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Sample records for cigarette beetle lasioderma

  1. Estudos sôbre a longevidade de adultos de Lasioderma serricorne F., o "besourinho do fumo" Longevity and life tables for the tobacco beetle Lasioderma serricorne F.

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    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudando as relações ecológicas do "besourinho do fumo", Lasioderma serricorne F., os autores fizeram uma pesquisa com o fito de ser determinada a longevidade fisiológica dos adultos de ambos os sexos dêsse inseto, quando mantidos em incubador à temperatura de 30°C e 85% de umidade relativa, em ausência de luz. Os machos têm vida mais curta que as fêmeas. Verificou-se, também, que as condições em que foram mantidos os estádios imaturos da espécie têm influência marcante na longevidade dos adultos, sendo as fêmeas mais sensíveis que os machos a mudanças nessas condições.This paper presents the life tables for sexually isolated males and females of the ''tobacco beetle", Lasioderma serricorne F., based on insects that lived in vials maintained in an incubator at 30°C and 85% of relative humidity, in the dark. The adults were obtained from three different cultures ; the immature stages were fed on wheat flour. For each culture the females were always longer-lived than the males (P = .01. The mean life durations for males from cultures a, b and c were respectively 23.06, 24.63 and 19.66 days. Males from cultures a and b showed no statistical difference in their life duration (P = .01. The mean life durations for females from cultures a, b, and c were respectively 33.63, 26.53 and 21.18 days. Those means are statistically different (P = .01. Males and females from cultures c were shorter lived (P = .01 than males and females of both cultures a and b. Considering the fact that the original number of beetles from culture c (382 males and 330 females was much larger than the original number of beetles from culture a (171 males and 157 females or b (146 males and 184 females, we know that the density of the larval population in the culture c was higher than in the culture a or b. Competition during the larval stage must be the chief factor responsible for the shortening of the mean adult life for both sexes of L. serricorne F

  2. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against Lasioderma serricorne

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    Wang Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of essential oil derived from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius. Essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 46 components of the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes were identified. The principal compounds in A. blepharocalyx essential oil were camphor (23.13%, sabinene (11.27%, α-pinene (9.81% and eucalyptol (8.86% followed by camphene (8.05%, sylvestrene (5.61% and α-phellandrene (5.00%. Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as camphor, sabinene, α-pinene and eucalyptol. The essential oil of A. blepharocalyx possessed strong contact toxicity against the cigarette beetle with LD50 value of 15.02 μg adult-1, and also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LC50 value of 3.83 mg L-1 air. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx shows potential in terms of contact and fumigant toxicities against stored product insects.

  3. Fumigant activity of Elsholtzia stauntonii extract against Lasioderma serricorne

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    Jian-Hua Lü

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The repeated use of phosphine over decades for the control of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, a significant stored-product insect worldwide, has led to serious negative effects, including strong insecticide resistance, disruption of biological control by natural enemies, and environmental and human health concerns. As an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides, plant-derived pesticides have been the focus of much research. We investigated the fumigant activity of whole plant extracts of Elsholtzia stauntonii, a Chinese mint shrub, against the adult, larval, pupal and egg stages of L. serricorne. E. stauntonii extracts exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne; larvae and adults were more susceptible to this toxicity than were eggs and pupae. The toxicity significantly increased with increasing dosage. The corrected mortality of larvae, adults, pupae and eggs reached 99.32%, 97.97%, 44.67% and 33.33%, respectively, at a dosage of 40 µL/L air after 48 h of exposure. The declining order of susceptibility of different developmental stages of L. serricorne to E. stauntonii extracts, as indicated by the concentration at which 50% of the insects died (LC50, was as follows: larvae (LC50= 8.82 µL/L air, adults (LC50= 10.99 µL/L air, pupae (LC50= 45.96 µL/L air and eggs (LC50= 84.57 µL/L air. The results suggest that E. stauntonii extracts show promise as a fumigant for the control of L. serricorne.

  4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and Their Bioactivities against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Liang, Jun-Yu; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Two essential oil samples were obtained from the pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum with the methods of hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical fluid CO 2 extraction (SFE), their chemical components were identified, and their bioactivities against Lasioderma serricorne adults were evaluated. In the process of testing, the two samples showed significant bioactivities against Lasioderma serricorne adults. For an example, the SFE-sample expressed relatively stronger fumigant toxicity on Lasioderma serricorne adults (LC 50 = 3.99 μg/mL air) than that of the HD-sample (LC 50 = 12.54 μg/mL air). According to GC-MS analysis, the chemical components between two samples were different. The major chemical components for HD included linalool (25.99%), limonene (19.34%), linalyl anthranilate (12.22%), 4-terpinenol (10.49%), eucalyptol (6.53%) and α-terpineol (5.02%), while for SFE included nonanoic acid (21.43%), γ-terpinene (14.51%), eucalyptol (13.45%), α-terpineol (5.83%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.48%). The results showed that different chemical components result in different bioactivities. This work provides theoretical basis for traditional Chinese concept of antagonistic storage, and it also provides important information for the development and comprehensive utilization of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of electron-beam irradiation on the puncture resistance by Lasioderma serricorne in flexible packaging of granola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vitor M.; Alves, Juliana N.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: vmiranda@ipen.b, E-mail: julianaabc@ig.com.b, E-mail: bia.ribnog@gmail.co, E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ortiz, Angel V., E-mail: angel.ortiz@unipacnet.com.b [UNIPAC Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos R., E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.b [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Lasioderma serricorne is a beetle that infests stored and industrialized dry foods such as cereal bars, granola, flour and pasta, amongst others, depreciating the products and causing economic losses. It is therefore critical for these products a packaging that presents, in addition to good mechanical, barrier and machinability properties, a good resistance to puncture by insects, in order to prevent the contact and spread of pests in the packaged food. This study evaluates the changes on mechanical properties and puncture resistance by L. serricorne in BOPP/PP structure, used commercially as granola packaging after electron-beam irradiation. The irradiations were performed using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 11.22 kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air, doses up to 120 kGy. After irradiation the BOPP/PP samples were subjected to tests of puncture resistance by L. serricorne, tensile strength, friction coefficient, penetration and seal strength. Results showed decreases in the original mechanical properties of the structure according to the radiation doses applied and effective resistance against punctures by L. serricorne (p<0.05). The results indicate that the irradiated and non-irradiated BOPP/PP structure, in the conditions studied in this work, is resistant against L. serricorne, however the decreases observed in the mechanical properties of the irradiated structure may turn it inappropriate for packaging granola. (author)

  6. Chemical Compositions and Insecticidal Activities of Alpinia kwangsiensis Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

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    Yan Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Alpinia kwangsiensis rhizomes was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 31 components representing 92.45% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be camphor (17.59%, eucalyptol (15.16%, β-pinene (11.15% and α-pinene (10.50%. These four compounds were subsequently isolated and the essential oil and four isolated compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. During the assay, it was shown that the essential oil exhibited both potential contact (LD50 = of 24.59 μg/adult and fumigant (LC50 = of 9.91 mg/L air toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne. The study revealed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major components, which indicates that oil of Alpinia kwangsiensis and its isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  7. The behavioral response of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to citronellal, citral, and rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jianhua; Liu, Shuli

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral response of Lasioderma serricorne adults to citronellal, citral, and rutin was investigated by using the area preference method. The L. serricorne adults were exposed to citronellal, and citral at the rate of 1:10, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:1000 (citronellal: ethanol, v/v) for 1, 2, 12 and 24 h, to rutin at the rate of 10, 30 and 90 g/m(2) for 1, 2, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The citronellal and citral had attractive activity at the low rates and repellent potential at the high rates. The highest behavioral response values of L. serricorne adults to citronellal and citral were -88.89 % at the rate of 1:100 and 100.00 % at the rate of 1:50 respectively. Rutin had strong repellent effectiveness on L. serricorne adults, which significantly increased with increasing rates with the highest behavioral response values 100.00 % at the rate of 90 g/m(2) after 12 h exposure. These data suggest that the citronellal, citral, and rutin have great potential for preventing stored products from L. serricorne infestation.

  8. Contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil from Mentha haplocalyx Briq. against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Wang, Ying; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Mentha haplocalyx was investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In sum, 23 components, representing 92.88% of the total oil composition, were identified, and the main compounds were found to be menthol (59.71%), menthyl acetate (7.83%), limonene (6.98%), and menthone (4.44%). By bioassay-guided fractionation (contact toxicity), three compounds were obtained from the essential oil and identified as menthol, menthyl acetate, and limonene. The essential oil and the three isolated compounds exhibited potent contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults, with LD50 values of 16.5, 7.91, 5.96, and 13.7 μg/adult, respectively. Moreover, the oil and its isolated compounds also exhibited strong repellency against L. serricorne adults. At the lower concentrations tested and at 2 h after exposure, menthol showed even significantly stronger repellency than the positive control DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components, which indicates that the M. haplocalyx oil and its isolated compounds have potential for the development as natural insecticides and/or repellents to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

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    Chunxue You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%, (S-cis-verbenol (14.93%, 4-terpineol (7.20%, (−-camphor (6.02%, and α-terpineol (4.20% were found to be major components. With a further isolation process, five constituents obtained from the essential oil were identified as eucalyptol, verbenol, 4-terpineol, camphor, and α-terpineol. In the progress of assay, it showed that L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated constituents. 4-Terpineol exhibited strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing the LD50 value of 8.62 μg/adult. Moreover, camphor and α-terpineol showed stronger fumigant activity (LC50=2.91 and 3.27 mg/L air, resp. against L. serricorne than crude essential oil and other constituents. In addition, the essential oil, eucalyptol, verbenol, and α-terpineol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil and isolated compounds have potential to provide more efficient and safer natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in food and Chinese medicinal materials preservation.

  10. Bark Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan S.; McAvoy, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetles are one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. They are different than the larger longhorned and roundheaded/metallic woodboring beetles commonly infesting the inner wood of trees. The largest bark beetle, the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens), reaches only 8.3 mm in length. Because of their tiny size, bark beetles are not effective tree killers as individuals.

  11. Seasonal patterns of stored-product insects at a rice mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal and spatial patterns in flight activity outside of a rice mill were evaluated for the lesser grain borer [Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)], warehouse beetle [Trogoderma variabile (Ballion)], cigarette beetle [Lasioderma serricorne (F.)], and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (H'bner)] to...

  12. The impact of microwaves irradiation and temperature manipulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of microwaves irradiation and temperature manipulation against adults of saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephlius surinamensis (L.) and cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), over various exposure times and cold storage period was evaluated. The insects were exposed to 2450 MHZ at five different power ...

  13. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle

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    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  15. Stereoselective total synthesis of some insect pheromones: (±-serricornine and (±-invictolide

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    R. A. Pilli

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient (12 steps, 12% overallyield and stereoselective total synthesis of (±-serricornine (1 the sex pheromone of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricornine F is described. The preparation of intermediate 5, which encompasses the proper relative configuration of three contiguous chiral centers of (±-invictolide, (3, is discussed.

  16. Radiation effects evaluation for electrons sheaf in packages resistance in a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Sitophilus zeamais; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao por feixe de eletrons na resistencia de embalagens a Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella e Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2011-07-01

    The plagues of stored products consist of a man problem, depreciating products and causing economical damages. Among these curses we have Lasioderma serricorne (F. 1792), Sitophilus zeamais (M. 1855) and Plodia interpunctella (H. 1813) known by infesting stored products as: grains, brans, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits and spices. These curses perforate and penetrate the packages, ovipositing over the substratum. In this context the package plays a fundamental part, preventing the contact and curses' proliferation in the packed product. So, to protect the packed product and to prolong its shelf life, the package should have good mechanical resistance to tension and perforation, good sealing, good barrier properties and should not transfer odors nor strange flavors to the packed product. The ionizing radiation can cause structural changes in polymer packages, these changes are caused by the scission processes and reticulation of the polymers chains. These are concurrent processes and the predominance of one over the other depends on the chemical structure of the polymer, the irradiation conditions and specific factors of the material that will absorb the energy. This work had the objective to evaluate the changes in mechanical properties of package structures used to store granola, cereal bar and pasta, as well as its resistance to perforation by L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and S. zeamais, when submitted to electrons sheaf radiation. In this methodology were used five structures of commercially utilized packages to store granola, cereal bar and pasta composed by (Polypropylene bi-oriented metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - BOPPmet/BOPP 50 {mu}m), (Polypropylene bi-oriented/Polypropylene - BOPP/PP 50 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) metallic/Polypropylene bi-oriented coextruded - PETmet/BOPP 32 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate) /Polypropylene - PET/PP1 72 {mu}m), Poli (ethylene terephthalate)/Polypropylene - PET/PP2 32 {mu

  17. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2007-07-01

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  18. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Infogallery Be Tobacco Free Search betobaccofree.gov Menu Search ABOUT TOBACCO Tobacco Facts and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ...

  19. E-Cigarettes and Future Cigarette Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Urman, Robert; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Pentz, Mary Ann; Samet, Jonathan M; Leventhal, Adam M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research examining whether e-cigarette use increases the risk of cigarette initiation among adolescents in the transition to adulthood when the sale of cigarettes becomes legal...

  20. Monitoreo of the feromonas traps in the control of the plague Lasioderma serricorne (F. in the Managerial Unit of Base Alfredo López Brito.

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    Marta Rosa Rodríguez Valero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inigualable quality, the Cuban tobacco is one of the cultivations that bigger quantity of foreign currencies contributes to the country, but it is attacked by different plagues, in the different stages for those that it passes until its commercialization in leaves or as elaborated product. In the warehouses the most destructive plague is the Lasioderma serricorne (F. and to combat it in the Managerial Unit of Base Alfredo López Brito of Cabaiguán, the fosfamina, toxic product with high price is used in foreign currencies, the same one is applied with a bimonthly frequency, that is to say, every 60 days, for which the present work had as objective to lengthen the date of application of the fosfamina by means of the use of the feromonas traps to achieve a saving to the Unit and to improve the environmental conditions in the same one. The obtained results allowed to diminish the quantity of necessary fosfamina significantly to control the plague, the Unit saved during 4 months in those that it was carried out this work. $869.40 in national currency and $343.55 in CUC a positive impact also took place about the health of the workers and the one intones.

  1. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  2. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3,500 species of ambrosia beetles, represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. This presentation focuses on the discovery of a clade within the filamentous fungus Fusarium that is associ...

  3. Beetle eater verslindt aspergekever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    De Beetle eater doet wat haar naam doet vermoeden: kevers verslinden. Deze grote stofzuiger werkt goed bij het bestrijden van aspergekevers op aspergeplanten. Een teler en een onderzoeker hebben de machine daarvoor geoptimaliseerd.

  4. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  5. The Beetle comparator implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beuzekom, M G

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the comparator thresholds on a Beetle 1.1 chip show large variations. The width of the threshold distribution is several tenths of a MIP signal for a 300 µm silicon detector, which is more than can be corrected for by individual threshold settings. Monte Carlo simulations of the production-process parameters have been performed to track the cause of this large offset spread. The main cause of the offset variation is the spread in the threshold voltage of the MOSFETs. Since this cannot easily be solved by a change in the design of the comparator as such, the solution is to increase the range of the individual threshold settings while maintaining the same resolution. This implies an increase in the number of bits for the individual thresholds. The note describes measurements and simulations for the Beetle versions 1.1 and 1.2, and the changes in the design for the Beetle 1.3.

  6. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  7. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-08-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study during the spring of 2014. Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends' use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  9. Waves and Water Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  10. Manage Emotions Without Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you used to reach for a cigarette after a tough day at the office. Or found comfort in the companionship of a cigarette on a lonely night. Maybe you used to have cigarettes available as one way to help you deal with uncomfortable emotions.

  11. E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However we do know about some dangers of e-cigarettes: They contain nicotine, which is addictive They contain other potentially harmful ... tobacco cigarette use in teens The liquid in e-cigarettes can cause nicotine poisoning if someone drinks, sniffs, or touches it ...

  12. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  13. Electronic cigarette: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal addictive component of tobacco smoke is nicotine. The mechanisms of nicotine addiction are highly complex and are responsible for maintenance of smoking behaviour. Use of electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine containing vapor has increased rapidly across the world. They are marketed as a "healthier alternatives" to conventional cigarettes. There is extensive debate over long-term safety and efficacy of these devices on public health. Studies show that the vapor generated from the E-cigarettes has a variable amount of nicotine and potential harmful toxins. Until robust research demonstrates the safety of E-cigarettes and efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as safe smoking cessation tool is unclear. This review highlights the recent data regarding E-cigarettes toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation.

  14. Know More About Menthol Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know More About Menthol Cigarettes Know More About Menthol Cigarettes Menthol is a substance naturally found in ... most important to you, without smoking. Tweet This Menthol Marketing Menthol was first added to cigarettes in ...

  15. The e-cigarette psychosocial environment, e-cigarette use, and susceptibility to cigarette smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L.; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Samet, Jonathan M.; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that e-cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Methods Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children’s Health Study (CHS). We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the psychosocial environment (family and friends’ use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N=1694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Results Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30 day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared to 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared to never users (OR=1.97; 95%CI: 1.21, 3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual’s e-cigarette use. Conclusions E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. PMID:27161417

  16. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-07-01

    One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared with 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared with never users (odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends' use of and positive attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual's e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Parents > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Using Them en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos About E-Cigarettes E-cigarettes are being marketed as a ...

  18. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  19. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  20. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p differences between e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  1. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Methods Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Results Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. Conclusions The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. PMID:27633766

  3. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  4. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  5. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  6. Hospitalized Smokers’ Expectancies for Electronic Cigarettes versus Tobacco Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Cases, Mallory G.; Thorne, Christopher B.; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Kohler, Connie L.; Bailey, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare hospitalized smokers’ expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Methods Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Results Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies for the health risks of e-cigarettes (p < .001, Cohen's d = −2.07) as well as the ability of e-cigarettes to relieve negative affect (p < .001, Cohen's d = −1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.83), and taste pleasant (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p < .001, adjusted β = .34), relieve negative affect (p < .001, adjusted β = .32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, adjusted β = .31). Conclusions Hospitalizedtobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25452052

  7. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  8. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  9. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  10. Hospitalized smokers' expectancies for electronic cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S; Cases, Mallory G; Thorne, Christopher B; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F; Kohler, Connie L; Bailey, William C

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the current study were to compare hospitalized smokers' expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies that e-cigarettes pose health risks (p<.001, Cohen's d=-2.07), relieve negative affect (p<.001, Cohen's d=-1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p<.001, Cohen's d=-.83), and taste pleasant (p<.001, Cohen's d=-.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p<.001, adjusted β=.34), relieve negative affect (p<.001, adjusted β=.32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p<.001, adjusted β=.31). Hospitalized tobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette Demand and Cigarette Taxation in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaček, Jan

    2011-01-01

    5 Abstract: This thesis addresses to the cigarette demand and excise tax on cigarettes in the Czech Republic The aim is to describe behavior of smokers and especially their reaction to the changes in price of cigarettes. Data for household spending are used for this purpose. First part of this thesis is dedicated to description of the cigarette market and socio-demographic characteristics of smokers. Second part concerns with question whether smokers are rational or myopic and how price elast...

  12. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  13. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  14. Electronic cigarettes in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, J. Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to ...

  15. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process. If you smoke cigarettes, try going cold turkey before relying on e-cigarettes to help. If that doesn't work, it's time for a plan to wean yourself off nicotine. Make a specific goal, like using one less e-cigarette each day for a week. Keep cutting back until you no longer smoke or vape. ...

  16. E-Cigarette Marketing and Communication: How E-Cigarette Companies Market E-Cigarettes and the Public Engages with E-cigarette Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren; Glasser, Allison M; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Pearson, Jennifer L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2018-01-05

    Given the lack of regulation on marketing of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the U.S. and the increasing exchange of e-cigarette-related information online, it is critical to understand how e-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and how the public engages with e-cigarette information. Results are from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on e-cigarettes via a PubMed search through June 1, 2017. Search terms included: "e-cigarette*" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "vape" OR "vaping." Experimental studies, quasi-experimental studies, observational studies, qualitative studies, and mixed methods studies providing empirical findings on e-cigarette marketing and communication (i.e., non-marketing communication in the public) were included. One hundred twenty-four publications on e-cigarette marketing and communication were identified. They covered topics including e-cigarette advertisement claims/promotions and exposure/receptivity, the effect of e-cigarette advertisements on e-cigarette and cigarette use, public engagement with e-cigarette information, and the public's portrayal of e-cigarettes. Studies show increases in e-cigarette marketing expenditures and online engagement through social media over time, that e-cigarettes are often framed as an alternative to combustible cigarettes, and that e-cigarette advertisement exposure may be associated with e-cigarette trial in adolescents and young adults. Few studies examine the effects of e-cigarette marketing on perceptions and e-cigarette and cigarette use. Evidence suggests that exposure to e-cigarette advertisements affects perceptions and trial of e-cigarettes, but there is no evidence that exposure affects cigarette use. No studies examined how exposure to e-cigarette communication, particularly misleading or inaccurate information, impacts e-cigarette and tobacco use behaviors. The present article provides a comprehensive review of e-cigarette

  17. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  18. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  19. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  20. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  1. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  2. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, and the engraver beetle, Ips perturbatus, in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Edward H. Holsten

    1997-01-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus...

  3. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail I. Koksharov; Ugarova, Natalia N.

    2012-01-01

    Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic enginee...

  5. Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred P. Hain; Adrian J. Duehl; Micah J. Gardner; Thomas L. Payne

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a tree killer of southern yellow pines. All life stages—eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults—infest the inner bark or phloem tissue of the host tree. Adult beetles overcome the tree’s defenses through a mass-attack phenomenon. They are attracted to the tree by a pheromone system consisting of volatiles produced by the beetles and the host....

  6. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-01-01

    Background Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users...

  7. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes...

  8. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers. Cigarette...

  9. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  10. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  11. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  12. How tight are beetle hugs? Attachment in mating leaf beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Similar to other leaf beetles, rosemary beetles Chrysolina americana exhibit a distinct sexual dimorphism in tarsal attachment setae. Setal discoid terminals occur only in males, and they have been previously associated with a long-term attachment to the female's back (elytra) during copulation and mate guarding. For the first time, we studied living males and females holding to female's elytra. Pull-off force measurements with a custom-made tribometer featuring a self-aligning sample holder confirmed stronger attachment to female elytra compared with glass in both males and females; corresponding to 45 and 30 times the body weight, respectively. In line with previous studies, males generated significantly higher forces than females on convex elytra and flat glass, 1.2 times and 6.8 times, respectively. Convex substrates like elytra seem to improve the attachment ability of rosemary beetles, because they can hold more strongly due to favourable shear angles of legs, tarsi and adhesive setae. A self-aligning sample holder is found to be suitable for running force measurement tests with living biological samples.

  13. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  14. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  15. Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagation model of cigarette static burn at the cigarette periphery is proposed. Propagation of cigarette static burn is characterized by intermittent burn of the cigarette paper. The burning rate depends on the period of flash burn of the paper and is independent of the burning width. By measuring the local temperature near the front line of the burning propagation, the rate-determining step was identified as the time required to ignite the paper. A mathematical analysis was performed by calculating the heat transfer at the periphery during the paper heating period, and it was revealed that the thermal properties of the cigarette are the dominant factors of cigarette static burn. Modeling results showed good agreement with measured data.

  16. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  17. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zhand, N; R Ghaletaki; Meysamie, A; Abbasi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. T...

  18. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  19. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  20. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  1. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  2. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  3. The eastern larch beetle in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner

    1986-01-01

    The eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte) exists throughout the range of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in interior Alaska where it has a 1-year life cycle. Beetles overwinter as adults in the bark of the trunk below snowline in infested trees. Tamarack trees that are slow growing because of repeated...

  4. Ips Bark Beetles in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Conner; Robert C. Wilkinson

    1983-01-01

    Ips beetles usually attack weakened, dying, or recently felled trees and fresh logging debris. Large numbers Ips may build up when natural events such as lightning storms, ice storms, tornadoes, wildfires, and droughts create large amounts of pine suitable for the breeding of these beetles. Ips populations may also build up following forestry activities, such as...

  5. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  6. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  7. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  8. Perceptions of the relative harm of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bridget K; Rostron, Brian L; Johnson, Sarah E; Portnoy, David B; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Kaufman, Annette R; Choiniere, Conrad J

    2014-08-01

    Despite progress in reducing youth smoking, adolescents remain highly susceptible to tobacco use. Of concern is whether youth perceive electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a preferable alternative to conventional cigarettes. To describe cigarette harm perception patterns among youth based on the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and examine the relative harm perceptions of conventional versus e-cigarettes, using data from a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N=24,658) were analyzed in 2013 to identify patterns of cigarette harm perceptions. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify associations between demographic and tobacco use characteristics and cigarette harm perception patterns. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationship between cigarette harm perceptions and the perception of e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes for current, ever, and never cigarette smokers. The majority of youth (64.2%) perceived the harmfulness of cigarettes as dose-dependent. Approximately one in three students perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette smoking status, ever users of e-cigarettes and those with "dose-dependent" cigarette harm perceptions consistently were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Many youth perceive tobacco use on a continuum of harm. Youth who perceive gradations in harm-both by frequency and intensity of cigarette use and by type of product-may be particularly susceptible to e-cigarette use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Electronic Cigarette (E-Cigarette) Using: Toxicological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gülşen Göney

    2017-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased dramatically over the past few years. Moreover, no sufficient scientific evidence is available confirming the safety, efficacy also toxicity of e-cigarette’s. The aim of this review is evaluate and giving information about the toxic effects of e-cigarette’s using and its chemicals.

  10. Electronic Cigarette (E-Cigarette Using: Toxicological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Göney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes has increased dramatically over the past few years. Moreover, no sufficient scientific evidence is available confirming the safety, efficacy also toxicity of e-cigarette’s. The aim of this review is evaluate and giving information about the toxic effects of e-cigarette’s using and its chemicals.

  11. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  12. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes.

  13. Population dynamics of tree-killing bark beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Kärvemo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    During outbreak periods, the European spruce bark beetle and the North American mountain pine beetle are able to kill millions of coniferous trees. Throughout the 20th century, six outbreaks have occurred in Sweden and four in British Columbia, with about 20-year intervals in both regions. The outbreaks of the mountain pine beetles seem to grow much larger and last longer compared to the outbreaks of the spruce bark beetles. Over the years, the mountain pine beetle has killed about 60 million...

  14. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media.

  15. Electronic cigarette use by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Morrell, Holly E R; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapor. There is considerable controversy about the disease risk and toxicity of e-cigarettes and empirical evidence on short- and long-term health effects is minimal. Limited data on e-cigarette use and correlates exist, and to our knowledge, no prevalence rates among U.S. college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students. 4444 students from 8 colleges in North Carolina completed a Web-based survey in fall 2009. Ever use of e-cigarettes was reported by 4.9% of students, with 1.5% reporting past month use. Correlates of ever use included male gender, Hispanic or "Other race" (compared to non-Hispanic Whites), Greek affiliation, conventional cigarette smoking and e-cigarette harm perceptions. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, 12% of ever e-cigarette users had never smoked a conventional cigarette. Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with lack of knowledge about e-cigarette harm, but was not associated with intentions to quit. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, it was not exclusive to them. E-cigarette use was not associated with intentions to quit smoking among a sub-sample of conventional cigarette smokers. Unlike older, more established cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use by college students does not appear to be motivated by the desire to quit cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  17. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  18. Receptivity to e-cigarette marketing, harm perceptions, and e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-01-01

    To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  20. Combustible cigarettes cost less to use than e-cigarettes: global evidence and tax policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-03-01

    Some scholars suggest that price differences between combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which could reduce tobacco-related death and disease. Currently, in most jurisdictions, e-cigarettes are not subject to the same excise taxes as combustible cigarettes, potentially providing the category with a price advantage over combustible cigarettes. This paper tests whether e-cigarettes tax advantage has translated into a price advantage. In a sample of 45 countries, the price of combustible cigarettes, disposable e-cigarettes and rechargeable cigarettes were compared. Comparable units of combustible cigarettes cost less than disposable e-cigarettes in almost every country in the sample. While the e-liquids consumed in rechargeable e-cigarettes might cost less per comparable unit than combustible cigarettes, the initial cost to purchase a rechargeable e-cigarette presents a significant cost barrier to switching from smoking to vaping. Existing prices of e-cigarettes are generally much higher than of combustible cigarettes. If policymakers wish to tax e-cigarettes less than combustibles, forceful policy action-almost certainly through excise taxation-must raise the price of combustible cigarettes beyond the price of using e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and...

  2. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  3. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the following...

  4. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following rates...

  5. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For internal...

  6. Youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Dan; Brucks, Merrie; Wallendorf, Melanie; Boland, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series of print advertisements that included cigarette and non-tobacco-related ads. While viewing each ad, participants were asked to indicate what they thought the advertisement was trying to sell. Responses were coded into one of three categories reflecting important differences in participants' comprehension of each advertisement - no understanding, product category understanding, or brand understanding. Results show that youths typically understand the type of product an advertisement is promoting; however, the levels of brand understanding observed for cigarette advertisements were low in an absolute sense, and significantly lower than brand understanding of non-tobacco-related advertisements. Results also show that understanding cigarette ads as promoting specific brands of cigarettes is positively related to susceptibility to smoking. Taken together, these findings provide a glimpse of the psychological mechanisms that may underlie the well established link between exposure to cigarette advertising and youth smoking.

  7. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lunar orientation in a beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

  9. Cigarette smoking and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, A C

    1986-09-01

    There is consensus that smoking during pregnancy has deleterious effects upon both mother and baby. Smokers who use oral contraceptives run a greater risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease after age 35 than do nonsmokers. Smokers have more problems with osteoporosis, and lung cancer in women is on the rise and clearly associated with smoking. Yet, a real association between smoking and female infertility is difficult to find. Published data are weighted in the direction of showing no deleterious effect on fertility in the woman. Studies tend to be retrospective and not much prospective work has been done in the study of fertility in women who smoke as compared with women who do not. Harlap and Barras and Linn et al. failed to demonstrate a significant increase in the time necessary to conceive among smoking women in large studies of couple cohorts seeking conception after stopping contraception. Baird and Wilcox did report a decreased fertility among 678 women smokers. Variables are difficult to control, including age, number of cigarettes smoked, and life style. 1 of the few prospective studies is the Oxford Family Planning Association Contraceptive Study of 4104 couples interrupting contraception to attempt pregnancy (6199 attempts) between 1968 and 1983, showing a decreased fertility among smokers with a significant dose-effect relationship, but the decrease appeared to exist only for women smoking more than 16 cigarettes daily. Sperm counts, morphology, and other parameters of the semen analysis seem to be different, although even this is controversial, in men who smoke significant numbers of cigarettes. Hoidas et al. used scanning electron microsocopy with an image analysis computer to score photographs of sperm preparations, measuring head area, head perimeter, midpiece area, midpiece perimeter, and tail length, deriving a "form factor" mathematically from the area and perimeter length. The derived measurement roughly equates with roundness or

  10. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Rising Joshua; Alexander Lori

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be p...

  11. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mendy, Vincent L.; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; ZHANG, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an ...

  12. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Meernik; Baker, Hannah M.; Karina Paci; Isaiah Fischer-Brown; Daniel Dunlap; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess w...

  13. Attraction of bark beetle predator, Thanasimus undatulus (Coleoptera: Cleridae), to pheromones of the spruce beetle and two secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden

    1997-01-01

    The bark beetle predator Thanasimus undatulus Say was captured in statistically significant numbers (total catch = 470, 713, and 137) in three field experiments using multiple-funnel traps baited with various combinations of pheromones for the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, and the secondary bark beetles ...

  14. E-cigarette use and quantity of cigarette smoking among adolescent cigarette smokers: A finite mixture model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Wolfson, Mark

    2018-01-31

    E-cigarette use is popular among adolescents and youth, but its long-term public health implications remain largely unknown. Much of the literature has focused on understanding the relationship between e-cigarette use and youth cigarette initiation. However, very little is known about e-cigarette use and cigarette quantity among those who continue to smoke cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between current e-cigarette use and quantity of cigarette smoking. Cross-sectional data on current smokers were drawn from the 2014-2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey among high school students (n = 1411). A finite mixture model (FMM) was employed to account for unobserved heterogeneity due to clusters of finite sub-populations. Current e-cigarette users reported smoking more conventional cigarettes in the past week compared to non-e-cigarette users (t [1409] = 4.7998; p < 0.001 in unadjusted analysis). Results from a finite mixture regression showed that current e-cigarette use was significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked in the past week, but only among light smokers (IRR = 1.40; CI = 1.05-1.85). However, additional analyses found that the association between e-cigarette use and quantity of cigarette smoked varied by individual smoking pattern. An FMM with a group or class modelling using individual smoking pattern showed a weaker association between e-cigarette use and quantity of cigarette smoking. Findings of this study suggest that the significant association between e-cigarette use and quantity of cigarette smoking may be driven by patterns of use among experimental or beginner smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  16. APPROACHES TO ENGINEER STABILITY OF BEETLE LUCIFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  17. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  18. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  19. Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shantakumari, Nisha; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; John, Lisha Jenny; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously...

  20. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  1. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May S. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05. Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95] and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33] at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies.

  2. Electronic cigarettes and lung toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance Rodrigues; Eric Deal; Kenneth Nugent; J. Drew Payne

    2017-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the United States has steadily increased since their introduction into the market in 2007. These devices deliver nicotine through the vaporization of a liquid which contains a vehicle (propylene glycol or glycerin), artificial flavoring, and nicotine. The combustion of these liquids creates a vapor containing particulates, multiple chemicals, and nicotine. The long-term safety of these products is unknown. Studies in healthy, n...

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scano Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR increase the risk of developing dyspnea.

  4. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  5. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000–$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2% of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1% of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was “to cut down or quit smoking.”

  6. Menthol Content in US Marketed Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jiu; Taylor, Kenneth M; Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Watson, Clifford H; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    In 2011 menthol cigarettes accounted for 32 percent of the market in the United States, but there are few literature reports that provide measured menthol data for commercial cigarettes. To assess current menthol application levels in the US cigarette market, menthol levels in cigarettes labeled or not labeled to contain menthol was determined for a variety of contemporary domestic cigarette products. We measured the menthol content of 45 whole cigarettes using a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In 23 cigarette brands labeled as menthol products, the menthol levels of the whole cigarette ranged from 2.9 to 19.6mg/cigarette, with three products having higher levels of menthol relative to the other menthol products. The menthol levels for 22 cigarette products not labeled to contain menthol ranged from 0.002 to 0.07mg/cigarette. The type of packaging (soft vs. hard pack) for a given cigarette product does not appear to affect menthol levels based on the current limited data. Menthol levels in cigarette products labeled as containing menthol are approximately 50- to 5000-fold higher than those in cigarette products not labeled as containing menthol. In general, menthol content appears to occur within discrete ranges for both mentholated and nonmentholated cigarettes. This study shows that menthol may be present in non-mentholated cigarettes and adds to the understanding of how menthol may be used in cigarette products. It is the first systematic study from the same laboratory which will readily enable comparison among menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expectancies for Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Nicotine Replacement Therapies Among E-Cigarette Users (aka Vapers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquinez, Nicole S.; Correa, John B.; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K.; Simmons, Vani N.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Methods: Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Results: Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. Conclusions: The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. PMID:25168035

  8. Expectancies for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies among e-cigarette users (aka vapers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Marquinez, Nicole S; Correa, John B; Meltzer, Lauren R; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  9. A New Area to Fight: Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin Börekçi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is spreading like an epidemic that threatens the public health. Last one year, e-cigarette use increased by 2 times in both adults and children, and just as the cigarette ads of 1950s and 1960s, e-cigarette ads are taking place in the television, radio, internet, magazines and in the all kinds of advertising media. E-sigara should be recognized as a serious health threat, and should be fought against it. The aim of this review is to show the effects of e-cigarette on health by the scientific evidences.

  10. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  11. Bark Beetle-Fire Associations in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    OpenAIRE

    Amman, Gene D

    1991-01-01

    The large forest fires in and around Yellowstone National Park in 1988 bring up many ecological questions, including the role of bark beetles. Bark beetles may contribute to fuel buildup over the years preceding a fire, resulting in stand replacement fires. Fire is important to the survival of seral tree species and bark beetles that reproduce in them. Without fire, seral species are ultimately replaced by climax species. Following fire, bark- and wood-boring beetles respond to fire-injured t...

  12. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-09-04

    Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users [63% men; mean age = 25.1 (Standard Deviation = 5.5)]. Almost all participants either concurrently smoked cigarettes or had been recent dual users. Data were analyzed following principles of inductive deduction. Results indicated that dual users' use of cigarettes is influenced by particular activities (e.g., before/after eating), strong craving or need for stimulation (e.g., in response to stress), places/situations (e.g., when cigarette smokers are nearby; outdoors), use of other substances (alcohol, coffee), and unavailability of an e-cigarette when needed. In addition to particular activities and places/situations that are conducive to e-cigarette use, use of e-cigarette when cigarette is not available or where cigarette smoking is not permitted emerged as contexts specific to e-cigarette use. For habitual cigarette smokers wanting to quit tobacco smoking, switching over completely to e-cigarettes may require skills of cognitive-behavioral management. Future research needs to ascertain the characteristics of dual users who use e-cigarettes as cessation aids versus as cigarette alternative when cigarette is unavailable or smoking is not permitted.

  13. Perceptions of the Relative Harm of Cigarettes and E-cigarettes Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bridget K.; Rostron, Brian L.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Portnoy, David B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Kaufman, Annette R.; Choiniere, Conrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite progress in reducing youth smoking, adolescents remain highly susceptible to tobacco use. Of concern is whether youth perceive electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a preferable alternative to conventional cigarettes. Purpose To describe cigarette harm perception patterns among youth based on the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and examine the relative harm perceptions of conventional versus e-cigarettes, using data from a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Methods Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N=24,658) were analyzed in 2013 to identify patterns of cigarette harm perceptions. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify associations between demographic and tobacco use characteristics and cigarette harm perception patterns. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationship between cigarette harm perceptions and the perception of e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes for current, ever, and never cigarette smokers. Results The majority of youth (64.2%) perceived the harmfulness of cigarettes as dose-dependent. Approximately one in three students perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette smoking status, ever users of e-cigarettes and those with “dose-dependent” cigarette harm perceptions consistently were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Many youth perceive tobacco use on a continuum of harm. Youth who perceive gradations in harm—both by frequency and intensity of cigarette use and by type of product—may be particularly susceptible to e-cigarette use. PMID:25044196

  14. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz

    2008-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is considered one of the most economically important insect species in coniferous forests of western North America. Adult beetles are capable of successfully reproducing in at least 12 North American species of Pinus (Pineacea) from southern British Columbia to northern Baja Mexico. Mountain pine beetle adults...

  16. 78 FR 27853 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the Asian longhorned beetle regulations by adding a portion of Clermont County, OH, to the list of... necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United...

  17. Asian Longhorned Beetle - A New Introduction, Pest Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Northeastern Area; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    2008-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) has been discovered attacking trees in the United States. Tunneling by beetle larvae girdles tree stems and branches. Repeated attacks lead to dieback of the tree crown and, eventually, death of the tree. ALB probably traveled to the United States inside solid wood packing material from China. The beetle has been intercepted at ports...

  18. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  19. Preliminary checklist of beetles associated with pig carrions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as beetles of forensic importance, while the other beetles collected were grouped as either predator of the carrion feeders and/or opportunists on the carrions resource. Keywords: Beetles, Chrysomelidae, Dermestidae, Staphylinidae, Cleridae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Histeridae, Pig carrions, Decomposition, Forensic, ...

  20. Non-native lady beetles: a diversity of outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Various lady beetle species have expanded their geographic ranges following intentional or accidental introduction and subsequent establishment within new regions. In many cases, this has been accompanied by declines in native lady beetles. Long-term monitoring of lady beetle populat...

  1. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  2. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pankow

    Full Text Available The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG, glycerol (GL, benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice, and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG and glycerol (GL, and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  3. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F; Kim, Kilsun; McWhirter, Kevin J; Luo, Wentai; Escobedo, Jorge O; Strongin, Robert M; Duell, Anna K; Peyton, David H

    2017-01-01

    The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice), and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected) in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL), and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco) cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  4. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  5. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in use of cigarettes and non-cigarette alternative products among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Batanova, Milena; Fernandez, Alejandra; Agarwal, Deepti

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined change in use of various smoked and smokeless non-cigarette alternative products in a sample of college students, stratified by current, or past 30-day, cigarette smoking status. Participants were 698 students from seven four-year colleges in Texas. Participants completed two waves of online surveys regarding tobacco use, knowledge, and attitudes, with 14 months between each wave. The most prevalent products used by the entire sample at Wave 1 were cigarettes, followed by hookah, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). At Wave 2, prevalence of e-cigarette use surpassed use of cigars/cigarillos/little cigars. Snus and chew/snuff/dip were relatively uncommon at both waves. Examination of change in use indicated that e-cigarette use increased across time among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Prevalence of current e-cigarette use doubled across the 14-month period to 25% among current smokers and tripled to 3% among non-cigarette smokers. Hookah use also increased across time, but only among non-cigarette smokers, whereas it decreased among current cigarette smokers. Use of all other non-cigarette alternatives remained unchanged across time. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic predictors of Wave 2 e-cigarette use, the only product that increased in use among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Results indicated that Wave 1 current cigarette use and Wave 1 current e-cigarette use, but not gender, age, or race/ethnicity, were significantly associated with Wave 2 e-cigarette use. Findings underscore the need to track changes in the use of non-cigarette alternatives and call for additional research examining the factors contributing to change in use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 52679 - Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... 1210 Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters AGENCY... adjusted to $2.50. This rule revises the cigarette lighter standard to state that the import value has...). The specific PPI that includes cigarette lighters is the PPI for ``Miscellaneous Fabricated Products...

  8. Cigarettes and Health Education Among Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfus, Joseph L.

    1971-01-01

    The author explains cigarette smoking as a coping behavior and believes that a healthier coping activity needs to be substituted. Methods for educating the young in health matters, including cigarettes, are explained. (BY)

  9. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinberg

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  10. Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165825.html Could 'Safer' Filtered Cigarettes Be More Deadly? New report suggests they're ... 2017 MONDAY, May 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Filtered cigarettes might be even more lethal than unfiltered ones, ...

  11. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David

    2016-11-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes may...

  13. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  14. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Miura K; Nagao A; Ueyama K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smolder...

  15. Beliefs and Experimentation with Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies found that positive beliefs about electronic nicotine delivery systems (commonly known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) were associated with use of these products. However, the prospective association between these beliefs and subsequent use of e-cigarettes is unclear. Purpose To identify the beliefs predicting subsequent use of e-cigarettes. Methods 1379 young adults (mean age=24.1 years) from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort who reported never using e-cigarettes at baseline (collected Oct 2010–Mar 2011) and completed follow-up data collection (during Oct 2011–Mar 2012) were included in this analysis. Participants’ beliefs about e-cigarettes (potential as quit aids, harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes) were asked at baseline (yes/no). At follow-up, participants were asked if they had ever used e-cigarettes. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between beliefs about e-cigarettes and subsequent experimentation. Analysis was conducted in 2012. Results At follow-up, 7.4% of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes (21.6% among baseline current smokers, 11.9% among baseline former smokers, and 2.9% among baseline nonsmokers). Participants who believed e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking and perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes at baseline were more likely to report experimenting with e-cigarettes at follow-up (pe-cigarettes as quit aids and the unknown health risk of e-cigarettes may deter young adults from trying these products. PMID:24439352

  16. [E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes. However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown.

  17. Why and how to tax cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the article is to identify the functions and requirements an excise tax on cigarettes should fulfil, next also to calculate a model for the taxation of cigarettes in the Czech Republic with practical relevance, and to formulate recommendations for cigarette tax policy. Determining the role which should be fulfilled by cigarette excise taxes necessarily requires knowledge of the costs of cigarette consumption, which may be used to calculate the specific tax burden on cigarettes for the particular case of the Czech Republic and to formulate general conclusions and recommendations for cigarette tax policy. Cigarette excise taxes must primarily fulfil a remedial function. Other functions and requirements which may also be fulfilled by the tax are also naturally important but they should be accorded second place. Cigarette excise taxes should reclaim societal costs for the consumption of cigarettes, primarily including healthcare costs, as well as other costs connected to the consumption of cigarettes, by utilizing a specific tax which appears most suitable to the purpose at hand. Relevant studies show taxation of cigarettes in the Czech Republic is inadequate, falling short of covering costs for the consumption of cigarettes identified in the studies, by 13% according to one study, 22% according to another, and up to 58% according to a third study. Cigarettes should be burdened by a specific tax corresponding to the costs of their consumption. Calculations show that cigarette taxes must be increased in the Czech Republic by a significant amount. This will require close cooperation with public institutions, particularly those focusing on healthcare and finance. The generally accepted results of cost calculations and the cigarette taxation rates they entail must be enforced in practice and enshrined in the European Union context in an appropriate directive as well as in national laws.

  18. Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantakumari, Nisha; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; John, Lisha Jenny; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously. E-cigarettes have penetrated the market rapidly owing to the elaborate marketing network and attractive marketing strategies. Stated advantages include the claim that they help quit smoking and produce less exposure than conventional smoking. The list of disadvantages is even more elaborate. While the majority of the studies supporting health claims and efficacy for quitting smoking are not scientifically sound, they are also challenged by studies providing contradictory results. Owing to the limited evidence on the potential advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes, the debate on their safety continues.

  19. Electronic cigarettes: facts and myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Anjali; Kashyap, Kartikeya; Kashyap, Surender

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are devices designed to deliver nicotine to users without burning tobacco. These are being marketed globally as a healthier substitute to the conventional cigarettes and as smoking quitting aids. The use of these devices has increased recently in developed countries with approximately 1.3 million users reported in the United Kingdom in 2013. Perception of these products as a safe alternative, appealing advertisements, and lax regulatory policies have helped gain popularity among the public. Despite all these claims, a debate is on-going because of insufficient scientific data regarding safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as well as awareness of the potential health hazards. To solve the dilemma, more scientific studies in this field are required. Prompt regulatory response with strict vigilance on marketing and advertising may be desirable in the interest of users and public at large.

  20. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  1. An Approach to Modeling a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muramatsu M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and smoke components distributions inside a burning cigarette have been briefly reviewed. Then, focusing on our mathematical model to explain the natural smoldering mechanism of a cigarette and new mathematical models recently published by other authors, an approach to modeling a burning cigarette has been outlined.

  2. Corrective Taxes and Cigarette Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, Paul; Petkov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    If cigarette design was exogenous, inefficiencies arising from smoking could be addressed either with a tax per packet or with an ad valorem tax. However, it is well known that the consequences of these two instruments differ when product characteristics are endogenous. We consider three such characteristics: nicotine, tar, and flavor. Implementation of the first-best social optimum typically requires the capacity to tax or regulate harmful ingredients. Without such a capacity, the next-best policy often combines a per-unit tax on cigarettes with an ad valorem subsidy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Cigarette trafficking in five northeastern US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Grimshaw, Victoria; Merriman, David; Farrelly, Matthew C; Chernick, Howard; Coady, Micaela H; Campbell, Kelsey; Kansagra, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Cigarette taxation is effective in reducing tobacco use in the USA. However, these benefits are reduced when taxes are unpaid. Cigarette trafficking (ie, the illegal importation of cigarettes into a high-tax jurisdiction from a lower-tax jurisdiction) is well documented in high-tax places like New York City (NYC), but the extent of trafficking in other northeastern cities is relatively unknown. To estimate the extent of cigarette trafficking in Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Providence and Washington, DC, and project the benefits of reducing cigarette trafficking for recouping lost taxes and reducing smoking in these cities. Littered cigarette packs were collected from a random sample of Census tracts in five US cities. Data collection yielded 1439 total littered packs. The share of cigarette packs bearing proper local, known non-local, foreign or unknown, or no tax stamp was calculated for each city. These data were used to estimate tax revenue recovery if cigarette trafficking could be eliminated. We also estimated the extent to which eliminating cigarette trafficking would reduce cigarette consumption. Overall, 58.7% of packs did not have a proper local tax stamp, and 30.5-42.1% were attributed to trafficking. We estimate that eliminating cigarette trafficking would result in declines in youth smoking prevalence ranging from negligible in low-tax cities like Philadelphia to up to 9.3% in higher-tax NYC. We estimate that these five cities could recoup $680-729 million annually in cigarette tax revenue if cigarette trafficking was eliminated. Reducing cigarette trafficking would increase the effectiveness of tobacco taxes in reducing smoking and generate additional tax revenue, particularly in higher-taxed cities. Federal action to reduce cigarette trafficking, such as a track-and-trace system, is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  7. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  8. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  10. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

  11. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  12. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  13. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  14. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of cigarette smoking among in-school ..... Smoking and adolescent health. Korean J Pediatr. 54(10): 401–404. Pickett, K.E. and Pearl, M. (2001). Review. Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and ...

  15. EAMJ April Cigarette.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... CIGARETTE SMOKING AND ORAL HEALTH AMONG HEALTHCARE. STUDENTS. P. KOMU, E. A. O. DIMBA, F. G. MACIGO and A. E. O. OGWELL. ABSTRACT ... schools of the College of Health Sciences were statistically significant (p = 0.008). Apart from knowledge ..... tobacco and alcohol. Euro. J. Dent.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Fraiman, Joseph B

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis. However, epidemiological studies assessing Swedish smokeless tobacco, which exposes users to nicotine without combustion products, generally have not found an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke among users, but suggest that nicotine might contribute to acute cardiovascular events, especially in those with underlying coronary heart disease. The effects of aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants derived from ECs on cardiovascular health have not been determined. Although ECs might pose some cardiovascular risk to users, particularly those with existing cardiovascular disease, the risk is thought to be less than that of cigarette smoking based on qualitative and quantitative comparisons of EC aerosol versus cigarette smoke constituents. The adoption of ECs rather than cigarette smoking might, therefore, result in an overall benefit for public health.

  17. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  18. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Knorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  19. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  20. Do Current and Former Cigarette Smokers have an Attentional Bias for E-cigarette Cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  1. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. Methods. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. Results. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends’ cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Conclusions. Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking. PMID:26066954

  2. Gateway effects and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-08-07

    E-cigarettes are alleged to be a gateway to cigarette smoking in non-smokers. This study examines whether the gateway theory has value, whether the criteria to establish causality have been met and what type of evidence is required to test this theory. Experiments are impractical, and we may not be able to test properly the gateway effects via observational studies that simply adjust for confounders. Multivariate models cannot eliminate all the variance in propensity to smoke captured by the variable 'vaping' because of the proximity of these two behaviours. It may be difficult to prove that vaping precedes smoking when product use co-occurs and when, in fact, smoking usually precedes vaping. The gateway theory is not compatible with either (1) the decrease in smoking prevalence observed in adolescents in countries where vaping increased or (2) an increase in smoking among teenagers after age restrictions were imposed on e-cigarette purchases. A spurious gateway effect can be produced artificially by mathematical models in which a propensity to use substances is correlated with opportunities to use substances. Finally, neither nicotine medications nor smokeless tobacco produce gateway effects. Available data are compatible with a common liability model in which people who are liable to use nicotine are more likely to use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Despite its weaknesses and scant empirical support, the gateway theory of smoking initiation has had enormous political influence. Policies based on this theory will not have the intended effects if the association between vaping and smoking is explained by common liabilities. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-01-31

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. 77 FR 22663 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts...-2352. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis... longhorned beetle (ALB) regulations by quarantining portions of Suffolk and Norfolk Counties, MA, and...

  5. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  6. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  7. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  8. Tenebrionid Beetles of the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzi, Giorgio

    1962-01-01

    The present paper deals with the results of my investigations regarding the tenebrionid beetles of the Antilles, north of Trinidad. For this work, use has been made of the magnificent collections assembled by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, of a number of specimens gathered by Dr. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY as

  9. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dung beetle fauna of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) occurring in the Laikipia District of Kenya was surveyed. A total of 79 species were found which are diagnosed, keyed, and known dung preferences discussed. Seven species are new records for Kenya, namely Allogymnopleurus ...

  10. Synthesis report on rearing Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Ann E. Hajek; Thomas L. M. Dubois; David R. Lance

    2003-01-01

    Since not all research on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB) can be conducted in China or at North American sites where it is being eradicated, the ability to mass rear the Asian longhorned beetle is critical to rapid progress on research necessary for exclusion, detection, and eradication of this serious pest.

  11. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  12. Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetles from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Melody A. Keena

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, we found our first Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetle in China (Neopullus is a subgenus of Scymnus, the largest genus in the family Coccinellidae). At that time there were just a few known species in the subgenus and very little was known of their biology. By the end of the project, 14...

  13. Ecological Impacts of Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most important biotic disturbance in southern pine forests and causes extensive changes to the forest environment. In this chapter we provide an overview of the ecological impacts of the SPB on forest conditions (the state of the forest) and on forest resources (uses and values associated with the forest). We define ecological...

  14. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  15. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  16. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  17. Parasitoids of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...

  18. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  19. Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes and Intentions to Quit Among Electronic Cigarette Users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Mohamad Shakir, Sharina Mahavera; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Hoe, Victor Cw

    2016-12-01

    The rapidly increasing uptake of e-cigarettes in Malaysia as of late demands a study to identify factors leading to its increased popularity and user intentions to quit smoking e-cigarettes. A convenience sample of e-cigarette smokers visiting e-cigarette retail shops in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was recruited. The majority of e-cigarette smokers were youth in colleges or universities (39 %), and young professionals and managers (36 %). The main reasons for using e-cigarettes were to help the user quit tobacco cigarettes (88 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes (85 %) and can be used in public areas (70 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes (85 %), and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes (65 %). A total of 65.3 % of respondents expressed intentions to quit e-cigarettes. In a multivariate analysis, the respondents who earned monthly income of RM1000 or less were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.551; 95 % CI 1.022-2.355; p = 0.015] compared to the respondents who earned a monthly income of more than RM2000. The respondents who disagreed with the statement 'Smoking e-cigs is relatively cheaper compared to tobacco cigarettes' were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.548; 95 % CI 1.045-2.293; p = 0.027] compared to respondents who did not agree. e-cigarette preventive interventions should target areas related to the identified main reasons for using e-cigarettes, namely as an aid for quitting tobacco cigarettes, the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes and can be used in public areas, the idea that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes.

  20. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  1. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  2. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  4. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  5. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  6. Menthol cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Singh, Nisha; Camenga, Deepa; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-12-01

    Menthol cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents is high; however, little is known about dual use in this age. Thus, we examined these rates among 2 samples of adolescents in Connecticut. Study 1 examined a school-wide survey assessing variables related to cigarettes and marijuana among high school students (N = 837 [13% smokers]), and Study 2 examined these factors using baseline data of high school-aged, treatment-seeking, daily cigarette smokers prior to quitting (N = 132). In Study 1, lifetime marijuana use among all adolescents was 33% and past 30-day marijuana use was 21%. Among cigarette smokers, 55% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 84% reported lifetime marijuana use, and 66% reported past 30-day marijuana use. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that cigarette smokers, when compared with nonsmokers, had greater rates of lifetime (odds ratio [OR] = 10.91) and past 30-day marijuana use (OR = 10.44). Among smokers, use of menthol cigarettes, when compared with use of nonmenthol cigarettes, was associated with greater lifetime (OR = 5.05) but not past 30-day marijuana use. In Study 2 with daily smokers, 59% of adolescents reported use of menthol cigarettes and 66% reported past 30-day marijuana use. Compared with nonmenthol cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette smokers were more likely to report past 30-day marijuana use (OR = 2.44). Cigarette smoking is associated with marijuana use, and among smokers, menthol cigarette smoking further increased the odds of marijuana use. More research on the dual use of marijuana and tobacco is needed to inform prevention and treatment of substance use.

  7. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  8. Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m(3). The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m(3), respectively; p = .0081). Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions.

  9. Behavioral economic substitution between conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes differs as a function of the frequency of e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sarah E; Cummings, K Michael; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-08-01

    Models measuring the interactions between consumption of conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the marketplace are becoming vital forecast tools as the popularity of e-cigarettes increases and policy on tobacco products changes. Behavioral economics, which involves the integration of psychology and consumer demand, can be used to measure individuals' purchase behavior under different marketplace conditions. Our goal was to measure hypothetical conventional cigarette and e-cigarette purchasing among smokers with varying e-cigarette use patterns. Daily cigarette smokers were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing tool. Participants were asked about their frequency of e-cigarette use and to complete hypothetical single and cross-commodity purchase tasks. Frequency of e-cigarette use differentially affected how individuals consumed both conventional and e- cigarettes in different hypothetical marketplace conditions. The present study demonstrates four main findings: 1) the demand for conventional cigarettes was the lowest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 2) the demand for e-cigarettes was the highest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 3) when both products were available together, daily e-cigarette users purchased more e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes served as a substitute for cigarettes in all groups regardless of frequency of use, and 4) the demand for conventional cigarette demand was lower in frequent e-cigarette users when e-cigarettes were concurrently available. Together, these data suggest that price and marketplace conditions will impact purchasing behavior of conventional and e-cigarettes users heterogeneously. Therefore, frequency of use patterns should be considered when implementing novel policies and/or marketplace changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of Western North American Bark Beetles with Semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Steven J; Bentz, Barbara J; Fettig, Christopher J; Lundquist, John E; Progar, Robert A; Gillette, Nancy E

    2017-10-20

    We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology Volume 63 is January 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  11. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11.3 Customs Duties U.S... STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.3 Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and...

  12. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. HOW DO SMOKERS RESPOND TO CIGARETTE TAXES? EVIDENCE FROM CHINA'S CIGARETTE INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Sun, Qi; Wu, Fang

    2014-07-18

    This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of rational addiction theory into the model. Results show that the average own-price elasticity of demand for cigarettes at the brand level is -0.807, and the overall price elasticity of cigarettes at the market level is -0.488 in China. We find tax-induced substitution toward low-price cigarettes as well as high-tar cigarettes and that tax hikes encourage within-class substitution more than across-class substitution. These results have important policy implications for the potential effects of cigarette taxation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Facial trauma caused by electronic cigarette explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Brian; Spellman, Joseph; Shah, Anil; Stewart, Alexander; Mullin, David

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries secondary to device malfunction. We present a case of electronic cigarette explosion, with a projectile fracturing the patient's right naso-orbital-ethmoid complex and anterior and posterior frontal sinus tables, with frontal sinus outflow tract involvement. The patient underwent combined open and endoscopic repair, including open reduction internal fixation, with reconstitution and preservation of the frontal sinus and frontal sinus outflow tract. Additionally, we review the available data on electronic cigarette malfunction-including fires, explosions, associated injuries, and possible reasons for device malfunction-and discuss new 2016 U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations pertaining to electronic cigarettes.

  15. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  16. Epigenetic signatures of cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Deary, Ian; Joehanes, Roby; Just, Allan C.; Marioni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background—DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. Methods and Results—To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA samples f...

  17. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    HENNINGFIELD, J.; Benowitz, N; Slade, J; Houston, T.; Davis, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of ...

  18. [The challenge of electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba García, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cig) is a device with a conventional cigarette shape that releases a determined dose of nicotine vapour through an electronic heating process. The nicotine cartridges vary significantly in the amount of nicotine released, even within the same brand. Not all brands admit that they contain nicotine, but this is detected in the majority of units analysed. The e-cig usually contains a propellant, such as propylene glycol, which is a lung irritant. The short-term respiratory effect of the vapour of an e-cig is similar to that caused by the smoke of a cigarette, and is a cause of broncho-restriction. The majority of brands contain glycerine and at least one case of lipoid pneumonia has been detected due to this substance. Many brands contain traces of N-nitrosamines, heavy metals, and other products that are found in conventional cigarette smoke, but in a much higher proportion. There is currently no scientific evidence available that shows it is an effective device for quitting smoking, thus it should not be pro-actively recommended for this purpose, and may interfere with the use of demonstrated scientific evidence-based treatments for quitting smoking. It may have an undesirable effect on promoting the starting of smoking in adolescents or keeping adult smokers consuming nicotine and on gestural dependency. The toxicity of the vapour is not well known, but it is known that they are not innocuous, thus they should not be used in closed public spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e-cigarette

  20. Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking by American Students in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    High school students' electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use rose rapidly in 2014, to levels higher than cigarette smoking, which declined significantly. This study assesses how frequency of e-cigarette use is associated with students' smoking status. Using Monitoring the Future data in 2015, this study evaluated the association between students' smoking and frequency of 30-day e-cigarette use in 2014, focusing on high school seniors. Previous research has considered only whether e-cigarettes were used at all during the past month. Non-smokers were far less likely than smokers to have used an e-cigarette (pcigarette use frequency rose with the amount of ever smoking (pdifference in e-cigarette use by very light smokers (cigarette/day); light smokers (1-5 cigarettes/day); and heavy smokers (≥1/2 pack/day) (p=0.99). Because most students have never smoked, never smokers constituted 25% of all seniors who used an e-cigarette. Among tenth- and eighth-graders, 43% and 48% of past-month e-cigarette users had never smoked. Non-smoking high school students are highly unlikely to use e-cigarettes; among those who do, most used them only on 1-2 of the past 30 days. By contrast, current smokers are likely to use e-cigarettes and on many more days. It is unclear whether students' e-cigarette use represents short-term experimentation or future sustained use, and whether it will eventually increase or decrease youth smoking and nicotine addiction. More sophisticated research methods, employing better data, will be essential to unravel the mystery that is the e-cigarette phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  2. The health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol’s effects on 1) biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2) toxicity and cellular effects, 3) lung function and respiration, 4) pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5) allergic reactions and inflammati...

  3. [E-cigarette use in university students and its relationship to cigarette smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotozandry, T; Stenger, N; Burel, C; Penna, L; Ramadour, M; Disdier, P; Charpin, D

    2016-03-01

    There is concern that e-cigarette use could be a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking. This survey included a group of 1220 students at Aix-Marseille University who attended a check-up visit and volunteered to participate to the survey. They answered a standardized questionnaire relating to e-cigarette use, smoking habits and the relationship between both habits. Mean age of participants was 19.9 years and 56% of them were female. All students invited to the check-up examination attended and agreed to participate in the survey. 13.3% of students answered they had already used e-cigarettes, a higher proportion of boys (17.5%) than girls (10.0%), starting at a mean age equal to 19.2 years. Forty-six percent of them had already smoked cigarettes, more girls (55.0%) than boys (45.0%). Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use had induced giving up smoking in 12.6% and a decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked in 30.1%. Twenty percent said they begun to smoke cigarettes after using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is much less prevalent than smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes. There is a strong link between both. E-cigarette use had allowed a cessation or reduction in tobacco smoking in half of users. E-cigarette users may go on to start tobacco smoking but prospective surveys are needed to know how this will evolve over time. E-cigarette use could also be a means to prevent or postpone cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used...

  5. Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E

    2005-06-01

    We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis.

  6. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken W.K Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases.

  7. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedling, Cassidy R.; Smith, Charlotte M.; LeMoine, Christophe M. R.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant’s defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle “regurgitome” and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions. PMID:29377955

  8. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.

  9. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's 'effectiveness' as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons.

  10. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J.; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  11. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Christopher J.; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing w...

  12. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De Le?n, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product d...

  13. Cigarettes and Alcohol: Substitutes or Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Sandra L.; Amy Ellen Schwartz

    2000-01-01

    Taxation of cigarettes and alcohol can raise revenue and reduce consumption of goods with negative external effects. Despite medical and psychological evidence linking their consumption, little previous work has investigated the significance of cross-price effects in cigarette and alcohol consumption. We use individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to investigate cigarette and alcohol consumption in the US, estimating both own and cross-price elasticities. Res...

  14. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive

    OpenAIRE

    Benowitz, Neal; Benowitz, NL; Henningfield, JE

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarette

  15. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  16. Effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Chen, M-G; Hwang, T-C; Yeh, C-Y

    2010-08-01

    To analyse whether a health tax of 10 New Taiwan Dollars (NT$) (US$0.3) imposed on cigarettes in 2009 will help to reduce cigarette consumption, and whether or not the cigarette tax will affect consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea. Time series data for consumption and retail prices of tobacco, alcohol, tea and coffee were collected and analysed for the period 1973-2007. To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function to estimate the overall demand price elasticities of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee, a seemingly unrelated regression analysis was used. The independent variables were annual consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee. The dependent variables were prices of and expenditures on cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee. The estimated own-price elasticities for cigarettes and alcohol are close to -0.726. The own-price elasticities for tea and coffee are less than those for cigarettes and alcohol. Hence, it is predicted that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 13.19%. Analysis of cross-price elasticity reveals that alcohol is complementary to cigarettes. Taxation is an effective smoking control policy tool that not only helps to reduce consumption of cigarettes, but also reduces consumption of alcoholic beverages. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  18. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.

  20. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Electronic cigarettes; Electronic hookahs; Vaping; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Smoking - ... and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  1. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  2. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.

  4. Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P

    2013-01-01

    Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Southern Pine Beetle Population Dynamics in Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Successful mass attack of a pine tree by the southern pine beetle (SPB) results in the tree’s death and provides opportunity for colonization of the new phloem resource and reproduction by a new generation of SPBs plus hundreds of associated species of insects, mites, fungi, and nematodes. The within-tree portions of the SPB life history can be divided into component...

  6. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Cartwright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic

  7. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  8. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  9. Do cigarette and alcohol affect semen analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Budak, Salih; Gubari, Saim; Durmaz, Kalender; Yoldas, Mehmet; Celik, Orcun; Aksoy, Evrim Emre; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-03-31

    There are a number of studies about the effect of cigarette and alcohol on semen parameters in the literature. There is not a consensus on the relationship between use of cigarette and alchol and semen parameters in those studies. The number of studies in which cigarette and alcohol use are evaluated together is limited. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cigarette and/or alcohol use on semen parameters. In this prospective study, 762 patients who applied to an hospital urology polyclinic between January 2015 and March 2015 due to infertility, were questioned for alcohol and cigarette use in anamnesis. The remaining 356 patients were included in our study. Then, semen analysis of the patients was performed. The patients were divided into five groups according to cigarette use, into five groups according to alcohol use and into four groups according to cigarette and/or alcohol use. Significant differences were analyzed between the groups in terms of semen volume, semen concentration, total motility, forward motility and morphological (normality, head anomaly, neck anomaly, tail anomaly) values. According to cigarette use, only in group 4 (who use more than 20 package-years cigarette) semen volume was significantly lower than the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference in any of the other parameters and groups compared with the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p > 0,05) CONCLUSION: According to our study, using more than 20 package-years cigarette decreases semen volume. The reason of this result might be the fact that the threshold value, from which the effect of cigarette and alcohol use on the semen parameters has to be determined.

  10. Stimulatory beetle volatiles for the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aijun; Oliver, James E; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Wang, Baode; Mastro, Vic C

    2002-01-01

    Two male-specific beetle volatiles were found that elicited strong gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses from both sexes of Asian longhorned beetle adults, Anoplophora glabripennis. The secretion consisted of a approximately 1:1 (v/v) blend of functionalized dialkyl ethers, 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol. These compounds are chemically unusual natural products that are previously unknown from insects. Laboratory olfactometer studies showed that a blend of 10 microg of each synthetic compound on a filter paper strip was significantly attractive to ALB adults.

  11. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  12. Dual Use of Smokeless Tobacco or E-cigarettes with Cigarettes and Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Grana, Rachel A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate predictors of dual use of cigarettes with smokeless tobacco or e-cigarettes. Methods Adult smokers (N = 1324) completed online cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression evaluated predictors of dual use and cigarette quit attempts. Results Smokeless tobacco dual use was associated with past attempts to quit smoking by switching to smokeless products. E-cigarette dual use was associated with using stop-smoking medication and strong anti-tobacco industry attitudes. Ever use of stop-smoking medication was associated with quit attempts among dual e-cigarette users and cigarette-only users. Conclusions Dual users are more likely than cigarette-only users to endorse certain cessation-related attitudes and behaviors. This may provide an opportunity for clinicians or others to discuss evidence-based strategies for smoking cessation. PMID:25564840

  13. Proceedings from the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Associated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Anthony Cognato; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings provide a synopsis of the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Association Microorganisms, which was held May 20-2, 2006 in Asheville, NC. Twenty- five participants from five countries attended the meeting. The proceedings are structured into four parts: Phylogenetics of Bark Beetles, Population Genetics of Bark Beetles, Bark Beetle Gene...

  14. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents' electronic cigarette perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Gansky, Stuart A; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M

    2015-05-01

    To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents' cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and analogously, for combustible cigarettes. E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents' perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in future studies.

  15. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Moist leaf litter was scooped onto white clothing (1 square metre beating sheet) and carabid beetles caught using a “pootah” (aspirator) or a pair of forceps. Resting beetles were sampled by manual searching under logs, stones and tree barks. Sampling effort was measured by time, each "sample" containing carabid.

  16. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  17. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  18. Symbiosis and competition: complex interactions among beetles, fungi, and mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; F.J. Lombardero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayres

    2001-01-01

    Symbioses among bark beetles and their fungal and mite associates involve complex, multi-level interactions. Dendroctonus frontalis attacks and kills southern pines, introducing fungi into the tree. Ophiostoma minus may initially aid beetles in killing trees, but later this "bluestain" fungus becomes an antagonist,...

  19. "Blister beetles" and cantharidin | Tagwireyi | Zimbabwe Science News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beetles or, scientifically, Coleoptera are a common sight in the outdoor life of an average Zimbabwean. These insects are generally viewed as friendly, docile, non-biting or non-stinging insects, which can be handled without any untoward effects on the handler. Unfortunately not all beetles fall within this generalisation.

  20. Hidden in Plain sight: synthetic pheromone misleads beetles, protects trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Meznarich; Robert Progar

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, pine forests throughout much of the western United States have been ravaged by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This bark beetle is native to the United States and has been responsible for massive tree kills in the past. The current outbreak, however, has been notably severe and wide ranging and the effects have been more dramatic...

  1. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  2. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  3. Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; D.L. Six

    2004-01-01

    Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress...

  4. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  5. Influence of predators and parisitoids on bark beetle productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Weslien

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier field experiment, natural enemies of the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L) were estimated to have reduced bark beetle productivity by more than 80 percent. To test this hypothesis, spruce logs (Picea abies) were placed in the forest in the spring, prior to commencement of flight by I. typographus....

  6. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  7. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  8. Turing model for the patterns of lady beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, S. S.; Yang, C. C.; Liu, R. T.; Hong, J. T.

    2001-10-01

    We simulate the patterns on the hard wings of lady beetles using a reaction-diffusion equation based on the Turing model. A part of a spherical surface is used to approximate the geometry of the hard wings. Various patterns common to lady beetles in Taiwan can be produced on this curved surface by adjusting the parameters of the model.

  9. Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A Hicke; Morris C. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; Haiganoush K. Preisler

    2012-01-01

    Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics following beetle-...

  10. Taking Sides in E-cigarette Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANNECHINO, RACHELLE; ANTIN, TAMAR

    2018-01-01

    In the last ten years, an eclectic mix of electronic nicotine delivery products (‘e-cigarettes’) and practices have proliferated in the US with little restriction, producing a vast array of vaping mechanisms, flavors, and styles. At the same time, anti-tobacco movements have targeted e-cigarettes as a threat to public health and advocated for restricting e-cigarettes in much the same way as conventional cigarettes. While anti-vaping proponents associated with public health movements have typically regarded e-cigarettes as primarily harmful products that should be suppressed, vaping advocates regard e-cigarettes as harm reduction products that should be readily accessible to smokers. Distrust between these two warring “sides” animates the controversy over e-cigarettes. In our role as researchers conducting a qualitative study on e-cigarette use, we encountered suspicion and anger from members of an e-cigarette forum who felt that pro-vaping perspectives were often misrepresented by researchers. As a result, we dropped our initial plan to host a group discussion of questions directly related to our study on the forum. Nevertheless, the incident illuminated how vaping advocates have resisted dominant narratives regarding tobacco and nicotine use, destabilized nicotine product categories and challenged interpretations of nicotine use that dichotomize pleasure and health.

  11. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN CIGARETTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    determination of nicotine in two brands of commercial cigarettes and acceptable recovery values of 97-108% were found. KEY WORDS: ... most commons are; carbon, platinum, and gold [1-3]. Carbon-based .... recovery measurements, previously analyzed cigarette samples were spiked with standard nicotine at three ...

  12. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  13. E-cigarettes: Considerations for the otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, Sneh; Derkay, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    To review the literature regarding electronic cigarettes and discuss potential implications and need for advocacy for the pediatric otolaryngologist. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine-containing vapors via inhalation. Research on the health related consequences of e-cigarettes is ongoing and safety has yet to be established. E-cigarettes are not presently under the regulation of any national governing body with wide accessibility to minors. Use of these products has substantially increased since arrival to the market, particularly within the adolescent population. These products are marketed via various platforms including television, Internet and social media. Hundreds of flavors are offered and e-cigarettes are packaged in various colors. Not only are the ill health effects and addictive quality of nicotine concerning, these products have the potential to serve as a gateway for minors to tobacco use. The relationship between tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and otolaryngology specific diseases has well been defined. As use of electronic cigarettes increases, pediatric otolaryngologists should be aware of the ongoing literature regarding these products and to be prepared to counsel families accordingly. The use of e-cigarettes among teenagers, potential implications of secondhand vapor exposure from parents and friends, and concerns this may encourage adolescents to utilize conventional tobacco products needs to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  15. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placing pictorial warning messages of potential health hazards of tobacco smoking on cigarette packets is mandatory by law in Egypt. Photos of victims of heavy tobacco smoking are placed on the front and back covers of cigarette packets in an attempt to warn both users and would be users of the health risks associated ...

  16. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  17. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335. ...

  18. Measuring E-cigarette dependence: Initial guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Sussman, Steve; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Grana, Rachel; Foulds, Jonathan; Fishbein, Howard; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-04-01

    E-cigarette use rates are increasing among youth and adults, despite limited knowledge about the safety, risks, and potential for this product in substituting for or reducing other tobacco use. Understanding how to characterize and assess e-cigarette dependence will be important for evaluating the public health impact of e-cigarettes and considering prevention and intervention strategies. To provide an initial review of constructs to consider when assessing e-cigarette dependence, a content expert group within the Tobacco Center for Regulatory Science (TCORS) Measurement Workgroup engaged in a review of published manuscripts and 12 tobacco dependence measures, followed by review of suggested dependence domains by a 10-person external subject-matter expert panel. The final domains selected to be considered in the development of a measure of e-cigarette dependence included: 1) Quantity and frequency of use, 2) Tolerance, 3) Perceived benefits, 4) Withdrawal symptoms, 5) Craving/urge to use, 6) Use despite harm, 7) Impaired control, 8) Automaticity, 9) Preferred over competing rewards, and 10) Sensory dependence. Similarities and differences in potential features of e-cigarette dependence compared with dependence on other tobacco products is discussed. Future work will evaluate these dependence items and constructs in a sample of e-cigarette users with a goal of developing a valid, brief, standardized measure of e-cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Mathematical Model of Cigarette Smoldering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for a smoldering cigarette has been proposed. In the analysis of the cigarette combustion and pyrolysis processes, a receding burning front is defined, which has a constant temperature (~450 °C and divides the cigarette into two zones, the burning zone and the pyrolysis zone. The char combustion processes in the burning zone and the pyrolysis of virgin tobacco and evaporation of water in the pyrolysis zone are included in the model. The hot gases flow from the burning zone, are assumed to go out as sidestream smoke during smoldering. The internal heat transport is characterized by effective thermal conductivities in each zone. Thermal conduction of cigarette paper and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outer surface were also considered. The governing partial differential equations were solved using an integral method. Model predictions of smoldering speed as well as temperature and density profiles in the pyrolysis zone for different kinds of cigarettes were found to agree with the experimental data. The model also predicts the coal length and the maximum coal temperatures during smoldering conditions. The model provides a relatively fast and efficient way to simulate the cigarette burning processes. It offers a practical tool for exploring important parameters for cigarette smoldering processes, such as tobacco components, properties of cigarette paper, and heat generation in the burning zone and its dependence on the mass burn rate.

  20. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Bronchial Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Wright

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a brief low level exposure to cigarette smoke in rats with known low (Sprague-Dawley and high (Fisher airway responsiveness, to test the hypothesis that airways reactivity influences the severity or duration of pulmonary function alterations after cigarette smoke exposure.

  1. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  2. E-cigarettes, Cigarettes, and the Prevalence of Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Urman, Robert; Leventhal, Adam M; Gauderman, W James; Cruz, Tess Boley; Gilreath, Tamika D; Howland, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B; Berhane, Kiros; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent e-cigarette use has increased rapidly in recent years, but it is unclear whether e-cigarettes are merely substituting for cigarettes or whether e-cigarettes are being used by those who would not otherwise have smoked. To understand the role of e-cigarettes in overall tobacco product use, we examine prevalence rates from Southern California adolescents over 2 decades. The Children's Health Study is a longitudinal study of cohorts reaching 12th grade in 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2014. Cohorts were enrolled from entire classrooms in schools in selected communities and followed prospectively through completion of secondary school. Analyses used data from grades 11 and 12 of each cohort (N = 5490). Among 12th-grade students, the combined adjusted prevalence of current cigarette or e-cigarette use in 2014 was 13.7%. This was substantially greater than the 9.0% adjusted prevalence of current cigarette use in 2004, before e-cigarettes were available (P = .003) and only slightly less than the 14.7% adjusted prevalence of smoking in 2001 (P = .54). Similar patterns were observed for prevalence rates in 11th grade, for rates of ever use, and among both male and female adolescents and both Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White adolescents. Smoking prevalence among Southern California adolescents has declined over 2 decades, but the high prevalence of combined e-cigarette or cigarette use in 2014, compared with historical Southern California smoking prevalence, suggests that e-cigarettes are not merely substituting for cigarettes and indicates that e-cigarette use is occurring in adolescents who would not otherwise have used tobacco products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Laestadius, Linnea; Buente, Wayne; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    A vast majority of U.S. young adults use social media such as Facebook and Instagram daily. Research suggests that young adults are commonly exposed to e-cigarette-related marketing or user-generated content on the social media they use. Currently, however, there is limited empirical evidence as to how social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. In particular, limited evidence exists to support the proposition that social media e-cigarette exposure is uniquely associated with e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for the effects of e-cigarette use in young adults' in-person or 'offline' social networks. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that 1) social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use outcome expectancies and current e-cigarette use; and 2) the association between social media and e-cigarette use is linked via outcome expectancies. We collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 470 young adult college students in Hawaii. Hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equation model to the data. The model accounted for the associations of demographic variables, cigarette smoking history, as well as e-cigarette use in individuals' actual social networks with expectancies and behavior. Results indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with current e-cigarette use indirectly through two of the four positive outcome expectancies examined, namely, positive "smoking" experience and positive sensory experience. We discuss the implications of the findings in the context of tobacco control efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  5. Effect of cigarette filters on the chemical composition and in vitro biological activity of cigarette mainstream smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Han-Jae; Sohn, Hyung-Ok; Han, Jung-Ho; Park, Chul-Hoon; Lee, Hyeong-Seok; Lee, Dong-Wook; Hwang, Keon-Joong; Hyun, Hak-Chul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette filters on the chemical composition and toxicity of cigarette mainstream smoke. In this work, we used three types of cigarettes, including non-filter 2R4F cigarettes, cellulose acetate (CA)-filter 2R4F cigarettes, and carbon dual-filter 2R4F cigarettes. The cytotoxicity of TPM obtained from the filter cigarettes was not different from that of the non-filter cigarettes on an equal TPM basis. However, the EC50 value of GVP from carbon-filter cigarettes were 40.9 puffs/L, thereby indicating the cytotoxicity of these cigarettes was approximately 37% and 21% lower than non-filter and CA-filter cigarettes, respectively. The cytotoxicity of GVP was correlated with carbonyl components. The mutagenicity of TPM obtained from non-filter cigarettes, calculated on an equal TPM basis, was up to 30-40% lower than that of the filter cigarettes. When calculated on a per cigarette basis, the mutagenicity of CA or carbon-filter cigarettes was found to be 35% lower than that of the non-filter cigarettes. The results of chemical composition analyses revealed that the observed increase in aromatic amine compound yields on an equal TPM basis in filter cigarettes may be related with the mutagenic activity determined in Ames assays.

  6. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  7. Use of semiochemicals of secondary bark beetles to disrupt spruce beetle attraction and survival in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Edward H. Holsten

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments using baited multiple-funnel traps and baited felled trees were conducted to test the hypothesis that semiochemicals from secondary species of scolytids could be used to disrupt spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) attraction. Semiochemicals from three secondary species of scolytids, (Ips perturbatus...

  8. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehanes, Roby; Just, Allan C; Marioni, Riccardo E; Pilling, Luke C; Reynolds, Lindsay M; Mandaviya, Pooja R; Guan, Weihua; Xu, Tao; Elks, Cathy E; Aslibekyan, Stella; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Smith, Jennifer A; Brody, Jennifer A; Dhingra, Radhika; Yousefi, Paul; Pankow, James S; Kunze, Sonja; Shah, Sonia H; McRae, Allan F; Lohman, Kurt; Sha, Jin; Absher, Devin M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhao, Wei; Demerath, Ellen W; Bressler, Jan; Grove, Megan L; Huan, Tianxiao; Liu, Chunyu; Mendelson, Michael M; Yao, Chen; Kiel, Douglas P; Peters, Annette; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Visscher, Peter M; Wray, Naomi R; Starr, John M; Ding, Jingzhong; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Barrdahl, Myrto; Vineis, Paolo; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Schwartz, Joel; Colicino, Elena; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel S; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Bandinelli, Stefania; Turner, Stephen T; Ware, Erin B; Smith, Alicia K; Klengel, Torsten; Binder, Elisabeth B; Psaty, Bruce M; Taylor, Kent D; Gharib, Sina A; Swenson, Brenton R; Liang, Liming; DeMeo, Dawn L; O'Connor, George T; Herceg, Zdenko; Ressler, Kerry J; Conneely, Karen N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Kardia, Sharon L R; Melzer, David; Baccarelli, Andrea A; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Romieu, Isabelle; Arnett, Donna K; Ong, Ken K; Liu, Yongmei; Waldenberger, Melanie; Deary, Ian J; Fornage, Myriam; Levy, Daniel; London, Stephanie J

    2016-10-01

    DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA samples from participants in 16 cohorts (including 2433 current, 6518 former, and 6956 never smokers). Comparing current versus never smokers, 2623 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs), annotated to 1405 genes, were statistically significantly differentially methylated at Bonferroni threshold of Psmoking-related traits in genome-wide studies including pulmonary function, cancers, inflammatory diseases, and heart disease. Comparing former versus never smokers, 185 of the CpGs that differed between current and never smokers were significant Psmoking cessation. Transcriptomic integration identified effects on gene expression at many differentially methylated CpGs. Cigarette smoking has a broad impact on genome-wide methylation that, at many loci, persists many years after smoking cessation. Many of the differentially methylated genes were novel genes with respect to biological effects of smoking and might represent therapeutic targets for prevention or treatment of tobacco-related diseases. Methylation at these sites could also serve as sensitive and stable biomarkers of lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  10. Receipt and redemption of cigarette coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Moilanen, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although it is known that cigarette companies use cigarette coupons to market their products, little is known about the characteristics of those who receive these coupons. The influence of receipt and redemption of these coupons is also unknown. Participants of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study who were smokers in 2008, completed surveys in 2008 and 2009, and had smoked for at least 6 months between those surveys, were included. In 2009, participants reported whether they had received cigarette coupons in the past 12 months, and whether they had used the coupons. They also reported their perceptions of cigarette companies and their smoking status. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess associations between receiving and redeeming coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies, and smoking status. Overall, 49.4% of the sample reported receiving cigarette coupons, and 39.9% redeemed them (80.1% of those who received these coupons). Female, younger and heavier smokers were more likely to report receiving these coupons (pcompanies care about their health and do the best they can to make cigarettes safe, and less likely to agree that cigarette companies lie (p<0.05). Smokers who used these coupons were less likely to quit smoking (p<0.05). Our findings suggest a negative association between cigarette coupons and smoking cessation. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether cigarette coupons influence smoking behaviour to inform the necessity for policies to prohibit the use of these coupons to assist smokers to quit smoking.

  11. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, health and lifestyle perceptions in smokers converting from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, Sandri Rachelle; Groenewald, Marcelle; Engelbrecht, Rifke; Becker, Piet Johannes; Hazelhurst, Lynton Tempest

    2013-09-30

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer are diseases associated with smoking tobacco cigarettes. Smokers find cessation difficult. To determine whether smoking the Twisp electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), containing nicotine in a vegetable-based glycerine substance, would reduce carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in regular cigarette smokers by (i) comparing arterial and venous COHb levels before and after smoking the Twisp e-cigarette for 2 weeks; and (ii) evaluating changes in participants' perception of their health and lifestyle following the use of Twisp e-cigarettes. A single group within-subject design was used where tobacco cigarette smokers converted to Twisp e-cigarettes for 2 weeks. Prior to using the Twisp e-cigarette and after using this device for 2 weeks, arterial COHb, venous COHb and venous cotinine levels were determined. Additionally, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire outlining their perceptions on health and lifestyle. Thirteen participants of median age 38 years (range 23 - 46) with a smoking median of 20 cigarettes/day (range 12 - 30) completed the study. COHb levels (%) were significantly reduced after smoking Twisp e-cigarettes for 2 weeks (mean ± standard deviation (SD) arterial COHb before 4.66±1.99 v. after 2.46±1.35; p=0.014 and mean ±SD venous COHb before 4.37±2.1 v. after 2.50±1.23; p=0.018). There was excellent agreement between arterial and venous COHb levels (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.916). A decrease in cotinine levels (p=0.001) and an increase in oxygen saturation (p=0.002) were also observed. The majority of participants perceived improvements in their health and lifestyle parameters. Smoking the Twisp e-cigarette may be a healthier and more acceptable alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes.

  12. Exclusive e-cigarette use predicts cigarette initiation among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Marti, C Nathan; Cooper, Maria; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of research indicates that use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) predicts cigarette initiation. However, no studies examine if risk for cigarette initiation varies for exclusive ENDS users versus users of ENDS and other tobacco products. This study examined if: a) cigarette-naïve young adults (i.e., never cigarette users) who ever used ENDS had a greater odds of initiating cigarettes than non-ENDS users over a 1.5year period and b) the odds of cigarette initiation was consistent across exclusive ENDS users and users of ENDS and at least one tobacco product. Participants were 2558 cigarette-naïve 18-25year old (M=19.71; SD=1.61) students from 24 Texas colleges who participated in a four-wave study, with six months between each wave. Overall, 11% of students reported cigarette initiation by wave 4. Of those, 20.1% were wave 1 ENDS users and 8.4% were non-ENDS users. Multivariable, multilevel discrete-time hazard models indicated that wave 1 ENDS use predicted subsequent cigarette initiation, over and above the significant effects of cigarette use susceptibility, family-of-origin tobacco use, friend cigarette use, and other tobacco use. Additional findings indicated that exclusive ENDS users had a greater odds than non-users of subsequent cigarette initiation. Among users of alternative tobacco products, ENDS users did not have a greater odds of initiation than non-ENDS users. Findings extend existing research by showing that ENDS use by young adults is a specific risk factor for later cigarette initiation and not an extension of a constellation of existing tobacco use behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Marketing Near Schools and E-cigarette Use Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Casseus, Myriam; Duncan, Dustin T; Coups, Elliot J; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now the most popular tobacco product among youth. Little is known about the relationship between exposure to e-cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale and youth e-cigarette use. Research staff collected data on e-cigarette availability and promotion in tobacco retailers within a half-mile of 41 schools participating in the 2014 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey. These data were linked with participant responses from the New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 3,909) and log-Poisson regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for ever and past-month e-cigarette use. Nearly a quarter of high school students in New Jersey have tried e-cigarettes (24.1%) and 12.1% were past-month users. Prevalence was highest among males, non-Hispanic whites, and students who have used other tobacco products. After controlling for covariates and the clustered nature of the data, e-cigarette retailer density around schools was positively associated with ever and past-month use of e-cigarettes (p < .05). E-cigarette advertising volume significantly increased the probability of being a past-month e-cigarette user (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.03, p = .031). This study suggests that the point-of-sale environment around schools may contribute to e-cigarette use among youth. Policy efforts to restrict tobacco promotion at the point-of-sale may play a role in reducing the use of e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recall of E-cigarette Advertisements and Adolescent E-cigarette Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Harrell, Melissa B; Pérez, Adriana; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-04-01

    We examined the impact of e-cigarette advertising on e-cigarette use behaviors among youth over time. At baseline, 3907 students participated in a youth tobacco surveillance study from 2014-2015 and 2488 students completed a 6-month follow-up. Weighted logistic regression models investigated the recall of e-cigarette advertisements (TV/radio/billboards/retail/Internet) as a risk factor for e-cigarette perceived harm, use, and susceptibility. The odds of ever e-cigarette use was 3 times higher (AOR=2.99; 95% CI, 1.50-5.97) at 6-month follow-up among e-cigarette never-users who recalled e-cigarette advertisements in retail stores at baseline, compared to those who did not. Likewise, the odds of current e-cigarette use and susceptibility to e-cigarette use at 6-month follow-up were 2.03 (95% CI, 1.11-3.72) and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.20-2.61), respectively. Additionally, recall of e-cigarette advertisements on the Internet at baseline was significantly related to current use (AOR=2.17; 95% CI, 1.05-4.48) and susceptibility to use e-cigarettes (AOR=1.72;95% CI, 1.15-2.58) at 6-month follow-up. Recall of e-cigarette advertisements at point-of-sale and on the Internet was significantly associated with adolescent e-cigarette susceptibility and use, which supports the need to minimize adolescent exposure to these advertisements.

  15. A16 WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED ABOUT E-CIGARETTES?: E-Cigarette User Airway Secretions Exhibit Increased Leukocyte Derived Inflammatory Mediator Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Reidel; A A Ford; G Radicioni; P Haridass; N E Alexis; I Jaspers; R Tarran; M Kesimer

    2017-01-01

    .... e-cigarettes and hookah. IS analysis from cigarette and e-cigarette users revealed an upregulation in established markers of cigarette smoke exposure and lung disease, such as aldehyde detoxifying enzymes (e.g...

  16. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  17. Characteristics of smoking used cigarettes among an incarcerated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J; Roberts, Mary B; Bock, Beth C; Stein, L A R; Parker, Donna R; Friedmann, Peter D; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as "smoking used cigarettes." Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes ("butts"), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a U.S. prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and female inmates at baseline. Prevalence of smoking used cigarettes was assessed using 3 questions; 1 about sharing cigarettes with strangers, 1 about smoking a "found" cigarette, and 1 about smoking previously used cigarettes. Factors associated with those who engaged in smoking used cigarettes were then compared with those who did not engage in smoking used cigarettes. A majority of participants (61.5%) endorsed engaging in at least 1 smoking used cigarette behavior in the past prior to incarceration. Those who engaged in these behaviors were more likely to have a higher degree of nicotine dependence, to have started smoking regularly at a younger age, and to have lived in an unstable living environment prior to incarceration. Our results indicate that a history of smoking used cigarettes is common among incarcerated persons in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, engaging in smoking used cigarettes was found to be associated with a higher degree of nicotine dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates...

  19. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26 U...

  20. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be withdrawn...

  1. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except as...

  2. Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: Free or Purchased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Paul; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have described youth cigarette sources in terms of whether the cigarettes were free or purchased. Understanding the different ways youth obtain tobacco can guide development of interventions to more effectively reduce youth smoking. Purpose: To determine the propensity for youth to purchase cigarettes versus obtain cigarettes for free,…

  3. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately imprinted...

  4. The effect of retail cigarette pack displays on impulse purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Germain, Daniella; Henriksen, Lisa

    2008-02-01

    To assess the extent to which point-of purchase (POP) cigarette displays stimulate impulse purchases. Telephone-administered population survey. Victoria, Australia. A total of 2996 adults, among whom 526 smoked factory-made cigarettes and 67 were recent quitters (quit in the past 12 months). Reported cigarette purchase behaviour; perceived effect on smoking of removing cigarettes from view in retail outlets; reported urges to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the cigarette display. When shopping for items other than cigarettes, 25.2% of smokers purchased cigarettes at least sometimes on impulse as a result of seeing the cigarette display. Thirty-eight per cent of smokers who had tried to quit in the past 12 months and 33.9% of recent quitters experienced an urge to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the retail cigarette display. One in five smokers trying to quit and one in eight recent quitters avoided stores where they usually bought cigarettes in case they might be tempted to purchase them. Many smokers (31.4%) thought the removal of cigarette displays from stores would make it easier for them to quit. POP cigarette displays act as cues to smoke, even among those not explicitly intending to buy cigarettes, and those trying to avoid smoking. Effective POP marketing restrictions should encompass cigarette displays.

  5. Electronic cigarettes and cannabis: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    To describe cannabis 'vaping' with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic vaporizers (e-vaporizers). Internet survey in 2013-2014. Participants were 11 people who 'vaped' cannabis with e-cigarettes and 44 people who vaped cannabis with e-vaporizers, enrolled online. Most participants were men (78%). They had used e-cigarettes for 6 days and e-vaporizers for 50 days on average to vape cannabis. Current users of e-cigarettes vaped cannabis on 2 days/week versus 6 days/week for users of e-vaporizers. In these devices, they mostly inserted cannabis buds and oil rather than hashish or wax/butane honey oil. Dual users, who both smoked and vaped cannabis, currently smoked 5 joints/week compared to 14 joints/week before they started to vape cannabis (p = 0.004). Half the participants (45%) reported that vaping cannabis helped them stop or reduce their total cannabis use, 37% that it had no impact on their cannabis use, and 6% that it increased it. Vaping cannabis was perceived as healthier and more discrete than smoking it (less odor). Disadvantages included dry mouth and fewer positive cannabis effects. Cannabis vaping via e-cigarettes or e-vaporizers is an infrequent behavior that was previously almost undocumented. E-cigarettes do not appear to be a very appealing way to use cannabis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Estimating adolescent cigarette consumption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Y; Kawaminami, K; Minowa, M

    1999-04-01

    We estimated the cigarette consumption among Japanese adolescents based on the data which was obtained from a 1990 nationwide school-based questionnaire survey of smoking prevalence among high school students. Cigarette consumption for adolescents was estimated using the data on current smokers' rate and cigarette consumption per day. Participants were 57,189 high school students (aged 13-18 years) including 4666 current smokers. The estimated adolescents' consumption was calculated at 3.5 to 4.3 billion units in 1990. The proportion of adolescents' consumption to the total sales was 1.1% to 1.3%. The corresponding tax amounted to between 21 and 25 billion yen in 1990. The difference between the total sales and the crude cigarette consumption for adults has increased gradually over 20 years. Logically, some part of this increase should be attributed to cigarettes consumed by adolescents. The increase in this difference seemed to keep pace with the increasing number of cigarette vending machines. These results indicate that a considerable amount of cigarettes were consumed by adolescents in 1990.

  7. Electronic Cigarettes: A Primer for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Hayley; Persky, Michael; Kraus, Dennis H; Peng, Robert; Amin, Milan R; Branski, Ryan C

    2015-07-01

    To introduce the otolaryngology community to the current state of research regarding electronic cigarettes, with special attention paid to mechanism, impact on health and addiction, and use in smoking cessation. Review of Google Scholar and PubMed databases using the keywords electronic cigarettes, e-cigs, e-cigarettes, and vaping. In addition, information from media sources as well as news outlets was evaluated to gauge public perception of research findings. Recent research and randomized controlled trials were prioritized. The landscape of electronic cigarette devices is evolving, as is the research regarding their risks and benefits. Utilization is rapidly increasing. It appears that older users employ them as a smoking cessation tool compared to younger users. The data are generally inconclusive regarding the benefits of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation compared with other methods. Furthermore, the safety profile of electronic cigarettes is dynamic and difficult to fully ascertain. Patients with a variety of otolaryngologic conditions, including cancer, may benefit from frank discussion regarding electronic cigarettes. Furthermore, increasing patient inquiries regarding these devices are likely given their increasing popularity. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. A public health strategy for e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    The e-cigarette may present a new and significant Public Health problem: Studies published so far do not seem to indicate that e-cigarette use is just a passing trend. If e-cigarette use is less harmless than it is portrayed in many advertisements, Public Health would do well to start a serious discussion about a suitable prevention policy as soon as possible.The aim of this short paper is to discuss a range of measures designed to prevent e-cigarette consumption.Concretely, we suggest to monitor e-cigarette use, the e-cigarette industry and prevention policies, to implement a vapor-free policy, to develop help to quit e-cigarette use, to inform about the health risks of e-cigarette use, to establish regulations on e-cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and to introduce taxes on e-cigarettes.

  9. Effect of a large increase in cigarette tax on cigarette consumption: an empirical analysis of cross-sectional survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min

    2008-10-01

    This study used cigarette price elasticity estimates to assess the possible effects on cigarette consumption of a large increase in cigarette tax. It also investigated different responses to the cigarette tax increase among smokers from different socio-economic backgrounds and with different smoking characteristics. Cross-sectional study on 483 valid questionnaires completed during a telephone survey of current smokers aged 15 years and above from all 23 major cities and counties in Taiwan. This study analysed the willingness of current smokers to quit smoking or reduce cigarette consumption when faced with a tax increase of NT$22 per pack, which would raise the price of cigarettes by 44%. The Tobit regression model and the maximum likelihood method were used to estimate cigarette demand elasticity. Estimation results yielded a cigarette price elasticity of -0.29 in connection with a 44% increase in the price of cigarettes. This suggests that smokers will have relatively little response to such an event. The most significant response to the price increase was found among women, low-income smokers, moderately addicted smokers, and smokers who regularly purchase low-price cigarettes. A 44% increase in the price of cigarettes would reduce the average annual per capita cigarette consumption in Taiwan by 14.86 packs; a reduction of 12.87%. The tax increase would also boost the Government's cigarette tax revenue by approximately NT$41.4 billion, and increase cigarette merchants' income by approximately NT$27.4 billion. Since current cigarette prices are low in Taiwan and smokers are relatively insensitive to cigarette price hikes, a large increase in cigarette tax would reduce cigarette consumption effectively, and would also increase the Government's cigarette tax revenue and cigarette merchants' income. Clearly, such a tax would create a win-win outcome for the Government, cigarette merchants and smokers, and it is therefore recommended.

  10. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  11. Cigarette packaging: Youth perceptions of "natural" cigarettes, filter references, and contraband tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined youth perceptions of appeal and harm of cigarette packaging with "natural" tobacco descriptors and references to filtration, as well as contraband tobacco in generic packaging. In a between-group experiment, 7,647 youth were randomized to view a pair of cigarette packages and rate perceptions of appeal and relative risk. The findings indicate that packages with "natural" descriptors were rated as significantly more appealing and less harmful. Packages with filter references were rated as significantly less harmful, whereas contraband cigarettes were rated as significantly less appealing than leading brands. The findings suggest that cigarette packaging can enhance the appeal of cigarettes and may promote false beliefs about the reduced harm of brands. The lower appeal of contraband cigarettes suggests that other factors, such as reduced price and ease of access, likely account for contraband use among youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  13. Metabarcoding of fungal communities associated with bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirsten E; Hopkins, Kevin; Inward, Daegan J G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-03-01

    Many species of fungi are closely allied with bark beetles, including many tree pathogens, but their species richness and patterns of distribution remain largely unknown. We established a protocol for metabarcoding of fungal communities directly from total genomic DNA extracted from individual beetles, showing that the ITS3/4 primer pair selectively amplifies the fungal ITS. Using three specimens of bark beetle from different species, we assess the fungal diversity associated with these specimens and the repeatability of these estimates in PCRs conducted with different primer tags. The combined replicates produced 727 fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for the specimen of Hylastes ater, 435 OTUs for Tomicus piniperda, and 294 OTUs for Trypodendron lineatum, while individual PCR reactions produced on average only 229, 54, and 31 OTUs for the three specimens, respectively. Yet, communities from PCR replicates were very similar in pairwise comparisons, in particular when considering species abundance, but differed greatly among the three beetle specimens. Different primer tags or the inclusion of amplicons in separate libraries did not impact the species composition. The ITS2 sequences were identified with the Lowest Common Ancestor approach and correspond to diverse lineages of fungi, including Ophiostomaceae and Leotiomycetes widely found to be tree pathogens. We conclude that Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding reliably captures fungal diversity associated with bark beetles, although numerous PCR replicates are recommended for an exhaustive sample. Direct PCR from beetle DNA extractions provides a rapid method for future surveys of fungal species diversity and their associations with bark beetles and environmental variables.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity in Adolescent Electronic and Conventional Cigarette Use

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Strong, David R.; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age=14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emoti...

  15. Electronic Cigarette Use and Exposure in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Collaco, Joseph M.; Drummond, M. Bradley; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has gained recent widespread popularity and acceptance in the general population. What effect e-cigarettes may have on pediatric health remains unknown. Although many jurisdictions have laws that prevent the sale of e-cigarettes to minors and the use of e-cigarettes in public places, infants, children, and adolescents are increasingly exposed to them. In this pediatric-focused review, we discuss the history of these devices, user demographics, known heal...

  16. High School Students’ Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash oil, wax infused with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and dried cannabis; and demographic predictors of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis. METHODS: In the spring of 2014, 3847 Connecticut HS students completed an anonymous survey assessing e-cigarette and cannabis use. RESULTS: Vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes was common among lifetime e-cigarette users, lifetime cannabis users, and lifetime dual users (e-cigarette 18.0%, cannabis 18.4%, dual users 26.5%). Students reported using e-cigarettes to vaporize hash oil (e-cigarette 15.4%, cannabis 15.5%, dual users 22.9%) and wax infused with THC (e-cigarette 10.0%, cannabis 10.2%, dual users 14.8%) and using portable electronic vaporizers to vaporize dried cannabis leaves (e-cigarette 19.6%, lifetime cannabis 23.1%, lifetime dual users 29.1%). Binary logistic regression indicated that male students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05), younger students (OR = 0.64), lifetime e-cigarette users (OR = 5.27), and lifetime cannabis users (OR = 40.89) were most likely to vaporize cannabis using e-cigarettes. Rates also differed by HS attended. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine. PMID:26347431

  17. High School Students' Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash oil, wax infused with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and dried cannabis; and demographic predictors of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis. In the spring of 2014, 3847 Connecticut HS students completed an anonymous survey assessing e-cigarette and cannabis use. Vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes was common among lifetime e-cigarette users, lifetime cannabis users, and lifetime dual users (e-cigarette 18.0%, cannabis 18.4%, dual users 26.5%). Students reported using e-cigarettes to vaporize hash oil (e-cigarette 15.4%, cannabis 15.5%, dual users 22.9%) and wax infused with THC (e-cigarette 10.0%, cannabis 10.2%, dual users 14.8%) and using portable electronic vaporizers to vaporize dried cannabis leaves (e-cigarette 19.6%, lifetime cannabis 23.1%, lifetime dual users 29.1%). Binary logistic regression indicated that male students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05), younger students (OR = 0.64), lifetime e-cigarette users (OR = 5.27), and lifetime cannabis users (OR = 40.89) were most likely to vaporize cannabis using e-cigarettes. Rates also differed by HS attended. Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Associations Between Cigarette Smoking and Pain Among Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often report using cigarettes to cope, and smoking and chronic pain appear prevalent among US veterans. Pain may be a barrier to cigarette cessation and abstinence in this population. Because of physiological effects, smoking cigarettes may also interfere with pain management. A better understanding of how cigarette use relates to pain may assist in veteran cigarette cessation and pain management efforts. To assist these efforts, we searched the literature using ...

  19. Custom Mentholation of Commercial Cigarettes for Research Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Ian C.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Turner, Douglas J.; Jenny M. Butler; Hanft, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Hyoshin; Kroeger, Robyn R.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Tefft, Margaret E.; Clark, Pamela I; Buehler, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of l-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and deve...

  20. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Chung-Lin; Yen Lee-Lan; Tsai Yi-Wen; Chen Pei-Fen

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT) $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opini...

  1. Particulate Matter from Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes: a Systematic Review and Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Ballbè, Montse; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; Saltó, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to review the literature on the composition of aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) originated by human vaping and to describe the emission of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) from conventional and e-cigarettes at home in real-use conditions. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science. We measured PM(2.5) in four different homes: one from a conventional cigarette smoker, one from an e-cigarette user, and two from non-smokers. The review identified eight previous investigations on the composition of aerosols from e-cigarettes originated by human vaping and indicated that emissions from e-cigarettes can contain potential toxic compounds such as nicotine, carbonyls, metals, and organic volatile compounds, besides particulate matter. In the observational study, the PM(2.5) median concentration was 9.88 μg/m³ in the e-cigarette user home and 9.53 and 9.36 μg/m³ in the smoke-free homes, with PM(2.5) peaks concurrent with the e-cigarette puffs. Both the literature review and the observational study indicate that e-cigarettes used under real-conditions emit toxicants, including PM(2.5). Further research is needed to characterize the chemicals emitted by different types of e-cigarettes and to assess secondhand exposure to e-cigarette aerosol using biological markers.

  2. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  3. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidenc...

  4. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurisse, Nicolas; Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  5. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meurisse

    Full Text Available Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles. We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9% of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04% of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that

  6. A Prototypical First-Generation Electronic Cigarette Does Not Reduce Reports of Tobacco Urges or Withdrawal Symptoms among Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arit M. Harvanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether first-generation electronic cigarettes reduce smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms following a 24 h deprivation period. This study tested whether a first-generation electronic cigarette reduces smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms in cigarette smokers. Following 24 h of tobacco deprivation, using a within-subjects design, eight nontreatment seeking tobacco cigarette smokers (3 females administered 10 puffs from a conventional cigarette or a first-generation electronic cigarette containing liquid with 0, 8 or 16 mg/ml nicotine. Conventional cigarettes ameliorated smoking urges and electronic cigarettes did not, regardless of nicotine concentration. First-generation electronic cigarettes may not effectively substitute for conventional cigarettes in reducing smoking urges, regardless of nicotine concentration.

  7. Cigarette smoking and musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Vanni, Daniele; Pantalone, Andrea; Salini, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    Cigarette smoking has deleterious effects on the musculo-skeletal system. The loss of bone mineral content and increased incidence of fractures are the best known negative consequences. The pathogenesis is complex, due to direct toxic effects on osteoblasts/osteoclasts activity of nicotine, and indirect actions on sex and adrenocortical hormones, vitamin D, intestinal calcium absorption, vessels and oxygen supply. Smoking may favour the onset or aggravate the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and back pain. Negative influences have been observed on muscle and on tendons. Moreover, smoking habit is associated to a number of short term post-operative complications and higher resource consumption. Smoking cessation is highly advisable with positive effects on the bone metabolism on the long term. More positive and immediate results can be obtained in patients submitted to orthopedic surgery: the healing process is improved, the frequency of complications is reduced, and the length of hospital stay is shortened.

  8. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  9. Chemical Composition of Aerosol from an E-Cigarette: A Quantitative Comparison with Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margham, Jennifer; McAdam, Kevin; Forster, Mark; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; Mariner, Derek; Proctor, Christopher

    2016-10-17

    There is interest in the relative toxicities of emissions from electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. Lists of cigarette smoke priority toxicants have been developed to focus regulatory initiatives. However, a comprehensive assessment of e-cigarette chemical emissions including all tobacco smoke Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents, and additional toxic species reportedly present in e-cigarette emissions, is lacking. We examined 150 chemical emissions from an e-cigarette (Vype ePen), a reference tobacco cigarette (Ky3R4F), and laboratory air/method blanks. All measurements were conducted by a contract research laboratory using ISO 17025 accredited methods. The data show that it is essential to conduct laboratory air/method measurements when measuring e-cigarette emissions, owing to the combination of low emissions and the associated impact of laboratory background that can lead to false-positive results and overestimates. Of the 150 measurands examined in the e-cigarette aerosol, 104 were not detected and 21 were present due to laboratory background. Of the 25 detected aerosol constituents, 9 were present at levels too low to be quantified and 16 were generated in whole or in part by the e-cigarette. These comprised major e-liquid constituents (nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerol), recognized impurities in Pharmacopoeia-quality nicotine, and eight thermal decomposition products of propylene glycol or glycerol. By contrast, approximately 100 measurands were detected in mainstream cigarette smoke. Depending on the regulatory list considered and the puffing regime used, the emissions of toxicants identified for regulation were from 82 to >99% lower on a per-puff basis from the e-cigarette compared with those from Ky3R4F. Thus, the aerosol from the e-cigarette is compositionally less complex than cigarette smoke and contains significantly lower levels of toxicants. These data demonstrate that e-cigarettes can be developed that offer the potential

  10. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of ‘light’ cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as ‘light’, ‘ultra-light’ and ‘low tar’ with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of ‘light’, ‘mild’ and ‘low’ on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called ‘low tar’ cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers’ attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  11. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  14. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  15. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  16. Electronic cigarette use and uptake of cigarette smoking: A longitudinal examination of U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Hiler, Marzena M; Cooke, Megan E; Eissenberg, Thomas; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use prevalence is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults but recent longitudinal data for college/university students are scarce. Furthermore, the extent that e-cigarette use is associated with the onset of cigarette smoking and the factors that lead to the uptake of e-cigarettes in college students has not been explored. 3757 participants from a Mid-Atlantic university (women: 66%; White: 45%; Black: 21%; Asian: 19%; Hispanic/Latino: 6%) were surveyed in 2014 and again in 2015. Among participants reporting never smoking at time 1, those who had ever tried e-cigarettes or were currently using e-cigarettes (at least one use in past 30days) were more likely to have ever tried cigarettes by time 2 relative to individuals who had not used e-cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes (but not current use) also increased participants' likelihood of being current cigarette smokers at time 2. Among initial never users of e-cigarettes or cigarettes, males and ever marijuana users had an increased probability of trying e-cigarettes by time 2. Furthermore, less perseverance (an index of impulsivity) and ever use of other tobacco products increased initial never users' chances of trying both cigarettes and e-cigarettes by time 2. Given that never-smoking participants who had tried e-cigarettes were more likely to initiate cigarette use later, limiting young adults' access to these products may be beneficial. As the long-term health implications of e-cigarette use become clearer, predictors of e-cigarette use could help identify future populations likely to use and abuse these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  18. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-Il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N = 944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous six...

  19. Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative...

  20. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  1. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Cruz, María; Villastrigo, Adrián; Pallarés, Susana; López-Gallego, Elena; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae), using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae) compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae). Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  2. Patient Perspectives on Discussions of Electronic Cigarettes in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Mark P; Wu, Ming; Rainwater, Elizabeth; Khan, Ali S; Rhoades, Dorothy A

    2018-01-01

    Patient preferences regarding the role of the primary care provider (PCP) in discussing electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are unknown. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 568 adult patients in a family medicine clinic to explore e-cigarette use, sources of information on e-cigarettes, perceived knowledge about e-cigarette health effects, views regarding PCP knowledge of e-cigarettes, interest in discussing e-cigarettes with PCPs and preferred format for e-cigarette information. We performed χ2 testing with a 2-tailed P 30 days) use. Prevalence was significantly higher among those who were younger, less educated, or smoked cigarettes, but did not vary by sex or self-reported health status. Roughly one quarter of participants believed they were knowledgeable about the health effects of e-cigarettes, secondhand smoke, and quitting cigarettes. Sources of e-cigarette information included television advertisements (56.6%), friends and family (49.9%), or e-cigarette shops (25.5%), but included physician offices much less frequently (6.0%). Although 30.2% disagreed that their PCP knew a lot about e-cigarettes, 62.0% were comfortable discussing e-cigarettes with their PCP. However, only 25% of all patients wanted their PCP to discuss e-cigarettes with them, but 62.0% of recent e-cigarette users wanted such a discussion. Most preferred a brief discussion or handout to a lengthy discussion. PCPs were infrequent sources of information for patients regarding e-cigarette use. PCPs need evidence-based strategies to help them address e-cigarettes in primary care. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  4. Electronic cigarette use by college students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Morrell, Holly E R; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    .... college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students...

  5. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  6. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  7. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  8. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cigarette craving, smoking withdrawal, and clonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, A H; Jackson, W K; Walsh, B T; Roose, S P; Rosenfeld, B

    1984-11-16

    Clonidine, an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, significantly reduces opiate withdrawal. Fifteen heavy smokers abstained from cigarettes on three separate occasions and received instead clonidine, placebo, or the benzodiazepine alprazolam. Clonidine and alprazolam diminished withdrawal symptoms. The two drugs suppressed anxiety, tension, irritability, and restlessness equally but clonidine had a greater effect than alprazolam on cigarette craving. These observations suggest that noradrenergic activity is a common feature in the pathophysiology of withdrawal and that a special relationship exists between central noradrenergic activity and craving.

  10. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions.

  11. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  12. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min

    2007-06-25

    Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant--betel nuts--increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1) Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2) Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972-2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and consumers because it not only reduces cigarette consumption, but it also

  13. Changes in cigarette expenditure minimising strategies before and after a cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G

    2017-02-20

    Smokers use cigarette expenditure minimising strategies (CEMS) to alleviate the effect of tax increases on their cigarette expenses. We examined changes in smokers' CEMS use before and after a 2013 Minnesota $1.75 cigarette tax increase. Data were from representative samples of smokers who participated in the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey 2010 (n=948) and 2014 (n=1229). Participants indicated CEMS used in the past year from a list. Weighted multiple logistic regressions were used to examine changes in prevalence of each CEMS use over time adjusting for demographics and cigarette consumption. Characteristics associated with CEMS use in 2014 were examined. Between 2010 and 2014, more smokers tried to save money on cigarettes by rolling their own cigarettes (from 19% to 29%), using other tobacco products (from 13% to 25%), and buying cigarettes from cheaper places (from 48% to 55%). Yet, fewer smokers used coupons/promotions (from 63% to 50%) and bought cigarettes by the carton (from 39% to 32%). These changes varied somewhat by race/ethnicity and education, for example, more smokers with smokers. CEMS use in 2014 varied by demographics, for example, smokers with lower education were more likely than those with higher education to purchase discount brands, roll their own cigarettes, use coupons/promotions and cut back on smoking (psmokers were most likely to use CEMS and continue smoking after a cigarette tax increase. Regulations that would reduce CEMS use could boost the effectiveness of cigarette tax increases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) [year]. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Electronic cigarette solutions and resultant aerosol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Jason S; Myers, Colton

    2015-10-30

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity exponentially. Despite their ever-growing acceptance, their aerosol has not been fully characterized. The current study focused on evaluating e-cigarette solutions and their resultant aerosol for potential differences. A simple sampling device was developed to draw e-cigarette aerosol into a multi-sorbent thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was then thermally extracted and analyzed via a gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This novel application provided detectable levels of over one hundred fifteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a single 40mL puff. The aerosol profiles from four commercially available e-cigarettes were compared to their respective solution profiles with the same GC-MS method. Solution profiles produced upwards of sixty four unidentified and identified (some only tentatively) constituents and aerosol profiles produced upwards of eighty two compounds. Results demonstrated distinct analyte profiles between liquid and aerosol samples. Most notably, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and siloxanes were found in the aerosol profiles; however, these compounds were never present in the solutions. These results implicate the aerosolization process in the formation of compounds not found in solutions; have potential implications for human health; and stress the need for an emphasis on electronic cigarette aerosol testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers.

  16. Children's perceptions of advertisements for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Leathar, D S; O'Hagan, F J

    1985-01-01

    Groups of children aged between 6 and 16 years discussed a series of advertisements, including those for cigarettes. Clear patterns emerged in their recognition of cigarette brand imagery. For example, in response to an advertisement for holidays which also presents the brand imagery of John Player Special cigarettes, 22% of primary school children and 91% of secondary school children said it advertises cigarettes. There were consistent trends in responses to the symbolism portrayed. Younger children were very much tied to what was specifically shown in the advertisements; older ones tended to perceive more complex imagery. For example, whereas 10-year-olds said people who like the advertisement for Kim cigarettes (which has symbols for drinking) would smoke and drink, some 12-year-olds and most 14- and 16-year-olds saw Kim as feminine, sociable, trendy and sporty. It seems that some 12-year-olds and most 14- and 16-year-olds perceive cigarette advertisements much in the way that young adults do; therefore advertising campaigns targeted at older teenagers and young adults are likely to present qualities which younger teenagers find attractive.

  17. E-Cigarettes Use Behavior and Experience of Adults: Qualitative Research Findings to Inform E-Cigarette Use Measure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoshin; Davis, Andrew H; Dohack, Jaime L; Clark, Pamela I

    2017-02-01

    To gain a better understanding of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use behavior and experience among adult e-cigarette users, with the goal of informing development of future e-cigarette use measures. Between August and October 2014 six focus groups were conducted in Seattle. Participants (63% male; 60% >35 years old; 60% White): e-cigarette users who used combustible tobacco products either currently or in the past. E-cigarette discussion topics covered: their daily use pattern (eg, frequency), product-related characteristics (eg, nicotine levels), and perceptions about health risks and benefits. Participants' descriptions of daily use were so varied that no common "unit" of a "session" easily summarized frequency or quantity of typical e-cigarette use. Most users had difficulty in tracking their own use. Participants reported nicotine craving relief when using e-cigarettes, but described e-cigarettes use as less satisfying than combustible cigarettes. Valued characteristics included "ready availability" and the possibility of using indoors. A unique aspect of the e-cigarette use experience is the option of adding flavors and having the ability to exhale "big clouds" of vapor/aerosol. Most perceived e-cigarettes as a better and safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, yet still sought further information about health consequences and safety of e-cigarettes from trusted sources. E-cigarettes users are far from homogeneous in their behavior and motivation for adopting e-cigarettes. A range of use patterns arising from both hedonic and utilitarian factors, along with product characteristics (eg, variable nicotine levels and flavors) extending beyond those of conventional cigarettes, suggest that new, specific e-cigarette use measures must be developed. The current study provides timely information on adult e-cigarette use behavior, which is a crucial step in measuring this new phenomenon and assessing the risks associated with using e-cigarette products. Our

  18. Differences in the design and sale of e-cigarettes by cigarette manufacturers and non-cigarette manufacturers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-04-01

    Three categories of e-cigarette brands have emerged within the US market: e-cigarette brands developed by cigarette manufacturers, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation. In the absence of federal regulatory oversight of e-cigarettes, we assessed differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these categories. Brand websites for top-selling e-cigarette brands from each of these categories were examined in October of 2015 to compare website access restrictions, online sales practices and products sold, including e-cigarette model type (eg, 'cigalike' vs advanced systems) and options available (eg, flavoured, nicotine free). Website access to brands developed by cigarette manufacturers was restricted to users aged 21 years or older, and one website required user registration. In addition, these brands were exclusively reusable/rechargeable 'cigalikes.' Limited flavour options were available for these products, and nicotine-free options were not sold. In contrast, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation generally required website visitors to be 18, offered a nicotine-free option, and most offered disposable products and an array of flavoured products (eg, fruit/candy flavours). This exploratory study finds differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these three e-cigarette brand categories, with brands developed by cigarette manufacturers adopting a particularly distinctive product and sales strategy. Anticipated regulation of e-cigarettes in the USA may be influencing these product and sales decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Factors associated with electronic cigarette use among current cigarette-smoking adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Lee, Haein; Min, Soyoon

    2017-06-01

    Despite a rapid increase in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and substantial dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among adolescents, little is currently known about adolescent e-cigarette use. Thus, this study aimed to investigate (a) rates of e-cigarette use and (b) significant factors associated with e-cigarette use among current cigarette users in adolescence. We analyzed secondary data collected from a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Our study sample included 6307 current smokers. Our dependent variable was e-cigarette use and consisted of three categories (nonuse, former use, and current use); independent variables included demographics, perceived stress, parental and friends' smoking, three characteristics of cigarette smoking, and other health risk behaviors. Descriptive statistics was used for the first aim; multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed for the second aim. Of current cigarette users, 20% smoked e-cigarettes in their lifetime but not within the past 30days (former users), and 42% smoked e-cigarettes in their lifetime and within the past 30days (current users). Both former and current e-cigarette use were significantly associated with male gender, higher grades, higher weekly allowance, residence in urban areas, friends' smoking, daily smoking, a higher number of cigarettes smoked, and quit attempts. In addition, current e-cigarette use was significantly associated with at-risk drinking, lifetime drug use, and lifetime sexual intercourse. E-cigarette use should be included in intervention strategies for smoking prevention and cessation. Strict regulations should be implemented in order to prohibit easy access to e-cigarettes and forbid advertising of e-cigarettes as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  1. Availability and costs of single cigarettes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ojeda, Ana; Barnoya, Joaquin; Thrasher, James F

    2013-01-01

    Single-cigarette sales have been associated with increased cigarette accessibility to less educated, lower-income populations, and minors; lower immediate cost, and increased smoking cues. Since 1997, Guatemalan Law bans the sale of single cigarettes and packs with fewer than 20 cigarettes. In 2005, Guatemala ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC); it is therefore obliged to "prohibit sale of cigarettes individually or in small packets." Blocks were numbered and randomly selected in Guatemala City and 3 neighboring towns. All stores in each block were surveyed. Single-cigarette and fewer than 20-cigarette pack sales were assessed by observation and purchase attempts. Cigarette brands and manufacturers (Philip Morris, PM or British American Tobacco, BAT) were also recorded. Percentages and means were used to describe data. Analyses were done using STATA 11.0. Of 398 stores and street vendors surveyed, 75.6% (301) sold cigarettes. Of these, 91% (275) sold single cigarettes and none sold fewer than 20-cigarette packs. Only informal economic sectors sold singles. There was no difference on sales between Guatemala City and neighboring towns and by store type. Buying 20 single cigarettes was US$ 0.83 more expensive than buying a 20-cigarette pack. The most prevalent brands were Rubios (PM), Marlboro (PM), Payasos (BAT), and After Hours (BAT). Single-cigarettes sales are highly prevalent among informal economic sectors in Guatemala City and its neighboring towns. Our data should prove useful to advocate for FCTC Article 16 enforcement in Guatemala.

  2. Electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tool: are we there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sohini; Drummond, M Bradley

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen. Cessation rates are highest in UK cohort studies and in studies using a multifaceted approach, such as with the addition of varenicline. The largest evidence base is derived from observational cohort studies. Overall, the current evidence remains too small for conclusive results regarding efficacy of e-cigarettes for combustible cessation. There does appear to be a consistent reduction in daily combustible cigarette use in regular e-cigarette users. Currently, there are conflicting data which can be used to support or dismiss e-cigarettes as a tool for smoking cessation. As larger population-based studies become available, the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes will become clearer. In the short term, shared decision-making with combustible cigarette users will be imperative when considering e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool.

  3. Public health challenges of electronic cigarettes in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Ji Eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2011-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful. Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes.

  4. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  5. Olfactory host location in beetle bruchid parasitoid Dinarmus basalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rond.) was investigated in bioassays by measuring response to stimuli associated with one of its hosts, the larvae of beetle bruchid, Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic.) infesting Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) seeds. Orientation of parasitoid females was ...

  6. Effects of compaction and soil moisture on American burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-25

    Silphid beetles in the genus Nicrophorus bury themselves during periods of inactivity, however, the influence of soil characteristics on burial behavior remains unclear. We examined soil preferences of the federally endangered Nicrophorus americanus,...

  7. A survey of carrion beetles on Seier National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seier National Wildlife Refuge personnel conducted an inventory of flora and fauna found on the Refuge in 2011. The federally endangered American burying beetle...

  8. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  9. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  10. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  11. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorenby, Douglas E; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate how experienced dual users used cigarettes and e-cigarettes in real-world use and under different levels of cigarette availability. Dual users (cigarettes+e-cigarettes; n=74) and a smoke-only group (just cigarettes; n=74) engaged in a 26-day study with two ad lib use intervals, a week of 75% cigarette reduction and three days of 100% cigarette reduction. After a week of ad lib use of products, all participants were asked to reduce smoking by 75% (dual users were free to use their e-cigarettes as they wished), followed by another week of ad lib use. All participants were then asked to reduce smoking by 100% (cessation) for three days. Primary outcomes were biological samples (carbon monoxide, urinary nicotine and cotinine). Participants also provided real-time reports of product use, craving, and withdrawal symptoms using a smartphone app. Dual users did not smoke fewer cigarettes than smoke-only participants during ad lib periods, but quadrupled their use of e-cigarettes during smoking reduction periods. Dual users were significantly more likely to maintain 100% reduction (97.1% vs. 81.2%). Amongst women, dual use was associated with higher nicotine levels and withdrawal suppression. Among a group of experienced dual users, e-cigarettes helped maintain smoking reduction and reduced some withdrawal symptoms, although both withdrawal symptoms and nicotine levels varied as a function of gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying how smokers value attributes of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; MacMonegle, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have increased quickly among US adults (3.3% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2013) and youth (4.5% in 2013 to 13.4% in 2014). As state and local governments consider regulatory policies, understanding what smokers believe about e-cigarettes and how they value e-cigarettes is important. Using data from a convenience sample of Florida adult smokers (N=765), we investigated the value smokers place on specific attributes of e-cigarettes (availability of flavours, effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, healthier alternative to regular cigarettes, ability to use e-cigarettes in public places) by asking smokers how much they would be willing to pay for e-cigarettes with and without each of these attributes. For cigarette-only and dual users, losing the ability to use an e-cigarette as a quit aid and losing the harm reduction of an e-cigarette significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. For cigarette-only users, not being able to use an e-cigarette indoors and losing flavours also significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. Our results suggest that smokers value multiple attributes of e-cigarettes. Our valuation measures also appear to align with smokers' beliefs about e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  14. TROPHIC RELATIONS OF LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE) OF THE URALS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. I. Tyumaseva; E. V. Guskova

    2016-01-01

    The article contains the study of the trophic relations of the lady beetles living in the Urals. The study allocates three ecological groups depending on the peculiarities of the beetles and larvae nutrition: phytophages, micetophages, and entomophages-predators. We have revealed 66 species of lady birds-predators and two species-phytophages: Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel, 1827). In the group of obligatory micetophages in the Urals we r...

  15. Mycangia of ambrosia beetles host communities of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, J; Rountree, N R; Diamond, S E; Stelinski, L L; Fierer, N; Dunn, R R

    2012-10-01

    The research field of animal and plant symbioses is advancing from studying interactions between two species to whole communities of associates. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities supports multiplexed sampling for statistically robust tests of hypotheses about symbiotic associations. We focus on ambrosia beetles, the increasingly damaging insects primarily associated with fungal symbionts, which have also been reported to support bacteria. To analyze the diversity, composition, and specificity of the beetles' prokaryotic associates, we combine global sampling, insect anatomy, 454 sequencing of bacterial rDNA, and multivariate statistics to analyze prokaryotic communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia, organs mostly known for transporting symbiotic fungi. We analyze six beetle species that represent three types of mycangia and include several globally distributed species, some with major economic importance (Dendroctonus frontalis, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus-ferrugineus, Xyleborus glabratus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus). Ninety-six beetle mycangia yielded 1,546 bacterial phylotypes. Several phylotypes appear to form the core microbiome of the mycangium. Three Mycoplasma (originally thought restricted to vertebrates), two Burkholderiales, and two Pseudomonadales are repeatedly present worldwide in multiple beetle species. However, no bacterial phylotypes were universally present, suggesting that ambrosia beetles are not obligately dependent on bacterial symbionts. The composition of bacterial communities is structured by the host beetle species more than by the locality of origin, which suggests that more bacteria are vertically transmitted than acquired from the environment. The invasive X. glabratus and the globally distributed X. crassiusculus have unique sets of bacteria, different from species native to North America. We conclude that the mycangium hosts in multiple vertically transmitted bacteria such as

  16. Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing, Urge to Buy Cigarettes, and Impulse Purchases of Cigarettes: Results From a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Hyland, Andrew; Smith, Danielle; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing for one's regular brand, as well as any brand of cigarettes, with the urge to buy cigarettes and frequency of impulse purchases of cigarettes. Nine hundred ninety-nine smokers in Omaha, Nebraska were interviewed via telephone. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as discounts for their regular brand as well as any brand of cigarettes in their neighborhoods stores. We measured urge to buy cigarettes with the question "When you are in a store in your neighborhood that sells tobacco products, how often do you get an urge to buy cigarettes?" We measured frequency of impulse purchases of cigarettes with the question "When you are shopping in a store in your neighborhood for something other than cigarettes, how often do you decide to buy cigarettes?" We estimated ordinary least squares linear regression models to address the study aim. Higher levels of POS marketing for one's regular brand and any brands of cigarettes were associated with more frequent urges to buy (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively) and impulse purchases of cigarettes (P = .01 and P = .013, respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Exposure to POS marketing for one's own brand of cigarette as well as any brand is associated with urges to buy and impulse purchases of cigarettes. Existing studies on the association of POS cigarette marketing with urge to buy and an impulse purchase of cigarettes only focus on cigarette pack displays, not on advertisements and promotions. Also, these studies make no distinction between marketing for the smokers' regular brand and any brand of cigarettes. This study found that Exposure to POS marketing for one's own brand of cigarette as well as any brand is associated with urges to buy and impulse purchases of cigarettes. Our findings can provide part of the evidence-base needed by

  17. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  18. Adolescent cigarette smokers' and non-cigarette smokers' use of alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Charles; Geletko, Karen

    2012-08-01

    This study uses the most recent data from the nationally representative National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to examine the use of alternative tobacco products among U.S. cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers aged 14-17. Alternative tobacco product use is defined as use of one or more of the following products: smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipes, bidis, or kreteks. Using the results from the 2004, 2006, and 2009 NYTS, multivariate logistic regressions were used to investigate separately the extent of alternative tobacco product use in current cigarette smokers and in those who reported not smoking cigarettes controlling for demographic and other independent influences. The results indicate that for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers, the use of one type of alternative tobacco product made it much more likely the individual would use one or more of the other alternative tobacco products. Non-cigarette smokers using these tobacco products appeared to exhibit symptoms of nicotine dependence comparable to those of cigarette smokers. More information on adolescent use of alternative tobacco products is needed. Current cigarette use declined 3.4% annually over 2004-2009 for the NYTS 14- to 17-year-old population, but this cohort's use of alternative tobacco products was unchanged. The number of adolescents aged 14-17 who did not smoke cigarettes but used alternative tobacco products increased 5.9% per year over the same period. Current surveillance measures need to be expanded in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of adolescent alternative tobacco use.

  19. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  20. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids are Mylabris impressa, M. guerini, Muzimes iranicus, Alosimus smyrnensis and Epicauta sharpi. Most cases of linear dermatitis in this country occur in areas bordering the Caspian Sea. This problem is caused by beetles of the genus Paederus which are present as adults from mid-April to October with particularly high incidences from May to August. Fars (in southern Iran ranks second in number of cases of insect-induced dermatitis. The third major region in which this type of dermatitis has been recorded is Hamedan Province, in the west of the country. Meloid dermatitis showed its highest severity in 2001, when a considerable number of patients sought medical help in Toyserkan and Nahavand counties. New cases of skin blistering were reported along the Persian Gulf coast and the agent was identified as Epicauta sharpi (Coleoptera: Meloidae. In all these regions, it was observed that recorded cases of lesions coincided precisely with the yearly peaks of the beetles. Paederus fuscipes and P. kalalovae are the predominant species along the Caspian Sea shore. It appears that P. fuscipes is homogeneously distributed throughout the Caspian Sea region while the distribution of the other species is more irregular. Paederus fuscipes is probably the major agent that causes linear dermatitis in northern Iran. Whereas this disease is a rural difficulty in the south, mainly in villages or small towns, it is an urban problem in northern provinces along the Caspian Sea shore

  1. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  2. Weathering the storm: how lodgepole pine trees survive mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Hussain, Altaf; Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Zhao, Shiyang

    2017-06-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands. We also compared beetle attack characteristics between resistant and beetle-killed trees. Beetle-killed trees had more beetle attacks and longer ovipositional galleries than resistant trees, which also lacked the larval establishment found in beetle-killed trees. Resistant trees contained high amounts of toxic and attraction-inhibitive compounds and low amounts of pheromone-precursor and synergist compounds. During beetle host aggregation and colonization, these compounds likely served three critical roles in tree survival. First, low amounts of pheromone-precursor (α-pinene) and synergist (mycrene, terpinolene) compounds reduced or prevented beetles from attracting conspecifics to residual trees. Second, high amounts of 4-allyanisole further inhibited beetle attraction to its pheromone. Finally, high amounts of toxic limonene, 3-carene, 4-allyanisole, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid inhibited beetle gallery establishment and oviposition. We conclude that the variation of chemotypic expression of local plant populations can have profound ecological consequences including survival during insect outbreaks.

  3. Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium brunneum to determine the feasibility of using agar-based fungal bands versus two new types of oil-formulated fungal bands for Asian longhorned beetle management. We investigated conidial retention and survival on three types of bands attached to trees in New York and Pennsylvania: standard polyester fiber agar-based bands containing fungal cultures, and two types of bands made by soaking either polyester fiber or jute burlap with oil-conidia suspensions. Fungal band formulation did not affect the number or viability of conidia on bands over the 2-month test period, although percentage conidial viability decreased significantly with time for all band types. In a laboratory experiment testing the effect of the three band formulations on conidial acquisition and beetle survival, traditional agar-based fungal bands delivered the most conidia to adult beetles and killed higher percentages of beetles significantly faster (median survival time of 27d) than the two oil-formulated materials (36-37d). We also tested the effect of band formulation on conidial acquisition by adult beetles kept individually in cages with a single band for 24h, and significantly more conidia (3-7times) were acquired by beetles from agar-based bands compared to the two oil formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutualism Between Fire Ants and Mealybugs Reduces Lady Beetle Predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shoujie; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-08-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest that has a negative impact on biodiversity. However, current knowledge regarding the ecological effects of its interaction with honeydew-producing hemipteran insects is inadequate. To partially address this problem, we assessed whether the interaction between the two invasive species S. invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley mediated predation of P. solenopsis by Propylaea japonica Thunbery lady beetles using field investigations and indoor experiments. S. invicta tending significantly reduced predation by the Pr. japonica lady beetle, and this response was more pronounced for lady beetle larvae than for adults. A field investigation showed that the species richness and quantity of lady beetle species in plots with fire ants were much lower than in those without fire ants. In an olfaction bioassay, lady beetles preferred to move toward untended rather than tended mealybugs. Overall, these results suggest that mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis may have a serious impact on predation of P. solenopsis by lady beetles, which could promote growth of P. solenopsis populations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  6. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  7. A Randomized Trial of the Effect of E-cigarette TV Advertisements on Intentions to Use E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Duke, Jennifer C; Crankshaw, Erik C; Eggers, Matthew E; Lee, Youn O; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E; Porter, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Adolescents' use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and exposure to e-cigarette TV advertising have increased in recent years, despite questions about their safety. The current study tests whether exposure to e-cigarette TV advertisements influences intentions to use e-cigarettes in the future and related attitudes. A parallel-group randomized controlled experiment was conducted and analyzed in 2014 using an online survey with a convenience sample of 3,655 U.S. adolescents aged 13-17 years who had never tried e-cigarettes. Adolescents in the treatment group viewed four e-cigarette TV advertisements. Adolescents in the treatment group reported a greater likelihood of future e-cigarette use compared with the control group. ORs for the treatment group were 1.54 (p=0.001) for trying an e-cigarette soon; 1.43 (p=0.003) for trying an e-cigarette within the next year; and 1.29 (p=0.02) for trying an e-cigarette if a best friend offered one. Adolescents in the treatment group had higher odds of agreeing that e-cigarettes can be used in places where cigarettes are not allowed (OR=1.71, pExposure to e-cigarette advertising had relatively large and consistent effects across experimental outcomes. Together with the simultaneous increase in e-cigarette advertising exposure and e-cigarette use among adolescents, findings suggest that e-cigarette advertising is persuading adolescents to try this novel product. This raises concerns that continued unregulated e-cigarette advertising will contribute to potential individual- and population-level harm. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How hearing about harmful chemicals affects smokers' interest in dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Byron, M Justin; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-01

    Substantial harm could result from concurrent cigarette and e-cigarette use (i.e., dual use) were it to undermine smoking cessation. Perceptions of chemical exposure and resulting harms may influence dual use. We conducted a probability-based phone survey of 1164 U.S. adult cigarette smokers in 2014-2015 and analyzed results in 2016. In a between-subjects experiment, smokers heard a hypothetical scenario in which cigarettes and e-cigarettes had the same amount of harmful chemicals or cigarettes had more chemicals than e-cigarettes (10× more, 100× more, or chemicals were present only in cigarettes). Smokers indicated how the scenario would change their interest in dual use and perceived health harms. Few smokers (7%) who heard that the products have the same amount of chemicals were interested in initiating or increasing dual use. However, more smokers were interested when told that cigarettes have 10× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (31%), 100× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (32%), or chemicals were present only in cigarettes (43%) (all pe-cigarettes (79% vs. 41%, OR=5.41, 95% CI=4.08-7.17). These harm perceptions partially explained the relationship between chemical scenario and dual use interest. Smokers associated higher chemical amounts in cigarettes versus e-cigarettes with greater health harms from cigarettes and thus expressed increased interest in dual use. The findings suggest that disclosing amounts of chemicals in cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol could unintentionally encourage dual use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  10. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  11. Performance of cigarette susceptibility index among e-cigarette and hookah users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Leventhal, Adam M; Alonzo, Todd A; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Liu, Feifei; Pentz, Mary Ann; Unger, Jennifer B; McConnell, Rob

    2017-08-31

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking has been used since the mid-1990s as a measure to identify youth at risk of cigarette initiation. However, it is unclear how well this measure predicts future smoking among electronic (e-)cigarette or hookah users, or among those in tobacco-friendly social environments. We used prospective data from the Southern California Children's Health Study to evaluate the performance (sensitivity, specificity, predictive value) of a composite index assessing susceptibility to smoking, and to evaluate whether performance of the measure differed by use of e-cigarettes or hookah, or immersion in a tobacco-friendly social environment. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking was measured in 11th/12th grade (2014) among never cigarette-smokers (N=1266); follow-up data on smoking initiation were obtained approximately 16 months later. Overall, 16.4% of youth initiated smoking between baseline and follow-up. The sensitivity of the susceptibility to smoking index was low (46.4%), and specificity was high (79.0%). No difference in sensitivity was observed by baseline e-cigarette use; specificity was higher among never e- cigarette users. Differences in negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were also observed by baseline e-cigarette and hookah use. Specificity was generally lower, and sensitivity was generally higher for those in tobacco-friendly social environments. Our findings suggest that use of the susceptibility to smoking index in cross-sectional studies of older adolescents to identify those likely to begin smoking may be inappropriate for those using alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes or hookah). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  13. Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyarah, Rana; Long, Gerald A

    2014-12-01

    Leading commercial electronic cigarettes were tested to determine bulk composition. The e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes were evaluated using machine-puffing to compare nicotine delivery and relative yields of chemical constituents. The e-liquids tested were found to contain humectants, glycerin and/or propylene glycol, (⩾75% content); water (e-cigarettes. Thus, the results of this study support previous researchers' discussion of e-cigarette products' potential for reduced exposure compared to cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  15. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  16. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use

  17. Portrayal of electronic cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott

    2014-10-03

    As the most popular video sharing website in the world, YouTube has the potential to reach and influence a huge audience. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of what e-cigarette messages people are being exposed to on YouTube by assessing the quantity, portrayal and reach of e-cigarette videos. Researchers identified the top 20 search results on YouTube by relevance and view count for the following search terms: "electronic cigarettes", "e-cigarettes", "ecigarettes", "ecigs", "smoking electronic cigarettes", "smoking e-cigarettes", "smoking ecigarettes", "smoking ecigs". A sample of 196 unique videos was coded for overall portrayal and genre. Main topics covered in e-cigarette videos were recorded and video statistics and viewer demographic information were documented. Among the 196 unique videos, 94% (n = 185) were "pro" to e-cigarettes and 4% (n = 8) were neutral, while there were only 2% (n = 3) that were "anti" to e-cigarettes. The top 3 most prevalent genres of videos were advertisement, user sharing and product review. 84.3% of "pro" videos contained Web links for e-cigarette purchase. 71.4% of "pro" videos claimed that e-cigarettes were healthier than conventional cigarettes. Audience was primarily from the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada and "pro" e-cigarette videos were watched more frequently and rated much more favorably than "anti" ones. The vast majority of information on YouTube about e-cigarettes promoted their use and depicted the use of e-cigarettes as socially acceptable. It is critical to develop appropriate health campaigns to inform e-cigarette consumers of potential harms associated with e-cigarette use.

  18. Electronic cigarette use outcome expectancies among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Fagan, Pebbles; Muranaka, Nicholas; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    E-cigarette use outcome expectancies and their relationships with demographic and e-cigarette use variables are not well understood. Based on past cigarette as well as e-cigarette use research, we generated self-report items to assess e-cigarette outcome expectancies among college students. The objective was to determine different dimensions of e-cigarette use expectancies and their associations with e-cigarette use and use susceptibility. Self-report data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students [M age=23.5 (SD=5.5); 65% Female; 35% current cigarette smokers] in Hawaii. Data analyses were conducted by using factor and regression analyses. Exploratory factor analysis among e-cigarette ever-users indicated 7 factors: 3 positive expectancy factors (social enhancement, affect regulation, positive sensory experience) and 4 negative expectancy factors (negative health consequences, addiction concern, negative appearance, negative sensory experience). Confirmatory factor analysis among e-cigarette never-users indicated that the 7-factor model fitted reasonably well to the data. Being a current cigarette smoker was positively associated with positive expectancies and inversely with negative expectancies. Higher positive expectancies were significantly associated with greater likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Except addiction concern, higher negative expectancies were significantly associated with lower likelihood of past-30-day e-cigarette use. Among e-cigarette never-users, positive expectancy variables were significantly associated with higher intentions to use e-cigarettes in the future, adjusting for current smoker status and demographic variables. E-cigarette use expectancies determined in this study appear to predict e-cigarette use and use susceptibility among young adults and thus have important implications for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Kaufmann, Amanda; Blazekovic, Sonja; Leone, Frank; Benowitz, Neal L.; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. Methods Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study. Day 1 (own cigarette brand) data established baseline levels for cotinine, carbon monoxide (CO), topography, cigarette liking, withdrawal, and craving. Participants returned on Days 5 and 10 to reassess these measures while exclusively using e-cigarettes. Results Compared to cigarette smoking, e-cigarettes provided significantly lower nicotine levels (25%-50%), reduced CO exposure, and lower ratings of liking (p exposure or use. Conclusions E-cigarettes are not liked as much as cigarettes, provide significantly lower nicotine replacement, reduce CO exposure, and mitigate withdrawal and craving. The patterns of use significantly differ compared to cigarette smoking. PMID:27942543

  20. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, pcigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, pcigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative assessment of toxicities of mainstream smoke from commercial cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Detlef; Knebel, Jan; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2004-09-01

    Three cigarette types were compared using an experimental approach for quantifying selected toxicological effects of diluted fresh whole cigarette mainstream smoke in vitro. The test procedure involved automatic smoking of cigarettes according to the FTC/ISO standard, online monitoring of generated smoke aerosols with respect to particulate and gas-phase components, and direct exposure of a human type II-like lung cell line (A549) using exposure conditions relevant to human smoking. Test specimens were the K1R4F standard research cigarettes (9.2 mg tar/cigarette) and two commercial European light filter cigarettes (brand 1, brand 2) having the same tar content (7.0 mg/cigarette). As a representative of the toxicological effect of smoke, intracellular reduced glutathione was analyzed directly after exposure of cells. Results revealed statistically significant different quantitative effects with regard to glutathione depletion when comparing whole smoke and filtered smoke from all three cigarettes. ED50 values revealed a depletion of reduced glutathione by brand 1 cigarettes that was more than twice the depletion caused by brand 2 cigarettes on a per cigarette basis. Also, quantitatively different effects were found on a per particle and on a per CO concentration basis using whole or filtered smoke from the cigarettes. We conclude that the methods we employed provide sensitive and reproducible ways of detecting differences in the toxicological action of smoke from various types of cigarettes. Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc.

  2. Perceptions of Secondhand E-Cigarette Aerosol Among Twitter Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Escobedo, Patricia; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Chu, Kar-Hai; Cruz, Tess

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable debate among the public health community about the health risks of secondhand exposure to the aerosol from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Despite mounting scientific evidence on the chemical content of e-cigarette aerosol, public perceptions of the relative safety of secondhand e-cigarette aerosol have not been well characterized. This study collected tweets, or messages sent using Twitter, about exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol over a 6-week period in 2015. Tweets were coded on sentiment about e-cigarettes (pro-, anti-, or neutral/unknown) and topic (health, social, advertisement, or unknown). The 1519 tweets included 531 pro-e-cigarette tweets, 392 anti-e-cigarette tweets, and 596 neutral tweets. Social tweets far outnumbered health tweets (747 vs. 182, respectively). Social-focused tweets were predominantly pro-e-cigarette, whereas health-focused tweets were predominantly anti-e-cigarette. Twitter discussions about secondhand vaping are dominated by pro-e-cigarette social tweets, although there is a presence of anti-e-cigarette social tweets and tweets about negative and positive health effects. Public health and regulatory agencies could use social media and traditional media to disseminate the message that e-cigarette aerosol contains potentially harmful chemicals and could be perceived as offensive. This study identifies the prevalent topics and opinions that could be incorporated into health education messages.

  3. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  4. Comparison of chemical attractants against dung beetles and application for rangeland and animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) play a major role in nutrient cycling, soil aeration, and biological control of pests and parasites that breed in manure. Habitat fragmentation, pesticide usage, and conventional agricultural practices threaten dung beetle diversity, and their conservation is ...

  5. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  6. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  7. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  8. Do birds and beetles show similar responses to urbanization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Sara A; Fahrig, Lenore

    2011-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of studies in urban areas have been carried out on birds, yet it is not known whether the responses of birds to urbanization are congruent with those of other taxa. In this paper, we compared the responses of breeding birds and carabid beetles to urbanization, specifically asking whether the emerging generalizations of the effects of extreme levels of urbanization on birds (declines in total species richness and the richness of specialist species, increases in total abundance and the abundances of native generalist and introduced species, and community simplification, including increasing similarity) could also be applied to ground beetles. We also directly tested for congruence between birds and ground beetles using correlations between variables describing bird and beetle community structure and correlations between bird and beetle distance matrices describing community dissimilarity between pairs of sampling locations. Breeding bird and carabid beetle community data were collected in Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, in two groups of sites: developed sites representing the predictor variable within-site housing density, and forested sites adjacent to development representing the predictor variable neighboring housing density (each site was 0.25 km2). Breeding birds and carabid beetles do not respond similarly to increasing within-site housing density but do exhibit some similar responses to increasing neighboring housing density. Birds displayed strong declines in diversity, compositional changes, and community simplification in response to increasing within-site housing density. Forest and introduced species of birds and beetles responded similarly to increasing housing density within a site, but responses of overall diversity and open-habitat species richness and patterns of community simplification differed between birds and beetles. Increasing neighboring housing density resulted in increases in the abundances of

  9. Strategies for managing rival bacterial communities: Lessons from burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Welch, Martin; Swannack, Chris; Wagner, Josef; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2018-03-01

    The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: "weeding," "seeding," "replanting" and "preserving." By combining detailed behavioural observations with molecular and bioinformatic analyses, we then test which of these mechanisms best explains how burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, manipulate the bacterial communities on their carcass breeding resource. Burying beetles are a suitable species to study how animals manage external microbiota because reproduction revolves around a small vertebrate carcass. Parents shave a carcass and apply antimicrobial exudates on its surface, shaping it into an edible nest for their offspring. We compared bacterial communities in mice carcasses that were either fresh, prepared by beetles or unprepared but buried underground for the same length of time. We also analysed bacterial communities in the burying beetle's gut, during and after breeding, to understand whether beetles could be "seeding" the carcass with particular microbes. We show that burying beetles do not "preserve" the carcass by reducing bacterial load, as is commonly supposed. Instead, our results suggest they "seed" the carcass with bacterial groups which are part of the Nicrophorus core microbiome. They may also "replant" other bacteria from the carcass gut onto the surface of their carrion nest. Both these processes may lead to the observed increase in bacterial load on the carcass surface in the presence of beetles. Beetles may also "weed" the bacterial community by eliminating some groups of bacteria on the carcass, perhaps through

  10. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Young adult daily smokers (age 18-35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers' ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all psExposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (pexposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Risk factors for exclusive e-cigarette use and dual e-cigarette use and tobacco use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D

    2015-01-01

    To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Hand-rolled cigarette smoking patterns compared with factory-made cigarette smoking in New Zealand men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Marewa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roll-your-own (RYO cigarettes have increased in popularity, yet their comparative potential toxicity is uncertain. This study compares smoking of RYO and factory-made (FM cigarettes on smoking pattern and immediate potential toxicity. Methods At a research clinic, 26 RYO and 22 FM volunteer male cigarette smokers, (addicted and overnight-tobacco-abstinent each smoked 4 filter cigarettes, one half-hourly over 2 hours, either RYO or FM according to usual habit, using the CReSSMicro flowmeter. First cigarette smoked was their own brand. Subsequent cigarettes, all Holiday regular brand, were RYOs (0.5 g tobacco with filter, or FM with filter. Cravings on 100 mm visual analogue scale, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO were measured before and after each cigarette smoked. Results Smokers reported similar daily cigarette consumption (RYO 19.0, FM 17.4, p = 0.45, and similar time after waking to first cigarette. (RYO 6.1 minutes, FM 8.6 minutes, p = 0.113. First cigarette's RYO tobacco (0.45 g weighed less than for FM (0.7 g, p Conclusion In these smokers, RYO smoking was associated with increased smoke exposure per cigarette, and similar CO breath levels, and even with filters is apparently no less and possibly more dangerous than FM smoking. Specific package warnings should warn of RYO smoking's true risk. RYOs are currently taxed much less than FM cigarettes in most countries; similar harm merits similar excise per cigarette.

  13. Exposure Calls to U. S. Poison Centers Involving Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes-September 2010-December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Law, Royal; Taylor, Ethel; Kieszak, Stephanie; Melstrom, Paul; Bunnell, Rebecca; Wang, Baoguang; Day, Hannah; Apelberg, Benjamin; Cantrell, Lee; Foster, Howell; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.

  14. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend ... Current Smoking Among Adults in 2016 (States) References Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease ...

  15. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  16. Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ®)– ... do not quit smoking completely but smoke fewer cigarettes (smoking reduction) they may still benefit. The more ...

  17. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B Eule; M K Sullivan; S A Schroeder; K S Hudmon

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine...

  18. E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166899.html E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review But ... News) -- Teens and young adults who use electronic cigarettes -- also known as vaping -- are almost four times ...

  19. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco products may be perceived as safer than cigarettes or other smoked tobacco products because they aren' ... result in some of the same risks as cigarettes, as well as additional health risks particularly associated ...

  20. Just 10 Cigarettes During Pregnancy Can Harm Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166312.html Just 10 Cigarettes During Pregnancy Can Harm Kids Teens whose mothers ... to women who smoked as few as 10 cigarettes are more apt to have thinking and learning ...

  1. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsson, Lennart; Pehrson, Christina; Dechen, Tenzin; Crane-Godreau, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    ...) smoke of some popular US cigarettes. We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertising can entice youth to use tobacco, and spending to advertise e-cigarettes has increased rapidly since 2011. About 69% of middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette advertisements in retail ...

  3. The effect of e-cigarette warning labels on college students' perception of e-cigarettes and intention to use e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lohrmann, David K

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two e-cigarette warning labels on college students' perceived advantages and risks of e-cigarette use, as well as students' intentions to use e-cigarettes. The company-produced e-cigarette warning label carries abundant information with small font size while the governmental warning label has only two sentences presented in large font size. The effect of both labels have not yet been examined and verified. Data were collected in October 2015 from college students at a Midwestern university. A pretest-posttest design was employed with 338 students exposed to the warning label proposed by the FDA and 328 students exposed to the label created by e-cigarette companies. Structural equation modeling analysis was implemented to examine the effect of warning labels with the analytical model grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Findings showed that college students' perceived advantages of e-cigarette use were positively related to their intentions to use e-cigarettes, while perceived risks were negatively associated with their intentions. When comparing two labels, the governmental label was found to reduce college students' intentions to use e-cigarettes via increasing perceived risks of e-cigarette use (β=0.10, pe-cigarette use. The warning label currently used by e-cigarette companies showed no influence on beliefs about or intentions to use e-cigarettes. The warning label proposed by the FDA is more effective than that created by e-cigarette companies, however, has room for improvement to make a greater impact on e-cigarette use intention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of conditioned stimuli in cigarette and e-cigarette craving reduction by e-cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Martijn Van Heel; Dinska Van Gucht; Koen Vanbrabant; Frank Baeyens

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session asses...

  5. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Williams, Rebecca S; Gammon, Doris G; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (eg, US-based, international or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. We analysed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010 and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (OR=1.58, pcigarette prices would save $1508 per year buying cigarettes online. ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Blood cigarettes: cigarette smuggling and war economies in central and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titeca, Kristof; Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2011-05-01

    To analyse cigarette smuggling practices in central and eastern Africa. Primary data were gathered during long-term qualitative field research in which about 400 interviews were conducted. Analysis of secondary sources included academic literature and reports from non-government organisations, multilateral organisations and the press. Our research suggests that the following factors play an important role in cigarette smuggling in eastern and central Africa: (1) government officials encounter difficulties monitoring the long and porous borders; (2) there is a general problem of corrupt government officials and particularly those who allow large-scale smugglers to operate; (3) criminal elements also play an important role in smuggling--cigarette smuggling has helped rebel groups to finance their activities, something illustrated through examples from the war economy in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our research suggests that cigarette smuggling in this region is not primarily the result of different taxation levels in neighbouring states, but rather the outcome of weak state capacity, high levels of corruption and the activities of rebel groups. Under these conditions smuggling cigarettes becomes an attractive option as taxation is so easily avoided. This explains why in the low-income countries in this study there are high levels of smuggling in spite of low cigarette prices. Comprehensive supply control and enforcement legislation, and cooperation at national, regional and global level are needed to tackle fraudulent practices facilitated by corruption at state level, and to effectively punish interaction between cigarette traders and rebel groups.

  7. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  8. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  9. Characterisation of the Draw Resistance Across a Lit Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colard S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumer senses and reacts to the draw resistance of the cigarette after it is lit. In spite of this obvious fact, this physical parameter is usually measured under standard conditions on the unlit cigarette (1. In order to evaluate more accurately the smokers’ perception during the course of cigarette smoking, the theoretical aspects of the draw resistance measurement of a lit cigarette have been studied and an experimental device has been developed.

  10. Interactions between cigarette and alcohol consumption in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze interdependencies between cigarette and alcohol consumption in rural China, using panel data for 10 years (1994–2003) for rural areas of 26 Chinese provinces. There have been many studies in which cigarette and alcohol consumption have been considered separately but few to date for China on interactions between the consumption of these two products. Taxes are often recommended as a tool to reduce alcohol and cigarette consumption. If cigarettes and al...

  11. E-Cigarettes: Prevalence and Attitudes in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Dockrell, Martin; Morrison, Rory; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a means of recreational nicotine use that can potentially eliminate the need to smoke tobacco. Little is known about the prevalence of use or smokers’ attitudes toward e-cigarettes. This study describes use of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in Britain. Methods: Respondents from three surveys were recruited from a panel of adults in Britain. Preliminary online and face-to-face qualitative research informed the development of a smokers’ ...

  12. Clove cigarettes. The basis for concern regarding health effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, T L; Laing, L; Prakash, U B

    1989-01-01

    The smoking of clove cigarettes has been associated with 13 cases of serious illness in the United States, including hemorrhagic pulmonary edema, pneumonia, bronchitis, and hemoptysis. We describe a patient in whom, after she smoked a clove cigarette, pneumonia complicated by lung abscess developed. Her lung disease may have been caused by aspiration pneumonia as a consequence of pharyngolaryngeal anesthesia from clove cigarette smoke. Clove cigarettes appeal to adolescents experimenting with...

  13. Electronic cigarettes: The nicotyrine hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Aaron; McQueen, Amy; Martinez, Raul E; Williams, Brent J; Sumner, Walton

    2015-09-01

    There are conflicting reports about the efficacy of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) as nicotine delivery devices and smoking cessation products. In addition, smokers' responses to some nicotine dependence questions often change as they transition to exclusive e-cig use. Nicotyrine may explain these observations. Nicotyrine forms by the gradual oxidation of nicotine in e-liquids exposed to air. E-cigs aerosolize nicotyrine along with nicotine. Nicotyrine inhibits the cytochrome P450 2A family of enzymes (CYP2A) in airways and liver. These enzymes metabolize nicotine to cotinine, and then cotinine to trans 3-hydroxycotinine. In humans, nicotine is metabolized primarily by hepatic CYP2A6. We propose that e-cig users (vapers) achieve measurable serum nicotine levels when they inhale nicotine and nicotyrine together, because nicotyrine reversibly inhibits nicotine metabolism by CYP2A13 in airways. Consuming nicotyrine by any route should irreversibly inhibit hepatic CYP2A6. When CYP2A6 is substantially inhibited, nicotine clearance is delayed and nicotine withdrawal symptoms are attenuated. Small, relatively infrequent nicotine doses can then sustain satisfying nicotine levels. This theory has numerous implications for e-cig research and tobacco control. Behavioral and pharmacokinetic e-cig studies should be interpreted with attention to likely levels of nicotyrine delivery: e-cig studies may need to routinely measure nicotyrine exposure, assess CYP2A6 activity, confirm nicotine delivery, or deliberately compare unoxidized and oxidized e-liquids. The risks of nicotyrine exposure include impaired clearance of all CYP2A substrates and any effects of the metabolic products of nicotyrine. CYP2A inhibitors like nicotyrine may be useful for future smoking cessation therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 1337 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to... change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) regulations by adding a portion of...: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis), an insect native to China, Japan...

  15. 77 FR 31720 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in... and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the Asian longhorned beetle regulations to make.... These actions are necessary to prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested...

  16. 77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts... amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations by adding portions of Worcester County, MA, and Clermont.... APHIS-2012-0003), we amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations in 7 CFR part 301 by adding...

  17. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  18. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  19. Effects on eastern larch beetle of its natural attractant and synthetic pheromones in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Malcom M. Furniss; Thomas. Ward

    1981-01-01

    Traps baited with Seudenol + a-pinene caught 87 percent more eastern larch beetles, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, than did tamarack logs infested with females. Male beetles responded to the synthetic attractant in greater numbers than females. Male beetles were not attracted to frontalin, a principal attractant of the closely related Douglas-fir...

  20. Recognition of imported lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini released in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu

    2002-01-01

    Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...

  1. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2006-01-01

    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  2. Fires following bark beetles: Factors controlling severity and disturbance interactions in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg; Rodman R. Linn; Francois Pimont; Chad M. Hoffman; Joel D. McMillin; Judith Winterkamp; L. Scott Baggett

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that bark beetles and fires can be interacting disturbances, whereby bark beetle-caused tree mortality can alter the risk and severity of subsequent wildland fires. However, there remains considerable uncertainty around the type and magnitude of the interaction between fires following bark beetle attacks, especially in drier forest types...

  3. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  4. Influence of elevation on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Miller; Kelly Barton; Joel McMillin; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Bark beetles killed more than 20 million ponderosa pine trees in Arizona during 2002-2004. Historically, bark beetle populations remained endemic and ponderosa pine mortality was limited to localized areas in Arizona. Consequently, there is a lack of information on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of...

  5. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Horn; M.D. Ulyshen

    2009-01-01

    We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles on sandbars along a small woodland stream and in the adjacent floodplain forest (Oglethorpe Co., GA, USA). We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. Twenty-two species were exclusive to sandbars, while eight were found only in the forested habitat. Ground beetles...

  6. Losses of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees to southern pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Over an 1 l-year period (1983-1993), we examined the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation rate of single Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees on the Angelina National Forest in Texas. Southern pine beetles infested and killed 38 cavity trees during this period. Typically, within each cavity tree cluster, beetles infested only...

  7. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  8. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    .... Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed...

  9. Attitudes of Serbian adults towards e-cigarette use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kilibarda

    2017-05-01

    Curiosity was cited as the main reason for trying e-cigarettes among a substantial number of those who had ever tried them, calling for actions aimed to reduce experimentation with e-cigarettes and their wide distribution. Further education on all aspects of e-cigarettes is needed among the general population including on the harmful effects of nicotine in any form.

  10. College Students' Polytobacco Use, Cigarette Cessation, and Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Pasch, Keryn E; Li, Xiaoyin; Hinds Iii, Josephine T; Marti, C Nathan; Harrell, Melissa B; Creamer, MeLisa R; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-07-01

    We examined patterns of tobacco and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among college students. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics between non-users of these products and 4 mutually exclusive groups of tobacco/e-cigarette users were assessed. Differences in cigarette cessation attempts and dependence between exclusive cigarette smokers and users of cigarettes and at least one alternative tobacco product also were examined. Participants were 5468 18-29 year-old students from 24 colleges in Texas who completed an online survey. Multiple-product use was more prevalent than single-product use. All 4 current tobacco/e-cigarette-user groups were more likely than non-users to be men and older. College students who were younger when they smoked their first cigarette, and those reporting ever needing a cigarette, were more likely to be multiple-product users than cigarette-only users. There were no group differences in cigarette cessation attempts or any other variables. Using multiple products is associated with some indicators of dependence, but does not seem to aid or deter college students' smoking cessation attempts. Longitudinal research is needed given that transitions in tobacco/e-cigarette use continue throughout young adulthood.

  11. A propulsion injury following a spontaneous electronic cigarette explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherrie Chan Yiru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have become increasingly popular at an alarming rate. This coincides with the public perception that they are a safer mean of nicotine consumption. Unregulated devices carry unrecognized safety risks that have led to numerous cases of burns, associating with spontaneous combustions of e-cigarettes.

  12. Differential effects of cigarette price changes on adult smoking behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Chaloupka, Frank J; Luke, Douglas A; Waterman, Brian; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-03-01

    Raising cigarette prices through taxation is an important policy approach to reduce smoking. Yet, cigarette price increases may not be equally effective in all subpopulations of smokers. To examine differing effects of state cigarette price changes with individual changes in smoking among smokers of different intensity levels. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults originally interviewed in 2001-2002 (Wave 1) and re-interviewed in 2004-2005 (Wave 2): 34 653 were re-interviewed in Wave 2, and 7068 smokers defined at Wave 1 were included in our study. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess whether the effects of changes in state cigarette prices on changes in daily smoking behaviour differed by level of daily smoking. In the multivariable model, there was a significant interaction between change in price per pack of cigarettes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p=0.044). The more cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, the more responsive the smokers were to increases in price per pack of cigarettes (ie, number of cigarettes smoked per day was reduced in response to price increases). Our findings that heavier smokers successfully and substantially reduced their cigarette smoking behaviours in response to state cigarette price increases provide fresh insight to the evidence on the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices in reducing smoking.

  13. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  14. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The most predominant form of tobacco use is cigarette smoking, and it poses serious threats to maternal and child health. The magnitude of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in our environment is not well.known. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women in ...

  15. 16 CFR 1210.3 - Requirements for cigarette lighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for cigarette lighters. 1210.3... REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.3 Requirements for cigarette lighters. (a) A lighter subject to this part 1210 shall be resistant to successful operation by at...

  16. 27 CFR 40.24 - Classification of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cigarettes. 40.24 Section 40.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.24 Classification of cigarettes. For tax purposes, small...

  17. 27 CFR 45.45 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 45..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, FOR USE OF THE UNITED STATES Packaging Requirements § 45.45 Notice for cigarettes...

  18. Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette Smoke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking ... This study was designed to provide information on humoral immune responses in Nigerians that smoke cigarettes, consume alcohol or combine cigarette smoking ..... O.G. (2003). Basic Immunology for students of Medicine and Biology.

  19. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers. Results In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1–4% range (10–40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6–2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. Conclusions The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. PMID:25877377

  20. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-04-01

    Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local 'vape' shops and online retailers. In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1-4% range (10-40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6-2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as 'primary irritants' of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Predation by adult and larval lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on initial contact with lady beetle eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E

    2007-04-01

    Naïve adults and larvae of the native lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Cycloneda munda (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant), and the exotic lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested for their initial response to eggs of these five lady beetle species and for egg consumption on first contact and after 3 h. Additionally, field-collected O. v-nigrum and H. axyridis adults were tested. C. maculata, H. axyridis, and O. v-nigrum adults responded similarly to all egg species on first contact. Higher numbers of C. munda adults did not eat C. maculata, H. convergens, and O. v-nigrum eggs on first contact compared with numbers that did eat C. munda and H. axyridis eggs. H. convergens adults always ate C. munda eggs but hardly ate H. axyridis eggs on first contact. Results showed that over the 3-h interval, egg predation by those predators feeding on first contact was always higher, except for adults and larvae of C. maculata, than for those that did not feed on first contact. Thus, acceptance of eggs on initial contact does impact egg survival. It is likely that eggs of all native species tested (i.e., C. maculata, C. munda, H. convergens, and O. v-nigrum), but not exotic H. axyridis eggs, are suitable food for C. maculata, H. convergens, and O. v-nigrum, whereas only C. munda eggs serve as suitable food for C. munda. In direct contrast, all egg species tested would likely serve as suitable food for the exotic H. axyridis.

  2. Effect of increasing temperatures on the distribution of spruce beetle in Engelmann spruce forests of the Interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Barbara J. Bentz; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The spruce beetle (Dendoctronus rufipennis) is a pervasive bark beetle indigenous to spruce (Picea spp.) forests of North America. In the last two decades outbreaks of spruce beetle have increased in severity and extent. Increasing temperatures have been implicated as they directly control beetle populations, potentially inciting endemic populations to build to...

  3. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  4. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Williams, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette use, and psychosocial covariates (demographics, parental support and monitoring, and sensation seeking and rebelliousness). Regression analyses including the covariates tested whether e-cigarette use was related to the onset of smoking among youth who had never smoked cigarettes, and to change in smoking frequency among youth who had previously smoked cigarettes. Among T1 never-smokers, those who had used e-cigarettes at T1 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes at T2; for a complete-case analysis, adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.05, pe-cigarettes was not related to significant change in their frequency of smoking at T2. Uptake of e-cigarette use among T1 never-users of either product was predicted by age, Caucasian or Native Hawaiian (vs Asian-American) ethnicity, lower parental education and parental support, higher rebelliousness, and perception of e-cigarettes as healthier. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes. This result together with other findings suggests that policies restricting adolescents' access to e-cigarettes may have a rationale from a public health standpoint. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, H S; Hawthorne, K B; Jackson, W T

    1988-05-01

    Although the cause of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) remains unknown, hyperactivity of the sympathetic nerves and secondary vasospasm may be pathogenic in this syndrome. A retrospective epidemiologic study of RSD was done on 53 in-patients from 1978-1985. Cigarette smoking was strikingly increased in patient frequency in RSD (68% versus 37% of hospitalized controls, p less than 0.0001). Eighty-seven percent of the patients had a history of trauma or surgery, and 38% had other associated diseases. Cigarette smoking is statistically linked to RSD and may be involved in its pathogenesis by enhancing sympathetic activity, vasoconstriction, or by some other unknown mechanism.

  6. Illegal Market of Cigarettes in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Evelin Ahermaa

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco products belong to a group of excise goods and an excise duty is levied on them. The latter increases the price, but there are no changes in the quality of the goods and it leads to tax frauds. There has been regular increase in the excise duties on tobacco products in Estonia; changes in tax rates have influenced legal sales, mostly of cigarettes. Consumption of cigarettes is the largest in the group of tobacco products in Estonia; therefore, the paper is especially focused on cigare...

  7. E-cigarette advertising exposure in e-cigarette naïve adolescents and subsequent e-cigarette use: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa; Gutierrez, Kevin M; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana; Simon, Patricia; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-02-06

    Electronic (E-) cigarettes are one of the most popular tobacco products used by adolescents today. This study examined whether exposure to advertisements in (1) social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest/Google Plus), (2) traditional media (television/radio, magazines, billboards), or (3) retail stores (convenience stores, mall kiosks, tobacco shops) was associated with subsequent e-cigarette use in a longitudinal cohort of adolescents. Data were drawn from longitudinal surveys conducted in fall 2013 (wave 1) and spring 2014 (wave 2) of a school-based cohort attending 3 high schools and 2 middle schools in Connecticut. Adolescents were asked about tobacco use behaviors and where they had recently seen e-cigarette advertising at wave 1. We used logistic regression to determine whether advertising exposure at wave 1 increased the odds of e-cigarette use by wave 2, controlling for demographics and cigarette smoking status at wave 1. Among those who have never used e-cigarettes in wave 1 (n = 1742), 9.6% reported e-cigarette use at wave 2. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to e-cigarette advertising on Facebook (OR 2.12 = p advertising on social networking sites among youth who had never used e-cigarettes increases the likelihood of subsequent e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Dung beetle communities: a neotropical-north temperate comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Meghan G; Fonseca, Cláudio R V da; Williamson, G Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Dung beetle communities have been compared across north temperate latitudes. Tropical dung beetle communities appear to be more diverse based on studies using different methodologies. Here, we present results from a standardized sampling protocol used to compare dung beetle communities across five neotropical forests in Brazil and Ecuador and two warm, north temperate forests in Mississippi and Louisiana. Species richness in the tropical forests was three to seven times higher than the temperate forests, as would be expected by studies of other taxa across tropical and temperate latitudes. Average body size in the temperate forests was larger than the tropical forests, as predicted by Bergmann's rule. Dung beetle abundance and volume per trap-day were generally higher in Ecuador than Brazil, and higher in Mississippi than Louisiana, but there were no tropical-temperate differences. Species rank-abundance curves were similar within countries and between countries. Rank-volume distributions indicated a smaller range of beetle body sizes in Ecuador versus Brazil or the USA. Community similarity was high within countries and low between countries. Community differences between Brazil and Ecuador sites may be explained by differences in productivity based on geological age of the soils.

  9. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  10. Endogaeic ground beetles fauna in oilseed rape field in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka DRMIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in oilseed rape field can be an important indicator of different agricultural measures in arable land fauna. Surveys about ground beetle fauna in Croatia are generally very scarce and only few research on oilseed rape were conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the endogaeic ground beetle fauna in oilseed rape field and to determine species abundance and frequency. The study was carried out in Podravina region of Croatia, from the end of May till the mid-September in 2015. Ground beetles were collected using endogaeic traps incorporated in the soil. Altogether, 487 individuals classified into 8 species were collected. Species with the highest abundance and frequency was Brachinus (Brachinus psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821, which was classified as eudominant and constant species. The highest ground beetle abundance was observed in summer period. All of the species found were spring breeders, except for species Trechus (Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank, 1781 which breeds in autumn.

  11. Adult cannibalism in an oligophagous herbivore, the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Everett; Alyokhin, Andrei; Pinatti, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Cannibalism, or intraspecific predation, can play a major role in changing individual fitness and population processes. In insects, cannibalism frequently occurs across life stages, with cannibals consuming a smaller or more vulnerable stage. Predation of adult insects on one another is considered to be uncommon. We investigated adult cannibalism in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), which is an oligophagous herbivore specializing on plants in family Solanaceae, and an important agricultural pest. Under laboratory conditions, starvation and crowding encouraged teneral adults to feed upon each other, which reduced their weight loss during the period of starvation. However, pupae were attacked and consumed before adults. Injured beetles had a higher probability of being cannibalized than intact beetles. Males were more frequently attacked than females, but that appeared to be a function of their smaller size rather than other gender-specific traits. Cannibalizing eggs at a larval stage did not affect beetle propensity to cannibalize adults at an adult stage. When given a choice between conspecific adults and mealworms, the beetles preferred to eat conspecifics. Cannibalistic behavior, including adult cannibalism, could be important for population persistence in this species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impacts adolescents’ decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents’ knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents’ perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. Methods 24 adolescents (9 females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in 6 small-groups discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. Results Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use, but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. Conclusion Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes. PMID:26115908

  13. The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    To review the impact of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on children. Five electronic databases were searched through 31 December 2013. Studies in English that included data for children younger than 18 years of age were included. In addition, relevant data from articles identified during searches of the e-cigarette literature, relevant state survey data and paediatric voluntary adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed and included. Use of e-cigarettes by youth is increasing and is not limited to traditional cigarette smokers. Data regarding the reasons for youth e-cigarette initiation and ongoing use are limited. The effects of e-cigarette marketing and the availability of flavoured e-liquids on youth use are unknown. The abuse liability of e-cigarettes in youth is also not known. Unintentional exposures to e-cigarettes and e-liquids have been reported in children. The number of e-cigarette-related reports received by poison centres is increasing. No data are available on secondhand and thirdhand e-cigarette aerosol exposures in children. Data on the impact of e-cigarettes on children are extremely limited. The available data indicate that youth awareness is high and use is increasing rapidly. The extent to which e-cigarette use in youth will result in nicotine dependence and subsequent use of other tobacco products is unknown. e-cigarettes present risks of unintentional nicotine exposure and are potential choking hazards. A greater understanding of the impact of e-cigarettes on children is needed and will be important in the evaluation of the effects of these products on the public health.

  14. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  15. NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kevin M; Abrams, David B; Bailey, William C; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N; Djordjevic, Mirjana V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Fiore, Michael C; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S; Henningfield, Jack E; Hughes, John R; Oncken, Cheryl A; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E; Wanke, Kay L; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Electronic cigarette use, knowledge, and perceptions among health professional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Amy M; Hawes, William A; McCain, Keith R; Payakachat, Nalin

    2017-11-01

    Our study evaluated the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, knowledge, and perceptions of health professional students enrolled in one of five colleges at a single academic health center. A 56-item survey was conducted to examine the use, knowledge, and perceptions of e-cigarettes among health professional students. An e-cigarette knowledge score was calculated according to correct responses to eight true-false survey items, with possible scores ranging from zero to eight points. Regressions were used to determine associations between students' enrolled college/discipline and e-cigarette knowledge scores and to identify associations between three perception domains (smoking cessation, harm reduction, and enhanced regulation) and e-cigarette use. Of the 853 students responding, 24.2% reported e-cigarette ever-use. Of e-cigarette ever users, 85.5% had used within the past year, and 23.1% used e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Participants from the colleges of public health, pharmacy, and nursing had significantly higher knowledge scores, compared to those in allied health. Knowledge scores from college of medicine participants did not differ significantly compared to scores from allied health. Perceptions of using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, reduced harm compared to tobacco, and reduced e-cigarette regulation were significantly associated with using e-cigarettes. Self-reported ever-use of e-cigarettes among health professional students in this sample was 3.5-6 times higher than previously reported among medical and nursing students. Substantial gaps in e-cigarette knowledge exist. Enhancing health professionals' preparedness to effectively advise patients about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of experimental income on demand for potentially real cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wilson, Arlington George; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette demand, or the change in cigarette consumption as a function of price, is a measure of reinforcement that is associated with level of tobacco dependence and other clinically relevant measures, but the effects of experimentally controlled income on real-world cigarette consumption have not been examined. In this study, income available for cigarette purchases was manipulated to assess the effect on cigarette demand. Tobacco-dependent cigarette smokers (n = 15) who smoked 10-40 cigarettes per day completed a series of cigarette purchasing tasks under a variety of income conditions meant to mimic different weekly cigarette budgets: $280, approximately $127, $70, or approximately $32 per week. Prices of $0.12, $0.25, $0.50, and $1.00 per cigarette were assessed in each income condition. Participants were instructed to purchase as many cigarettes as they would like for the next week and to only consume cigarettes purchased in the context of the study. One price in 1 income condition was randomly chosen to be "real," and the cigarettes and the excess money in the budget for that condition were given to the participant. Results indicate that demand elasticity was negatively correlated with income. Demand intensity (consumption at low prices) was unrelated to income condition and remained high across incomes. These results indicate that the amount of income that is available for cigarette purchases has a large effect on cigarette consumption, but only at high prices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allison C

    2011-05-23

    Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol's effects on 1) biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2) toxicity and cellular effects, 3) lung function and respiration, 4) pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5) allergic reactions and inflammation, and 6) tobacco-related diseases. It is concluded that menthol is a biologically active compound that has effects by itself and in conjunction with nicotine, however much of the data on the other areas of interest are inconclusive and firm conclusions cannot be drawn.

  19. The health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the 1920s, menthol has been added to cigarettes and used as a characterizing flavor. The health effects of cigarette smoking are well documented, however the health effects of menthol cigarettes as compared to non-menthol cigarettes is less well studied. This review discusses menthol’s effects on 1 biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, 2 toxicity and cellular effects, 3 lung function and respiration, 4 pulmonary and/or vascular function, 5 allergic reactions and inflammation, and 6 tobacco-related diseases. It is concluded that menthol is a biologically active compound that has effects by itself and in conjunction with nicotine, however much of the data on the other areas of interest are inconclusive and firm conclusions cannot be drawn.

  20. Electronic Cigarette Use and Exposure in the Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M.; Drummond, M. Bradley; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has gained recent widespread popularity and acceptance in the general population. What effect e-cigarettes may have on pediatric health remains unknown. Although many jurisdictions have laws that prevent the sale of e-cigarettes to minors and the use of e-cigarettes in public places, infants, children, and adolescents are increasingly exposed to them. In this pediatric-focused review, we discuss the history of these devices, user demographics, known health effects, and current legislative efforts to protect minors from exposure. PMID:25546699

  1. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke.

  2. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Burbank, Andrea D

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular safety of nicotine is an important question in the current debate on the benefits vs. risks of electronic cigarettes and related public health policy. Nicotine exerts pharmacologic effects that could contribute to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis experienced by cigarette smokers. Studies of nicotine medications and smokeless tobacco indicate that the risks of nicotine without tobacco combustion products (cigarette smoke) are low compared to cigarette smoking, but are still of concern in people with cardiovascular disease. Electronic cigarettes deliver nicotine without combustion of tobacco and appear to pose low-cardiovascular risk, at least with short-term use, in healthy users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  4. Potential resistance of crape myrtle cultivars to flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Gretchen V; Boyd, David W; Braman, S Kristine; Pounders, Cecil

    2004-06-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to identify potential resistance among crape myrtles, Lagerstroemia spp., to Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman and to flea beetles, Altica spp. Damage ratings revealed variation among cultivars in susceptibility to beetle feeding. Cultivars with Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne in their parentage exhibited the least amount of damage in choice and no-choice experiments, with few exceptions. The data indicate that both beetle species cause more feeding damage on certain cultivars of Lagerstroemia indica L., such as 'Country Red', 'Twilight', and 'Carolina Beauty' than interspecific cultivars with L. fauriei in their parentage, such as 'Natchez', 'Tonto', and 'Muskogee'. When comparing the effect of parentage on all of the major pests of crape myrtle, L. faurei confers resistance to all pests except crape myrtle aphid. No correlation was found between leaf toughness, leaf color, and leaf nutrients in estimating flea beetle cultivar preference. With this information, growers can more effectively target scouting measures to the most susceptible cultivars. and breeders can select plants that will require the fewest chemical inputs.

  5. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus. The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%, caryophyllene (12.7%, β-cubebene (7.9%, 4-terpineol (7.5% and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%, while humulene epoxide II (29.4%, caryophyllene oxide (24.0%, diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7% and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7% were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  6. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  7. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species, the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum, the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne, different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp., moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella, Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina and booklice (Psocoptera can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  8. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  9. Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Benjamin; Fischbein, Rebecca; Bhamidipalli, Surya Sruthi; Bryant, Jennifer; Kenne, Deric R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, ...

  10. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  11. Streetlights attract a broad array of beetle species

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    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Light pollution on ecosystems is a growing concern, and knowledge about the effects of outdoor lighting on organisms is crucial to understand and mitigate impacts. Here we build up on a previous study to characterize the diversity of all beetles attracted to different commonly used streetlight set ups. We find that lights attract beetles from a broad taxonomic and ecological spectrum. Lights that attract a large number of insect individuals draw an equally high number of insect species. While there is some evidence for heterogeneity in the preference of beetle species to different kinds of light, all species are more attracted to some light radiating ultraviolet. The functional basis of this heterogeneity, however, is not clear. Our results highlight that control of ultraviolet radiation in public lighting is important to reduce the number and diversity of insects attracted to lights.

  12. Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Clissold, Fiona J.; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

  13. College Students’ Polytobacco Use, Cigarette Cessation, and Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Chow, Sherman; Pasch, Keryn E.; Li, Xiaoyin; Hinds, Josephine T.; Marti, C. Nathan; Harrell, Melissa B.; Creamer, MeLisa R.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined patterns of tobacco and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among college students. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics between non-users of these products and 4 mutually exclusive groups of tobacco/e-cigarette users were assessed. Differences in cigarette cessation attempts and dependence between exclusive cigarette smokers and users of cigarettes and at least one alternative tobacco product also were examined. Methods Participants were 5468 18–29 year-old students from 24 colleges in Texas who completed an online survey. Results Multiple-product use was more prevalent than single-product use. All 4 current tobacco/e-cigarette-user groups were more likely than non-users to be men and older. College students who were younger when they smoked their first cigarette, and those reporting ever needing a cigarette, were more likely to be multiple-product users than cigaretteonly users. There were no group differences in cigarette cessation attempts or any other variables. Conclusions Using multiple products is associated with some indicators of dependence, but does not seem to aid or deter college students’ smoking cessation attempts. Longitudinal research is needed given that transitions in tobacco/e-cigarette use continue throughout young adulthood. PMID:27338998

  14. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adolescents in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Idrisov, Bulat; Galimov, Artur; Masagutov, Radik; Sussman, Steve

    2017-02-23

    Information on e-cigarettes among youth in the Russian Federation is lacking. We examined prevalence of and factors associated with youth e-cigarette use in the Russian Federation. A cross-sectional, anonymous survey, conducted among 716 (females 51.5%) high school students in three cities (i.e., Ufa, Sterlitamak, Karagaevo) within the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation in 2015, assessed e-cigarette use and its correlates (i.e., sex, age, ethnicity, family structure, parents' highest degrees, antisocial behaviors, stress coping strategies, lifetime cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and marijuana use). Lifetime use of e-cigarettes was 28.6% and past-30-day use was 2.2%. Multilevel modeling showed that belonging to Tatar/Bashkir ethnicity relative to Russian ethnicity (OR = 1.60) and lifetime use of cigarettes (OR = 21.64), hookah (OR = 4.21), and alcohol (OR = 1.90) was associated with greater odds of lifetime use of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, use of social support coping strategies (i.e., utilizing parents for support) were associated with lower odds of lifetime use of e-cigarettes (OR = 0.94). Despite high lifetime e-cigarette use, past-30-day use was low. Greater knowledge of the reasons for e-cigarette discontinuation through continued surveillance is needed in the Russian Federation. Social coping strategies involving parents may inform e-cigarette use prevention.

  15. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  16. E-cigarettes and the law in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2015-06-01

    Australian laws covering electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are complex and vary between jurisdictions. The supply of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes in Australia is illegal. Possession or use of nicotine in e-cigarettes without approval is also illegal and the sale of non-nicotine e-cigarettes is illegal in some states. Despite the current legal barriers, the use of e-cigarettes by Australian smokers has increased over recent years. This article summarises these laws, recent cases involving e-cigarettes and what is known about their safety and efficacy as cessation aids. Australian medical practitioners are likely to be asked about e-cigarettes by patients who smoke and may be interested in using them to quit smoking. The efficacy of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid has not been fully established. The health risk of long-term use is also unknown, although it is probably less than that of smoking cigarettes. There is an urgent need for research on the health effects of e-cigarettes and their use in quitting smoking.

  17. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M L; Williams, K K; Hofstetter, R W; McMillin, J D; Degomez, T E; Wagner, M R

    2008-02-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles, five species of Dendroctonus bark beetles, and two genera of bark beetle predators, Enoclerus spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim) (Coleoptera: Ostomidae), in ponderosa pine forests of northcentral Arizona. We quantified beetle flight activity using data loggers and pheromone-baited funnel traps at 18 sites over 4 yr. Ambient air temperature was monitored using temperature data loggers located in close proximity to funnel traps. We analyzed degree-day accumulation and differences between minimum, average, and maximum ambient temperature for the week before and week of first beetle capture to calculate flight temperature thresholds. Degree-day accumulation was not a good predictor for initiation of beetle flight. For all species analyzed other than D. adjunctus Blandford, beetles were captured in traps only when springtime temperatures exceeded 15.0 degrees C. D. adjunctus was collected when maximum temperatures reached only 14.5 degrees C. Once initial flights had begun, beetles were often captured when maximum ambient air temperatures were below initial threshold temperatures. Maximum and average air temperatures were a better predictor for beetle flight initiation than minimum temperature. We establish a temperature range for effective monitoring of bark beetles and their predators, and we discuss the implications of our results under climate change scenarios.

  18. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  19. [Food habits and cigarette smoking in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruppacher, R; Erne, H

    1975-01-01

    Bad eating habits, e.g. no regular breakfast, rarer consumption of fruits and milk, are associated with higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence. Probably this is due to a common factor most likely to be found in the personality of the adolescent and its determinants.

  20. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single ...