps, a surgeon may have to manage a person who lives with a smoker or is exposed to cigarette smoke. A clear understanding of the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps is necessary. This study was performed to establish a clearer understanding of the effects of smoking on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps and evidence for preoperative patient counseling about smoking and smoke exposure. Objective  The study investigated effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the survival of the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap. Methods  This was an experimental observational study conducted at the Laboratory for Animal Research Unit in the Health Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia. Twelve adult White New Zealand rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) were divided into two groups of six. All 12 rabbits had a 2.5- × 2.5-cm reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap raised on both its hind limbs. The group exposed to cigarette smoke underwent 4 weeks of smoke exposure for 2 hours daily prior to surgery. This was then continued until analysis of the results. The control group had no intervention. All flaps were analyzed on the seventh postoperative day, after tracing on transparent plastic sheets with the necrotic area marked followed by 2D planimetry done on a grid paper. The flaps were assessed on the total flap area and survival area percentage. It was recorded as mean ± SD. The presence or absence of infection and hematoma was also noted. Results  Twelve flaps were analyzed in each group. Total mean flap area and survival area percentage of the control group were 120.33 ± 31.03 mm 2 and 80.12 ± 15.75%, respectively, whereas in the cigarette smoke-exposed group, it was 121.83 ± 17.93 mm 2

  6. Radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and other mining experience in the beaverlodge uranium miners cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Abbe, K.A.; Howe, G.R.; Burch, J.D.; Miller, A.B.; Abbatt, J.; Band, P.; Choi, W.; Du, J.; Feather, J.; Gallagher, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nested case-control study within the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort was undertaken to assess any possible contribution of confounding by smoking and other mining experience to the risk estimate derived from the original cohort study. Next of kin have been interviewed for 46 lung cancer cases and 95 controls enrolled in the Beaverlodge Uranium Miners Cohort Study who died between 1950 and 1980. Confounding by cigarette smoking and other mining experience appears unlikely to have contributed to the relative risk coefficient for exposure to Rn decay products derived in the parent study. Data for smoking and exposure to Rn decay products are consistent with a multiplicative model, although considerable caution must be applied to this interpretation

  7. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  8. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mason, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  9. Epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among innocent never smoked adult nigerians in a resource-poor environment of a primary care clinic in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes is a public health hazard that is increasing globally and emerging in resource-poor nations where the health effects of secondhand smoke are less publicized in biomedical literatures, electronic and print media. As the global prevalence of cigarette smoking increases so does the health hazards and harm associated with secondhand smoke increases with implication for family and community health. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among innocent never smoked adult Nigerians in a primary care clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive hospital-based study was carried out on 500 adult Nigerian patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire containing information on relevant epidemiological variables. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never smoked adult in the previous 1 year. Results: The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke was 45.0%. Exposures occur predominantly among males (56.4%, middle-aged adults (44.0%, outside home environment (72.0, during the daytime (63.6%, and dry season (58.7%. The persons involved in the smoking were principally friends and passersby (65.8%. Exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with age (middle-aged adults (P = 0.036 and male gender (P = 0.02. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the variable epidemiology of exposure to secondhand smoke. Tackling relevant epidemiological factors that predispose to exposure to secondhand smoke through programs and policies will facilitate appropriate public health action to safeguard the health of never smoked individuals.

  10. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  11. Analysis of Cigarette Smoke Deposition Within an In Vitro Exposure System for Simulating Exposure in the Human Respiratory Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shinkichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the risk assessment of airborne chemicals, a variety of in vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to replicate airborne chemical exposure in vivo. Since cells at the air-liquid interface are exposed to cigarette smoke as an aerosol in direct exposure systems, it is possible to reproduce the situation of cigarette smoke exposure in the human respiratory system using this device. However it is difficult to know whether the exposed cigarette smoke in this system is consistent with the smoke retained in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to clarify this point using the CULTEX® RFS module which is a recently developed direct exposure system. For this purpose, solanesol and acetaldehyde were respectively chosen as the particulate and gas/vapor phase representatives of smoke constituents, and their deposition and balance per unit area of cell culture surface of the RFS module were measured (dosimetry. We also conducted human retention studies to compare with the dosimetry data. By comparing inhaled smoke and exhaled smoke under three inhalation conditions, we estimated the regional retention and balance of each representative per unit surface area of the respiratory tract (mouth, bronchi, and alveoli separately. The deposition of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit area of cell culture surface in the RFS module decreased dependent on the dilution flow rate and ranged from 0.26-0.0076%/cm2 in our experimental conditions. The ratio of deposited acetaldehyde to deposited solanesol ranged from 0.96-1.96 in the RFS module. The retention of solanesol and acetaldehyde per unit surface area in the mouth and the bronchi ranged from 0.095-0.0083%/cm2 in this study. The retention per unit surface area of alveoli was far lower than in the other two regions (0.0000063%/cm2. The ratio of retained acetaldehyde to retained solanesol ranged from 0.54-1.97. From these results, we concluded that the CULTEX® RFS module can simulate

  12. Determination of methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl- and 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acids as biomarkers of exposure to alkylating agents in cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Gerhard; Urban, Michael; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Serafin, Richard; Feng, Shixia; Kapur, Sunil; Muhammad, Raheema; Jin, Yan; Sarkar, Mohamadi; Roethig, Hans-Juergen

    2010-10-01

    Alkylating agents occur in the environment and are formed endogenously. Tobacco smoke contains a variety of alkylating agents or precursors including, among others, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide. We developed and validated a method for the simultaneous determination of methylmercapturic acid (MMA, biomarker for methylating agents such as NDMA and NNK), 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid (HEMA, biomarker for ethylene oxide) and 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA, biomarker for acrylonitrile) in human urine using deuterated internal standards of each compound. The method involves liquid/liquid extraction of the urine sample, solid phase extraction on anion exchange cartridges, derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr), liquid/liquid extraction of the reaction mixture and LC-MS/MS analysis with positive electrospray ionization. The method was linear in the ranges of 5.00-600, 1.00-50.0 and 1.50-900 ng/ml for MMA, HEMA and CEMA, respectively. The method was applied to two clinical studies in adult smokers of conventional cigarettes who either continued smoking conventional cigarettes, were switched to test cigarettes consisting of either an electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) or having a highly activated carbon granule filter that were shown to have reduced exposure to specific smoke constituents, or stopped smoking. Urinary excretion of MMA was found to be unaffected by switching to the test cigarettes or stop smoking. Urinary HEMA excretion decreased by 46 to 54% after switching to test cigarettes and by approximately 74% when stopping smoking. Urinary CEMA excretion decreased by 74-77% when switching to test cigarettes and by approximately 90% when stopping smoking. This validated method for urinary alkylmercapturic acids is suitable to distinguish differences in exposure not only between smokers and nonsmokers but also between smoking of conventional and

  13. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  14. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  15. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.D. Kuempel; V. Vallyathan; F.H.Y. Green [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E D [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Education and Information Division, Risk Evaluation Branch, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Vallyathan, V [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Green, F H Y, E-mail: ekuempel@cdc.go [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV{sub 1} <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  17. Dental caries area of rat molar expanded by cigarette smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Y; Nakano, K; Ueda, O; Ara, T; Hattori, T; Kawakami, T; Wang, P-L

    2011-01-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of cigarette smoke (CS) and has an adverse impact on oral health. We examined the effect of CS exposure on caries risk and experimental dental caries. Experimental dental caries was induced in rat maxillary molars which were inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans MT8148 and maintained on a cariogenic diet (diet 2000) and high sucrose water during the experimental period. CS-exposed rats were intermittently housed in an animal chamber with whole-body exposure to CS until killed. Whole saliva was collected before CS exposure (day 0) and for 30 days after the start of CS exposure. Saliva secretion was stimulated by administration of isoproterenol and pilocarpine after anesthesia. Maxillary molars were harvested on day 31. The increase in body weight of the CS-exposed rats was less than that of the control rats. Salivary flow rate, concentration of S. mutans in the stimulated saliva and caries activity score did not significantly differ between 0 and 30 days after the start of CS exposure. Histological examination of the caries-affected area on maxillary molars 30 days after CS exposure showed expansion compared to control rats. In the electron probe microanalysis, no differences were observed between the mineral components of the CS-exposed teeth and the control teeth. These results suggest that CS exposure expands the caries-affected area in the maxillary molars of the rat. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effect of subchronic exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rat arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lenasi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is reported to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of 30-day exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke on vascular reactivity of rat abdominal aorta, carotid, renal and mesenteric artery. Separately, the NO-mediated and the EDHF-mediated, endothelium-dependent vascular relaxations were determined.Methods: Two groups of »Whistar Kyoto« rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (2 hours/day, 5 days/week for 30 days and to fresh conditioned air, respectively. Rats were sacrificed on the second day after the last exposition to cigarette smoke. Vascular reactivity studies were performed on isolated, endothelium-intact, phenylephrine-preconstricted rat artery rings. Cumulative concentration-relaxation curves to acetylcholine (ACh were obtained in the absence and presence of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS inhibitor N ω nitro L-arginine (L-NA and the cyclo-oxygenase (COX inhibitor diclofenac, respectively. After washing period of 1 hour, vessels were exposed either to the intracellular superoxide scavenger tiron, to the cytochrome P450 (CYP inhibitor miconazole or the Na-K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain before being preconstricted with phenylephrine and determining the concentration-response curve to ACh.Results: ACh induced concentration-dependent relaxations. In none of the vessels investigated did we observe a significant difference in the relaxations obtained in arteries from control rats and rats exposed to cigarettee smoke. Although smoking is known to cause an increase in oxidative stress, treatment of the vessels with tiron did not affect the NOmediated relaxations. To evaluate the contribution of EDHF to endothelium-dependent vasodilation rings were preincubated with L-NA. The EDHF-mediated relaxations were significantly attenuated compared to the NO-mediated relaxations in renal and mesenteric artery and almost completely abolished in aorta and

  19. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  20. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E D; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H Y

    2009-01-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV 1 , as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV 1 3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  1. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  2. In vitro assessment of reproductive toxicity of cigarette smoke and deleterious consequences of maternal exposure to its constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Chin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is known to be a serious health risk factor and considered reproductively toxic. In the current study, we investigated whether constituents of cigarette smoke, pyrazine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 3-ethylpyridine, adversely affect reproductive functioning such as oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation. Our findings indicated that three smoke components were involved in retardation of oocyte maturation in a dose-dependent manner and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL was determined to be 10-10M. However, individual smoke components administrated at the LOAEL did not attenuate oocyte maturation, demonstrating that all three toxicants were equally required for the observed growth impairment. When exposed to all three components at 10-10M during in vitro capacitation, murine sperm lost forward progression and were unable to show adequate hyperactivation, which is indicative of the incompletion of the capacitation process. Only sperm administrated with 3-ethylpyridine alone showed significant reduction in capacitation status, suggesting the chemical is the one responsible for disrupting sperm capacitation. Taken together, this is the first report that documents the effect of cigarette smoke components on oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation. The present findings demonstrate the adverse effects of smoke constituents of mammalian reproduction and the differences in sensitivity to smoke components between male and female gametes. Since both processes take place in the female reproductive system, our data provide new insights into deleterious consequences of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke.

  3. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  4. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  5. Induction of Metallothionein Expression After Exposure to Conventional Cigarette Smoke but Not Electronic Cigarette (ECIG-Generated Aerosol in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Cobb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the invention of electronic cigarettes (ECIG, many questions have been raised regarding their safety as an alternative to smoking conventional cigarettes. Conventional cigarette smoke contains a variety of toxicants including heavy metals. However, ECIG-generated aerosol contains only trace amounts of metals, adding to the argument for it being a safer alternative. In response to heavy metal exposure, metallothioneins are induced in cells to help store the metal, detoxify the body, and are also known responders to oxidative stress. In an attempt to add to the evaluation of the safety of ECIGs, metallothionein expression was quantified using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an assessment of stress induced cellular damage caused by exposure.Methods: Adult nematodes were exposed to either ECIG aerosol or conventional cigarette smoke at doses of 15, 30, and 45 puffs, the equivalent of one, two, and three cigarettes, respectively. Movement, survival, and stress-induced sleep were assessed for up to 24 h after exposure. Relative expression levels for mtl-1 and mtl-2, C. elegans metallothionein genes, were analyzed after 1, 5, and 24 h post exposure using quantitative RT-PCR.Results: Nematodes exposed to conventional cigarette smoke underwent stress-induced sleep in a dose dependent manner with animals recovering to values within the range of air control after 5 h post exposure. Those exposed to ECIG aerosol did not undergo stress-induced sleep and were indistinguishable from controls. The expression of mtl-1 increased in a dose and time dependent manner in C. elegans exposed to conventional cigarette smoke, with a maximum expression observed at 5 h post exposure of 45 puffs. No induction of mtl-2 was observed in any animals. Additionally, ECIG aerosol did not induce expression of mtl-1 and mtl-2 at levels different than those of untreated.Conclusion: ECIG aerosol failed to induce a stress response in C. elegans. In contrast

  6. Airway Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Role of Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Mahyar; Raee, Pourya; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Heijink, Irene H

    2018-02-01

    The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults, such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD. Of note, disruption of epithelial junctions may lead to modulation of signaling pathways involved in differentiation, repair, and proinflammatory responses. Epithelial barrier dysfunction may be particularly relevant in COPD, where repeated injury by cigarette smoke exposure, pathogens, inflammatory mediators, and impaired epithelial regeneration may compromise the barrier function. In the current review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of barrier dysfunction in COPD, as well as the molecular mechanisms that underlie the impaired repair response of the injured epithelium in COPD and its inability to redifferentiate into a functionally intact epithelium.

  7. Adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, J. J.; Terhanian, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements for different brands.
DESIGN—Adolescents were shown one print advertisement for each of five cigarette brands (Camel, Marlboro, Kool, Benson & Hedges, and Lucky Strike). They indicated on a structured questionnaire how many times they had seen the advertisement (or one almost like it), how much they liked it, whether or not they thought it made smoking more appealing, and whether or not it made them want to smoke cigaret...

  8. E-cigarette Advertising Exposure, Explicit and Implicit Harm Perceptions, and E-Cigarette use Susceptibility Among Non-Smoking Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Fagan, Pebbles; Unger, Jennifer B; Stacy, Alan W

    2018-02-10

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising increases e-cigarette use susceptibility among non-smoking young adults by promoting explicit and implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer and healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes. Young adult current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette (N = 393; Mean age = 22.1, Standard Deviation = 3.9; 66% Women) were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing real-world, print e-cigarette ads. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where ads with different predominant themes [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition involving ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (i.e., self-reported harm perceptions) and implicit (i.e., Implicit Association Test) attitudes towards e-cigarette use and e-cigarette use intentions. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Relative to Control participants, participants in Health and Social conditions were more likely to show higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes. Only the Social condition, relative to Control, had a significant effect on lower explicit harm perceptions of e-cigarette versus cigarette use. The Social condition had a significant indirect effect on e-cigarette use susceptibility, mediated by explicit harm perceptions. Social enhancement-themed ads may communicate the reduced-harm messages more strongly among young adults so as to affect both explicit and implicit attitudes and, through these, e-cigarette use susceptibility. Regulatory bodies may need to scrutinize reduced-harm claims communicated through social enhancement-themed ads. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette smoke exposure promotes arterial thrombosis and vessel remodeling after vascular injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Sawalich, Matthias; Humboldt, Tim; Leifheit, Maren; Meurrens, Kris; Berges, An; Xu, Haiyan; Lebrun, Stefan; Wallerath, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros; Schleef, Raymond; Schaefer, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, in terms of the vessel wall, the underlying pathomechanisms of cigarette smoking are incompletely understood, partly due to a lack of adequate in vivo models. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were exposed to filtered air (sham) or to cigarette mainstream smoke at a total particulate matter (TPM) concentration of 600 microg/l for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h, for 5 days/week. After exposure for 10 +/- 1 weeks, arterial thrombosis and neointima formation at the carotid artery were induced using 10% ferric chloride. Mice exposed to mainstream smoke exhibited shortened time to thrombotic occlusion (p < 0.01) and lower vascular patency rates (p < 0.001). Morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of neointimal lesions demonstrated that mainstream smoke exposure increased the amount of alpha-actin-positive smooth muscle cells (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the intima-to-media ratio (p < 0.05). Additional analysis of smooth muscle cells in vitro suggested that 10 microg TPM/ml increased cell proliferation without affecting viability or apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (100 and 500 microg TPM/ml) appeared to be cytotoxic. Taken together, these findings suggest that cigarette smoking promotes arterial thrombosis and modulates the size and composition of neointimal lesions after arterial injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Inhibits Bacterial Killing via TFEB-Mediated Autophagy Impairment and Resulting Phagocytosis Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Pehote

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cigarette smoke (CS exposure is the leading risk factor for COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. A common characteristic of COPD is impaired phagocytosis that causes frequent exacerbations in patients leading to increased morbidity. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Hence, we investigated if CS exposure causes autophagy impairment as a mechanism for diminished bacterial clearance via phagocytosis by utilizing murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01-GFP as an experimental model. Methods. Briefly, RAW cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE, chloroquine (autophagy inhibitor, TFEB-shRNA, CFTR(inh-172, and/or fisetin prior to bacterial infection for functional analysis. Results. Bacterial clearance of PA01-GFP was significantly impaired while its survival was promoted by CSE (p<0.01, autophagy inhibition (p<0.05; p<0.01, TFEB knockdown (p<0.01; p<0.001, and inhibition of CFTR function (p<0.001; p<0.01 in comparison to the control group(s that was significantly recovered by autophagy-inducing antioxidant drug, fisetin, treatment (p<0.05; p<0.01; and p<0.001. Moreover, investigations into other pharmacological properties of fisetin show that it has significant mucolytic and bactericidal activities (p<0.01; p<0.001, which warrants further investigation. Conclusions. Our data suggests that CS-mediated autophagy impairment as a critical mechanism involved in the resulting phagocytic defect, as well as the therapeutic potential of autophagy-inducing drugs in restoring is CS-impaired phagocytosis.

  12. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubawy, W.C.; Valentovic, M.A.; Atkinson, J.E.; Gairola, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  13. Interaction of exposure concentration and duration in determining the apoptosis of testis in rats after cigarette smoke inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of differences in smoke concentration and exposure duration in Sprague Dawley rats to determine variation in type and severity of the testis apoptosis were evaluated. The daily dosages were 10, 20 and 30 non-filter cigarettes for a period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Mainstream smoke exposure suppressed body weight gain in all regimens. A dose-related increase in plasma nicotine concentration was observed in smoke-exposed groups for 4, 6, 8 and 12 week regimens. Histopathological examination of the exposed groups showed disturbances in the stages of spermatogenesis, tubules atrophying and these appeared to be dose-related. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 immunostaining was detected both in Sertoli cells and germ cells in smoke-exposure groups. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells of testicular cells was observed after 6 weeks of cigarette exposure. The results indicate that cigarette exposure concentration and duration have interaction effect to induce apoptosis in the rat testes.

  14. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cigarette smoke exposure inhibits extracellular MMP-2 (gelatinase A activity in human lung fibroblasts

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    Cappello Francesco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for the development of lung diseases, since its causative role has been assessed in the induction and maintenance of an inflamed state in the airways. Lung fibroblasts can contribute to these processes, due to their ability to produce proinflammatory chemotactic molecules and extracellular matrix remodelling proteinases. Among proteolytic enzymes, gelatinases A and B have been studied for their role in tissue breakdown and mobilisation of matrix-derived signalling molecules. Multiple reports linked gelatinase deregulation and overexpression to the development of inflammatory chronic lung diseases such as COPD. Methods In this study we aimed to determine variations in the gelatinolytic pattern of human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 cell line exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Gelatinolytic activity levels were determined by using gelatin zymography for the in-gel detection of the enzymes (proenzyme and activated forms, and the subsequent semi-quantitative densitometric evaluation of lytic bands. Expression of gelatinases was evaluated also by RT-PCR, zymography of the cell lysates and by western blotting. Results CSE exposure at the doses used (1–10% did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts. Zymographic analysis showed that CSE exposure resulted in a linear decrease of the activity of gelatinase A. Control experiments allowed excluding a direct inhibitory effect of CSE on gelatinases. Zymography of cell lysates confirmed the expression of MMP-2 in all conditions. Semi-quantitative evaluation of mRNA expression allowed assessing a reduced transcription of the enzyme, as well as an increase in the expression of TIMP-2. Statistical analyses showed that the decrease of MMP-2 activity in conditioned media reached the statistical significance (p = 0.0031 for 24 h and p = 0.0012 for 48 h, while correlation analysis showed that this result was

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Gillian S. Gould

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to “often-always” and “never-sometimes”. Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response. In total, 13–14% asked “often-always” about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco—compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34 and OBS (OR 0.63 asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  18. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Zeev, Yael Bar; Tywman, Laura; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Chiu, Simon; Clarke, Marilyn; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-12-16

    Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to "often-always" and "never-sometimes". Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response). In total, 13-14% asked "often-always" about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco-compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34) and OBS (OR 0.63) asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child.

  19. [Effects of intrauterine cigarette smoking exposure on expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Hong; Hu, Ya-Jie; Li, Xian-Ke; Xue, Lian; Jia, Qing-Yi; Yang, Yi-Wen; Zheng, Yu

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats and effects of intrauterine cigarette exposure on its expression. Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, control group and cigarette smoke exposure group (n = 8). 3MST mRNA and protein expression in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats were analysed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, and the expression of 3MST in the neurons of respiratory-related nuclei in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats was investigated with immunohistochemical technique. The RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that 3MST mRNA and protein were expressed in the medulla oblogata of neonatal rats and intrauterine cigarette exposure promoted their expression (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3MST existed in the neurons of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), hypoglossal nucleus (12N), ambiguous nucleus (Amb), facial nucleus (FN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in control group of the animals and the mean optical densities of 3MST-positive neurons in the pre-BötC, 12N, Amb and FN, but not NTS, were significantly increased in cigarette smoke exposure group (P < 0.05). 3MST exists in the neurons of medullary respiratory nuclei of neonatal rats and its expression can be up-regulated by intrauterine cigarette exposure, suggesting that the 3MST-H2S pathway may be involved in protection of medullary respiratory centers against injury induced by intrauterine cigarette exposure.

  20. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Disrupts Metabolic Function with Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Ceramide-Dependent Manner

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    Oliver J. Taylor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found that cigarette smoke disrupts metabolic function, in part, by increasing muscle ceramide accrual. To further our understanding of this, we sought to determine the role of the cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, which is increased with smoke exposure, in smoke-induced muscle metabolic perturbations. To test this theory, we determined HMGB1 from lungs of human smokers, as well as from lung cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke. We also treated cells and mice directly with HMGB1, in the presence or absence of myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis. Outcomes included assessments of insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function. HMGB1 was significantly increased in both human lungs and rodent alveolar macrophages. Further testing revealed that HMGB1 treatment elicited a widespread increase in ceramide species and reduction in myotube mitochondrial respiration, an increase in reactive oxygen species, and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis with myriocin was protective. In mice, by comparing treatments of HMGB1 injections with or without myriocin, we found that HMGB1 injections resulted in increased muscle ceramides, especially C16 and C24, which were necessary for reduced muscle mitochondrial respiration and compromised insulin and glucose tolerance. In conclusion, HMGB1 may be a necessary intermediate in the ceramide-dependent metabolic consequences of cigarette smoke exposure.

  1. Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Katherine Kelly; Asal, Nicole J

    2014-11-01

    To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Airway Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Role of Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghapour, Mahyar; Raee, Pourya; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Heijink, Irene H.

    The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults, such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are

  3. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  4. The density of tobacco retailers and its association with attitudes toward smoking, exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking among New York youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Kim, Annice E; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Estimate the association between the density of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviors among middle and high school students in New York. The 2000-2008 New York Youth Tobacco Surveys were pooled (N=70,427) and linked with county-level density of LTRs and retailer compliance with laws restricting youth access to cigarettes. Logistic regressions tested for associations with attitudes toward smoking exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking prevalence. LTR density is associated with self-reported exposure to point-of-sale advertising in New York City (NYC) among all youth (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30) and nonsmokers (OR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30); youth believing that smoking makes them look cool, overall (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.52) and among nonsmokers (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.55); and a counter-intuitive negative relationship with frequent smoking in NYC (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84). Retailer compliance was negatively associated with youth reporting that a retail store is their usual source for cigarettes (OR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Restricting tobacco licenses and enforcing youth access laws are reasonable policy approaches for influencing youth smoking outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study carried out on a cross-section of 500 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never-smoked adult patient in the previous 1 year. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for the calculation of percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis involving Chi-square test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables at P < 0.05. Results: The age of the respondents ranged from 18 to 74 years, with a mean age of 36 ± 12.4 years. There were 180 (36.0%) males with 320 (64%) females, with a sex ratio of 1.8. Awareness of general health effects of secondhand smoke on adults, children, and pregnant women was 95.6%, 92.8%, and 65.2%, respectively. The most common specific health effects the respondents were aware for adults, children, and obstetric population were lung cancer (95.6%), precipitation of asthmatic condition (92.8%), and delivery of small babies (65.2%), respectively. The predominant source of awareness of information was radio (93.6%). Awareness of general health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke on adults (P = 0.041), children (P = 0.031), and obstetrics population (P = 0.02) was significantly associated with exposure status. Conclusion: The most common health effects of secondhand smoke the respondents

  6. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. A hospital-based study carried out on a cross-section of 500 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as exposure to cigarette smoke in a never-smoked adult patient in the previous 1 year. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for the calculation of percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate analysis involving Chi-square test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables at P effects of secondhand smoke on adults, children, and pregnant women was 95.6%, 92.8%, and 65.2%, respectively. The most common specific health effects the respondents were aware for adults, children, and obstetric population were lung cancer (95.6%), precipitation of asthmatic condition (92.8%), and delivery of small babies (65.2%), respectively. The predominant source of awareness of information was radio (93.6%). Awareness of general health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke on adults ( P = 0.041), children ( P = 0.031), and obstetrics population ( P = 0.02) was significantly associated with exposure status. The most common health effects of secondhand smoke the respondents had highest awareness were lung cancer, precipitation of asthmatic attacks, and delivery of small babies in adults, children, and obstetric population, respectively. Awareness of general health effects on adults, children, and obstetrics population was

  7. Relationships among DNA hypomethylation, Cd, and Pb exposure and risk of cigarette smoking-related urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chao-Hsiang [Department of Urology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liou, Saou-Hsing [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chiu-Shong [Department of Family Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Huei-Ju [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Li-Ching [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jhih-Sheng [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: 076308@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to heavy metals are important global health issues, especially for urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, the effects of cadmium and lead exposure, as well as the levels of DNA hypomethylation, on UC risk are limited. We evaluated the possible exposure sources of Cd and Pb and the relationship among DNA hypomethylation, urinary Cd and Pb levels, and UC risk. We recruited 209 patients with UC and 417 control patients for a hospital-based case–control study between June 2011 and August 2014. We collected environmental exposure-related information with questionnaires. Blood and urine samples were analyzed to measure the Cd and Pb exposure and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine levels as a proxy for DNA methylation. Multivariate logistic regression and 95% confidence intervals were applied to estimate the risk for UC. Study participants with high Cd and Pb exposure in blood or urine had significantly increased risk of UC, especially among the smokers. After adjusting for age and gender, the possible connections of individual cumulative cigarette smoking or herb medicine exposure with the increased levels of Cd and Pb were observed in the controls. Participants with 8.66%–12.39% of DNA hypomethylation had significantly increased risk of UC compared with those with ≥ 12.39% of DNA hypomethylation. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking and herb medicine may contribute to the internal dose of heavy metals levels. Repeat measurements of heavy metals with different study design, detailed dietary information, and types of herb medicine should be recommended for exploring UC carcinogenesis in future studies. - Highlights: • Smoking and herb medicine ingestion is associated with increased urinary Cd and Pb levels. • Urinary levels of Cd and Pb are associated with increased risk of UC. • UC carcinogenesis might have partially resulted from DNA hypomethylation.

  8. Relationships among DNA hypomethylation, Cd, and Pb exposure and risk of cigarette smoking-related urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Liu, Huei-Ju; Hsu, Li-Ching; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to heavy metals are important global health issues, especially for urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, the effects of cadmium and lead exposure, as well as the levels of DNA hypomethylation, on UC risk are limited. We evaluated the possible exposure sources of Cd and Pb and the relationship among DNA hypomethylation, urinary Cd and Pb levels, and UC risk. We recruited 209 patients with UC and 417 control patients for a hospital-based case–control study between June 2011 and August 2014. We collected environmental exposure-related information with questionnaires. Blood and urine samples were analyzed to measure the Cd and Pb exposure and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine levels as a proxy for DNA methylation. Multivariate logistic regression and 95% confidence intervals were applied to estimate the risk for UC. Study participants with high Cd and Pb exposure in blood or urine had significantly increased risk of UC, especially among the smokers. After adjusting for age and gender, the possible connections of individual cumulative cigarette smoking or herb medicine exposure with the increased levels of Cd and Pb were observed in the controls. Participants with 8.66%–12.39% of DNA hypomethylation had significantly increased risk of UC compared with those with ≥ 12.39% of DNA hypomethylation. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking and herb medicine may contribute to the internal dose of heavy metals levels. Repeat measurements of heavy metals with different study design, detailed dietary information, and types of herb medicine should be recommended for exploring UC carcinogenesis in future studies. - Highlights: • Smoking and herb medicine ingestion is associated with increased urinary Cd and Pb levels. • Urinary levels of Cd and Pb are associated with increased risk of UC. • UC carcinogenesis might have partially resulted from DNA hypomethylation.

  9. The additive association of indoor cigarette and marijuana smoking on potential exposure to fine particles

    OpenAIRE

    Posis, Alexander Ivan; Klepeis, Neil; Bellettiere, John; Liles, Sandy; Berardi, Vincent; Nguyen, Ben; Hughes, Suzanne; Hovell, Melbourne

    2017-01-01

    Air particle monitors were placed in 298 homes of families with at least 1 cigarette smoker and 1 child under the age of 14. After monitors continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) for at least 7 days, participants were interviewed about past 7-day frequency of cigarette and marijuana smoking, other PGEs (e.g., burning candles, burning food) and ventilation activities such as use of exhaust fans. Dichotomized survey responses (any vs. none) from 193 ho...

  10. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  11. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  12. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Constituents in a Population of Adult Cigarette Smokers in the U.S. Who Spontaneously Switched to Cigarettes with Lower or Higher Machine Measured ‘Tar’ Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad-Kah RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in exposure to cigarette smoke and smoking behavior were assessed in adult smokers participating in a multi-center, cross-sectional study who spontaneously switched to > 3 mg lower or higher machine measured ‘tar’ yield. Of 2,542 consenting smokers only 23 down-switchers (DWNSW and 68 up-switchers (UPSW met study eligibility criteria. Biomarkers of exposure (BOE to selected smoke constituents were measured. Large variability was observed in the BOEs (e.g. CV% for nicotine equivalents (nicotine and five of its metabolites, NE per day ranged from 59% to 78%. On average, DWNSW smoked two more cigarettes/day (+ 9% that had ~ 5.9 mg lower ‘tar’ yield. Mean NE/day were 12.0 ± 6.2 mg/day compared to 13.9 ± 8.2 mg/day after down switching. Slightly lower levels of NE/cigarette (-8%, total NNAL/day and per cigarette were observed (-18% and -23% in the DWNSW's. UPSW smoked two fewer cigarettes/day (-13% with higher ‘tar’ yield (~ 8.4 mg higher ‘tar’. NE/day was 12.5 ± 9.7 vs. 12.8 ± 9.0 mg/day. Total NNAL values per day and per cigarette were lower (-24% and -17%. Due to the large variability and insufficient power to detect significant differences in exposure based on post-hoc power calculations, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study. These results suggest that it might not be feasible to conduct a definitive assessment of changes in exposure among spontaneous switchers.

  13. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  14. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET γ-irradiation or α-irradiation from inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled 239 PuO 2 or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + 239 PuO 2 study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning

  15. Exposure to cigarette smoke increases apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa through a reactive oxygen species-mediated and p53-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ma, L; Li, Y; Cho, C H

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa and the mechanism involved. Rats were exposed to different concentrations of cigarette smoke (0, 2, and 4%) once daily for a different number of 1 h periods (1, 3, 6, and 9 d). Apoptosis was identified by the terminal deoxy-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and caspase-3 activity. The mucosal xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and p53 level were also measured. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa that was accompanied by an increase in XO activity. The increased apoptosis and XO activity could be detected after even a single exposure. In contrast, the level of p53 was elevated only in the later stage of cigarette smoke exposure. The apoptotic effect could be blocked by pretreatment with an XO inhibitor (allopurinol, 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or a hydroxyl free radical scavenger (DMSO, 0.2%, 1 ml/kg intravenously). However, neither of these treatments had any effect on the p53 level of the mucosa. In summary, we conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke can increase apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa through a reactive oxygen species- (ROS) mediated and a p53-independent pathway.

  16. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Robinson, Edward

    2016-07-11

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  17. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. D’Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Methods Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Results Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %–95 % of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %–40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %–38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %–20 % in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %–96 % and e-cigarette use groups (11 %–83 %; dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %–89 %. Exhaled NO increases (46 %–63 % were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  18. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... exposures and perceptions of cigarette smoking advertisement. Materials and ..... effect of pro‑smoking versus antismoking adverts on the .... smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non‑pregnant women. Matern ...

  19. Exposure to Graphic Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: Effects on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Smoking among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Yeung, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the effect of exposure to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking. Design and methods A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18–25 years old. During session one, demographics, smoking behavior, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current U.S Surgeon General’s text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Results Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p=.004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current U.S. Surgeon General’s text warnings (p=.014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Conclusion Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers’ implicit attitudes toward smoking. PMID:26442992

  20. Exposure to graphic warning labels on cigarette packages: Effects on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Yeung, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of exposure to the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed graphic images with text warning statements for cigarette packages on implicit and explicit attitudes towards smoking. A two-session web-based study was conducted with 2192 young adults 18-25-years-old. During session one, demographics, smoking behaviour, and baseline implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed. Session two, completed on average 18 days later, contained random assignment to viewing one of three sets of cigarette packages, graphic images with text warnings, text warnings only, or current US Surgeon General's text warnings. Participants then completed post-exposure measures of implicit and explicit attitudes. ANCOVAs tested the effect of condition on the outcomes, controlling for baseline attitudes. Smokers who viewed packages with graphic images plus text warnings demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes compared to smokers in the other conditions (p = .004). For the entire sample, explicit attitudes were more negative for those who viewed graphic images plus text warnings compared to those who viewed current US Surgeon General's text warnings (p = .014), but there was no difference compared to those who viewed text-only warnings. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packages can influence young adult smokers' implicit attitudes towards smoking.

  1. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression

  2. How Does Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure Affect Human Skin? A Global Proteomics Study in Primary Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Pavithra; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Raja, Remya; Jain, Ankit P; Mangalaparthi, Kiran K; Sathe, Gajanan J; Babu, Niraj; Patel, Krishna; Cavusoglu, Nükhet; Soeur, Jeremie; Pandey, Akhilesh; Roy, Nita; Breton, Lionel; Chatterjee, Aditi; Misra, Namita; Gowda, Harsha

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette smoking has been associated with multiple negative effects on human skin. Long-term physiological effects of cigarette smoke are through chronic and not acute exposure. Molecular alterations due to chronic exposure to cigarette smoke remain unclear. Primary human skin keratinocytes chronically exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) showed a decreased wound-healing capacity with an increased expression of NRF2 and MMP9. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified 4728 proteins, of which 105 proteins were overexpressed (≥2-fold) and 41 proteins were downregulated (≤2-fold) in primary skin keratinocytes chronically exposed to CSC. We observed an alteration in the expression of several proteins involved in maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity, including keratin 80 (5.3 fold, p value 2.5 × 10 -7 ), cystatin A (3.6-fold, p value 3.2 × 10 -3 ), and periplakin (2.4-fold, p value 1.2 × 10 -8 ). Increased expression of proteins associated with skin hydration, including caspase 14 (2.2-fold, p value 4.7 × 10 -2 ) and filaggrin (3.6-fold, p value 5.4 × 10 -7 ), was also observed. In addition, we report differential expression of several proteins, including adipogenesis regulatory factor (2.5-fold, p value 1.3 × 10 -3 ) and histone H1.0 (2.5-fold, p value 6.3 × 10 -3 ) that have not been reported earlier. Bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that proteins differentially expressed in response to CSC are largely related to oxidative stress, maintenance of skin integrity, and anti-inflammatory responses. Importantly, treatment with vitamin E, a widely used antioxidant, could partially rescue adverse effects of CSC exposure in primary skin keratinocytes. The utility of antioxidant-based new dermatological formulations in delaying or preventing skin aging and oxidative damages caused by chronic cigarette smoke exposure warrants further clinical investigations and multi-omics research.

  3. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure causes upregulation of cerebrovascular 5-HT(1) (B) receptors via the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, L; Xu, C B; Zhang, Y

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases the risk of stroke. Upregulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1) (B) ) receptors is associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral ischaemia. This study examined the hypothesis that the expression of 5-HT(1) (B) receptors is altered in brain vessels after secon...... secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure.......Cigarette smoke exposure increases the risk of stroke. Upregulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1) (B) ) receptors is associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral ischaemia. This study examined the hypothesis that the expression of 5-HT(1) (B) receptors is altered in brain vessels after...

  5. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  6. Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and diaphragm muscle,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Portão de Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively] in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. METHODS: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group: a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice, the greatest differences (increases in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD.

  7. How does exposure to cigarette advertising contribute to smoking in adolescents? The role of the developing self-concept and identification with advertising models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S

    2009-11-01

    Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not well established. This study evaluated whether self-concept development (operationalized as level of self-conflict) and identifying with the models used in cigarette print advertising contributed to smoking intentions among adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (ages 11-17) participated in this two session study. In session 1, they rated the extent to which they identified with the models used in 10 current cigarette print ads (the models were isolated digitally from the cigarette advertisements) and their level of self-conflict was assessed. In session 2, participants viewed each of the 10 cigarette advertisements from which the models were drawn and rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Model identification was associated with similar levels of post ad exposure smoking intentions for both younger and older adolescents when they also exhibited no self-conflict. A contrasting set of findings emerged for younger and older adolescents when they exhibited high levels of self-conflict: Young adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had higher post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in the advertisements; in contrast, older adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had stronger post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to older adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in the advertisements. These results point to the importance of examining developmentally-relevant moderators for the effects of cigarette advertising exposure.

  8. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  9. The effect of electronic cigarette and tobacco smoke exposure on COPD bronchial epithelial cell inflammatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higham A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Higham,1,2 Declan Bostock,1 George Booth,2 Josiah V Dungwa,2 Dave Singh1,2 1Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs.Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE and the levels of interleukin (IL-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8, and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured. We also examined the effect of ECVE pretreatment on polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C-stimulated cytokine release from BECs. Parallel experiments using Calu-3 cells were performed. Comparisons were made with cigarette smoke extract (CSE.Results: ECVE and CSE caused an increase in the release of IL-6 and CXCL8 from Calu-3 cells. ECVE only caused toxicity in BECs and Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, ECVE and CSE dampened poly I:C-stimulated C-X-C motif ligand 10 release from both cell culture models, reaching statistical significance for CSE at an optical density of 0.3.Conclusion: ECVE caused toxicity and reduced the antiviral response to poly I:C. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use. Keywords: e-cigs, epithelial cells, COPD, air–liquid interface, cigarette smoke

  10. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  11. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  12. Association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and cigarette gifting and sharing in Zhejiang, China: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Xu, ShuiYang; Wu, QingQing; Guo, YuJie

    2016-03-03

    The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of household cigarette gifting and sharing, and to evaluate the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and cigarette gifting and sharing, in Zhejiang, China. A repeat cross-sectional design. 10 sites in 5 cities in Zhejiang, China. Two surveys were conducted with adults in Zhejiang, China, in 2010 (N=2112) and 2012 (N=2279), respectively. At both waves, the same questionnaire was used; respondents were asked questions on residence, number of family smokers, indoor smoking rules, household income and cigarette gifting and sharing. The findings revealed that more than half of respondents' families (54.50% in 2010, 52.79% in 2012) reported exposure to SHS. Many families (54.73% in 2010, 47.04% in 2012) shared cigarettes with others, and a minority (14.91% in 2010, 14.17% in 2012) reported their family giving cigarettes as a gift. There was a significant decrease in cigarette sharing from 2010 to 2012, irrespective of household with SHS exposure status; and the cigarette gifting was significantly decreased in household without SHS exposure. Compared to households without SHS exposure, the prevalence of cigarette gifting and sharing in households with SHS exposure was more obvious. Encouraging and promoting a smoke-free household environment is necessary to change public smoking customs in Zhejiang, China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Ventilatory Function and Cigarette Smoking in Cement Handlers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to dust and cigarette smoking play important roles in the pathogenesis of lung diseases, particularly in developing countries. To determine the effects of outdoor cement dust exposure and cigarette smoking on lung health, we compared ventilatory function in cement handlers (smokers ...

  14. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  15. Gestational Exposure to Sidestream (Secondhand) Cigarette Smoke Promotes Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of Exacerbated Allergic Asthma and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi P; Chand, Hitendra S; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad; Barrett, Ted; Rudolph, Karin; Tellez, Carmen; Filipczak, Piotr T; Belinsky, Steve; Saeed, Ali I; Sheybani, Aryaz; Exil, Vernat; Agarwal, Hemant; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Sussan, Thomas; Biswal, Shyam; Sopori, Mohan

    2017-05-15

    Embryonic development is highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity and in utero exposure to environmental toxins affects physiological responses of the progeny. In the United States, the prevalence of allergic asthma (AA) is inexplicably rising and in utero exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of AA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in children and animal models. We reported that gestational exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SS), or secondhand smoke, promoted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent exacerbation of AA and BPD in mice. Recently, perinatal nicotine injections in rats were reported to induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent transgenerational transmission of asthma. Herein, we show that first generation and second generation progeny from gestationally SS-exposed mice exhibit exacerbated AA and BPD that is not dependent on the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ levels. Lungs from these mice show strong eosinophilic infiltration, excessive Th2 polarization, marked airway hyperresponsiveness, alveolar simplification, decreased lung compliance, and decreased lung angiogenesis. At the molecular level, these changes are associated with increased RUNX3 expression, alveolar cell apoptosis, and the antiangiogenic factor GAX, and decreased expression of HIF-1α and proangiogenic factors NF-κB and VEGFR2 in the 7-d first generation and second generation lungs. Moreover, the lungs from these mice exhibit lower levels of microRNA (miR)-130a and increased levels of miR-16 and miR-221. These miRs regulate HIF-1α-regulated apoptotic, angiogenic, and immune pathways. Thus the intergenerational effects of gestational SS involve epigenetic regulation of HIF-1α through specific miRs contributing to increased incidence of AA and BPD in the progenies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Differential expression and function of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39 in murine models of subacute cigarette smoke exposure and allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle Anthony J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the presence of the chitinase-like molecule YKL40 has been reported in COPD and asthma, its relevance to inflammatory processes elicited by cigarette smoke and common environmental allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM, is not well understood. The objective of the current study was to assess expression and function of BRP-39, the murine equivalent of YKL40 in a murine model of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and contrast expression and function to a model of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. Methods CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice were room air- or cigarette smoke-exposed for 4 days in a whole-body exposure system. In separate experiments, BALB/c mice were challenged with HDM extract once a day for 10 days. BRP-39 was assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. IL-13, IL-1R1, IL-18, and BRP-39 knock out (KO mice were utilized to assess the mechanism and relevance of BRP-39 in cigarette smoke- and HDM-induced airway inflammation. Results Cigarette smoke exposure elicited a robust induction of BRP-39 but not the catalytically active chitinase, AMCase, in lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages of all mouse strains tested. Both BRP-39 and AMCase were increased in lung tissue after HDM exposure. Examining smoke-exposed IL-1R1, IL-18, and IL-13 deficient mice, BRP-39 induction was found to be IL-1 and not IL-18 or IL-13 dependent, while induction of BRP-39 by HDM was independent of IL-1 and IL-13. Despite the importance of BRP-39 in cellular inflammation in HDM-induced airway inflammation, BRP-39 was found to be redundant for cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and the adjuvant properties of cigarette smoke. Conclusions These data highlight the contrast between the importance of BRP-39 in HDM- and cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. While functionally important in HDM-induced inflammation, BRP-39 is a biomarker of cigarette smoke induced inflammation which is the byproduct of an IL-1

  17. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  18. Assessing the risks of Rn exposure: the influence of cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Mills, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal hazard associated with exposure to Rn progeny is lung cancer. However, most lung cancer is caused by smoking, which raises a dual problem of deriving Rn-progeny cancer risk estimates from miner populations who, in large part, are smokers and applying these estimates to the general population whose lung cancer risk, in large part, is determined by smoking habits. We examine current risk estimates for Rn-progeny-induced lung cancer using a cohort life table methodology. Estimates of lifetime probability of dying of lung cancer, average loss in life expectancy due to premature lung cancer death, and loss in life expectancy per premature lung cancer death are calculated for the general population for 1969 and 1978, nonsmokers, and smokers. These calculations demonstrate that such risk estimates are affected by smoking, and by trends in smoking habits, in several ways. Major smoking-related factors in this interaction are the proportion of smokers in the mining population used to derive lung cancer risk estimates, the proportion of smokers in the ''general'' population, and the assumed interaction (additive or multiplicative) between lung cancer risk, Rn-progeny exposure, and smoking history. At this time the data are not sufficient to recommend one particular modeling approach. However, our evaluation demonstrates that broad statements about Rn-progeny lung cancer risk such as x cancers/10(6) person working level month, while informative, are incomplete without further specification. Any risk assessment must clearly state the population assumed to be at risk and the risk model assumed to be operating. Finally, the caveats appropriate to these assumptions should also be enunciated

  19. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui eChen; Hui eChen; Sonia eSaad; Shaun eSandow; Paul eBertrand

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causin...

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Brain Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L.; Bertrand, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing...

  1. Short-Term Systemic Effects of Nose-Only Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Mice: Role of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Long–term cigarette smoking (CS is a major risk factor for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and is also known to adversely affect other organs. However, data on the systemic effects of short-term CS exposure (STCSE are scarce. Presently, using a nose-only exposure system, we evaluated the systemic effects of STCSE in mice. Methods: We assessed the effects of CS generated by 9 consecutive cigarettes per day for 4 days in a nose-only exposure system on cardiovascular, hepatic and renal endpoints evaluated on day 5 in mice. Control mice were exposed to air only. Results: CS significantly increased systolic blood pressure and decreased total nitric oxide plasma concentration. Circulating platelets and erythrocyte numbers were also increased. However, STCSE did not significantly increase thrombosis in pial arterioles and venules. STCSE significantly raised plasma alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities, but did not affect urea or creatinine concentrations. Interestingly, while STCSE enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in heart and kidney and lipid peroxidation in heart, liver and kidneys, it also enhanced the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, probably indicating that STCSE causes adaptive reactions to counterbalance the potentially damaging action of oxygen radicals induced by STCSE. Conclusion: These results suggest that STCSE causes blood pressure increase, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in the heart, liver and the kidneys. These data provide information on the initial steps leading to the systemic effects of STCSE, a stage at which the diseases may likely be reversed.

  2. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eCohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  3. Exposure of mice to cigarette smoke and/or light causes DNA alterations in heart and aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzotti, Alberto; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Degan, Paolo; Pennisi, Tanya M.; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other chronic degenerative diseases. UV-containing light is the most ubiquitous DNA-damaging agent existing in nature, but its possible role in cardiovascular diseases had never been suspected before, although it is known that mortality for cardiovascular diseases is increased during periods with high temperature and solar irradiation. We evaluated whether exposure of Swiss CD-1 mice to environmental CS (ECS) and UV-C-covered halogen quartz lamps, either individually or in combination, can cause DNA damage in heart and aorta cells. Nucleotide alterations were evaluated by 32 P postlabeling methods and by HPLC-electrochemical detection. The whole-body exposure of mice to ECS considerably increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and of bulky DNA adducts in both heart and aorta. Surprisingly, even exposure to a light that simulated solar irradiation induced oxidatively generated damage in both tissues. The genotoxic effects of UV light in internal organs is tentatively amenable to formation of unidentified long-lived mutagenic products in the skin of irradiated mice. Nucleotide alterations were even more pronounced when the mice were exposed to smoke and/or light during the first 5 weeks of life rather than during adulthood for an equivalent period of time. Although the pathogenetic meaning is uncertain, DNA damage in heart and aorta may tentatively be related to cardiomyopathies and to the atherogenesis process, respectively

  4. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  6. Exposure to neonatal cigarette smoke causes durable lung changes but does not potentiate cigarette smoke–induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Malhotra, Deepti; Lauer, Thomas; Collaco, J. Michael; Mitzner, Wayne; Neptune, Enid; Wise, Robert; Biswal, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    The impact of early childhood cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on CS-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. This study was performed to evaluate the individual and combined effects of neonatal and adult CS exposure on lung structure, function, and gene expression in adult mice. To model a childhood CS exposure, neonatal C57/B6 mice were exposed to 14 days of CS (Neo CS). At 10 weeks of age, Neo CS and control mice were exposed to 4 months of CS. Pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung morphometry were measured and gene expression profiling was performed on lung tissue. Mean chord lengths and lung volumes were increased in neonatal and/or adult CS-exposed mice. Differences in immune, cornified envelope protein, muscle, and erythrocyte genes were found in CS-exposed lung. Neonatal CS exposure caused durable structural and functional changes in the adult lung but did not potentiate CS-induced COPD changes. Cornified envelope protein gene expression was decreased in all CS-exposed mice, whereas myosin and erythrocyte gene expression was increased in mice exposed to both neonatal and adult CS, suggesting an adaptive response. Additional studies may be warranted to determine the utility of these genes as biomarkers of respiratory outcomes. PMID:21649527

  7. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  8. Paternal exposure to cigarette smoke condensate leads to reproductive sequelae and developmental abnormalities in the offspring of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Felder, Paul; Cusumano, Andrew; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-10-01

    Paternal smoking is associated with infertility, birth defects and childhood cancers. Our earlier studies using cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) demonstrated several deleterious changes in male germ cells. Here, we hypothesize that chronic paternal exposure to CSC causes molecular and phenotypic changes in the sire and the offspring, respectively. In this mouse study, CSC caused DNA damage and cytotoxicity in testes via accumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and cotinine. Decreased expression of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha (Gadd45a), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21) was seen in CSC exposed testes. Apoptotic germ cell death was detected by induction of Fas, FasL, and activated caspase-3. The CSC-exposed males displayed reduction in sperm motility and fertilizing ability and sired pups with reduced body weight and crown-rump length, and smaller litter size with higher numbers of resorption. This model of CSC exposure demonstrates testicular toxicity and developmental defects in the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette smoke exposure alters [14C]arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas and platelets of rats fed various levels of selenium and vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were placed on a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.03, or 3 ppm selenium and 0 or 20 ppm vitamin E for 41-43 wk. Selenium deficiency decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and lowered both aortic prostacyclin (PGI2) and platelet thromboxane (TXA2) production compared to selenium- and vitamin E-supplemented animals. Vitamin E deficiency increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased aortic PGI2 synthesis. Rats exposed daily for 31-32 wk to fresh smoke from a UK 2R1 reference cigarette had carboxyhemoglobin levels of 0.75 +/- 0.12 and 4.73 +/- 0.12% in sham- and smoke-exposed groups, respectively. Animals chronically exposed to cigarette smoke displayed a nearly twofold increase in pulmonary arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Smoke exposure produced a 26-33% decrease in aortic PGI2 synthesis compared to shams in the Se3E20, Se0.03E20, and Se3E0 groups. Smoking also increased platelet thromboxane 91% and 98% in the Se3E20 and Se3E0 groups compared to shams. It is concluded that cigarette-smoke exposure and selenium or vitamin E deficiency alter aortic PGI2 and platelet TXA2 production

  11. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The α activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the α activity results from 210 Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial 210 Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original 210 Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the α activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents

  12. Exposure of F344 rats to aerosols of 239PuO2 and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Bechtold, W.E.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be accidently exposed to radioactive materials such as 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, and thus have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radionuclides and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. This study is being conducted to better determine the combined effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and cigarette smoke on the induction of lung cancer in rats

  13. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  14. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  15. The Bioavailability of Soluble Cigarette Smoke Extract Is Reduced through Interactions with Cells and Affects the Cellular Response to CSE Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Jeffrey S; Jacob, Jeeva; Garewal, Aram; Ndahayo, Renata; Paxson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to cigarette smoke leads to an array of complex responses including apoptosis, cellular senescence, telomere dysfunction, cellular aging, and neoplastic transformation. To study the cellular response to cigarette smoke, a common in vitro model exposes cultured cells to a nominal concentration (i.e. initial concentration) of soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). However, we report that use of the nominal concentration of CSE as the only measure of cellular exposure is inadequate. Instead, we demonstrate that cellular response to CSE exposure is dependent not only on the nominal concentration of CSE, but also on specific experimental variables, including the total cell number, and the volume of CSE solution used. As found in other similar xenobiotic assays, our work suggests that the effective dose of CSE is more accurately related to the amount of bioavailable chemicals per cell. In particular, interactions of CSE components both with cells and other physical factors limit CSE bioavailability, as demonstrated by a quantifiably reduced cellular response to CSE that is first modified by such interactions. This has broad implications for the nature of cellular response to CSE exposure, and for the design of in vitro assays using CSE.

  16. Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to cadmium and lead on phenotypic variability of hepatic CYP2A6 and renal function biomarkers in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Ujjin, Pailin; Vanavanitkun, Yuvaree; Nishijo, Muneko; Baker, Jason R.; Moore, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to dietary cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on urinary biomarkers of renal function and phenotypic variability of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) were investigated in a group of 96 healthy Thai men with mean age of 36.7 year (19-57 years). In non-smokers, Cd burden increased with age (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In current smokers, Cd burden increased with both age (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.32, P = 0.05). Cd-linked renal tubular dysfunction was seen in both smokers and non-smokers, but Pb-linked glomerular dysfunction was seen in smokers only, possibly due to more recent exposure to high levels of Cd and Pb, as reflected by 30-50% higher serum Cd and Pb levels in smokers than non-smokers (P < 0.05). Exposure to dietary Cd and Pb appeared to be associated with mild tubular dysfunction whereas dietary exposure plus cigarette smoking was associated with tubular plus glomerular dysfunction. Hepatic CYP2A6 activity in non-smokers showed a positive association with Cd burden (adjusted β = 0.38, P = 0.006), but it showed an inverse correlation with Pb (adjusted β = -0.29, P = 0.003), suggesting opposing effects of Cd and Pb on hepatic CYP2A6 phenotype. In contrast, CYP2A6 activity in current smokers did not correlate with Cd or Pb, but it showed a positive correlation with serum ferritin levels (r = 0.45, P = 0.01). These finding suggest that Pb concentrations in the liver probably were too low to inhibit hepatic synthesis of heme and CYP2A6 and that the concurrent induction of hepatic CYP2A6 and ferritin was probably due to cigarette smoke constituents other than Cd and Pb

  17. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  18. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  19. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and β2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaalani, Rita; Say, Meichien; Waters, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared α7 and β2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased α7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased β2 in the cNTS and increased β2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1—cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased α7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased β2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2—there was a gender interaction for α7 in the gracile and cuneate, and β2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3—there was no effect of sleep position on α7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased β2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of α7 and β2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure (β2), gender (α7 and β2) and sleep position (β2) evident. -- Highlights: ► The ‘normal’ response to smoke exposure is decreased α7 and β2 in certain nuclei. ► SIDS infants have decreased α7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. ► SIDS infants have decreased β2 in cNTS and increased β2 in facial. ► The NTS is more sensitive to both α7 and β2 regulation in SIDS. ► Smoke exposure

  20. Reduced biological effect of e-cigarette aerosol compared to cigarette smoke evaluated in vitro using normalized nicotine dose and RNA-seq-based toxicogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Haswell, Linsey E.; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Verrastro, Ivan; Mushonganono, Jessica; Adamson, Jason; Thorne, David; Ga?a, Marianna; Minet, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased globally and could potentially offer a lower risk alternative to cigarette smoking. Here, we assessed the transcriptional response of a primary 3D airway model acutely exposed to e-cigarette aerosol and cigarette (3R4F) smoke. Aerosols were generated with standard intense smoking regimens with careful consideration for dose by normalizing the exposures to nicotine. Two e-cigarette aerosol dilutions were tested for equivalent and higher ni...

  1. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  3. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Deposition of radionuclide-labeled cigarette smoke in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, A.P.; Bair, W.J.; Haller, W.A.; Case, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Cigarettes labeled with 82 Br, 24 Na, and 42 K by exposure to 8 X 10 16 neutrons/cm 2 were smoked by dogs in an exposure system facilitating oral inhalation of the cigarette smoke. Deposition of the labeled cigarette smoke in the dogs was measured by whole-body counting and analysis of blood and excreta. Bromine 82 was the best suited tracer. It could be detected by whole-body counting for up to 9 days as compared to 3 and 4 days for 42 K and 24 Na, respectively. Blood levels of 82 Br could be monitored for 4 days. Excreta also showed detectable levels of 82 Br for 4 days. Between 30 and 70 percent of the 82 Br body burden occurred in the blood where it was retained for an appreciable period of time. The 82 Br blood level was a linear function of the number of cigarettes smoked whereas whole-body counts showed a decrease in Br, K, and Na deposited per cigarette as more cigarettes were smoked. The maximum total body radiation dose received by a dog smoking one neutron-activated cigarette was less than 5 X 10 -4 rads which makes this technique applicable to studies with human subjects. (U.S.)

  5. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  6. Blunt Chest Trauma in Mice after Cigarette Smoke-Exposure: Effects of Mechanical Ventilation with 100% O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katja; Gröger, Michael; McCook, Oscar; Scheuerle, Angelika; Asfar, Pierre; Stahl, Bettina; Huber-Lang, Markus; Ignatius, Anita; Jung, Birgit; Duechs, Matthias; Möller, Peter; Georgieff, Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Radermacher, Peter; Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) aggravates post-traumatic acute lung injury and increases ventilator-induced lung injury due to more severe tissue inflammation and apoptosis. Hyper-inflammation after chest trauma is due to the physical damage, the drop in alveolar PO2, and the consecutive hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that 1) CS exposure prior to blunt chest trauma causes more severe post-traumatic inflammation and thereby aggravates lung injury, and that 2) hyperoxia may attenuate this effect. Immediately after blast wave-induced blunt chest trauma, mice (n=32) with or without 3-4 weeks of CS exposure underwent 4 hours of pressure-controlled, thoraco-pulmonary compliance-titrated, lung-protective mechanical ventilation with air or 100% O2. Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, gas exchange, and acid-base status were measured together with blood and tissue cytokine and chemokine concentrations, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), activated caspase-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, nitrotyrosine formation, purinergic receptor 2X4 (P2XR4) and 2X7 (P2XR7) expression, and histological scoring. CS exposure prior to chest trauma lead to higher pulmonary compliance and lower PaO2 and Horovitz-index, associated with increased tissue IL-18 and blood MCP-1 concentrations, a 2-4-fold higher inflammatory cell infiltration, and more pronounced alveolar membrane thickening. This effect coincided with increased activated caspase-3, nitrotyrosine, P2XR4, and P2XR7 expression, NF-κB activation, and reduced HIF-1α expression. Hyperoxia did not further affect lung mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary and systemic cytokine and chemokine concentrations, or histological scoring, except for some patchy alveolar edema in CS exposed mice. However, hyperoxia attenuated tissue HIF-1α, nitrotyrosine, P2XR7, and P2XR4 expression, while it increased HO-1 formation in CS exposed mice. Overall, CS exposure aggravated post

  7. Blunt Chest Trauma in Mice after Cigarette Smoke-Exposure: Effects of Mechanical Ventilation with 100% O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Wagner

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS aggravates post-traumatic acute lung injury and increases ventilator-induced lung injury due to more severe tissue inflammation and apoptosis. Hyper-inflammation after chest trauma is due to the physical damage, the drop in alveolar PO2, and the consecutive hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that 1 CS exposure prior to blunt chest trauma causes more severe post-traumatic inflammation and thereby aggravates lung injury, and that 2 hyperoxia may attenuate this effect. Immediately after blast wave-induced blunt chest trauma, mice (n=32 with or without 3-4 weeks of CS exposure underwent 4 hours of pressure-controlled, thoraco-pulmonary compliance-titrated, lung-protective mechanical ventilation with air or 100% O2. Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, gas exchange, and acid-base status were measured together with blood and tissue cytokine and chemokine concentrations, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, activated caspase-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation, nitrotyrosine formation, purinergic receptor 2X4 (P2XR4 and 2X7 (P2XR7 expression, and histological scoring. CS exposure prior to chest trauma lead to higher pulmonary compliance and lower PaO2 and Horovitz-index, associated with increased tissue IL-18 and blood MCP-1 concentrations, a 2-4-fold higher inflammatory cell infiltration, and more pronounced alveolar membrane thickening. This effect coincided with increased activated caspase-3, nitrotyrosine, P2XR4, and P2XR7 expression, NF-κB activation, and reduced HIF-1α expression. Hyperoxia did not further affect lung mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary and systemic cytokine and chemokine concentrations, or histological scoring, except for some patchy alveolar edema in CS exposed mice. However, hyperoxia attenuated tissue HIF-1α, nitrotyrosine, P2XR7, and P2XR4 expression, while it increased HO-1 formation in CS exposed mice. Overall, CS exposure

  8. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  9. Short-Term Effects of Nose-Only Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Glutathione Redox Homeostasis, Cytochrome P450 1A1/2 and Respiratory Enzyme Activities in Mice Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The components of cigarette smoke (CS have been implicated in the development of cancer as well as in cardiopulmonary diseases. We have previously reported increased oxidative stress in rat tissues induced by tobacco-specific toxins nicotine and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. Recently, we have also shown increased oxidative stress and associated inflammatory responses in various tissues after exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods: In this study, we have further investigated the effects of nose-only cigarette smoke exposure on mitochondrial functions and glutathione-dependent redox metabolism in tissues of BALB/C mice. Liver, kidney, heart and lung tissues were analyzed for oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH and cytochrome P450 dependent enzyme activities and mitochondrial functions after exposure to smoke generated by 9 cigarettes/day for 4 days. Control mice were exposed to air only. Results: An increase in oxidative stress as observed by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and altered GSH metabolism was apparent in all the tissues, but lung and heart appeared to be the main targets. Increased expression and activity of CYP450 1A1 and 1A2 were also observed in the tissues after exposure to cigarette smoke. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in the tissues, as observed by alterations in the activities of Complex I and IV enzymes, was also observed after exposure to cigarette smoke. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results also indicate that alterations in the expression of enzyme proteins were in accordance with the changes in their catalytic functions. Conclusion: These results suggest that even short term exposure of cigarette smoke have adverse effects on mitochondrial functions and redox homeostasis in tissues which may progress to further complications associated with chronic smoking.

  10. Polonium in mainstream cigarette smoke and associated internal radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Rathod, T.D.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Maity, S.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po activity concentrations in cigarettes tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS), ash and post smoking filter were measured by alpha spectrometry using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. The results of present study indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco were 9.77 to 15.34 mBq per cigarette. The combined annual effective doses due to internal exposure of 210 Po and 210 Pb for a smoker (considering on an average 20 cigarette a day and 50% of MCS getting deposited in respiratory tract) were found to be ranging from 0.28 to 0.40 mSv for tested brands of cigarette. (author)

  11. Analysis of cigarette smoke by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Mamantov, G.

    1977-02-01

    The application of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) to the quantitative determination of several components in the gas phase of whole, dilute tobacco smoke was demonstrated. The 18-cm absorption cell was part of a cigarette smoking system similar to the intermittent inhalation exposure devices used in smoking and health research with rodents. Concentrations were measured for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethylene, and methanol in 7 to 22% smoke. The precision of a measurement in 22% smoke ranged from 3% for carbon dioxide to 34% for ethylene. Absorbances measured for isoprene and hydrogen cyanide followed expected concentrations in different cigarette smokes. It was shown that the concentrations of these components remain constant during a 30-s hold-up following each puff on the cigarettes.

  12. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  13. Effects of tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette vapor exposure on the oral and gut microbiota in humans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher J; Auchtung, Thomas A; Ajami, Nadim J; Velasquez, Kenia; Smith, Daniel P; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls. We examined a human cohort consisting of 30 individuals: 10 EC users, 10 tobacco smokers, and 10 controls. We collected cross-sectional fecal, buccal swabs, and saliva samples from each participant. All samples underwent V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Tobacco smoking had a significant effect on the bacterial profiles in all sample types when compared to controls, and in feces and buccal swabs when compared to EC users. The most significant associations were found in the gut, with an increased relative abundance of Prevotella ( P = 0.006) and decreased Bacteroides ( P = 0.036) in tobacco smokers. The Shannon diversity was also significantly reduced ( P = 0.009) in fecal samples collected from tobacco smokers compared to controls. No significant difference was found in the alpha diversity, beta-diversity or taxonomic relative abundances between EC users and controls. From a microbial ecology perspective, the current pilot data demonstrate that the use of ECs may represent a safer alternative compared to tobacco smoking. However, validation in larger cohorts and greater understanding of the short and long-term impact of EC use on microbiota composition and function is warranted.

  14. Effects of tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette vapor exposure on the oral and gut microbiota in humans: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls. Methods We examined a human cohort consisting of 30 individuals: 10 EC users, 10 tobacco smokers, and 10 controls. We collected cross-sectional fecal, buccal swabs, and saliva samples from each participant. All samples underwent V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Tobacco smoking had a significant effect on the bacterial profiles in all sample types when compared to controls, and in feces and buccal swabs when compared to EC users. The most significant associations were found in the gut, with an increased relative abundance of Prevotella (P = 0.006 and decreased Bacteroides (P = 0.036 in tobacco smokers. The Shannon diversity was also significantly reduced (P = 0.009 in fecal samples collected from tobacco smokers compared to controls. No significant difference was found in the alpha diversity, beta-diversity or taxonomic relative abundances between EC users and controls. Discussion From a microbial ecology perspective, the current pilot data demonstrate that the use of ECs may represent a safer alternative compared to tobacco smoking. However, validation in larger cohorts and greater understanding of the short and long-term impact of EC use on microbiota composition and function is warranted.

  15. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A population study on the time trend of cigarette smoking, cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoking from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yung Chiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS commenced in Taiwan. This survey, conducted on a sample of the whole Taiwanese population, is nationally representative and has a high response rate (>80 %. As a result, the four already completed surveys from 2001 to 2013 can be used to investigate the time trend of smoking prevalence, the rate of cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoking. Methods There were 72918 adults combined from the 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS. Smoking status, exposure to secondhand smoking, and smoking cessation were asked, as well as demographic characteristics and other variables. Statistical analyses with sampling weights were carried out using SAS and SUDAAN. Results In males, the prevalence of smoking significantly decreased (rates in 4 surveys were 44.4 %, 44.6 %, 38.9 %, and 34.2 %, respectively. Since 2005 the rate of smoking cessation increased significantly (p = 0.033. The odd ratio (OR exposure of secondhand among non-smokes (OR in 2009 and 2013 were 0.96 (CI = 0.85–1.08 and 0.78 (CI = 0.70–0.88 comparing to 2005. In females, the prevalence of smoking was stable over time. The rate of smoking cessation only appeared significantly high in the older age group. The OR for exposure to secondhand smoking were 0.81 (CI = 0.74–0.89 and 0.68 (CI = 0.62–0.74, for 2009 and 2013 comparing to 2005, respectively. Conclusion Early anti-smoking legislation in Taiwan might have raised the awareness of the harm of smoking. However, the implementation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (THPA in 2009 had great contribution to the reduction of smoking rate, especially in males.

  17. The p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in proliferation of smooth muscle cells after exposure to cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjia [Department of Vascular surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Song, Ting [Nursing Department of Orthopedics 3rd Ward, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Ni, Leng; Yang, Genhuan; Song, Xitao; Wu, Lifei [Department of Vascular surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Liu, Bao, E-mail: liubao72@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Vascular surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China); Liu, Changwei, E-mail: liucw@vip.sina.com [Department of Vascular surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005 (China)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Smooth muscle cells proliferated after exposure to cigarette smoke extract. • The p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expressions increased in the process. • The p-ERK inhibitor, U0126, can reverse these effects. • The p-ERK → p-c-Jun → cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the process. - Abstract: An epidemiological survey has shown that smoking is closely related to atherosclerosis, in which excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a key role. To investigate the mechanism underlying this unusual smoking-induced proliferation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE), prepared as smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was used to induce effects mimicking those exerted by smoking on SMCs. As assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 detection (an improved MTT assay), SMC viability increased significantly after exposure to CSE. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expression increased. When p-ERK was inhibited using U0126 (inhibitor of p-ERK), cell viability decreased and the expression of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1 was reduced accordingly, suggesting that p-ERK functions upstream of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1. When a c-Jun over-expression plasmid was transfected into SMCs, the level of cyclinD1 in these cells increased. Moreover, when c-Jun was knocked down by siRNA, cyclinD1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the excessive proliferation of SMCs exposed to CSE.

  18. The p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in proliferation of smooth muscle cells after exposure to cigarette smoke extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianjia; Song, Ting; Ni, Leng; Yang, Genhuan; Song, Xitao; Wu, Lifei; Liu, Bao; Liu, Changwei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Smooth muscle cells proliferated after exposure to cigarette smoke extract. • The p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expressions increased in the process. • The p-ERK inhibitor, U0126, can reverse these effects. • The p-ERK → p-c-Jun → cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the process. - Abstract: An epidemiological survey has shown that smoking is closely related to atherosclerosis, in which excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a key role. To investigate the mechanism underlying this unusual smoking-induced proliferation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE), prepared as smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was used to induce effects mimicking those exerted by smoking on SMCs. As assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 detection (an improved MTT assay), SMC viability increased significantly after exposure to CSE. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expression increased. When p-ERK was inhibited using U0126 (inhibitor of p-ERK), cell viability decreased and the expression of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1 was reduced accordingly, suggesting that p-ERK functions upstream of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1. When a c-Jun over-expression plasmid was transfected into SMCs, the level of cyclinD1 in these cells increased. Moreover, when c-Jun was knocked down by siRNA, cyclinD1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the excessive proliferation of SMCs exposed to CSE

  19. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Young adult daily smokers (age 18-35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers' ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01). The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Waterpipe Use and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Never-Smoking Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Pbert, Lori

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth. In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth. Study outcome was susceptibility to cigarette smoking, and primary exposure was waterpipe use. Data were analyzed in 2014 using weighted logistic regression models, including stratified models by gender, to determine the odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking with waterpipe use, adjusting for confounders. Overall, 20% of never-smoking youth were susceptible to cigarette smoking, ranging from 13.1% in Oman to 32.6% in Somalia; 5.2% currently used waterpipe, ranging from 0.3% in Morocco to 23.5% in Kuwait. The estimated odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking were 2.5 (95% CI=1.9, 3.4) times higher for adolescents who used waterpipe in the past month compared with those who did not, controlling for confounders. Estimates were similar when stratified by gender. Waterpipe use is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Study findings identify a novel risk factor for never smokers to initiate smoking and will help the public health community develop and implement policies around waterpipe use prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of the elemental distribution in cigarette components and smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of particle released in indoor environments. A comprehensive study of the elemental distribution in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has been completed. Specifically, concentrations of thirty elements have been determined for the components of 15 types of cigarettes. Components include tobacco, ash, butts, filters, and cigarette paper. In addition, particulate matter from mainstream smoke (MS) and sidesstream smoke (SS) were analyzed. The technique of elemental determination used in the study is instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that certain heavy metals, such as As, Cd, K, Sb and Zn, are released into the MS and SS. These metals may then be part of the health risk of exposure to smoke. Other elements are retained, for the most part, in cigarette ash and butts. The elemental distribution among the cigarette components and smoke changes for different smoking conditions. (author)

  3. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  4. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Su, Chien-Tien; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  5. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  6. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-07-01

    One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared with 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared with never users (odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends' use of and positive attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual's e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela B; Ference, Brian A; Jahangir, Eiman; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Ryan, John J; Bahrami, Hossein; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Bhakta, Shyam; Winchester, David E; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Sanchez Shields, Monica; Deedwania, Prakash; Mehta, Laxmi S; Phan, Binh An P; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-09-22

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a result of inhaled tobacco products continues to be a global healthcare crisis, particularly in low- and middle-income nations lacking the infrastructure to develop and implement effective public health policies limiting tobacco use. Following initiation of public awareness campaigns 50 years ago in the United States, considerable success has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. However, there has been a slowing of cessation rates in the United States during recent years, possibly caused by high residual addiction or fatigue from cessation messaging. Furthermore, tobacco products have continued to evolve faster than the scientific understanding of their biological effects. This review considers selected updates on the genetics and epigenetics of smoking behavior and associated cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of atherogenesis and thrombosis, clinical effects of smoking and benefits of cessation, and potential impact of electronic cigarettes on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of MEK1/2 inhibition on cigarette smoke exposure-induced ET receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei [Division of Experimental Vascular Research, Institute of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Lund University (Sweden); Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Yong-Xiao [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: 13572512207@163.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Cai, Yan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Warfvinge, Karin; Edvinsson, Lars [Division of Experimental Vascular Research, Institute of Clinical Sciences in Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking, a major stroke risk factor, upregulates endothelin receptors in cerebral arteries. The present study examined the effects of MEK1/2 pathway inhibition on cigarette smoke exposure-induced ET receptor upregulation. Rats were exposed to the secondhand smoke (SHS) for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 for another 4 weeks. The urine cotinine levels were assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Contractile responses of isolated cerebral arteries were recorded by a sensitive wire myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of receptor and MEK/ERK1/2 pathway molecules were examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cerebral artery receptor localization was determined with immunohistochemistry. The results showed the urine cotinine levels from SHS exposure group were significantly higher than those from the fresh group. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 significantly reduced SHS exposure-increased ET{sub A} receptor mRNA and protein levels as well as contractile responses mediated by ET{sub A} receptors. The immunoreactivity of increased ET{sub A} receptor expression was primarily cytoplasmic in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, ET{sub B} receptor was noted in endothelial cells. However, the SHS-induced decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxation was unchanged after U0126 treatment. Furthermore, SHS increased the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 protein in cerebral arteries. By using U0126 could inhibit the phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein but not MEK1/2. Taken together, our data show that treatment with MEK1/2 pathway inhibitor offsets SHS exposure-induced ET{sub A} receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure induces ET{sub A} receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries. • U0126 can alleviate the receptor upregulation. • The mechanism relies on MEK/ERK1/2 pathway activation. • We may provide a new target for the

  9. The effects of MEK1/2 inhibition on cigarette smoke exposure-induced ET receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Yong-Xiao; Li, Wei; Cai, Yan; Warfvinge, Karin; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a major stroke risk factor, upregulates endothelin receptors in cerebral arteries. The present study examined the effects of MEK1/2 pathway inhibition on cigarette smoke exposure-induced ET receptor upregulation. Rats were exposed to the secondhand smoke (SHS) for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 for another 4 weeks. The urine cotinine levels were assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Contractile responses of isolated cerebral arteries were recorded by a sensitive wire myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of receptor and MEK/ERK1/2 pathway molecules were examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cerebral artery receptor localization was determined with immunohistochemistry. The results showed the urine cotinine levels from SHS exposure group were significantly higher than those from the fresh group. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 significantly reduced SHS exposure-increased ET A receptor mRNA and protein levels as well as contractile responses mediated by ET A receptors. The immunoreactivity of increased ET A receptor expression was primarily cytoplasmic in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, ET B receptor was noted in endothelial cells. However, the SHS-induced decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxation was unchanged after U0126 treatment. Furthermore, SHS increased the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 protein in cerebral arteries. By using U0126 could inhibit the phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein but not MEK1/2. Taken together, our data show that treatment with MEK1/2 pathway inhibitor offsets SHS exposure-induced ET A receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure induces ET A receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries. • U0126 can alleviate the receptor upregulation. • The mechanism relies on MEK/ERK1/2 pathway activation. • We may provide a new target for the treatment of SHS

  10. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  11. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul G Sangani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution

  12. Chemical Composition of Aerosol from an E-Cigarette: A Quantitative Comparison with Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margham, Jennifer; McAdam, Kevin; Forster, Mark; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; Mariner, Derek; Proctor, Christopher

    2016-10-17

    There is interest in the relative toxicities of emissions from electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. Lists of cigarette smoke priority toxicants have been developed to focus regulatory initiatives. However, a comprehensive assessment of e-cigarette chemical emissions including all tobacco smoke Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents, and additional toxic species reportedly present in e-cigarette emissions, is lacking. We examined 150 chemical emissions from an e-cigarette (Vype ePen), a reference tobacco cigarette (Ky3R4F), and laboratory air/method blanks. All measurements were conducted by a contract research laboratory using ISO 17025 accredited methods. The data show that it is essential to conduct laboratory air/method measurements when measuring e-cigarette emissions, owing to the combination of low emissions and the associated impact of laboratory background that can lead to false-positive results and overestimates. Of the 150 measurands examined in the e-cigarette aerosol, 104 were not detected and 21 were present due to laboratory background. Of the 25 detected aerosol constituents, 9 were present at levels too low to be quantified and 16 were generated in whole or in part by the e-cigarette. These comprised major e-liquid constituents (nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerol), recognized impurities in Pharmacopoeia-quality nicotine, and eight thermal decomposition products of propylene glycol or glycerol. By contrast, approximately 100 measurands were detected in mainstream cigarette smoke. Depending on the regulatory list considered and the puffing regime used, the emissions of toxicants identified for regulation were from 82 to >99% lower on a per-puff basis from the e-cigarette compared with those from Ky3R4F. Thus, the aerosol from the e-cigarette is compositionally less complex than cigarette smoke and contains significantly lower levels of toxicants. These data demonstrate that e-cigarettes can be developed that offer the potential

  13. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onor, IfeanyiChukwu O.; Stirling, Daniel L.; Williams, Shandrika R.; Bediako, Daniel; Borghol, Amne; Harris, Martha B.; Darensburg, Tiernisha B.; Clay, Sharde D.; Okpechi, Samuel C.; Sarpong, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:28956852

  14. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IfeanyiChukwu O. Onor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

  15. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: evidence from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongming; Wang, Zhichao; Zhou, Min; Li, Wenzhen; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yuan, Jing; Zhan, Yue; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Tao; Kong, Weijia; Chen, Weihong

    2017-09-11

    Combined effect of cigarette smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss has rarely been evaluated among Chinese population, especially among females. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11196 participants of Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. Smoking status was self-reported through questionnaire and occupational noise exposure was evaluated through workplace noise level and/or the job titles. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone mean of 25 dB or higher at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in both ears. Compared with participants without occupational noise exposure, the risk of hearing loss was significantly higher for noise exposure duration ≥20 (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.28-1.65). The association was particularly evident among individuals who were males (OR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.45-2.08) and aged ≥ 70 (OR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.30-2.33). Similarly, the risks increased with the increasing of pack-years in males and all age groups except for those aged hearing loss risk was highest for noise exposure duration ≥20 and pack-years ≥25 (OR = 2.41, 95%CI = 1.78-3.28), especially among males (OR = 2.42, 95%CI = 1.74-3.37) and those aged ≥70 (OR = 2.76, 95%CI = 1.36-5.60). Smoking may be an independent risk factor for hearing loss. And it may synergistically affect hearing when combined with occupational noise exposure, especially among males and older participants.

  16. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements

  17. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  18. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  19. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and its association with public support for smoke-free and vape-free policies: results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette communications (eg, advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of US adults (n=1449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the US adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-0.022, p=0.006), other media (B=-0.022, p=0.043) and interpersonal discussion (B=-0.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pcommunications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  2. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; Phillips, Elyse; Gentzke, Andrea S; Homa, David M; Babb, Stephen D; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J

    2018-01-19

    The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1),* CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2016, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 15.5%, which was a significant decline from 2005 (20.9%); however, no significant change has occurred since 2015 (15.1%). In 2016, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male, aged 25-64 years, American Indian/Alaska Native or multiracial, had a General Education Development (GED) certificate, lived below the federal poverty level, lived in the Midwest or South, were uninsured or insured through Medicaid, had a disability/limitation, were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), or had serious psychological distress. During 2005-2016, the percentage of ever smokers who quit smoking increased from 50.8% to 59.0%. Proven population-based interventions are critical to reducing the health and economic burden of smoking-related diseases among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (1,2).

  3. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  4. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  5. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  6. What is the impact of e-cigarette adverts on children's perceptions of tobacco smoking? An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu, D C; Vasiljevic, M; Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Marteau, T M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Exposure to e-cigarette adverts increases children's positive attitudes towards using them. Given the similarity in appearance between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, we examined whether exposure to e-cigarette adverts has a cross-product impact on perceptions and attitudes towards smoking tobacco cigarettes. Methods Children aged 11?16 (n=564) were interviewed in their homes and randomised to one of three groups: two groups saw different sets of 10 images of e-cigarette advert...

  7. Cigarette Taxes, Smoking-and Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Niles, David P

    2017-08-01

    This research provides the first in-depth analysis of the effect that increased cigarette taxes have on exercise behavior. Smoking may diminish the ability to exercise; individuals may also use exercise to compensate for the harmful health effects of smoking or to avoid gaining weight if they cut back. Our conceptual model highlights these and several other avenues for effect and reveals that the predicted effect of cigarette costs on exercise behavior is theoretically ambiguous. To investigate the relationship empirically, 1994-2012 data from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system are combined with state level cigarette tax rates and other state level variables. Several measures of both smoking and exercise behavior are created and estimated in reduced form models. Our results suggest that both smoking and exercise are reduced by cigarette taxes. However, the effects on exercise may be more complicated as we find that certain groups, such as young adults or those who have recently quit smoking, are affected differently. Our analyses also show that the responsiveness of both smoking and exercise behavior to cigarette costs is much smaller in the 2000s, an era of high-tax increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assessment of the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in healthy Japanese smokers using a novel tobacco vapor product compared with conventional cigarettes and smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Dai; Takeshige, Yuki; Nakaya, Kyoko; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2018-07-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to demonstrate a reduction in exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), and to assess product use behavior, in Japanese healthy adult smokers who switched to a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). 60 smokers were randomly assigned for 5 days to either (a) a group who switched to an NTV (n = 20), (b) a group who continued to smoke their own brand of conventional cigarettes (CC, n = 20) or (c) a smoking abstinence group (SA, n = 20). Fifteen biomarkers of exposure (BoEs) to 14 HPHCs and pyrene were measured at baseline, day 3 and 5. Product use behavior was assessed by measuring product consumption, nicotine uptake and puffing topography. During investigations, increases were observed in product consumption and total puff volume in NTV group subjects as compared to baseline. Additionally, nicotine uptake in the NTV group was approximately half that observed in the CC group. BoE values were significantly reduced in the NTV group as compared to those in the CC group. Significantly, the magnitude of the reduction in exposure to HPHCs observed in the NTV group (49-94%) was close to that observed for the SA group (39-95%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  10. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  11. Development of nitroxide radicals–containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals–containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV–visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke. (papers)

  12. Pathophysiological Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on the Cerebrovascular System with a Focus on the Blood-brain Barrier: Expanding the Awareness of Smoking Toxicity in an Underappreciated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cucullo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that active and passive cigarette smoking are associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with dysfunction of normal endothelial physiology. Tobacco smoke (TS may predispose individuals to atherogenic and thrombotic problems, significantly increasing the risk for ischemic manifestations such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. Despite the strong evidence for an association between smoking and vascular impairment, the impact of TS exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB has only been marginally addressed. This is a major problem given that the BBB is crucial in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. Recent data have also shown that chronic smokers have a higher incidence of small vessel ischemic disease (SVID, a pathological condition characterized by leaky brain microvessels and loss of BBB integrity. In the brain TS increases the risk of silent cerebral infarction (SCI and stroke owing to the pro-coagulant and atherogenic effects of smoking. In this article we provide a detailed review and analysis of current knowledge of the pathophysiology of tobacco smoke toxicity at the cerebrovascular levels. We also discuss the potential toxicity of recently marketed “potential-reduced exposure products”.

  13. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  15. Impact Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Organotypic Bronchial Epithelial Tissue Cultures: A Comparison of Mono-Culture and Coculture Model Containing Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R.; Xiang, Yang; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Leroy, Patrice; Kuehn, Diana; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Organotypic 3D cultures of epithelial cells are grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI) and resemble the in vivo counterparts. Although the complexity of in vivo cellular responses could be better manifested in coculture models in which additional cell types such as fibroblasts were incorporated, the presence of another cell type could mask the response of the other. This study reports the impact of whole cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on organotypic mono- and coculture models to evaluate the relevancy of organotypic models for toxicological assessment of aerosols. Two organotypic bronchial models were directly exposed to low and high concentrations of CS of the reference research cigarette 3R4F: monoculture of bronchial epithelial cells without fibroblasts (BR) and coculture with fibroblasts (BRF) models. Adenylate kinase (AK)-based cytotoxicity, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/1B1 activity, tissue histology, and concentrations of secreted mediators into the basolateral media, as well as transcriptomes were evaluated following the CS exposure. The results demonstrated similar impact of CS on the AK-based cytotoxicity, CYP1A1/1B1 activity, and tissue histology in both models. However, a greater number of secreted mediators was identified in the basolateral media of the monoculture than in the coculture models. Furthermore, annotation analysis and network-based systems biology analysis of the transcriptomic profiles indicated a more prominent cellular stress and tissue damage following CS in the monoculture epithelium model without fibroblasts. Finally, our results indicated that an in vivo smoking-induced xenobiotic metabolism response of bronchial epithelial cells was better reflected from the in vitro CS-exposed coculture model. PMID:26085348

  16. Association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Ershadian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methodology: In this retrospective study which was carried out in Razi hospital, in Ahvaz a city southwest Iran, medical charts of patients with tuberculosis between 2005 and 2007 were reviewed. Sixty one patients aged 15-96 years with documented pulmonary tuberculosis (smear positive) were selected as cases and 122 age and sex matched persons without tuberculosis(patients hospitalized in surgery and orthopedic wards) were selected randomly as controls. Data on smoking status, quantity of cigarette smoked, and duration of smoking was collected from medical charts. The data in the two groups were statistically compared with SPSS version 16. The chi square test was used to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking in two groups. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated when appropriate. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of total 61 case, 42 (68.9%) were smoker, while, of total 122 controls 22(18%) were smoker. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the relation between smoking and tuberculosis was 10.1 [(95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3 to 23.5), P<0.001]. The mean of pocket - year of smoked cigarette (20/pocket) in cases and controls were 15.9 +- 13.7 and 13.5 +- 9.1, respectively (P=0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis is associated to cigarette smoking. The association is not dose-dependent. Smoking may be a risk factor for TB acquisition. (author)

  17. A comparative assessment of e-cigarette aerosols and cigarette smoke on in vitro endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Jaunky, Tomasz; Hewitt, Katherine; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Fearon, Ian M; Gaca, Marianna

    2017-08-05

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several diseases. There has been a steep increase in the use of e-cigarettes that may offer a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. In vitro models of smoking-related diseases may provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms associated with tobacco use and could be used to assess e-cigarettes. We previously reported the application of a 'scratch wound' assay, measuring endothelial cell migration rate following artificial wounding, in the presence or absence of cigarette smoke extracts. This study reports the comparative effects of two commercial e-cigarette products (Vype ePen and Vype eStick) and a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) on endothelial migration in vitro. Puff-matched extracts were generated using the Health Canada Intense (HCI) regime for cigarettes and a modified HCI for e-cigarettes. Exposure to 3R4F extract (20h) induced concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelial cell migration, with complete inhibition at concentrations >20%. E-cigarette extracts did not inhibit migration, even at double the 3R4F extract nicotine concentration, allowing cells to migrate into the wounded area. Our data demonstrate that e-cigarettes do not induce the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro when compared to 3R4F. The scratch wound assay enables the comparative assessment between tobacco and nicotine products in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J L; Bechtold, W E; Bond, J A; Brooks, A L; Chen, B T; Cuddihy, R G; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Johnson, N F; Ritchideh, K; Thomassen, D G

    1988-12-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  19. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bechtold, W.E.; Bond, J.A.; Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.; Ritchideh, K.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  20. Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Laestadius, Linnea; Buente, Wayne; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    A vast majority of U.S. young adults use social media such as Facebook and Instagram daily. Research suggests that young adults are commonly exposed to e-cigarette-related marketing or user-generated content on the social media they use. Currently, however, there is limited empirical evidence as to how social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. In particular, limited evidence exists to support the proposition that social media e-cigarette exposure is uniquely associated with e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for the effects of e-cigarette use in young adults' in-person or 'offline' social networks. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that 1) social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use outcome expectancies and current e-cigarette use; and 2) the association between social media and e-cigarette use is linked via outcome expectancies. We collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 470 young adult college students in Hawaii. Hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equation model to the data. The model accounted for the associations of demographic variables, cigarette smoking history, as well as e-cigarette use in individuals' actual social networks with expectancies and behavior. Results indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with current e-cigarette use indirectly through two of the four positive outcome expectancies examined, namely, positive "smoking" experience and positive sensory experience. We discuss the implications of the findings in the context of tobacco control efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer...... are small and appear to be explicable. The Prevent model can be used for more general scenarios of effective health promotion, but it requires more data than the Peto et al method, which can be used only to estimate mortality related to smoking....

  2. Oxydative stress in rats caused by coal dust plus cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kania

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal dust and cigarette smoke are pollutants found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress, the effects of which on blood malondialdehyde (MDA level and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD level are still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coal dust and cigarette smoke on levels of MDA and SOD in rats. An experimental study was done on Wistar male rats divided into the following groups: control (C, coal dust exposure (14 days (CDE, cigarette smoke exposure (14 days (CSE, coal dust exposure (7 days followed by cigarette smoke exposure (7 days (CDE+CSE, cigarette smoke exposure (7 days followed by coal dust exposure (7 days (CSE+CDE. All exposures increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity significantly between groups (p=0.000. All exposure groups had significantly increased blood MDA levels, compared to the control group, although there was no difference between CSE + CDE and CDE + CSE. For SOD levels, all exposure groups had significantly decreased the SOD levels compared to control. But there were no significant differences between CSE vs CDE and CDE + CSE vs CSE + CDE. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases blood MDA level and decreases serum SOD activity, which was not found in exposure to coal dust. Combined exposures also increase blood MDA level and decrease serum SOD activity significantly.

  3. Oxydative stress in rats caused by coal dust plus cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kania

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal dust and cigarette smoke are pollutants found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress, the effects of which on blood malondialdehyde (MDA level and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD level are still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coal dust and cigarette smoke on levels of MDA and SOD in rats. An experimental study was done on Wistar male rats divided into the following groups: control (C, coal dust exposure (14 days (CDE, cigarette smoke exposure (14 days (CSE, coal dust exposure (7 days followed by cigarette smoke exposure (7 days (CDE+CSE, cigarette smoke exposure (7 days followed by coal dust exposure (7 days (CSE+CDE. All exposures increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity significantly between groups (p=0.000. All exposure groups had significantly increased blood MDA levels, compared to the control group, although there was no difference between CSE + CDE and CDE + CSE. For SOD levels, all exposure groups had significantly decreased the SOD levels compared to control. But there were no significant differences between CSE vs CDE and CDE + CSE vs CSE + CDE. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases blood MDA level and decreases serum SOD activity, which was not found in exposure to coal dust. Combined exposures also increase blood MDA level and decrease serum SOD activity significantly.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of ever smoked cigarettes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited data on adolescent smoking and its determinants in ... ever smoked cigarettes was associated with having a parent or closest friend who smoked. ... to prevent teenage adolescent smoking should incorporate a comprehensive ...

  5. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  6. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  7. Effects of cigarette smoking on lexical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C R; Gentry, M V; Meliska, C J

    1999-02-01

    10 habitual smokers, aged 19-25 yr., were randomly assigned to smoke either a very low nicotine "Placebo" cigarette (.05-mg nicotine delivery as estimated by the FTC method) or a Nicotine cigarette (.7-mg estimated nicotine delivery). Each participant was asked to abstain from smoking for 4 to 7 hr. prior to testing. After completing a presmoking test of lexical decision-making, participants smoked either a Nicotine or Placebo cigarette and were then retested for reaction times and accuracy on the lexical decision test. When presented the most difficult lexical decisions, participants responded significantly faster after smoking a Nicotine cigarette than they did before smoking; smoking a Placebo cigarette did not affect reaction times. Response accuracy was unaffected by smoking either kind of cigarette. These results suggest that smoking a nicotine cigarette may improve attention or memory retrieval after several hours of smoking abstinence.

  8. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Walter K; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air-liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products.

  9. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The most predominant form of tobacco use is cigarette smoking, and it poses serious threats to maternal and child health. The magnitude of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in our environment is not well.known. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women in ...

  10. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  11. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What is the impact of e-cigarette adverts on children's perceptions of tobacco smoking? An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu, D C; Vasiljevic, M; Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Marteau, T M

    2016-01-01

    $\\textbf{Objective}$ Exposure to e-cigarette adverts increases children's positive attitudes towards using them. Given the similarity in appearance between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, we examined whether exposure to e-cigarette adverts has a cross-product impact on perceptions and attitudes towards smoking tobacco cigarettes. $\\textbf{Methods}$ Children aged 11–16 (n=564) were interviewed in their homes and randomised to one of three groups: two groups saw different sets of 10 im...

  13. A Qualitative Examination of Smoke-Free Policies and Electronic Cigarettes Among Sheltered Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P

    2017-05-01

    To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.

  14. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  15. Cigarette smoke alters the secretome of lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossina, Alessandra; Lukas, Christina; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uhl, Franziska E; Mutze, Kathrin; Schamberger, Andrea; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia; Jia, Jie; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Königshoff, Melanie; Hauck, Stefanie M; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive, thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative MS to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix organization. In particular, secretion of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, a matricellular protein that functions in tissue response to injury, was consistently diminished by cigarette smoke extract in various pulmonary epithelial cell lines and primary cells of human and mouse origin as well as in mouse ex vivo lung tissue cultures. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized acute response of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke that includes altered secretion of proteins involved in extracellular matrix organization and wound healing. This may contribute to sustained alterations in tissue remodeling as observed in lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. E-cigarette use, perceptions, and cigarette smoking intentions in a community sample of young adult nondaily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-05-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. Although e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions, and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (N = 348, 57% male) aged 18 to 24 years were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included nondaily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline, and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22% to 33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Electronic cigarettes are a source of thirdhand exposure to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Lee, Lily

    2015-02-01

    Substances remaining on the surfaces in areas where people have smoked contribute to thirdhand exposure. Nicotine from tobacco smoke has been shown to react with oxidizing chemicals in the air to form secondary pollutants, such as carcinogenic nitrosamines. While previous studies have demonstrated thirdhand exposure to nicotine from tobacco smoke, none have investigated whether nicotine from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can also be deposited on various surfaces. Three brands of e-cigarettes were refilled with varying nicotine concentrations. We released 100 puffs from each product directly into an exposure chamber. Surface wipe samples were taken from 5 indoor 100 cm(2) surfaces (window, walls, floor, wood, and metal) pre- and post-release of vapors. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and was analyzed using gas chromatography. Three of the 4 experiments showed significant increases in the amount of nicotine on all five surfaces. The floor and glass windows had the greatest increases in nicotine, on average by a factor of 47 and 6, respectively (p risk for thirdhand exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes. Thirdhand exposure levels differ depending on the surface and the e-cigarette brand. Future research should explore the potential risks of thirdhand exposure to carcinogens formed from the nicotine that is released from e-cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Metabolic profile and genotoxicity in obese rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Bueno, Aline; Dallaqua, Bruna; Lima, Paula H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Campos, Kleber E

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke has negative effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress status. Cigarette smoke exposure in nonpregnant and pregnant rats causes significant genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, no previous studies have directly evaluated the effects of obesity or the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on genotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate DNA damage levels, oxidative stress status and lipid profiles in obese Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Female rats subcutaneously (s.c.) received a monosodium glutamate solution or vehicle (control) during the neonatal period to induce obesity. The rats were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: control, obese exposed to filtered air, and obese exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke. After a 2-month exposure period, the rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples for genotoxicity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress status analyses. The obese rats exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke presented higher DNA damage, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, VLDL-c, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels compared to control and obese rats exposed to filtered air. Both obese groups showed reduced SOD activity. These results showed that cigarette smoke enhanced the effects of obesity. In conclusion, the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure exacerbated the genotoxicity, negatively impacted the biochemical profile and antioxidant defenses and caused early glucose intolerance. Thus, the changes caused by cigarette smoke exposure can trigger the earlier onset of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  19. Cigarette Cue Attentional Bias in Cocaine-Smoking and Non-Cocaine-Using Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in cocaine users is nearly four times higher than the national prevalence and cocaine use increases cigarette smoking. The mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking in cocaine-using individuals need to be identified to promote cigarette and cocaine abstinence. Previous studies have examined the salience of cigarette and cocaine cues separately. The present aim was to determine whether cigarette attentional bias (AB) is higher in cigarettes smokers who smoke cocaine relative to individuals who only smoke cigarettes. Twenty cigarette smokers who smoke cocaine and 20 non-cocaine-using cigarette smokers completed a visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. During this task, the magnitude of cigarette and cocaine AB was assessed through orienting bias, fixation time, and response time. Cocaine users displayed an orienting bias towards cigarette cues. Cocaine users also endorsed a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect associated with cigarette craving than non-cocaine users (g = 0.6). Neither group displayed a cigarette AB, as measured by fixation time. Cocaine users, but not non-cocaine users, displayed a cocaine AB as measured by orienting bias (g = 2.0) and fixation time (g = 1.2). There were no significant effects for response time data. Cocaine-smoking cigarettes smokers display an initial orienting bias toward cigarette cues, but not sustained cigarette AB. The incentive motivation underlying cigarette smoking also differs. Cocaine smokers report more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect. Identifying differences in motivation to smoke cigarettes may provide new treatment targets for cigarette and cocaine use disorders. These results suggest that cocaine-smoking cigarette smokers display an initial orienting bias towards cigarette cues, but not sustained attention towards cigarette cues, relative to non-cocaine-using smokers. Smoked cocaine users also report a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect

  20. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    OpenAIRE

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation ...

  1. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, ∼10 -6 cm 3 /s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols

  2. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes"): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul Truman; Simmons, Vani Nath; Correa, John Bernard; Padhya, Tapan Ashvin; Brandon, Thomas Henry

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes") are rapidly growing in popularity and use, but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, and additional sources for published empirical data on safety and use of electronic cigarettes as an aid to quit smoking. We conducted a structured search of the current literature up to and including November 2013. E-cigarettes currently vary widely in their contents and are sometimes inconsistent with labeling. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, available evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are often substantially lower in toxic content, cytotoxicity, associated adverse effects, and secondhand toxicity exposure. Data on the use of e-cigarettes for quitting smoking are suggestive but ultimately inconclusive. Clinicians are advised to be aware that the use of e-cigarettes, especially among cigarette smokers, is growing rapidly. These devices are unregulated, of unknown safety, and of uncertain benefit in quitting smoking. In the absence of further data or regulation, oncologists are advised to discuss the known and unknown safety and efficacy information on e-cigarettes with interested patients and to encourage patients to first try FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  3. What is the impact of e-cigarette adverts on children's perceptions of tobacco smoking? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, D C; Vasiljevic, M; Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Marteau, T M

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to e-cigarette adverts increases children's positive attitudes towards using them. Given the similarity in appearance between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, we examined whether exposure to e-cigarette adverts has a cross-product impact on perceptions and attitudes towards smoking tobacco cigarettes. Children aged 11-16 (n=564) were interviewed in their homes and randomised to one of three groups: two groups saw different sets of 10 images of e-cigarette adverts and one group saw no adverts. Of the 20 e-cigarette adverts, 10 depicted the product as glamorous and 10 depicted it as healthy. The children then self-completed a questionnaire assessing perceived appeal, harms and benefits of smoking tobacco cigarettes. The analyses were conducted on 411 children who reported never having smoked tobacco cigarettes or used e-cigarettes. Exposure to the adverts had no impact on the appeal or perceived benefits of smoking tobacco cigarettes. While the perceived harm of smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day was similar across groups, those exposed to either set of adverts perceived the harms of smoking one or two tobacco cigarettes occasionally to be lower than those in the control group. This study provides the first evidence that exposure to e-cigarette adverts might influence children's perceptions of smoking tobacco cigarettes, reducing their perceived harm of occasional smoking. These results suggest the potential for e-cigarette adverts to undermine tobacco control efforts by reducing a potential barrier (ie, beliefs about harm) to occasional smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  5. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  7. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,

  8. Murine lung tumor response after exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke or its particulate and gas/vapor phase fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinn, W.; Arts, J.H.E.; Buettner, A.; Duistermaat, E.; Janssens, K.; Kuper, C.F.; Haussmann, H.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on mechanisms of smoking-induced tumorigenesis and on active smoke constituents may improve the development and evaluation of chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions, early diagnostic markers, and new and potentially reduced-risk tobacco products. A suitable laboratory animal disease

  9. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development

  10. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  12. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Cockeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P<0.014–0.0006 upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11, consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen.

  13. Comparison of Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans Using Electronic Cigarettes, Combustible Cigarettes, and Smokeless Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Riggs, Daniel W; Keith, Rachel J; Conklin, Daniel J; Xie, Zhengzhi; Sutaria, Saurin; Lynch, Blake; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2018-06-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease risk, attributable in part to reactive volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). However, little is known about the extent of VOC exposure due to the use of other tobacco products. We recruited 48 healthy, tobacco users in four groups: cigarette, smokeless tobacco, occasional users of first generation e-cigarette and e-cigarette menthol and 12 healthy nontobacco users. After abstaining for 48 h, tobacco users used an assigned product. Urine was collected at baseline followed by five collections over a 3-h period to measure urinary metabolites of VOCs, nicotine, and tobacco alkaloids. Urinary levels of nicotine were ≃2-fold lower in occasional e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco users than in the cigarette smokers; cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine levels were similar in all groups. Compared with nontobacco users, e-cigarette users had higher levels of urinary metabolites of xylene, cyanide, styrene, ethylbenzene, and benzene at baseline and elevated urinary levels of metabolites of xylene, N,N-dimethylformamide, and acrylonitrile after e-cigarette use. Metabolites of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene were significantly higher in smokers than in users of other products or nontobacco users. VOC metabolite levels in smokeless tobacco group were comparable to those found in nonusers with the exception of xylene metabolite-2-methylhippuric acid (2MHA), which was almost three fold higher than in nontobacco users. Smoking results in exposure to a range of VOCs at concentrations higher than those observed with other products, and first generation e-cigarette use is associated with elevated levels of N,N-dimethylformamide and xylene metabolites. This study shows that occasional users of first generation e-cigarettes have lower levels of nicotine exposure than the users of combustible cigarettes. Compared with combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco products deliver lower levels of

  14. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  15. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan; Wen Fuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  16. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  17. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and reproductive health in children: a review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Berger Håkonsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal cigarette smoking may affect the intrauterine hormonal environment during pregnancy and this early fetal exposure may have detrimental effects on the future trajectory of reproductive health. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological literature on the association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and several aspects of reproductive health. The literature points towards an increased risk of the urogenital malformation cryptorchidism, but a potential protective effect on the risk of hypospadias in sons following prenatal cigarette smoking exposure. Studies on sexual maturation find a tendency towards accelerated pubertal development in exposed boys and girls. In adult life, prenatally exposed men have impaired semen quality compared with unexposed individuals, but an influence on fecundability, that is, the biological ability to reproduce, is less evident. We found no evidence to support an association between prenatal cigarette smoking exposure and testicular cancer. Among adult daughters, research is sparse and inconsistent, but exposure to cigarette smoking in utero may decrease fecundability. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking may cause some long-term adverse effects on the reproductive health.

  18. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eChen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother’s metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  19. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L; Bertrand, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance) are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother's metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction) and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  20. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  1. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: Problems with Lists of Tumorigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1960s, various investigators, agencies, and institutions have disseminated lists of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components reported to be tumorigenic on the basis of laboratory bioassays conducted under conditions significantly different from those encountered by the smoker during exposure to the components in the cigarette MSS aerosol. Since 1990, numerous lists of cigarette MSS components, defined as significant tumorigens, have been compiled by American Health Foundation personnel, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, Fowles and Bates, and R.J. Reynolds R&D personnel. The purpose of most of the reports was to define human risk assessment and to dissuade smokers from smoking. Various investigators and agencies have frequently cited the earlier and/or the more recent lists of tumorigenic entities. The recent compilations, involving nearly 80 MSS components, suffer from serious deficiencies including: a Use of per cigarette delivery ranges for specified components which often include analytical data from cigarettes manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s which are not comparable to lower-'tar’ yield cigarettes manufactured since the mid-1970s. b Absence of standard analytical procedures for most of the listed components. c Methodological considerations regarding bioassays used to determine tumorigenicity of the listed MSS components. d Difficulty in extrapolating in vivo bioassay data obtained by non-inhalation modes of administration of a single compound to the human smoking situation involving inhalation of a complex aerosol containing that compound. e Inhalation data inadequacies regarding the tumorigenicity of many of the components. f Several tobacco smoke components are listed despite the fact their presence has not been confirmed, their MSS level has not been defined, or their MSS level is no longer relevant. g Insufficient consideration of inhibitors of tumorigenesis and mutagenesis found in MSS. h

  2. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  3. Disrupting the Btk Pathway Suppresses COPD-Like Lung Alterations in Atherosclerosis Prone ApoE−/− Mice Following Regular Exposure to Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M. Florence

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with severe chronic inflammation that promotes irreversible tissue destruction. Moreover, the most broadly accepted cause of COPD is exposure to cigarette smoke. There is no effective cure and significantly, the mechanism behind the development and progression of this disease remains unknown. Our laboratory has demonstrated that Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk is a critical regulator of pro-inflammatory processes in the lungs and that Btk controls expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 in the alveolar compartment. For this study apolipoprotein E null (ApoE−/− mice were exposed to SHS to facilitate study in a COPD/atherosclerosis comorbidity model. We applied two types of treatments, animals received either a pharmacological inhibitor of Btk or MMP-9 specific siRNA to minimize MMP-9 expression in endothelial cells or neutrophils. We have shown that these treatments had a protective effect in the lung. We have noted a decrease in alveolar changes related to SHS induced inflammation in treated animals. In summary, we are presenting a novel concept in the field of COPD, i.e., that Btk may be a new drug target for this disease. Moreover, cell specific targeting of MMP-9 may also benefit patients affected by this disease.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising.

  6. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  8. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Blanton

    Full Text Available Graphic warnings (GWs on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance. One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions.Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers were assessed before and after message exposure.GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes, and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes. Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers. No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup.Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  9. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue, Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Interest in developing countries smoking prevalence has been growing since 1999. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and associated factors among school-age adolescents in Kafue, Zambia. Methods: A ...

  10. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour: analysis of cross sectional data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lis Hentze; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of cross sectional data...... from students in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1515 grade 9 students (mean age 15.8) from 90 classes in 48 Danish schools. Outcome measure: Self reported smoking behaviour; daily smoking and heavy smoking, defined as those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per week. RESULTS: Of the students in this study, 62...... that they had seen other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. Adolescents' perceived exposure to teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises was significantly associated with daily smoking, having adjusted for sex, exposure to teachers smoking indoors at school and pupils smoking outdoors...

  11. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-02-01

    PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking.

  12. Formation of cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in the rat lung and nasal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Sopori, M.L.; Gairola, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts in the nasal, lung, and liver tissues of rats exposed daily to fresh smoke from a University of Kentucky reference cigarette (2R1) for up to 40 weeks was examined. The amount of smoke total particulate matter (TPM) inhaled and the blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) values averaged 5-5.5 mg smoke TPM/day/rat and 5.5%, respectively. The pulmonary AHH activity measured at the termination of each experiment showed an average increase of about two- to threefold in smoke-exposed groups. These observations suggested that animals effectively inhaled both gaseous and particulate phase constituents of cigarette smoke. DNAs from nasal, lung, and liver tissue were extracted and analyzed by an improved 32 P-postlabeling procedure. The data demonstrate the DNA-damaging potential of long term fresh cigarette smoke exposure and suggest the ability of the tissue to partially recover from such damage following cessation of the exposure

  13. Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Michal; Smith, Danielle M.; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are purported to deliver nicotine aerosol without any toxic combustion products present in tobacco smoke. In this longitudinal within-subjects observational study, we evaluated the effects of e-cigarettes on nicotine delivery and exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants. Methods: We measured seven nicotine metabolites and 17 tobacco smoke exposure biomarkers in the urine samples of 20 smokers collected before and after switching to pen-style M201 e-cigarettes for 2 weeks. Biomarkers were metabolites of 13 major carcinogens and toxicants in cigarette smoke: one tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK), eight volatile organic compounds (1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, ethylene oxide, and propylene oxide), and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). Changes in urine biomarkers concentration were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: In total, 45% of participants reported complete abstinence from cigarette smoking at 2 weeks, while 55% reported continued smoking. Levels of total nicotine and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites did not change after switching from tobacco to e-cigarettes. All other biomarkers significantly decreased after 1 week of using e-cigarettes (p e-cigarette may reduce user exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens otherwise present in tobacco cigarettes. Data on reduced exposure to harmful constituents that are present in tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes can aid in evaluating e-cigarettes as a potential harm reduction device. PMID:27613896

  14. Factors associated with different cigarette access behaviours among underage smoking youth who usually smoke contraband (native) cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid; Vu, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Given that little is known about how youth access contraband cigarettes, the current study seeks to examine factors associated with how underage smoking youth report usually accessing contraband cigarettes. This study used nationally representative data collected from 41,886 students (grades 9 to 12) as part of the 2006-07 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers who report that their usual brand of cigarettes is contraband, three logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with buying cigarettes from a store, getting cigarettes from a family member, or getting cigarettes from friends or strangers. In 2006, 7.9% (n = 1 3,300) of Canadian youth who were current smokers reported that their usual brand of cigarettes was contraband. Among these youth, the majority reported that they usually get their cigarettes from a friend or stranger (54.8%), whereas 26.4% report usually getting them from a family member and 18.8% usually buying their own from a store. Boys were more likely to buy contraband cigarettes from a store, whereas youth with a parent who smokes contraband cigarettes were substantially more likely to get contraband cigarettes from a family member and youth with friends who smoke contraband cigarettes were substantially more likely to get contraband cigarettes from a friend or stranger. Ongoing surveillance of contraband cigarette use among youth and how youth access contraband cigarettes is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  15. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Weber, R.E.; Yeh, H.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14 C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m 3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14 C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  16. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B T; Weber, R E; Yeh, H C; Lundgren, D L; Snipes, M B; Mauderly, J L

    1988-12-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to {sup 14}C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m{sup 3} for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14{sub C} contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 {+-} 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 {+-} 0.9% and 15.9 {+-} 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  17. Pulse carboxyhemoglobin-oximetry and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova-Djokić, L; Milosević, S; Skrbić, R; Salabat, R; Voronov, G; Igić, R

    2011-01-01

    We used a pulse carbon monoxide (CO)-oximeter to measure the levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in smokers and non-smokers. Our goal was to determine if this device could not only define smoking status, but also to increase accuracy of self-reported data at various surveys on smoking. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Twenty-two of them were current daily smokers; 12 participants were non-smokers who lived alone or with a nonsmoker, and who worked in non-smoking environment. Nicotine dependency level was determined by the modified Fagerstrom questionnaire. Blood COHb levels were measured with a pulse CO-oximeter (Masimo, Radical 7). The COHb levels in both moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers increased significantly after they smoked a single cigarette. This increase persisted for more than 6 h in the moderate/heavy smokers, while in the light smokers COHb levels returned to the baseline level after one hour. The pulse rate of all smokers increased significantly 20 min after smoking. We conclude that the CO-oximeter can detect smoking by moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers if they smoked 6 h or 20 min earlier, respectively. We concluded that it could be used as a validation test for smoking at the time of admission to the surgical facility and to increase smoking abstinence during preoperative and postoperative periods. This noninvasive, simple and inexpensive test may also be used at various surveys to increase accuracy of self-reports on smoking.

  18. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cell Death Causes Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Ueha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to cigarette smoke is a cause of olfactory dysfunction. We previously reported that in young mice, cigarette smoke damaged olfactory progenitors and decreased mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, then, mature ORNs gradually recovered after smoking cessation. However, in aged populations, the target cells in ORNs by cigarette smoke, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs the regenerative ORNs, and the degree of ORN regeneration after smoking cessation remain unclear.Objectives: To explore the effects of cigarette smoke on the ORN cell system using an aged mouse model of smoking, and to investigate the extent to which smoke-induced damage to ORNs recovers following cessation of exposure to cigarette smoke in aged mice.Methods: We intranasally administered a cigarette smoke solution (CSS to 16-month-old male mice over 24 days, then examined ORN existence, cell survival, changes of inflammatory cytokines in the olfactory epithelium (OE, and olfaction using histological analyses, gene analyses and olfactory habituation/dishabituation tests.Results: CSS administration reduced the number of mature ORNs in the OE and induced olfactory dysfunction. These changes coincided with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF expression and a decrease in Il6 expression. Notably, the reduction in mature ORNs did not recover even on day 28 after cessation of treatment with CSS, resulting in persistent olfactory dysfunction.Conclusion: In aged mice, by increasing ORN death, CSS exposure could eventually overwhelm the regenerative capacity of the OE, resulting in continued reduction in the number of mature ORNs and olfactory dysfunction.

  19. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  20. Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Benjamin; Fischbein, Rebecca; Bhamidipalli, Surya Sruthi; Bryant, Jennifer; Kenne, Deric R

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. Using a cross-sectional design, 6037 students at a large Midwestern university between the ages of 18-24 were surveyed about e-cigarette use and smoking status. Bivariate analyses were performed associating perception of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of e-cigarette use in places where smoking is banned with demographic and other background factors, and e-cigarette advertising exposure through different media channels. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationship of these factors on perceptions of harm, addictiveness and acceptability of e-cigarette use in places where smoking is banned. More than a quarter (27.4%) of respondents had used an e-cigarette, greater than half (53.2%) had seen an advertisement on TV and 42.0% had seen an advertisement on the Internet. Logistic regressions revealed that being white, male, an e-cigarette user, a smoker, having a mother who smoked, and Internet advertisement exposure were associated with lower perceived harm of e-cigarettes. The same factors, plus having seen advertisements on TV, were associated with increased likelihood of perceiving e-cigarette use in bars, stores, at work and in a dorm as acceptable. Perceiving use of e-cigarettes as acceptable in classrooms was also associated with the aforementioned factors and also included race. Only being male and an e-cigarette user were associated with lower perceived addictiveness of e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is increasing in adolescents and young adults, as is exposure to e-cigarette advertising

  1. Perceptions about e-cigarette safety may lead to e-smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Loya, Selina; Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia; Molfese, David L; Velasquez, Kenia M; Baldwin, Philip R; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Sharp, Carla; Fowler, J Christopher; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine-delivery devices that are increasingly used, especially by young people. Because e-cigarettes lack many of the substances found in regular tobacco, they are often perceived as a safer smoking alternative, especially in high-risk situations such as pregnancy. However, studies suggest that it is exposure to nicotine that is most detrimental to prenatal development. The authors studied perceptions of tobacco and e-cigarette health risks using a multiple-choice survey. To study the perceived safety of e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes, 184 modified Global Health Youth Surveys (WHO, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/gyts/en/ ) were completed electronically or on paper. Age range, smoking status, and perceptions about tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes were studied. The results verified that younger people use e-cigarettes more than older people. Tobacco cigarettes were perceived as more harmful than e-cigarettes to health in general, including lung cancer and pregnancy. Although more research is necessary, the authors postulate that the perception that e-cigarettes are safer during pregnancy may induce pregnant women to use these devices more freely. Given that nicotine is known to cause fetal harm, pregnant mothers who smoke e-cigarettes could cause even greater harm to the fetus because e-cigarettes are perceived as being safer than tobacco cigarettes. Until more data about the effects of nicotine during pregnancy are available, the authors advocate for labeling of e-cigarettes as potentially harmful, at least during pregnancy.

  2. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    was carried out in the field in a multi-storey building and cardboard and plastic foil of polyethylene were used for sealing the entire wooden floor in the receiving flat. Another technical solution examined was a novel air circulating ductwork. The efficiency of the novel air circulating ductwork...... in which smoke infiltrates from one flat to another and also to examine technical solutions for preventing or reducing infiltration of ultrafine particles from the source flat to the receiving flat. One of the technical solutions examined was sealing of the floor in the receiving flat. The study...

  3. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  4. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  5. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is an important health hazard. This study was designed to assess the sociodemographic risk factors related to women's exposure to secondhand smoke. Materials and Methods A case-control analysis of data collected as part of a prospective cohort study was conducted. Participants were 340 female Tehran residents exposed to cigarette smoke. Women consented to participate in this study and completed a questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, household characteristics and smoking status at home through a face-to-face interview. Factors related to women's exposure to secondhand smoke were assessed using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results The final multivariate logistic regression model showed that lower levels of education (p = 0.002) and social class (p = 0.03) increase the risk of exposure to secondhand smoke in women. Conclusion These results support the effect of women's educational level and social class on their exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:25191461

  6. Acrolein in cigarette smoke inhibits T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; McCue, Jesica; Portas, Mary; Ouyang, Yanli; Li, JiMei; Rosano, Thomas G; Lazis, Alexander; Freed, Brian M

    2005-10-01

    Cigarette smoking inhibits T-cell responses in the lungs, but the immunosuppressive compounds have not been fully identified. Cigarette smoke extracts inhibit IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production in stimulated lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, even when the extracts were diluted 100-fold to 1000-fold. The objective of these studies was to identify the immunosuppressive compounds found in cigarette smoke. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and HPLC were used to identify and quantitate volatile compounds found in cigarette smoke extracts. Bioactivity was measured by viability and production of cytokine mRNA and protein levels in treated human lymphocytes. The vapor phase of the cigarette smoke extract inhibited cytokine production, indicating that the immunosuppressive compounds were volatile. Among the volatile compounds identified in cigarette smoke extracts, only the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC50] = 3 micromol/L) and crotonaldehyde (IC50 = 6 micromol/L), exhibited significant inhibition of cytokine production. Although the levels of aldehydes varied 10-fold between high-tar (Camel) and ultralow-tar (Carlton) extracts, even ultralow-tar cigarettes produced sufficient levels of acrolein (34 micromol/L) to suppress cytokine production by >95%. We determined that the cigarette smoke extract inhibited transcription of cytokine genes. The inhibitory effects of acrolein could be blocked with the thiol compound N-acetylcysteine. The vapor phase from cigarette smoke extracts potently suppresses cytokine production. The compound responsible for this inhibition appears to be acrolein.

  7. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  9. Electronic cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking initiation among youth, United States, 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Odani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S youth. We used cross-sectional, nationally representative data of U.S. middle and high school students to examine the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking initiation. Methods Data were from the 2015 and 2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, a school-based survey of U.S. 6 th -12 th graders (pooled N=38,386. Questions on current age and age at initiation of different tobacco products were used to assess temporality. The study included 35,775 students who had never smoked conventional cigarettes five years before the survey (i.e., baseline, including never-smokers and those who first smoked < 5 years ago. Baseline never smokers were classified by e-cigarette use status into: (1 those who ever used e-cigarettes on/before or without ever smoking cigarettes; or (2 those who had never used e-cigarettes, or started only after initiating cigarette smoking. The outcome variables were cigarette smoking at pre-determined periods: any time within the past 5 years; past 1 year; past 6 months; past 30 days; and past 7 days. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The models controlled for socio-demographic characteristics and use of smokeless tobacco, cigars, and hookah on/before cigarette smoking initiation. Results Among baseline never cigarette smokers, 17.4% used e-cigarettes, and 16.7% initiated cigarette smoking within the past 5 years. Those who used e-cigarettes on/before ever smoking cigarettes had higher odds of smoking cigarettes than those who did not at all periods assessed: any time within the past 5 years (AOR=2.61; past 1 year (AOR=3.18, past 6 months (AOR=2.59, past 30 days (AOR=1.75, and past 7 days (AOR=1.38 (all p< 0.05. Conclusions These cross-sectional findings reveal that e-cigarette use was associated with conventional cigarette smoking initiation among U.S. youth

  10. Induction of the unfolded protein response by cigarette smoke is primarily an activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein mediated process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraghty P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Geraghty, Alison Wallace, Jeanine M D'ArmientoDepartment of Medicine, Divisions of Molecular and Pulmonary Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAPurpose: Cigarette smoke is the major risk factor associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Recent studies propose a link between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and emphysema, demonstrated by increased ER stress markers under smoking conditions. Here, we investigate whether cigarette smoke-induced ER stress is cell specific and correlates with acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure.Methods: Gene and protein expression changes in human primary lung cell cultures following cigarette smoke extract (CSE exposure were monitored by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Mice and guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke and ER stress markers examined in whole lung homogenates. Inflammatory cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 10 days smoke exposed mice were also examined.Results: Cigarette smoke induced a trend increase in the ER stress response through an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 mediated induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in primary small airway epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages responded similarly to CSE. Wild-type mice and guinea pigs exposed to acute levels of cigarette smoke exhibited increased levels of CHOP but not at significant levels. However, after long-term chronic cigarette smoke exposure, CHOP expression was reduced. Interestingly, inflammatory cells from smoke exposed mice had a significant increase in CHOP/ATF4 expression.Conclusion: A trend increase in CHOP levels appear in multiple human lung cell types following acute cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In vivo, inflammatory cells, predominately macrophages, demonstrate significant cigarette smoke-induced ER stress. Early induction of CHOP in cigarette smoke may play a pivotal role in early

  11. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  12. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  13. E-Cigarette Use, Perceptions, and Cigarette Smoking Intentions in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Daily Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. While e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (n = 348, 57% male) aged 18–24 were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included non-daily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22–33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. PMID:28125242

  14. The Expansion of Tobacco and Its Effect on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the expansion of tobacco has been recognized as one of eight technologies significant in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette. The data previously presented at scientific conferences and/or published in several scientific monographs and journals on the effect of the expansion of tobacco on the composition and biological properties of the mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing it are summarized. In addition, previously unpublished data on the same subjects are presented in considerable detail. Included are 1 the effect of tobacco expansion on the yields of total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, and several hundred components of cigarette mainstream smoke from control tobacco cigarettes vs. expanded tobacco cigarettes; 2 the changes in mainstream smoke yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and specific smoke components produced by inclusion of various levels of expanded tobacco in a cigarette blend; and 3 the changes in composition of expanded tobacco. In the latter study, the decrease in levels of numerous significant flavorful components of the tobacco produced by expansion provides the need for inclusion of such compounds in flavor formulations. In study 2, the reductions in per cigarette yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and several components of concern were determined and confirmed the significance of tobacco expansion as a cigarette design technology to produce what was originally defined as a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette but more recently as a ‘potential reduced exposure product’ (PREP.

  15. Cigarette Smoke and Estrogen Signaling in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalem Sathish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cigarette smoke (CS in active smokers and second-hand smoke exposure exacerbate respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. While women are known to experience a more asthmatic response to CS than emphysema in men, there is limited information on the mechanisms of CS-induced airway dysfunction. We hypothesize that CS interferes with a normal (protective bronchodilatory role of estrogens, thus worsening airway contractility. Methods: We tested effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE on 17β-estradiol (E2 signaling in enzymatically-dissociated bronchial airway smooth muscle (ASM obtained from lung samples of non-smoking female patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Results: In fura-2 loaded ASM cells, CSE increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i responses to 10µM histamine. Acute exposure to physiological concentrations of E2 decreased [Ca2+]i responses. However, in 24h exposed CSE cells, although expression of estrogen receptors was increased, the effect of E2 on [Ca2+]i was blunted. Acute E2 exposure also decreased store-operated Ca2+ entry and inhibited stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1 phosphorylation: effects blunted by CSE. Acute exposure to E2 increased cAMP, but less so in 24h CSE-exposed cells. 24h CSE exposure increased S-nitrosylation of ERα. Furthermore, 24h CSE-exposed bronchial rings showed increased bronchoconstrictor agonist responses that were not reduced as effectively by E2 compared to non-CSE controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that CS induces dysregulation of estrogen signaling in ASM, which could contribute to increased airway contractility in women exposed to CS.

  16. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  17. Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the United States, especially the use of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Examples of new and different tobacco and nicotine products and devices include the following: E-cigarettes. Small cigars . Water pipes (hookahs) for smoking tobacco. Flavored smokeless ...

  18. Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking by American Students in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    High school students' electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use rose rapidly in 2014, to levels higher than cigarette smoking, which declined significantly. This study assesses how frequency of e-cigarette use is associated with students' smoking status. Using Monitoring the Future data in 2015, this study evaluated the association between students' smoking and frequency of 30-day e-cigarette use in 2014, focusing on high school seniors. Previous research has considered only whether e-cigarettes were used at all during the past month. Non-smokers were far less likely than smokers to have used an e-cigarette (pE-cigarette use frequency rose with the amount of ever smoking (pe-cigarette use by very light smokers (e-cigarette. Among tenth- and eighth-graders, 43% and 48% of past-month e-cigarette users had never smoked. Non-smoking high school students are highly unlikely to use e-cigarettes; among those who do, most used them only on 1-2 of the past 30 days. By contrast, current smokers are likely to use e-cigarettes and on many more days. It is unclear whether students' e-cigarette use represents short-term experimentation or future sustained use, and whether it will eventually increase or decrease youth smoking and nicotine addiction. More sophisticated research methods, employing better data, will be essential to unravel the mystery that is the e-cigarette phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcinogenic effects of radon daughters, uranium ore dust and cigarette smoke in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Stuart, B.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of pulmonary lesions in beagle dogs was studied following chronic inhalation exposures to radon (at 105 +- 20 nCi/l), radon daughters (at 605 +- 169 WL), uranium ore dust (at 12.9 +- 6.7 mg/m 3 ) and cigarette smoke. Chronic exposures to mixtures of these agents caused significant lifespan shortening compared with controls. Survival times of controls and smoke-exposed dogs were equivalent during the 4 to 5-yr mean survival time of the dogs exposed to radon-daughter and ore-dust mixtures (with or without added cigarette smoke). Animals with tumors of the respiratory tract generally has cumulative radon-daughter exposures exceeding 13,000 WLM; their survival time was longer than that of nontumor-bearing animals. Exposure to cigarette smoke had a mitigating effect on radon daughter-induced tumors. Exposures to smoke from 10 cigarettes/d, 7 d/wk produced no significant respiratory tract lesions. Exposure to 20 cigarettes/d, 7 d/wk resulted in pulmonary emphysema, fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Emphysema and fibrosis were much more prevalent and severe in the dogs exposed to mixtures including radon daughters and uranium/ore dust. These dogs also had adenomatous lesions which progressed to squamous metaplasia of alveolar epithelium, epidermoid carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Pathologic changes in the airways of these dogs were most prominent in the nasal mucosa, and included a few squamous carcinomas in the nasal cavity. (author)

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization Is Required To Alter the Nasal Microbiota in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Using an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter the nasal microbiota composition. The microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 h following low-dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting that the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high-dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports on human smokers, an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium , Gemella , and Neisseria was observed. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota and that microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  2. Use of electronic cigarettes in smoke-free environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuyan; Cummins, Sharon E; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Although most US states prohibit cigarette smoking in public places and worksites, fewer jurisdictions regulate indoor use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Given the dramatic increase in e-cigarette use and concern about its impact on non-users, there is a need to examine the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments and related attitudes and perceptions. Recruited from a nationally representative adult panel (GfK's KnowledgePanel), 952 current users of e-cigarettes completed a cross-sectional online survey in 2014. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine the factors associated with ever using e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments. Overall, 59.5% of e-cigarette users had vaped where cigarette smoking was not allowed. Young adults (18-29 years) were most likely to do so, 74.2%. The places of first-time use most often mentioned were service venues (bar, restaurant, lounge and club), 30.7%, followed by worksites, 23.5%. Daily e-cigarette users were more likely to have vaped in smoke-free environments than non-daily users (OR=2.08, p=0.012). Only 2.5% of those who used e-cigarettes in smoke-free environments reported negative reactions from other people. Most e-cigarette users did not think e-cigarettes are harmful to themselves or to by-standers, and thus should not be banned where smoking is; those who had used e-cigarettes where smoking is banned were even more likely to hold these views. E-cigarette use in smoke-free environments was common, suggesting that most e-cigarette users do not consider smoke-free laws to apply to e-cigarettes. Explicit laws should be considered if jurisdictions want to prohibit e-cigarette use in public places. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  4. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  5. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  6. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  7. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  8. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  9. Biological effects of inhaled cigarette smoke in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.O.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    A group of twenty dogs has received up to 7 yr of daily cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes per day, 5 days per week), using realistic methods of oral inhalation and nose-plus-mouth exhalation. Three dogs that received 20 cigarettes per day over 9 mo developed respiratory tract lesions, including pleural thickening, alveolar septal fibrosis, vesicular emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, more rapidly than dogs receiving 10 cigarettes per day

  10. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  11. Effect of cigarette smoking on the detection of small radiographic opacities in inorganic dust diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Gamsu, G.

    1988-01-01

    Whether cigarette smoking can cause radiographic opacities indistinguishable from those due to pneumoconiosis remains controversial. The situation becomes clearer when one limits the abnormalities to those that can be standardized under the International Labour Office (ILO) classification system. The bulk of the evidence indicates that, using the ILO system, cigarette smoking alone is not associated with radiographic opacities that would be mistaken for pneumoconiosis with sufficient frequency to be of any practical importance. The effects of cigarette smoking, as a cofactor, in conjunction with occupational dust exposure depend on the type of dust. No relationship has been convincingly demonstrated for coal dust or silica. Only with asbestos exposure does there appear to be a significant cigarette smoking-associated increase in the frequency of irregular radiographic opacities. This increase does not appear to translate into a restrictive impairment in pulmonary function. The limited information available indicates that the features of asbestosis on high-resolution computed tomography are not similarly related to cigarette smoking. Additional research is needed to substantiate the relationship between smoking and occupational exposure to dust of many types, and also the possible imaging and pathophysiologic significance of their interactions. 47 references

  12. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  13. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA......AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies....... Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone...

  15. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  16. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61 compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%. Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  17. Basophil degranulation induced by cigarette smoking in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, S; Walter, A

    1982-01-01

    There is some evidence that histamine could be a mediator of the immediate broncho-constriction that follows cigarette smoking. Since the chief reservoir of histamine in normal human blood is the basophil, we studied the acute effects of cigarette smoking on these cells. Capillary blood samples were obtained from 27 healthy young male smokers, before and 10 minutes after smoking. Basophils were collected and concentrated from these samples by a millipore membrane filter technique, stained wit...

  18. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  19. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  20. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  1. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (padvertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (padvertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; padvertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (padvertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  2. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  3. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  4. Effect of e-cigarette advertisement exposure on intention to use e-cigarettes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Andrea M; Branstetter, Steven A

    2018-07-01

    With the growth of electronic cigarettes use, curiosity about and experimentation with these products has increased among adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the moderating effect of e-cigarette advertisement (ad) exposure on the relation between perceptions of use and intentions to use in youth. Multiple regression analyses utilizing data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 17,286) were used to evaluate the effect of ad exposure, perceived harmfulness, barriers, and benefits of e-cigarette use on intentions to use among youth who had never used e-cigarettes. Models for non-smokers accounted for 15.5% of the variance in intention to use (R 2  = 0.155, F (15) = 187.0, p < 0.001). Results demonstrate that an increase in the number of exposures to e-cigarette ads was associated with an increase in intent to use (b = 0.039, t = 7.4, p < 0.001). Models also demonstrated significant interactions between ad exposure and perceptions of use on future intention to use. For smokers, models explained 11.1% of the variance in intention to use (R 2  = 0.111, F (15) = 3.1, p < 0.001). Ad exposure had a non-significant effect on intention to use e-cigarettes (b = -0.010, t = -0.2, p = 0.859). In smokers, ad exposure did not significantly affect the association between perceptions of use and intention to use. Ads are most effective at attracting non-smoking youth as new users rather than promoting product switching in young cigarette smokers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  7. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-01-01

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1 -/- MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  8. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  9. How do we determine the impact of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Feirman, Shari P; Niaura, Raymond S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren K; Abrams, David B

    2018-03-01

    To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction. Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States. 91 articles. Coders organized studies according to six proposed methodological criteria: (1) examines outcome of interest (cigarette abstinence or reduction), (2) assesses e-cigarette use for cessation as exposure of interest, (3) employs appropriate control/comparison groups, (4) ensures that measurement of exposure precedes the outcome, (5) evaluates dose and duration of the exposure and (6) evaluates the type and quality of the e-cigarette used. Twenty-four papers did not examine the outcomes of interest. Forty did not assess the specific reason for e-cigarette use as an exposure of interest. Twenty papers did not employ prospective study designs with appropriate comparison groups. The few observational studies meeting some of the criteria (duration, type, use for cessation) triangulated with findings from three randomized trials to suggest that e-cigarettes can help adult smokers quit or reduce cigarette smoking. Only a small proportion of studies seeking to address the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation or reduction meet a set of proposed quality standards. Those that do are consistent with randomized controlled trial evidence in suggesting that e-cigarettes can help with smoking cessation or reduction. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Cigarette smoking and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Cameron B; Costenbader, Karen H

    2018-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system inflammatory autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. It is thought that environmental exposures 'trigger' or accelerate the disease in genetically-predisposed individuals. Areas covered: Substantial epidemiological evidence exists to support the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of incident SLE. Recent evidence points to current smoking as the specific risk factor, with decreasing risk 5 years after smoking cessation, and the greatest risk for disease characterized by the presence of SLE-specific autoantibodies. Research has begun to search for possible explanations for the temporal nature of the relationship between current smoking and autoantibody positive-SLE. Here we review potential biologic mechanisms linking smoking and SLE risk, including effects upon T and B cells, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and the formation of short-lived DNA adducts. Expert commentary: The directions for future research in this field include studies of gene-environment interactions, epigenetics, metabolomics and putative biologic mechanisms.

  11. Interactions between ethanol and cigarette smoke in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nikolov, Manasi; La Maestra, S.; Micale, Rosanna T.; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cigarette smoke and ethanol are known to synergize in the upper aerodigestive tract. • Their interactions in the lower respiratory tract have poorly been explored. • Prenatal and postnatal treatments of mice with ethanol caused pulmonary alterations. • However, ethanol attenuated smoke-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in lung. • The interaction between smoke and alcohol depends on life stage and target tissue. - Abstract: Both ethanol and cigarette smoke are classified as human carcinogens. They can synergize, especially in tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract that are targeted by both agents. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ethanol and smoke in the respiratory tract, either following transplacental exposure and/or postnatal exposure. We designed two consecutive studies in mouse models by exposing Swiss H mice to oral ethanol and/or inhaled mainstream cigarette smoke for up to 4 months, at various prenatal and postnatal life stages. Clastogenic effects and histopathological alterations were evaluated after 4 and 8 months, respectively. Ethanol was per se devoid of clastogenic effects in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. However, especially in mice exposed both transplacentally throughout pregnancy and in the postnatal life, ethanol administration was associated not only with liver damage but also with pro-angiogenetic effects in the lung by stimulating the proliferation of blood vessels. In addition, these mice developed pulmonary emphysema, alveolar epithelial hyperplasias, microadenomas, and benign tumors. On the other hand, ethanol interfered in the lung carcinogenesis process resulting from the concomitant exposure of mice to smoke. In fact, ethanol significantly attenuated some smoke-related preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the respiratory tract, such as alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, microadenomas, and even malignant tumors. In addition, ethanol

  12. Determinants of cigarette smoking among senior secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking remains an increasing high-risk behaviour among the youth, despite its harmful effects on health. This study sought to find out the determinants of cigarette smoking among youth of a rural Nigerian community and suggested intervention measures which have potential for the control of smoking among ...

  13. The comparative in vitro assessment of e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols using the γH2AX assay and applied dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, David; Larard, Sophie; Baxter, Andrew; Meredith, Clive; Gaҫa, Marianna

    2017-01-04

    DNA damage can be caused by a variety of external and internal factors and together with cellular responses, can establish genomic instability through multiple pathways. DNA damage therefore, is considered to play an important role in the aetiology and early stages of carcinogenesis. The DNA-damage inducing potential of tobacco smoke aerosols in vitro has been extensively investigated; however, the ability of e-cigarette aerosols to induce DNA damage has not been extensively investigated. E-cigarette use has grown globally in recent years and the health implications of long term e-cigarette use are still unclear. Therefore, this study has assessed the induction of double-strand DNA damage in vitro using human lung epithelial cells to e-cigarette aerosols from two different product variants (a "cigalike" and a closed "modular" system) and cigarette smoke. A Vitrocell ® VC 10 aerosol exposure system was used to generate and dilute cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols, which were delivered to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) housed at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) for up to 120min exposure (diluting airflow, 0.25-1L/min). Following exposure, cells were immediately fixed, incubated with primary (0.1% γH2AX antibody in PBS) and secondary antibodies (DyLight™ 549 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG) containing Hoechst dye DNA staining solution (0.2% secondary antibody and 0.01% Hoechst in PBS), and finally screened using the Cellomics Arrayscan VTI platform. The results from this study demonstrate a clear DNA damage-induced dose response with increasing smoke concentrations up to cytotoxic levels. In contrast, e-cigarette aerosols from two product variants did not induce DNA damage at equivalent to or greater than doses of cigarette smoke aerosol. In this study dosimetry approaches were used to contextualize exposure, define exposure conditions and facilitate comparisons between cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM

  14. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted.

  15. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus infections enhance cigarette smoke induced COPD in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Foronjy

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression.

  17. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T

  19. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. E-cigarette advertising exposure in e-cigarette naïve adolescents and subsequent e-cigarette use: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa; Gutierrez, Kevin M; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana; Simon, Patricia; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-06-01

    Electronic (E-) cigarettes are one of the most popular tobacco products used by adolescents today. This study examined whether exposure to advertisements in (1) social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest/Google Plus), (2) traditional media (television/radio, magazines, billboards), or (3) retail stores (convenience stores, mall kiosks, tobacco shops) was associated with subsequent e-cigarette use in a longitudinal cohort of adolescents. Data were drawn from longitudinal surveys conducted in fall 2013 (wave 1) and spring 2014 (wave 2) of a school-based cohort attending 3 high schools and 2 middle schools in Connecticut. Adolescents were asked about tobacco use behaviors and where they had recently seen e-cigarette advertising at wave 1. We used logistic regression to determine whether advertising exposure at wave 1 increased the odds of e-cigarette use by wave 2, controlling for demographics and cigarette smoking status at wave 1. Among those who have never used e-cigarettes in wave 1 (n = 1742), 9.6% reported e-cigarette use at wave 2. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to e-cigarette advertising on Facebook (OR 2.12 = p advertising on social networking sites among youth who had never used e-cigarettes increases the likelihood of subsequent e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J Palpant

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking is a risk factor for low birth weight and other adverse developmental outcomes.We sought to determine the impact of standard tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo.Zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to assess developmental effects in vivo and cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs was used as a model for in vitro cardiac development.In zebrafish, exposure to both types of cigarettes results in broad, dose-dependent developmental defects coupled with severe heart malformation, pericardial edema and reduced heart function. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than e-cigarettes at comparable nicotine concentrations. During cardiac differentiation of hESCs, tobacco smoke exposure results in a delayed transition through mesoderm. Both types of cigarettes decrease expression of cardiac transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells, suggesting a persistent delay in differentiation. In definitive human cardiomyocytes, both e-cigarette- and tobacco cigarette-treated samples showed reduced expression of sarcomeric genes such as MLC2v and MYL6. Furthermore, tobacco cigarette-treated samples had delayed onset of beating and showed low levels and aberrant localization of N-cadherin, reduced myofilament content with significantly reduced sarcomere length, and increased expression of the immature cardiac marker smooth muscle alpha-actin.These data indicate a negative effect of both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects.

  2. Perceptions towards electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation among Stop Smoking Service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Frances C; Newson, Lisa; Marcus, Michael W; Field, John K; Robinson, Jude

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as smoking cessation tools, yet they remain unavailable from Stop Smoking Services in England; the debate over their safety and efficacy is ongoing. This study was designed to explore perceptions and reasons for use or non-use of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tools, among individuals engaged in Stop Smoking Services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with twenty participants engaged in Stop Smoking Services in the north-west of England. Participants comprised of both individuals who had tried e-cigarettes (n = 6) and those who had not (n = 14). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subject to thematic analysis, which explored participants' beliefs and experiences of e-cigarettes. A thematic analysis of transcripts suggested that the following three superordinate themes were prominent: (1) self-efficacy and beliefs in e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid; and (3) cues for e-cigarette use. Participants, particularly never users, were especially concerned regarding e-cigarette efficacy and safety. Overall, participants largely expressed uncertainty regarding e-cigarette safety and efficacy, with some evidence of misunderstanding. Evidence of uncertainty and misunderstanding regarding information on e-cigarettes highlights the importance of providing smokers with concise, up-to-date information regarding e-cigarettes, enabling smokers to make informed treatment decisions. Furthermore, identification of potential predictors of e-cigarette use can be used to inform Stop Smoking Services provision and future research. What is already known on this subject? Research suggests that e-cigarettes may help smokers quit smoking, but further studies are needed. Electronic cigarette use in Stop Smoking Services has increased substantially in recent years, although e-cigarettes are currently not regulated. There is debate within the

  3. Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martins-Green

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered - Thirdhand smoke (THS - the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS. In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS.

  4. Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795

  5. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Muhannad; van der Tempel, Jan; Schwartz, Robert; Minichiello, Alexa; Lightfoot, Clayton; Noormohamed, Aliya; Andrews, Jaklyn; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ferrence, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity among smokers, most of whom report using them to quit smoking. This study systematically reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ROVER, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU) library catalogue, and various gray literature sources. We included all English-language, empirical quantitative and qualitative papers that investigated primary cessation outcomes (smoking abstinence or reduction) or secondary outcomes (abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms and craving reductions) and were published on or before February 1, 2016. Literature searches identified 2855 references. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 62 relevant references were reviewed and appraised. In accordance with the GRADE system, the quality of the evidence in support of e-cigarettes' effectiveness in helping smokers quit was assessed as very low to low, and the evidence on smoking reduction was assessed as very low to moderate. The majority of included studies found that e-cigarettes, especially second-generation types, could alleviate smoking withdrawal symptoms and cravings in laboratory settings. While the majority of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, the evidence remains inconclusive due to the low quality of the research published to date. Well-designed randomized controlled trials and longitudinal, population studies are needed to further elucidate the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. This is the most comprehensive systematic evidence review to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among smokers. This review offers balanced and rigorous qualitative and quantitative analyses of published evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarette use for smoking

  6. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    magnesium level than the passive smokers/social drinkers group and controls. The results of this study ... non-alcohol/non-cigarette smoke exposed combined oral contraceptive ..... contraceptives: historical perspective. Johns. Hopkins Med.

  7. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan,

  8. Multilevel analysis of school anti-smoking education and current cigarette use among South African students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Brandon; Masyn, Katherine; Chandora, Rachna; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana

    2017-01-01

    South Africa (SA) implemented the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) four times between 1999 and 2011. Data from the four surveys indicated that downward trends in cigarette use among students may have stalled. Understanding the effect of school anti-smoking education on current smoking among students within schools and variability across schools may provide important insights into policies aimed at preventing or reducing tobacco use among students. The objective was to assess the student- and school-level effects of students' exposure to school anti-smoking education on current cigarette use among the study population using the most recent wave of GYTS data in SA (2011). An analytic sample of students 13-15 years of age was selected (n=3,068) from the SA GYTS 2011. A taxonomy of two-level logistic regression models was fit to assess the relationship of various tobacco use, control, and exposure predictor variables on current cigarette smoking among the study population. At the student-level in the full model, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, peer smoking, and ownership of a promotional item were significantly associated with higher risk of current smoking. At the school-level in the full model, average exposure to peer smoking was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of current cigarette use, while average family anti-smoking education was significantly associated with decreases in the outcome variable. School anti-smoking education was not a statistically significant predictor at the student- or school-levels. in this study, exposure to school anti-smoking education had no association with current cigarette smoking among the study population. Consistent with previous studies, having peers that smoked was highly associated with a student being a current smoker. Interestingly, at the school-level in the multilevel analysis, schools with higher rates of average family anti-smoking education had lower prevalence of current smoking. This finding has

  9. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  10. Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Gawron, Michal; Smith, Danielle M; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2017-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are purported to deliver nicotine aerosol without any toxic combustion products present in tobacco smoke. In this longitudinal within-subjects observational study, we evaluated the effects of e-cigarettes on nicotine delivery and exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants. We measured seven nicotine metabolites and 17 tobacco smoke exposure biomarkers in the urine samples of 20 smokers collected before and after switching to pen-style M201 e-cigarettes for 2 weeks. Biomarkers were metabolites of 13 major carcinogens and toxicants in cigarette smoke: one tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK), eight volatile organic compounds (1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, ethylene oxide, and propylene oxide), and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). Changes in urine biomarkers concentration were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. In total, 45% of participants reported complete abstinence from cigarette smoking at 2 weeks, while 55% reported continued smoking. Levels of total nicotine and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites did not change after switching from tobacco to e-cigarettes. All other biomarkers significantly decreased after 1 week of using e-cigarettes (p knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates that substituting tobacco cigarettes with an e-cigarette may reduce user exposure to numerous toxicants and carcinogens otherwise present in tobacco cigarettes. Data on reduced exposure to harmful constituents that are present in tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes can aid in evaluating e-cigarettes as a potential harm reduction device. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  12. Sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) biodistribution in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, Samuel S; Lima, Elaine AC; Dire, Gláucio F; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Porto, Luís Cristóvão

    2005-01-01

    The biological effects of cigarette smoke are not fully known. To improve our understanding of the action of various chemical agents, we investigated the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Fifteen BALB/c male mice were exposed to the smoke of nine whole commercial cigarettes per day, 3 times/day, for up to 10 days to whole body exposure in a chamber. A control group of 5 BALB/c male mice was sham-smoked. One day later, the exposed and control groups of mice received (7.4 MBq/0.3 ml) of Na 99m TcO 4 before being killed at 30 min. Bones, brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lungs, muscle, pancreas, spleen, stomach, testis and thyroid were weighed and these organs and blood radioactivity recorded with a gamma counter. The percentage per gram of tissue of injected dose (%ID/g) was determined for each organ. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the %ID/g in red blood cells, bone, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, testis and thyroid of the exposed mice. The toxic effects of cigarette smoke reduced the Na 99m TcO 4 biodistribution

  13. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  14. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff (naffa) inhalation on BMI, lipid profile, and plasma glucose. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Methods: The study was conducted on 200 healthy male subjects, including, 50 non-smokers aged 40.98±8.07, 50 cigarette smokers aged 41.32±7.39, ...

  16. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  17. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among antenatal clinic attendees in referral health facilities in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, C C; Dim, C C; Uzochukwu, B S C; Ezugwu, F O

    2015-01-01

    The most predominant form of tobacco use is cigarette smoking, and it poses serious threats to maternal and child health. The magnitude of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in our environment is not well-known. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria as well as their exposures and perceptions of cigarette smoking advertisement. Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of pregnant women randomly selected from three hospitals in Enugu, South-East Nigeria, from May 2, 2012 to June 12, 2012. Analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence levels. The prevalence of tobacco smoking in pregnancy was 4.5% (9/200). Over 90% of respondents admitted that cigarette smoking could harm both mother and unborn baby. In all, 79.5% (159/200) of respondents had seen or heard of advertisement for cigarette smoking as against 82.5% (165/200) that had seen or heard of antismoking advertisement (P = 0.444, odds ratio = 1.2 [95% confidence intervals: 0.74, 2.00]). The prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria was low, and there was high exposure to both pro-and anti-smoking advertisement. The awareness of harmful health effect of smoking was high but, that of the specific diseases associated with smoking in pregnancy was limited. Hence, antenatal classes and antismoking advertisement should be scaled-up to include maternal and peri-natal diseases/conditions associated with cigarette smoking.

  18. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  20. Passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Mateu, D; Elbal, L; Armenta, S; de la Guardia, M

    2016-05-15

    A procedure based on the use of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), after liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME), has been successfully employed for the determination of passive exposure to nicotine from cigarette and e-cigarette smoking. Nicotine has been determined in exhaled breath and oral fluids of both, active and passive smokers. The aforementioned studies, made in closed environments, evidenced that the exhaled breath after conventional blend cigarette smoke provides nicotine levels of the order of 220 ng per puff, in the case of experienced smokers, being exhaled only 32 ng in the case of e-cigarettes. On the other hand, the nicotine amount in oral fluids of passive vapers was between 8 and 14 µg L(-1) lower than the average value of 38±14 µg L(-1) found for passive smokers of rolling tobacco and clearly lower than the 79±36 µg L(-1) obtained from passive smokers of classical yellow blend. This study was also placed in the frame of the verification of the e-cigarettes composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faisal Sumit

    Full Text Available Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94 were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB, respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002. In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI. In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies.

  2. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  3. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  4. Effect of exclusive cigarette smoking and in combination with waterpipe smoking on lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, LDL levels increased relative to nonsmokers, consistent with findings in other populations. In addition, among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, current waterpipe smoking might increase adverse lipid profiles associated with adverse coronary effects more than cigarette smoking alone. The direct cause responsible for these observed variations in our study remains unidentified, with the hope that future research will reveal it.

  5. Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking among children: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Petrescu, Dragos C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-12-01

    There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candy-like flavours, such as, bubble gum and milk chocolate. We assigned 598 English school children (aged 11-16 years) to 1 of 3 different conditions corresponding to the adverts to which they were exposed: adverts for flavoured e-cigarettes, adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes or a control condition in which no adverts were shown. The primary endpoint was appeal of tobacco smoking. Secondary endpoints were: appeal of using e-cigarettes, susceptibility to tobacco smoking, perceived harm of tobacco, appeal of e-cigarette adverts and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Tobacco smokers and e-cigarette users were excluded from analyses (final sample=471). Exposure to either set of adverts did not increase the appeal of tobacco smoking, the appeal of using e-cigarettes, or susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Also, it did not reduce the perceived harm of tobacco smoking, which was high. Flavoured e-cigarette adverts were, however, more appealing than adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes and elicited greater interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Exposure to adverts for e-cigarettes does not seem to increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. Flavoured, compared with non-flavoured, e-cigarette adverts did, however, elicit greater appeal and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Further studies extending the current research are needed to elucidate the impact of flavoured and non-flavoured e-cigarette adverts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Dodd, Michael; Carlson, Les; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store. Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) "feel a craving for a cigarette?" (2) "feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?" and (3) "feel like all you want is a cigarette?" The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (pmarketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Properties of radioactive aerosols produced by interactions of indoor radon decay products with cigarette smoke and burning cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.; Sweder, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Risks of lung cancer to smokers, attributable in part to exposure to indoor radon decay products, are dependent on properties of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles. The authors have investigated the properties and interactions of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles as they pass through burning cigarettes into mainstream smoke, using /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles as tracers, cascade impactors for particle size determinations, and low-level β/sup -/ counting techniques. /sup 212/Pb-tagged particles of submicron size are destroyed in the burning zone of cigarettes. However, /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles exceeding 1.0 μm diameter pass readily through the burning zone and tobacco rod into mainstream smoke. /sup 212/ Pb- tagged particles in mainstream smoke have an activity median aerodynamic diameter between 1.0 and 2.0 μm diameter. Particles > 2.0 μm diameter carry about 10 percent of the total activity, are selectively deposited at the carina of bifurcations, and are resistant to dissolution in lung fluid. These results indicate that indoor radon progeny on large particles in mainstream smoke can contribute substantially to the cumulative alpha radiation dose at ''hot spots'' in the bronchi of smokers

  8. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  9. Exercise Prevents Diaphragm Wasting Induced by Cigarette Smoke through Modulation of Antioxidant Genes and Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Vieira Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods. Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activities were analyzed by zymography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by treadmill exercise test before and after the protocol. Results. Aerobic training inhibited diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This inhibition was associated with improved aerobic capacity in those animals that were submitted to 24 weeks of aerobic training, when compared to the control and smoke groups, which were not submitted to training. The aerobic training also downregulated the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (NRF2 and heme-oxygenase1 (HMOX1, in exercise + smoke group compared to smoke group. Conclusions. Treadmill aerobic training protects diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure involving upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

  10. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  11. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  12. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  13. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-02-28

    Background : In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods : Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices), Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption), and the World Bank database (countries' demographic characteristics). The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15-64 (%), aged 65 and over (%), year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results : GWLs were associated with a 0.9-3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230-287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions : The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking.

  14. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Chen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by abnormal cellular responses to cigarette smoke, resulting in tissue destruction and airflow limitation. Autophagy is a degradative process involving lysosomal turnover of cellular components, though its role in human diseases remains unclear.Increased autophagy was observed in lung tissue from COPD patients, as indicated by electron microscopic analysis, as well as by increased activation of autophagic proteins (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B, LC3B, Atg4, Atg5/12, Atg7. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE is an established model for studying the effects of cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In human pulmonary epithelial cells, exposure to CSE or histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor rapidly induced autophagy. CSE decreased HDAC activity, resulting in increased binding of early growth response-1 (Egr-1 and E2F factors to the autophagy gene LC3B promoter, and increased LC3B expression. Knockdown of E2F-4 or Egr-1 inhibited CSE-induced LC3B expression. Knockdown of Egr-1 also inhibited the expression of Atg4B, a critical factor for LC3B conversion. Inhibition of autophagy by LC3B-knockdown protected epithelial cells from CSE-induced apoptosis. Egr-1(-/- mice, which displayed basal airspace enlargement, resisted cigarette-smoke induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema.We demonstrate a critical role for Egr-1 in promoting autophagy and apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposure in vitro and in vivo. The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury.

  15. Comparison of Select Analytes in Exhaled Aerosol from E-Cigarettes with Exhaled Smoke from a Conventional Cigarette and Exhaled Breaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Long

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06% of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session. The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session. These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air.

  16. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and prevention by vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Siddhartha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung injury are not clear. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing long-lived radicals, including p-benzosemiquinone that causes oxidative damage. Earlier we had reported that oxidative protein damage is an initial event in smoke-induced lung injury. Considering that p-benzosemiquinone may be a causative factor of lung injury, we have isolated p-benzosemiquinone and compared its pathophysiological effects with cigarette smoke. Since vitamin C is a strong antioxidant, we have also determined the modulatory effect of vitamin C for preventing the pathophysiological events. Methods Vitamin C-restricted guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke (5 cigarettes/day; 2 puffs/cigarette for 21 days with and without supplementation of 15 mg vitamin C/guinea pig/day. Oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury were assessed in vitro, ex vivo in A549 cells as well as in vivo in guinea pigs. Inflammation was measured by neutrophilia in BALF. p-Benzosemiquinone was isolated from freshly prepared aqueous extract of cigarette smoke and characterized by various physico-chemical methods, including mass, NMR and ESR spectroscopy. p-Benzosemiquinone-induced lung damage was examined by intratracheal instillation in guinea pigs. Lung damage was measured by increased air spaces, as evidenced by histology and morphometric analysis. Oxidative protein damage, MMPs, VEGF and VEGFR2 were measured by western blot analysis, and formation of Michael adducts using MALDI-TOF-MS. Apoptosis was evidenced by TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, degradation of PARP and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio using immunoblot analysis and confocal microscopy. Results Exposure of guinea pigs to cigarette smoke resulted in progressive protein damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury up to 21 days of the experimental period. Administration of 15 mg of vitamin C/guinea pig/day prevented all these

  17. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-06-01

    As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self-reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115,814 students in 1996 and 106,297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night-time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro-tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines.

  18. Enhancement of lung cancer by cigarette smoking in uranium and other miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    There are substantial animal and epidemiological data related to cigarette smoking and lung cancer among miners exposed to elevated levels of radon daughters that appears to be in disagreement. An hypothesis is advanced that explains most of this disagreement as being derived from temporal differences of cancer expression. The hypothesis is that a given radiation exposure induced a finite number of lung cancers, which have shorter latent periods due to the cancer promotion activity of smoke among cigarette smokers. According to this hypothesis, the life-shortening effect is greater among smoking miners than nonsmoking miners, and the ultimate number of lung cancers among smoking miners will be only a little larger than among nonsmokers. The greater number will derive from the additive effect of radiation and smoking, plus the greater force of competing causes of death among elderly nonsmokers

  19. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  20. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  1. Adverse health effects of cigarette smoke: aldehydes Crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, hexanal and malonaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Sleijffers A; Schenk E; Rambali B; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; Amsterdam JGC van; TOX

    2006-01-01

    Crotonaldehyde in cigarette smoke can be concluded to induce airway damage in humans. This is one conclusion derived from the existing data found in the literature and reported here in the discussion on adverse health effects and possible addictive effects due to the exposure of crotonaldehyde,

  2. Biological effects in beagle dogs of inhaled radon daughters, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Stuart, B.O.; Hackett, P.; Ragan, H.A.; McDonald, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    After 5 years of daily inhalation exposures to 600 WL radon daughters plus uranium ore dust and/or cigarette smoking, observed pulmonary lesions include macrophage proliferation, septal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, emphysema, endothelial proliferation, and bronchiolar-alveolar epithelial changes involving multiple foci of squamous metaplasia with atypia. Epithelial neoplasms were found in the respiratory tracts of three dogs. (U.S.)

  3. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...

  4. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and the knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...

  5. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... not limited to: Electronic cigars, pipes, and devices designed to look like everyday products such as...] RIN 2105-AE06 Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST... Transportation is proposing to amend its existing airline smoking rule to explicitly ban the use of electronic...

  6. ?A good method of quitting smoking? or ?just an alternative to smoking?? Comparative evaluations of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette usage by dual users

    OpenAIRE

    Vandrevala, Tushna; Coyle, Adrian; Walker, Victoria; Cabrera Torres, Joshelyn; Ordo?a, Izobel; Rahman, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The development of e-cigarettes was initially hailed as a resource in facilitating a reduction in or cessation of cigarette smoking. Many users of e-cigarettes are ‘dual users’, smoking traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The present qualitative study examines the factors that a group of 20 dual users considered to have been influential in their decisions to use e-cigarettes and their comparative evaluations of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Health concerns were not found to be...

  7. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, W.-K.; Oh, J.-W.; Dong, J.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  8. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  9. Modeling the influence of vitamin D deficiency on cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi A. Crane-Godreau

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the primary risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoke exposure, vitamin D deficiency has been epidemiologically implicated as a factor in the progressive development of COPD-associated emphysema. Because of difficulties inherent to studies involving multiple risk factors in the progression of COPD in humans, we developed a murine model in which to study the separate and combined effects of vitamin D deficiency and cigarette smoke exposure. During a 16 week period, mice were exposed to one of four conditions, control diet breathing room air (CD-NS, control diet with cigarette smoke exposure (CD-CSE, vitamin D deficient diet breathing room air (VDD-NS or vitamin D deficient diet with cigarette smoke exposure (VDD-CSE. At the end of the exposure period, the lungs were examined by a pathologist and separately by morphometric analysis. In parallel experiments, mice were anesthetized for pulmonary function testing followed by sacrifice and analysis. Emphysema (determined by an increase in alveolar mean linear intercept length was more severe in the VDD-CSE mice compared to control animals and animals exposed to VDD or CSE alone. The VDD-CSE and the CD-CSE mice had increased total lung capacity and increased static lung compliance. There was also a significant increase in the matrix metalloproteinase-9: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 ratio in VDD-CSE mice compared with all controls. Alpha-1 antitrypsin expression was reduced in VDD-CSE mice as well. In summary, vitamin D deficiency, when combined with cigarette smoke exposure, seemed to accelerate the appearance of emphysemas, perhaps by virtue of an increased protease-antiprotease ratio in the combined VDD-CSE animals. These results support the value of our mouse model in the study of COPD.

  10. Protocols to Evaluate Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pathology in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhalation of cigarette smoke causes inflammation of the airways, airway wall remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and progressive airflow limitation. Much of the disease burden and health care utilisation in COPD is associated with the management of its comorbidities and infectious (viral and bacterial) exacerbations (AECOPD). Comorbidities, in particular skeletal muscle wasting, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer markedly impact on disease morbidity, progression and mortality. The mechanisms and mediators underlying COPD and its comorbidities are poorly understood and current COPD therapy is relatively ineffective. Many researchers have used animal modelling systems to explore the mechanisms underlying COPD, AECOPD and comorbidities of COPD with the goal of identifying novel therapeutic targets. Here we describe a mouse model that we have developed to define the cellular, molecular and pathological consequences of cigarette smoke exposure and the development of comorbidities of COPD.

  11. The effect of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in isolated hamster lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maennistoe, J.; Toivonen, H.; Hartiala, J.; Bakhle, Y.S.; Uotila, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) were investigated in isolated hamster lungs. Arachidonate was injected into the pulmonary circulation and the metabolites were analysed from the nonrecirculating perfusion effluent by thin layer chromatography. After the pulmonary injection of 66 nmol of 14C-AA about 20% of the injected radioactivity appeared in the perfusion effluent mostly as metabolites in six minutes. When isolated lungs were ventilated with cigarette smoke during the perfusion, the amounts of PGF2 alpha, PGE2 and two unidentified metabolite groups increased in the lung effluent. In two other experimental series hamsters were exposed to cigarette smoke before the lung perfusion either once for 30 min or during one hour daily for ten consecutive days. Neither pre-exposures caused any changes in the amounts of arachidonate metabolites in the lung effluent

  12. The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Acne Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ramin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. Different factors have been suggested to influence acne including diet, menstruation and occupation. The role of some of these factors on acne intensity is confirmed. The affect of Cigarette smoking on acne intensity has been suggested. In this research, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the acne intensity.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 278 smoker and 277non smoker males referred to dermatology clinics of Semnan during 2006-2007. The dermatologists interviewing the patients completed questionnaires based on clinical diagnosis and intensity of acne. Data analysis was performed using t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Spearman coefficient tests. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Severe acne was observed in 16.6% of non-smokers and 22.7% of smokers. Distribution of acne intensity in both groups was significant (P=0.023. Association between duration of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was significant too (P<0.001. The association between dosage of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was also significant (P<0.001.Conclusion: Significant association between cigarette smoking and acne intensity showed that smoking withdrawal is helpful for reducing the acne intensity

  13. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

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    Saba Kassim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  14. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-19

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  15. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

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    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  16. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-02-01

    Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes. PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design, population, definition and prevalence of e-cigarette use, comparison group (if applicable), cigarette consumption, level of nicotine dependence, other confounders, definition of quitting smoking, and odds of quitting smoking. The primary endpoint was cigarette smoking cessation. Odds of smoking cessation among smokers using e-cigarettes compared with smokers not using e-cigarettes were assessed using a random effects meta-analysis. A modification of the ACROBAT-NRSI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were used to assess bias. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42015020382). 38 studies (of 577 studies identified) were included in the systematic review; all 20 studies with control groups (15 cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials) were included in random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Odds of quitting cigarettes were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·91). Association of e-cigarette use with quitting did not significantly differ among studies of all smokers using e-cigarettes (irrespective of interest in quitting cigarettes) compared with studies of only smokers interested in cigarette cessation (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·45-0·86 vs 0·86, 0·60-1·23; p=0·94). Other study characteristics (design, population, comparison group, control variables, time of exposure assessment, biochemical verification of abstinence, and definition of e-cigarette use

  17. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes. Methods PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design, population, definition and prevalence of e-cigarette use, comparison group (if applicable), cigarette consumption, level of nicotine dependence, other confounders, definition of quitting smoking, and odds of quitting smoking. The primary endpoint was cigarette smoking cessation. Odds of smoking cessation among smokers using e-cigarettes compared with smokers not using e-cigarettes were assessed using a random effects meta-analysis. A modification of the ACROBAT-NRSI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were used to assess bias. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42015020382). Findings 38 studies (of 577 studies identified) were included in the systematic review; all 20 studies with control groups (15 cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials) were included in random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Odds of quitting cigarettes were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57–0·91). Association of e-cigarette use with quitting did not significantly differ among studies of all smokers using e-cigarettes (irrespective of interest in quitting cigarettes) compared with studies of only smokers interested in cigarette cessation (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·45–0·86 vs 0·86, 0·60–1·23; p=0·94). Other study characteristics (design, population, comparison group, control variables, time of exposure assessment, biochemical verification of

  18. Smoke exposure at western wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  19. Electronic cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking initiation among youth, United States, 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Satomi Odani; Kristy Marynak; Brian Armour; Israel Agaku

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S youth. We used cross-sectional, nationally representative data of U.S. middle and high school students to examine the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking initiation. Methods Data were from the 2015 and 2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, a school-based survey of U.S. 6 th -12 th graders (pooled N=38,386). Questions on current age and age at initiation of dif...

  20. Overtime work, cigarette consumption, and addiction to cigarette among workers subject to mild smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Tetsuya; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Reijula, Kari

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation of hours of overtime work to cigarette consumption and addiction to cigarette, which was measured by the heaviness of smoking index. The subjects were 571 male daily smokers who responded to a cross-sectional survey of municipal employees of a Japanese city office, in which smoking was permitted in designated areas. Those who engaged in moderate overtime work (10-29 h per month) consumed less number of cigarettes per day and had lower levels of heaviness of smoking index, compared with those who worked either shorter or longer hours of overtime, although the differences were not statistically significant. In the workplace, men who worked 50 h or longer overtime last month consumed, on average, 4 cigarettes more than men who worked less than 30 h of overtime. Home cigarette consumption decreased as hours of overtime work increased. In stratified analysis, there was a significant difference in daily cigarette consumption according to hours of overtime work among smokers in staff position or under low psychological work stress; showing reduced consumption associated with medium levels of overtime work, compared to either no overtime work or extended overtime hours. The U-shaped relations of hours of overtime work to overall cigarette consumption and addiction to smoking deserve further investigations.

  1. The perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and smoking susceptibility among seventh graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L; Flora, J A; Feighery, E; Schooler, C

    1999-01-01

    A perceptual bias, the third person effect, has been observed where individuals believe themselves to differ from others regarding the perceived influence of media messages. Given the frequency with which youth encounter prosmoking messages and the reported negative effects of these messages, it is of value to study whether youth perceive cigarette advertisements to influence themselves and their friends and peers. This study examined the associations between exposure to social and information prosmoking environments, the perceived influence of cigarette advertisements on self, best friends, and other youth, and smoking susceptibility. A sample of 571 seventh graders completed surveys on tobacco advertisements and promotions. Using Student's-t, chi-square, ANOVA tests and proportional odds models, we found significant associations between perceived influence of cigarette advertisements and exposure to social and information prosmoking environments as well as smoking susceptibility. These data suggest that youth be taught that everyone is vulnerable to the tobacco industry's strategies and be given skills to resist prosmoking advertising.

  2. Exposure to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) visual imagery increases smoking urge and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; Fridberg, Daniel J; Matthews, Alicia K; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-02-01

    Use and awareness of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly among young adults. As use of ENDS resembles traditional smoking in both hand-to-mouth movements and inhalation and exhalation behaviors, we determined whether exposure to e-cigarette use via video exposure would act as a cue to elicit urge and desire for a combustible cigarette. Young adult smokers (mean age of 26.3 ± 4.1 years) were randomized to view a brief video montage of advertisements depicting either e-cigarette vaping (n = 38) or bottled water drinking (n = 40). Pre- and postcue exposure assessments were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting without other smoking or vaping cues present or behaviors allowed. Primary outcomes included change from pre-exposure baseline in smoking urge (Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and desire for a combustible and e-cigarette (visual analogue scales). Results showed that relative to exposure to the bottled water video, exposure to the ENDS video significantly increased smoking urge (p e-cigarette (p < .001). These findings provide preliminary evidence that passive exposure to video imagery of ENDS use may generalize as a condition cue and evoke urges for a combustible cigarette in young adult smokers. It remains to be determined whether such increases in urge and desire correspond to increases in actual smoking behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. E-cigarette use and willingness to smoke: a sample of adolescent non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-04-01

    There is little evidence on the consequences of using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of non-smokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking of combustible cigarettes. School-based cross-sectional survey of 2309 high school students (mean age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Non-smokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared with those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted OR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.73 to 3.19). SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking, but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Among adolescent non-smokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Prevalence and correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents in East Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Muula, A S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates for current cigarette smoking. Secondary analysis of the East Timor-Leste Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2006. Public and private schools registered with the Ministry of Education. A two-stage cluster sample of 1790 students in Grades 7 to 9. Schools were selected with probability proportional to enrolment size, and classes were randomly selected in each school. All students in selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. The school and student response rates were 96.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Out of 1790 adolescents, 52.1% were of ages less than 15 years, 51.8% were males, 42.8% reported having some pocket money in a month, and 72.7% had at least a parent who was a smoker. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 40.3%. Current smokers also reported having bought cigarettes from peddlers (32.4%), someone bought for them (16.7%), got from someone older (13.7%), borrowed (13.3%), and stole (3.4%). Males were more likely to be smokers than females (59.0% versus 19.3%). Factors positively associated with current smoking were: parental smoking; closest friend smoking; amount of pocket money; and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. East Timor has one of the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents. The fact that exposure to anti-tobacco messages was associated with being a smoker may be evidence suggesting that anti-tobacco messages, especially from tobacco-related industry, may have unintended consequences.

  5. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

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    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  6. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  7. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2017-12-01

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. In Adult Smokers Unwilling or Unable to Quit, Does Changing From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic Cigarettes Decrease the Incidence of Negative Health Effects Associated With Smoking Tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the e-cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices.

  9. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

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    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  10. Children’s Idea about Cigarettes and Smoking

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    Afshari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking is attributed to pediatric disease and pediatric epidemics. This study aimed to indicate the attitudes of four- to six-year-old children toward cigarettes. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted by a questionnaire in 2011. Hundred and forty-five, children, aged four to six years, were randomly selected from eight kindergartens located in all four areas of Ahvaz. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze demographic data, Chi-square test to compare qualitative variables and Pearson correlation coefficient to compare quantitative data. Results Results of the study showed that 76.4% of children knew what a cigarette is; 41.2% had talked about smoking with their parents; 1.4% had asked to buy one due to the attractive appearance of cigarette packs; 27.8% imitated the act of smoking. Children’s attitude toward smoking showed that 1.4% of them took smoking as a good act, 91.4% believed that smoking was a bad act and 7.1% had no idea about smoking. Conclusions Since parents’ behaviors affect their children, it is advisable to implement effective interventional programs to increase parents’ awareness about smoking and its harmful environmental effects.

  11. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and sleep quality

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    Jui-Ting Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although nicotine can enhance some cognitive functions, cigarette smoking may impair memory and sleep quality. Our aim was to investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on memory and sleep quality in healthy smokers. Sixty-eight healthy participants (34 smokers and 34 controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed, and Hochberg’s Sharpened Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The results show that current smokers had a worse visual memory compared to nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between the index of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Moreover, smokers had poorer sleep quality. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and adversely influence sleep quality.

  13. Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

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    Kevin M. Beaver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal role that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke has on human phenotypes, emerging evidence has suggested that the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioral phenotypes may be spurious. The current analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B revealed that the association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and externalizing behavioral problems was fully accounted for by confounding factors. The implications that these findings have for policy and research are discussed.

  14. Andrographolide protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative lung injury via augmentation of Nrf2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, SP; Tee, W; Ng, DSW; Chan, TK; Peh, HY; Ho, WE; Cheng, C; Mak, JC; Wong, WSF

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cigarette smoke is a major cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Andrographolide is an active biomolecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide has been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive antioxidant transcription factor. As Nrf2 activity is reduced in COPD, we hypothesize that andrographolide may have therapeutic value for COPD. Experimental Approach Andrographolide was given i.p. to BALB/c mice daily 2 h before 4% cigarette smoke exposure for 1 h over five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs were collected for analyses of cytokines, oxidative damage markers and antioxidant activities. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and used to study the antioxidant mechanism of action of andrographolide. Key Results Andrographolide suppressed cigarette smoke-induced increases in lavage fluid cell counts; levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 and KC; and levels of oxidative biomarkers 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG and 3-nitrotyrosine in a dose-dependent manner. Andrographolide promoted inductions of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in lungs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice. In BEAS-2B cells, andrographolide markedly increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation, promoted binding to antioxidant response element (ARE) and total cellular glutathione level in response to CSE. Andrographolide up-regulated ARE-regulated gene targets including glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit, GCL modifier (GCLM) subunit, GPx, GR and heme oxygenase-1 in BEAS-2B cells in response to CSE. Conclusions Andrographolide possesses antioxidative properties against cigarette smoke-induced lung injury probably via augmentation of Nrf2 activity and may have therapeutic potential for treating COPD. PMID:23146110

  15. Src mediates cigarette smoke-induced resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosto, Simone; Baston, David S; Chung, Samuel; Becker, Cathleen R; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2013-08-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) is a proto-oncogene commonly dysregulated in several cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and, thus, is targeted for treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as erlotinib. However, despite the efficacy observed in patients with NSCLC harboring oncogenic variants of the EGFR, general ineffectiveness of TKIs in patients with NSCLC who are current and former smokers necessitates identification of novel mechanisms to overcome this phenomenon. Previously, we showed that NSCLC cells harboring either wild-type (WT) EGFR or oncogenic mutant (MT) L858R EGFR become resistant to the effects of TKIs when exposed to cigarette smoke, evidenced by their autophosphorylation and prolonged downstream signaling. Here, we present Src as a target mediating cigarette smoke-induced resistance to TKIs in both WT EGFR- and L858R MT EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells. First, we show that cigarette smoke exposure of A549 cells leads to time-dependent activation of Src, which then abnormally binds to the WT EGFR causing TKI resistance, contrasting previous observations of constitutive binding between inactive Src and TKI-sensitive L858R MT EGFR. Next, we show that Src inhibition restores TKI sensitivity in cigarette smoke-exposed NSCLC cells, preventing EGFR autophosphorylation in the presence of erlotinib. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of a dominant-negative Src (Y527F/K295R) restores TKI sensitivity to A549 exposed to cigarette smoke. Importantly, the TKI resistance that emerges even in cigarette smoke-exposed L858R EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells could be eliminated with Src inhibition. Together, these findings offer new rationale for using Src inhibitors for treating TKI-resistant NSCLC commonly observed in smokers.

  16. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauphinee Amanda L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents’ recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake. Methods School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15 in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,589 was brand recognition, measured by students’ identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n = 1,179 was progression from never to ever smoking within 12 months. Results At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR = 3.03, CI = 2.45, 3.74, p  Conclusions The study findings illustrate that African-American youth are better able to recognize Newport cigarette advertisements, even after adjustment for exposure to smoking by parents and peers. In addition, recognition of Newport cigarette advertising predicted smoking initiation, regardless of race. This longitudinal study contributes to a growing body of evidence that supports a ban on menthol flavored cigarettes in the US as well as stronger regulation of tobacco

  17. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory neuroepithelium of New Zealand white rabbit, using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Nagi M; El-Hennawi, Diaa M; Yousef, Tarek F; El-Tabbakh, Mohammed T; Elnahriry, Tarek A

    2017-06-01

    To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope. Changes that were found in the rabbits of study group 1 in comparison to control group were loss of microvilli of sustentacular cells (p = 0.016) and decreases in distribution of specialized cilia of olfactory receptor cells (p = 0.046). Also respiratory metaplasia was detected. These changes were reversible in study group 2. Cigarette smoking causes ultra-structural changes in olfactory neuro-epithelium which may explain why smell was affected in cigarette smokers. Most of these changes were reversible after 45 days of cessation of cigarette smoking to the rabbits.

  19. Examining the interrelationships between social anxiety, smoking to cope, and cigarette craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; VanderVeen, Joseph W; Cohen, Lee M; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Morrell, Holly E R

    2012-08-01

    Smokers with symptoms of social anxiety often report smoking as a way to cope with negative affect. These individuals have lower success rates when attempting cessation compared with the general population. However, there is a paucity of research examining the role of social anxiety in nicotine dependence. The present study explored the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, smoking to cope with these symptoms during social situations (STC), and cigarette craving. Thirty-eight participants completed measures of social anxiety and STC at baseline. Cigarette craving was subsequently assessed pre and post exposure to smoking-related images during periods of nicotine satiation and deprivation. Regression analyses revealed that greater symptoms of social anxiety predicted the frequency of STC behaviors and the number of cigarettes participants thought they would need in order to feel more comfortable in social situations. Symptoms of social anxiety and several behaviors associated with STC (e.g., avoiding social situations in which smoking is not permitted) predicted increases in craving during nicotine deprivation, but not satiation. These findings suggest that symptoms of social anxiety and STC behaviors may play a role in the maintenance of smoking behaviors. Further, targeting symptoms of social anxiety within the context of smoking cessation treatment may be particularly helpful and may improve the rates of smoking cessation among individuals with symptoms of social anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of Adults Who Switched From Cigarette Smoking to E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Hyun; Duncan, Dustin T; Shahawy, Omar El; Lee, Lily; Shearston, Jenni A; Tamura, Kosuke; Sherman, Scott E; Weitzman, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), this study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics and state-level prevalence of U.S. adults who have switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes. Data from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Surveys were analyzed in 2016. Relative percent change in switching was estimated, and the state-specific prevalence of adults who switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes was calculated and mapped. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine how switching varied by sociodemographic subgroups and region. Overall, the number of individuals who switched from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes increased by approximately 100% over the 1-year interval. Significant increases were found among a number of sociodemographics and regions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that young adults and those living in the South and West were more likely to switch to e-cigarettes, compared to former smokers who did not switch. Compared with current dual users, those with higher education and those who were not single were more likely to switch to e-cigarettes. The state with the highest prevalence of switching was New Mexico (7.3%), whereas Connecticut had the lowest prevalence (0.8 %) among former smokers. There is an increase in the progression from traditional cigarette use to e-cigarette use. Further research is warranted to determine whether this change continues and facilitates cigarette smoking cessation as a possible public health benefit and opportunity to save lives rather than constitutes a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The combined effects of plutonium and cigarette smoke on the production of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Moores, S.R.; Black, A.; Talbot, R.; Morgan, A.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of exposure to cigarette smoke on the incidence of plutonium induced lung tumours in mice. Approximately 130 female CBA/H mice were used. These were exposed to plutonium-239 dioxide to give an initial alveolar deposit of 100 Bq, then treated in one of three ways. One third received no further treatment and were held for a period of 18 months. The remainder were either sham-exposed or exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke for one year then held for a further 6 months. After this all the animals were killed. The control mice - that had received only plutonium -contained more tumours than mice that were also either sham-exposed or exposed to cigarette smoke. The lowest number of tumours was found in the group exposed to smoke. These results indicate that, under some circumstances, the effects of cigarette smoke and of alpha-irradiation of the lung can be antagonistic, contrasting with a common expectation of synergy. (author)

  2. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  3. Authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C; Bee-Gates, D J; Henriksen, L

    1994-01-01

    School-based social influence programs to prevent adolescent smoking are having limited success in the long term. Intervening earlier in the process of smoking onset, during the childhood years, may be required to prevent adolescent smoking. Child socialization variables, specifically parenting behaviors and child competencies, may be important to understanding the earliest phase of smoking onset. This study tested hypotheses of association between authoritative parenting behaviors, enhanced child competencies, and relatively low rates of initiation of cigarette smoking. Analyzing cross-sectional survey data from 937 students in Grades 3 to 8, we found general support for the study hypotheses: Authoritative parenting was positively associated with child competencies; children's competency levels were inversely related to their rates of smoking intention, initiation, and experimentation; authoritative parenting was inversely related to rates of child smoking intention and behaviors; and authoritative parenting and parent smoking status had independent associations with child initiation of cigarette smoking. These results indicate that child socialization variables merit further investigation for their potential role in the development of early intervention programs for smoking prevention.

  4. Cigarette advertising and onset of smoking in children: questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, D; Kelly, S; Huang, W; Charlton, A

    1996-08-17

    To investigate uptake of smoking in a cohort of 11 to 12 year olds related to awareness of advertised cigarette brands named. Self completed questionnaires administered to whole classes of schoolchildren in June 1993 and June 1994. Primary, middle, and secondary schools in the north and south of England. 1450 pupils aged 11 and 12 years at the time of the first survey. Onset of smoking and brands smoked by the second survey related to cigarette brands named in the first one. Less advertised brands were used as the base for calculating odds ratios. Girls who named the most advertised brands-namely, Benson and Hedges alone (odds ratio = 2.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.18 to 5.30) or Benson and Hedges and Silk Cut (2.15, 1.04 to 4.42) in the first survey were at greatest risk of taking up smoking by the second one. The difference was similar but not significant for boys. Boys and girls who named the least advertised brands in the first survey were at no greater risk of taking up smoking by the second survey than those who named no brands (boys odds ratio = 0.49 (0.24 to 1.01); girls 0.79 (0.38 to 1.62)). New smokers were more likely to smoke any available brand (29.5%) or a less advertised brand such as Embassy (24.6%) than the most advertised ones, Benson and Hedges (19.7%) and Silk Cut (14.8%). Established smokers were more selective, only 15% smoking any available brand and 38.3% smoking Benson and Hedges. Cigarette advertising appears to increase children's awareness of smoking at a generic level and encourages them to take up the behaviour, beginning with any cigarettes which are available and affordable.

  5. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  6. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  7. Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Richard; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the smoking habit as adolescents or young adults. Survey data from the 2007 Lusaka (Zambia) Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and assess whether exposure to pro-tobacco media and perception of the potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Altogether, 2378 students, of whom 56.8% were females, participated in the study. Overall, 10.5% of the students (9.3% among males and 12.1% among females) smoked cigarettes in the 30 days prior to the survey. Students who favored banning smoking in public places were 33% (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.47, 0.96]) less likely to smoke cigarettes compared to those who were not in favor of the ban. Seeing actors smoking in TV shows, videos or movies was positively associated with smoking (OR = 1.90; 95% CI [1.26, 2.88]). However, possessing an item with a cigarette brand logo on it, seeing advertisements of cigarettes on billboards and being ever offered a free cigarette by a cigarette sales representative were negatively associated with smoking (OR=0.39, 95% CI [0.26, 0.58]; OR=0.63, 95% CI [0.43, 0.92]; and OR=0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.65], respectively). Findings from this study indicate that TV advertisement-promotion-sponsorship was positively associated with smoking, while it was the opposite with other forms of advertisement; there is a need for further studies.

  8. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorenby, Douglas E; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate how experienced dual users used cigarettes and e-cigarettes in real-world use and under different levels of cigarette availability. Dual users (cigarettes+e-cigarettes; n=74) and a smoke-only group (just cigarettes; n=74) engaged in a 26-day study with two ad lib use intervals, a week of 75% cigarette reduction and three days of 100% cigarette reduction. After a week of ad lib use of products, all participants were asked to reduce smoking by 75% (dual users were free to use their e-cigarettes as they wished), followed by another week of ad lib use. All participants were then asked to reduce smoking by 100% (cessation) for three days. Primary outcomes were biological samples (carbon monoxide, urinary nicotine and cotinine). Participants also provided real-time reports of product use, craving, and withdrawal symptoms using a smartphone app. Dual users did not smoke fewer cigarettes than smoke-only participants during ad lib periods, but quadrupled their use of e-cigarettes during smoking reduction periods. Dual users were significantly more likely to maintain 100% reduction (97.1% vs. 81.2%). Amongst women, dual use was associated with higher nicotine levels and withdrawal suppression. Among a group of experienced dual users, e-cigarettes helped maintain smoking reduction and reduced some withdrawal symptoms, although both withdrawal symptoms and nicotine levels varied as a function of gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal-spontaneous or automatic-attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. 187 young adult (mean age=21.9; SD=4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p's e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Future research is neede