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Sample records for ciervo colorado cervus

  1. Estudios preliminares del núcleo espermático de ciervo colorado (Cervus elaphus Red deer (Cervus elaphus sperm nucleus preliminary studies

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    M.R Ferrari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan el valor del contenido haploide de ADN, varias características de la distribución de la cromatina y algunas determinaciones morfométricas del núcleo espermático de ciervo colorado (Cervus elaphus. De acuerdo con nuestro conocimiento es la primera vez que se establece el contenido haploide de ADN en la especie. La Reacción de Feulgen se hizo sobre extendidos de semen obtenidos por electroeyaculación de un macho adulto. Se determinaron mediante microespectrofotometría de barrido y teniendo como patrón de referencia eritrocitos de pollo: el contenido medio haploide de ADN (3,88+0,58 pg, la relación absorbancia máxima/absorbancia media (3,01+0,08 y la absorbancia máxima, que se encontró en la base del núcleo espermático. Se hicieron determinaciones morfométricas sobre imágenes digitalizadas de núcleos espermáticos, también coloreados con la Reacción de Feulgen. Los siguientes caracteres se midieron sobre el plano principal: área (26,12+0,20 ì m2, perímetro (20,01+0,07 ì m, diagonal máxima (7,82+0,03 ì m, diagonal mínima (4,25+0,03 ì m y se establecieron las relaciones diagonal máxima/diagonal mínima (1,85+0,01 y forma (0,81+0,01. Tanto las mediciones de absorbancia como las determinaciones morfométricas mostraron coeficientes de variación bajos (In this work we measured the red deer (Cervus elaphus haploide DNA content, several nuclear sperm morphometric characteristics and some chromatin distribution parameters. According to our knowledge, it is the first time that the DNA content was measured on this species. Feulgen Reaction, which is specific and stoichiometric for DNA, was carried out on semen smears obtained by electroeyaculación from an adult male. Using microespectrophotometry and Gallus domesticus as standard species, the haploid DNA content was determined (3.88+0.58 pg. Chromatin distribution was evaluated using characteristics such as maximun and average absorbance and their

  2. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Argentina

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    J P Soler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de ataxia enzoótica (AE en ciervos rojos en cautiverio ocurrido en Argentina. La AE es una patología de los ciervos que causa parálisis lenta y progresiva de las extremidades posteriores y ha sido asociada a la deficiencia de cobre. Su presentación suele ser a partir de los 9 meses de edad. El problema afectó a dos ciervas rojas con debilidad de los miembros posteriores. Se realizó necropsia a una hembra preñada. Se tomaron muestras de órganos en formol al 10%, de suero y sangre entera. Al feto también se le realizó necropsia y se le tomó una muestra de hígado. A partir de muestras de pasto se determinaron los niveles de Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo y SO4. En el agua se analizaron los valores de sales totales, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na y Cl. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad en el establecimiento fue del 0,14%. Los valores de Cu hepático hallados en la hembra y su feto fueron 14,6 ppm y 337 ppm MS, respectivamente. El nivel de Cu en sangre de la cierva fue de 0,5 μg/ml y el hematocrito de 46%. En mιdula espinal se encontró degeneración mielínica generalizada con pérdida de la vaina de mielina, siendo de mayor severidad en las regiones dorsales de la médula. Se observó también vacuolización de la sustancia blanca sin respuesta inflamatoria. Los niveles hepáticos de Cu en la hembra necropsiada se encontraban por debajo del valor considerado como límite, pero a pesar de esto la cupremia se hallaba dentro del rango de referencia siendo ésta una característica comúnmente observada en los casos de deficiencia de Cu. Los valores de Cu hepático fetal también estaban por debajo del rango considerado como normal. A pesar de que los parámetros medidos en pasto y agua al momento del problema estaban dentro de valores de referencia, es probable que los ciervos hayan estado expuestos previamente a bajos valores de Cu dietario durante un tiempo prolongado, lo cual pudo verse agravado por la gran demanda de Cu que ejerce el

  3. Composición y calidad de la dieta del ciervo (Cervus elaphus L. en el norte de la península ibérica

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    Garin, I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant composition and quality of the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. diet in the northern Iberian peninsula The feeding pattern of red deer varies greatly among the different European populations. The aim of our study was to elucidate the plant composition and the quality of the red deer diet in the Pyrenees (Northern Iberian peninsula. Over a one-year period, the red deer fed mainly on browse, pines being the main food. However, unlike other populations on the Iberian peninsula, consumption of herbaceous plants was higher than browse in the spring-summer period. Nevertheless, the diet of Pyrenean red deer shared some features with the Mediterranean populations such as browsing on woody legumes. Fecal nitrogen content, as an index of diet quality, showed low annual values with a marked decrease in winter. The overall feeding pattern was similar to that of other Central European populations. The large size of the surveyed population probably affected its high level of browse consumption and poor quality diet.

  4. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.

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    Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

    2010-09-01

    An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown.

  5. Caballos y ciervos : Una aproximación a la evolución climática y económica del Paleolítico superior en el Mediterráneo peninsular

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    Xavier Esteve

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caballos y ciervos son las principales presas de caza mayor en los yacimientos del Paleolítico superior en la cuenca mediterranea de la Península Ibérica. Sólo las cabras monteses pueden llegar a tener mayor importancia en yacimientos situados en áreas abruptas o montañosas. A pesar de los pocos requerimientos climáticos de ambas especies, podemos comprobar una clara relación entre los episodios más fríos del final del Pleistoceno y la caza del caballo y la presencia de los restos de ciervo en los yacimientos arqueológicos durante los momentos más templados. Nuestros resultados indican la existencia de una especie de frontera bioclimática Equus/Cervus que se desplazó de sur a norte en la cuenca medietrranea de la peninsula Ibérica a lo largo del Paleolítico superior.

  6. La captura del ciervo vivo en el arte prehistórico

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    Pilar Utrilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un recorrido por la representaciones de ciervos en el arte prehistórico que no presentan heridas sino que parecen ser objeto de una captura mediante armas arrojadizas, lazos o directamente a mano. Se insertan algunos de ellos en un ritual ceremonial que quizá tuviera relación con ritos de iniciación.

  7. Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An early-season snowfall accents the Rocky Mountains through western and central Colorado. This true-color image made from data collected by MODIS on October 26, 2001, highlights the contrast between various irrigated areas and the otherwise dry environment at the foothills of the Rockies. One such example is the city of Denver and its outlying suburbs, which can be seen best in the high-resolution image. In areas that would normally harbor drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs and trees, humans are living, watering their lawns, and farming; those watered, green areas differ substantially from the surrounding hues of brown. Numerous National Parks and Monuments dot the Southwestern U.S. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument is one such park. Running along the western base the Sangre de Cristo Range(just below the image's center), a subsection of the Rockies, the monument possesses some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with crests reaching over 700 feet.

  8. Colorado

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    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  9. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  10. Candil de ciervo decorado magdaleniense del yacimiento de Santa Catalina (Bizkaia, España. Tecnología y funcionalidad

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    BERGANZA, E., RUIZ IDARRAGA, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un candil de ciervo decorado recuperado en el nivel III, Magdaleniense superior, de la cueva de Santa Catalina (Lekeitio, Bizkaia. Hacemos su estudio tecnológico y el análisis de las representaciones grabadas.

  11. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  12. Evaluación del efecto del proceso de sexado sobre espermatozoides de ciervo rojo ibérico y estudio de herramientas complementarias para su mejora

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    Anel López, Luis

    2016-01-01

    El uso de técnicas de reproducción asistida en cérvidos durante los últimos años ha experimentado un importante avance no solo con propósitos conservacionistas (Jabbour et al. 1997; Pukazhenthi y Wildt 2003), sino también con propósitos económicos (carne, velvet y trofeos) cuya importancia es alta en algunos países como España, Nueva Zelanda, Australia o China (Asher et al. 2000). Esta importancia económica ha generado un interés creciente por parte de los criadores de ciervo a la hora de bus...

  13. The Assessment of Deer (Cervus elaphus Trophies

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    Marius Cotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The red deer (Cervus elaphus population’s potential for trophy value from the 34 Neagra and 35 Sălard hunting areas on the Northern slope of the Gurghiu Mountains has been analysed and evaluated, based on a number of 42 red deer trophies taken between 2000-2014. The trophies were evaluated using the C.I.C. method, which was adopted at the “Conseil International de la Chasse” in Berlin in 1937. A description of the C.I.C. method and the score for the 42 trophies is included in the study. The result of the analysis shows that 50% of the total number of trophies are high value trophies (gold and silver medal, indicating the remarkable overall quality of the red deer population in the research area.

  14. High elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested Colorado moose.

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    LeVan, Ivy K; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (Alces alces). Of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout Colorado, USA, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bCI]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bCI=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. Although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis were reported among the harvested moose we examined, the pervasiveness of this parasite may motivate further study of the potential effects of elaeophorosis on moose survival and population performance in the southern Rocky Mountains. Our data suggest histopathology may be more sensitive than gross examination in detecting elaeophorosis in harvested moose.

  15. Habitat acoustics of Rocky Mountain elk in Colorado and European Red deer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Tobias; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

      Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We investig......  Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We...... investigated whether sound attenuation characteristics in their respective habitats might have contributed to the evolution of these very different vocal displays. We tested two hypotheses in two representative habitats, the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and the Vejers Klitplantage Nord, Denmark...

  16. A PCR-based assay for discriminating Cervus and Rangifer (Cervidae) antlers with mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

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    Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Eung Soo; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun; Ryuk, Jin-Ah; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Go Ya; Seo, Doo Won; Lee, Mi Young

    2012-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating Rangifer antlers from true Cervus antlers using agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and allelic discrimination. Specific primers labeled with fluorescent tags were designed to amplify fragments from the mitochondrial D-loop genes for various Cervus subspecies and Rangifer tarandus differentially. A 466-bp fragment that was observed for both Cervus and Rangifer antlers served as a positive control, while a 270-bp fragment was specifically amplified only from Rangifer antlers. Allelic discrimination was used to differentiate between Cervus and Rangifer antlers, based on the amplification of specific alleles for both types of antlers. These PCR-based assays can be used for forensic and quantitative analyses of Cervus and Rangifer antlers in a single step, without having to obtain any sequence information. In addition, multiple PCR-based assays are more accurate and reproducible than a single assay for species-specific analysis and are especially useful in this study for the identification of original Cervus deer products from fraudulent Rangifer antlers.

  17. [Behavior ethogram and PAE coding system of Cervus nippon sichuanicus].

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    Qi, Wen-Hua; Yue, Bi-Song; Ning, Ji-Zu; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei; Guo, Yan-Shu; Mi, Jun; Zuo, Lin; Xiong, Yuan-Qing

    2010-02-01

    A monthly 5-day periodic observation at 06:00-18:00 from March to November 2007 was conducted to record the behavioral processes, contents, and results, and the surrounding habitats of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Donglie, Chonger, and Reer villages of Tiebu Natural Reserve of Sichuan Province. The behavioral ethogram, vigilance behaviors ethogram and its PAE (posture, act, and environment) coding system of the Sichuan sika deer were established, which filled the gap of the PAE coding of ungulates vigilance behaviors. A total of 11 kinds of postures, 83 acts, and 136 behaviors were recorded and distinguished, with the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender, age, and season described. Compared with other ungulates, the behavioral repertoire of Sichuan sika deer was mostly similar to that of other cervid animals.

  18. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

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    2013-12-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification... Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal... workers at Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado were engaged in activities related to...

  19. High seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in Elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Central Appalachians, USA

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    Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. Although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe, little is known about T. gondii impacts on the closely related North American ...

  20. Game Birds of Colorado.

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    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  1. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

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    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  2. Historia de unos cueros de ciervo

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    Luis Vidales

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Un día de 1903, el duque José Florimond de Loubat solicitó a Eduardo Seler que comentara el "Códice Borgia". Seler acababa de llegar de Yucatán, donde se apertrechó de conocimientos sobre el arte precolombino de la región y satisfizo de inmediato la invitación de su estimulante Mesenas. En agosto de 1904 concluyó en Steglitz y entregó "a su excelencia" el primer tomo de su exégesis sobre el códice de autos, "sin duda la más extraordinaria de todas las pictografías aún conservadas del México antiguo", según el decir del propio señor Seler.

  3. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in Colorado URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/colorado.html Libraries in Colorado ... Room 2106C Aurora, CO 80045 303-724-2111 http://hslibrary.ucdenver.edu/ Denver National Jewish Health Library ...

  4. Silverton folio, Colorado

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    Cross, Whitman; Howe, Ernest; Ransome, F. L.

    1905-01-01

    The term San Juan region, or simply "the San Juan," used with variable meaning by early explorers, and naturally with indefinite limitation during the period of settlement, is now quite generally applied to a large tract of mountainous country in southwestern Colorado, together with an undefined zone of lower country bordering it on the north, west, and south.  The Continental Divide traverses this area in a great bow.  The principal part of the district is a deeply scored volcanic plateau, more than 3000 square miles in extent, drained on the north by the tributaties of the Gunnison River, on the west by those of the Dolores and San Miguel rivers, on the south by numerous branches of the San Juan, and on the east by the Rio Grande.  ALl but the latter drainage finds its way to the Gulf of California through the Colorado River.

  5. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

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    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity.

  6. Prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus antibody in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Odaigahara, Kii Peninsula, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    斉藤, 美加; 荒木, 良太; 鳥居, 春己; 浅川, 満彦

    2015-01-01

    日本脳炎ウイルス(JEV)感染リスク評価の一環で, 2009年と 2010年に紀伊半島大台ヶ原で捕獲されたニホンジカ Cervus nippon(以下,シカ)の JEV抗体保有状況を調査した。JEV,Oki431S株に対し 87頭中 9頭(10.3%)が,Beijing-1株に対し 1頭( 1.1%)が抗体を保有し,年齢階層が高くなるに従い,抗体保有率の上昇傾向がみられた。これらより,シカに JEVに対する感受性がある事,大台ヶ原で JEV感染環が成立し, JEVの活動は低いが常在している地域である事が強く示唆された。 Sero-epidemiological study of Japanese encephalitis virus was conducted on sika deer (Cervus nippon) captured in Odaigahara, a forested area, on Kii peninsula, Japan, in 2009 and 2010. Nine (10.3%) out of 87 deer had neutralizing anti...

  7. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  8. Bilateral microphthalmia and aphakia associated with multiple eye abnormalities in a free-living European red deer calf (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Franco; Vercelli, Antonella; Carminato, Antonio; Luchesa, Lucio; Pasolli, Claudio; Cova, Mariapia; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Vascellari, Marta

    2012-04-01

    A free-living European red deer calf (Cervus elaphus) was euthanized due to bilateral microphthalmia. Lens was missing, replaced by proliferating squamous epithelial cells; hyperplastic squamous cells, sebaceous and mucinous glands were observed within the cornea with the characteristics of inclusion cyst. Findings were consistent with congenital microphthalmia/aphakia, with multiple eye abnormalities.

  9. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of...

  10. 77 FR 23498 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... Fine Arts Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center)...

  11. The effect of conception date on gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I C; Asher, G W; Archer, J A; Littlejohn, R P

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gestation length of red deer (Cervus elaphus) is highly variable and influenced by various environmental factors, and this may confer survival advantages for neonates. The current study investigated the relationship between conception date and gestation length to test the hypothesis that within-herd synchrony of red deer births is facilitated by a 'push/pull' control over gestation length, such that hinds conceiving early and late in the breeding season have longer and shorter gestation periods, respectively. In Study 1, data on conception and calving dates were obtained for 393 naturally cycling hinds across two herds. In Study 2, conception and calving dates were obtained from 91 hinds in which oestrus/conception were artificially synchronised across a 4-week range of dates spanning the natural rut. Gestation length for each population was analysed by linear regression, fitting conception day followed by terms for the fixed effect which included hind age (pubertal vs. adult), hind genotype (Cervus elaphus scoticus vs. Cervus elaphus hippelaphus and their crossbreds), calf sex, sire genotype (Study 1 only), birth weight and year. In Study 1, both populations of naturally cycling hinds exhibited highly significant (Pgestation length against conception date, with indications of a significant hind genotype effect favouring shorter overall gestation lengths for crossbred hinds. Other effects for hind age, calf sex, birth weight, sire genotype and year were not significant. In Study 2, in which conception dates were artificially induced, there was a highly significant negative slope (-0.19), with a notable but non-significant effect of hind age favouring shorter overall gestation length for primiparous (pubertal) hinds (P>0.05). Other effects for hind live weight, calf sex and calf birth weight were not significant. All data sets support the hypothesis, and indicate that for every 10 days difference in conception date there was a

  12. Two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus desmarest, 1822 in Leyte Island

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    Harvie Potot Portugaliza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the necropsy findings of two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting the Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus in Leyte Island, Philippines. A female deer aging approximately 5-year was presented for necropsy to the Diagnostic Laboratory at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Visayas State University. Gross pathology was recorded and the selected organs having lesion were collected for histopathological studies. Results showed severe necrotizing lesions in the nasal and palatal areas, infestation of calliphorid maggots, hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, lung atelectasis and duodenitis. Heavy ruminal fluke infection was also observed. Two potentially zoonotic parasites namely Fasciola gigantica and Sarcocystis spp. were identified. The Philippine brown deer appears to have a role in transmission and amplification of zoonotic parasites, and can also be threatened by diseases caused by the parasites.

  13. Morphological and molecular identification of nasopharyngeal bot fly larvae infesting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Natascha; Schwarzmann, Laurin; Zittra, Carina; Palmieri, Nicola; Eigner, Barbara; Otranto, Domenico; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiases are caused by larvae of bot flies (Diptera: Oestridae), which have evolved a high specificity for their hosts. Bot flies (n = 916) were collected from 137 (57.6 %) out of 238 red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted in Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Western Austria). After being stored in 75 % ethanol, larvae were identified to species level and developmental stage using morphological and morphometric keys. Larvae were also molecularly characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Morphological and molecular analysis allowed identification of larvae as Cephenemyia auribarbis and Pharyngomyia picta. Genetic variations were also examined within the specimens collected in both geographical locations.

  14. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  15. Presence of Hepatitis E Virus in a RED Deer (Cervus elaphus) Population in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolo, I; Ponterio, E; Angeloni, G; Morandi, F; Ostanello, F; Nicoloso, S; Ruggeri, F M

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). In addition to humans, HEV has been detected in several animal species and is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen. Pigs, wild boar and deer can be reservoir. In this study, we evaluated HEV prevalence in a free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in central Italy by detecting virus-specific antibodies and RNA in sera. A total of 35 of 251 red deer sera were positive for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was detected in 10 of 91 sera examined. Two genomic fragments targeted by diagnostic PCRs in the capsid region were sequenced, both matching with genotype 3 HEV. Overall results confirmed the occurrence of HEV infection in deer also in Italy.

  16. Isolation and characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 from antler base of sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yin, Yongguang; Zhou, Yajun; He, Guidan; Qi, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. In this study, a new peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 named cnPGRP1 was isolated from an antler base of sika deer Cervus nippon. The antler base antimicrobial proteins (AAP) were subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods connected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (CM) anion-exchange column, and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight of cnPGRP1 was 17.2 kDa under SDS-PAGE, and peptide mass fingerprint analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS as peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 matched to Dasypus novemcinctus. The matched amino acids sequences were RLYEIIQKWPHYRA. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be killed by cnPGRP1 in the 50-250 μg/mL range through in vitro. Furthermore, cnPGRP1 has been found to bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and even fungus.

  17. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  18. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  19. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%).

  20. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  1. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  2. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  3. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    González-Barrio, David; Velasco Ávila , Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P. V.; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hyp...

  4. 78 FR 53783 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO..., Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903... Springs, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This...

  5. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs... College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone (719) 389... Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the...

  6. Haematological and serum biochemical reference values in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Rosef

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of haematological and biochemical constituents were carried out on the Norwegian subspecies of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. All animals were captured from January to March by using a mixture of xylazine and tiletamin-zolazepam. Immobilisation was performed with plastic projectile syringes fired from a dart gun. Fourteen haematological parameters were analysed. There were no differences in the values between hinds and stags and between adults and calves (P > 0.01. Of the 22 biochemical compounds investigated there was a significant difference (P < 0.01 between calves and adults for lactate dehydrogenase (LD, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin, and the minerals Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca, and P. Differences (P < 0.01 between hinds and stags were found in cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin and Cu. The blood values determined in this study can be used as reference values for this red deer subspecies immobilised with a mixture of xylazine-tiletamin-zolazepam for health control and diagnosis of diseases.Abstract in Norwegian /Sammendrag:Hematologiske og biokjemiske parametere er analysert på norsk frittlevende hjort (Cervus elaphus atlanticus. Hjorten ble immobilisert i tidsrommet januar til mars ved hjelp av et spesialgevær ladet med plast kanyler som inneholdt en blanding av xylazin og tiletamin-zolazepam. Det var ingen forskjeller i de14 undersøkte hematologiske verdiene mellom hinder, kalver og bukker (P>0,01. Av de 22 biokjemiske parametrene som ble undersøkt var det en signifikant forskjell mellom kalver og voksne (P<0,01 når det gjelder laktat dehydrogenase, globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin og mineralene Na, K, Mg, Zn, Ca og P. Det var en signifikant forskjell mellom hinder og bukker (P<0.01 på parametrene kolesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, alfa-1 globulin, alfa-2 globulin og Cu. Blodverdiene som ble målt i dette studiet kan bli brukt som referanseverdier

  7. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  8. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  9. Response of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to wind-power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Leslie, David M.; Jenks, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Wind-power development is occurring throughout North America, but its effects on mammals are largely unexplored. Our objective was to determine response (i.e., home-range, diet quality) of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to wind-power development in southwestern Oklahoma. Ten elk were radiocollared in an area of wind-power development on 31 March 2003 and were relocated bi-weekly through March 2005. Wind-power construction was initiated on 1 June 2003 and was completed by December 2003 with 45 active turbines. The largest composite home range sizes (>80 km2) occurred April-June and September, regardless of the status of wind-power facility development. The smallest home range sizes (<50 km2) typically occurred in October-February when elk aggregated to forage on winter wheat. No elk left the study site during the study and elk freely crossed the gravel roads used to access the wind-power facility. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes and percent nitrogen in feces suggested that wind-power development did not affect nutrition of elk during construction. Although disturbance and loss of some grassland habitat was apparent, elk were not adversely affected by wind-power development as determined by home range and dietary quality.

  10. Dystocia in Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) in semi-domesticated herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, N-Y; Hsu, T-H; Tung, K-C; Tsai, H-Y; Chan, J P-W

    2010-06-19

    Over a nine-year period (2000 to 2008), 22 instances of dystocia and 50 normal fawnings in Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei) hinds from semi-domesticated herds were investigated. The majority of the hinds (17, 77.3 per cent) that suffered dystocia were categorised as having a body condition score (BCS) in the medium range (between 2.5 and 3.5 inclusive), indicating that there was no significant relationship between obesity (BCS >3.5) in hinds and the occurrence of dystocia. In addition, maternal body condition had no effect on the birthweight of the offspring. Among the 22 instances of dystocia, 16 of the fawns (72.7 per cent) did not survive; one of these deaths was anteparturient and the other 15 were parturient. Eighteen (81.8 per cent) of the cases of dystocia involved male fawns, and 15 (93.8 per cent) of the deaths were of male fawns (P=0.044). Nine (40.9 per cent) of the instances of dystocia resulted from maternal excitement, mainly attributable to disturbances caused by human beings. In 12 of the cases that resulted in the death of the fawn, the request for veterinary assistance had been delayed at least one day. There were six cases in which the fawns survived; these were the ones that had received assistance within six hours after the onset of parturition.

  11. Effect of Cervus and Cucumis Peptides on Osteoblast Activity and Fracture Healing in Osteoporotic Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Yuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is associated with delayed and/or reduced fracture healing. As cervus and cucumis are the traditional Chinese treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, we investigated the effect of supplementation of these peptides (CCP on bone fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX osteoporotic rats in vitro and in vivo. CCP enhanced osteoblast proliferation and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4, and osteopontin. In vivo, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ovariectomy and the right femora were fractured and fixed by intramedullary nailing 3 months later. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of either CCP (1.67 mg/kg or physiological saline every day for 30 days. Fracture healing and callus formation were evaluated by radiography, micro-CT, biomechanical testing, and histology. At 12 weeks after fracture, calluses in CCP-treated bones showed significantly higher torsional strength and greater stiffness than control-treated bones. Bones in CCP-treated rats reunified and were thoroughly remodeled, while two saline-treated rats showed no bone union and incomplete remodeling. Taken together, these results indicate that use of CCP after fracture in osteoporotic rats accelerates mineralization and osteogenesis and improves fracture healing.

  12. Anti-resorptive effect of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Hong; Cao, Yi; Wang, Rui-Lin; Fei, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Pu; Liu, Jing

    2010-06-01

    Anti-bone resorption activity of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) were evaluated in ovariectomized Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized group (OVX) and pilose antler blood treated group. The ovariectomized rats were treated with pilose antler blood orally in 4000 microl/kg daily doses for 10 weeks. Compared with SHAM group, serum 17 beta-estradiol level decreased significantly and osteocalcin level increased significantly in OVX group, indicating successful model of osteoporosis. The experiments showed that the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and left femur in OVX group decreased remarkably compared to SHAM group but normalized by treatment with pilose antler blood. Additionally, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-land testosterone were lower obviously in OVX group than those in SHAM group but preserved by pilose antler blood treatment. However, no obvious changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin were observed among three groups. These results suggested that administration of pilose antler blood was effective in alleviating osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

  13. POISONING BY THE SWAINSONINE-CONTAINING PLANT SIDA CARPINIFOLIA IN CAPTIVE SAMBAR DEER (CERVUS UNICOLOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Bruno L; Peixoto, Paulo V; Caldas, Saulo A; Bhaltazar, Daniel; França, Ticiana N; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-09-01

    Plant intoxications in wildlife are difficult to diagnose, are overlooked, or are sometimes even neglected. Hence, factors that induce wild animals to ingest poisonous plants have not been sufficiently documented. An outbreak of glycoprotein storage disease in sambar deer ( Cervus unicolor ), induced by ingestion of the swainsonine-containing plant, common wireweed (Sida carpinifolia), is reported. Nine out of 55 deer held by a zoo in Brazil were affected. The poisoning was characterized by emaciation and neurologic signs followed by unexpected death in some of the animals. Animals presented abnormal consciousness, posterior paresis, and musculoskeletal weakness; less evident were vestibulo-cerebellar signs. Histologically, there was vacuolation of neurons and epithelial cells of the pancreatic acines, thyroid follicules, and renal tubules. Furthermore, in the central nervous system were axonal degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons. Three factors may lead to the ingestion of S. carpinifolia by sambar deer: 1) A grazing field with only S. carpinifolia as a source of forage; 2) a large number of animals kept in this field; and 3) a hierarchy within a cervid group in which dominant males isolated and displaced juvenile and weaker adult males, leaving them with access to only S. carpinifolia.

  14. OCCURRENCE OF FASCIOLOIDOSIS IN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS IN BARANJA REGION IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Flirijančić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fascioloidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the giant American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875. In Croatia, the first report of this disease was in January 2000, in red deer (Cervus elaphus L. from the Tikveš Forestry in Baranja region (east Croatia. The aim of this survey was to determine the geographical distribution of fascioloidosis and the infection prevalence in deer. The survey was carried out in six state hunting grounds that manage with deer game in Baranja region during 2001 – 2004. Parasitological examinations were carried out by qualitative and quantitative faecal exams. The highest prevalence’s (35 – 60% were found in epizootic focuses of two hunting grounds at flooding – bog land area in east Baranja, Danube forestry. The mean intensity of infection, determined on the basis of the number of eggs per gram (EPG was 30 – 33 EPG (range 1 – 300. High 86% of examined samples was in category to 50 EPG. The highest prevalence and the biggest EPG number too, were determined during the first year of survey. In the Baranja area fascioloidosis represents a potential danger for other game species, mainly roe deer and wild boars, as for domestic animals.

  15. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with mycotic pneumonia in two juvenile elk (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Nicole M; Lévy, Michel; Ramos-Vara, José A; Baird, Debra K; Wu, Ching Ching

    2008-11-01

    Two yearling bull elk (cervus claphus) from the same farm developed anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. On physical examination, both elk were thin and showed diffuse swelling of all lower limbs. Radiographs of the lower limbs showed periosteal thickening of the distal extremities, consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy. Thoracic radiographs indicated the presence of pulmonary nodules. Cytologic evaluations of tracheal washes on both elk were consistent with inflammation. Acid-fast stains on both samples were negative. Because of the poor prognosis, both elk were euthanized. At necropsy, the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal, and metatarsal bones, as well as the radius, ulna, and tibia had thickening of cortical bone. There were multiple encapsulated nodules throughout the lungs, lymph nodes, and kidney, and smaller nodules in the myocardium. On microscopic examination, these nodules contained myriads of hyphae, and immunohistochemistry for Aspergillus sp. was strongly positive. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from affected tissue in 1 elk. Necropsy findings in both elk were consistent with disseminated fungal granulomas and periosteal hyperostosis. This case presents the first description of hypertrophic osteopathy in elk. The source of infection was undetermined, but inhalation of spores from contaminated feed or bedding was suspected.

  16. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  17. Detection of Brucellosis in Sika Deer ( Cervus nippon ) through Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianhong; Wei, Jie; Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Ben; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Ying; Wu, Wenrong

    2017-03-20

    Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1.7 ng. No cross-reactivity was observed with four bacteria: Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Clostridium pasteurianum , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . We used 263 samples of blood to evaluate the reaction. The percentage of agreement between LAMP and PCR reached 91%; relative specificity reached 87%, and relative sensitivity reached 100%. The results indicate LAMP can be a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting brucellosis in sika deer, particularly in the field, where it is essential to control brucellosis in deer with a rapid and accurate diagnosis for removal of positive animals.

  18. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-08-26

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated.

  20. Detection and identification of Theileria infection in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Khan, Muhanmad Kasib; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Junlong

    2012-06-01

    The sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) is a first-grade state-protected animal in China and designated a threatened species by the World Conservation Union. To detect hemoparasite infection of sika deer, blood samples were collected from 24 animals in the Hubei Province Deer Center. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the V4 hypervariable region encoding 18S rRNA was analyzed by reverse line blot hybridization assay. PCR products hybridized with Babesia / Theileria genus-specific probes but failed to hybridize with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of a novel, or variant, species. Here 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from 7 isolates. Alignment and BlastN of the cloned sequences revealed high similarities to the homologous 18S rRNA genes and ITS genes of Theileria cervi (AY735122), Theileria sp. CNY1A (AB012194), and Theileria sp. ex Yamaguchi (AF529272). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene and ITS sequences showed that all cloned sequences were grouped within the Theileria clade. Phylogeny based on the 18S rRNA gene divided the organisms into 2 groups. Group 1 was closest to Theileria sp. ex Yamaguchi (AF529272), and group 2 was distinct from all other identified Theileria and Babesia species. These results suggest the existence of Theileria sp. infection in sika deer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cervine Theileria sp. in China.

  1. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population.

  2. Natural diet and food habitat use of the Tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Jianfang; YANG Weikang; GAO Xingyi

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the natural diet and food habitat use of Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), a study was carried out in Qiemo, Xinjiang, China from October 2000 to June 2001. Direct observation combined with faecal analysis method was used to determine the natural diet of red deer. 15 different species of plant were identified as food items. Among them, 13 species of plants were identified in winter diet and 9 species in summer. Red deer consumed a wider range of species in winter because of their nutrient requirement as well as the shortage of food and the scarcity of high-quality forage in the study area. Phragmites communis, Glycyrrhiza inflata and populus diversifolia were frequently present in the deer's diet whenever in winter and summer. Among them, Phragmites communis was the most abundant plant in the area and was included in the deer's diet. Observation on food selection frequency of captive Tarim red deer showed that Populus diversifolia was the first preferred species. However, this food was limited in the study area. Five food habitat types were found in the study area according to plant association: (1)Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association, (2) Tamarix ramosissima-Halostachys caspica association, (3) Tamarix ramosissima-Phragmites communis association, (4) Populus diversifoliaPhragmites communis association, (5) Burned area.Among them, Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association (reed meadow and reed marsh)was preferred to other types within the study area whenever in summer and winter. Dense reed cover could reduce the chance of detection from predator and obstruct attack from predator. Furthermore, under the cover of the reed, Tarim red deer was protected from direct solar radiation during the hours of www. scichina.com www.springerlink.com hot day in summer. The reed meadow and marsh was preferred, presumably because the red deer could minimize their movements while searching for food, water and cover.

  3. Copper deficiency and effects of copper supplementation in a herd of red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhoft Aksel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Copper (Cu deficiency was diagnosed in a Norwegian red deer (Cervus elaphus herd subsequent to deaths due to emaciation in late autumn 1999. The animals had free access to salt licks containing 3000 mg Cu/kg. An evaluation of the herd revealed poor calf growth rate, low weights of adult hinds, dull and light-coloured hair coats and cases of diarrhoea. The herd was subsequently monitored throughout a three-year period of Cu-supplementation. The monitoring regimen included clinical observation, copper serum examination, weighing, faecal parasitological examination, and reproduction control by ultrasound. During the period January 2000 to May 2001, the animals were treated with Cu oxid capsules (1 g CuO/10 kg liveweight at 2–4 months intervals, with the exception of March to September 2000. The animals were fed continuously with Cu-enriched concentrates containing 300 mg Cu/kg, at a rate of 1/2 kg per head and day, from May 2001 to January 2003. Following both copper supplementation regimens adequate serum Cu concentrations were measured, and markedly improved body weights, coat quality and reproductive results were observed, except for the period from March to September 2000 when no treatment was given. The results showed that in a deer herd, with a diet low in Cu, supplementation with CuO capsules had to be given at intervals of a few months to maintain adequate serum Cu levels. Free access to Cu-containing salt licks did not meet the animals' Cu demand. Good and stable results were achieved by the daily feeding of Cu-enriched concentrates.

  4. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagleish, Mark P; Martin, Stuart; Steele, Philip; Finlayson, Jeanie; Eaton, Samantha L; Sisó, Sílvia; Stewart, Paula; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Hamilton, Scott; Pang, Yvonne; Chianini, Francesca; Reid, Hugh W; Goldmann, Wilfred; González, Lorenzo; Castilla, Joaquín; Jeffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6%) weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of venison is probably

  5. Aplicación de microsatélites diseñados para el Ciervo de cola blanca, renos y bóvidos a ocho especies de Cervidae neotropicales (Géneros: Odocoileus, Mazama, Blastoceros, Ozotoceros, Hippocamelus y Pudu : Niveles de variabilidad genética, heterogeneidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los niveles de variabilidad genética en 8 especies de Cervidae neotropicales procedentes de varios países Latinoamericanos mediante la utilización de 10 marcadores microsatélites (Cervid 1, Cervid 3, NVHRT 16, NVHRT 30, NVHRT 71, NVHRT 73, TGLA337, IDVGA 55, FCB 193 y BOVIRBP. Las especies analizadas fueron concretamente Odocoileus virginianus (Colombia, Venezuela y Guatemala, Mazama americana (Bolivia, Guyana francesa, Colombia, Perú, Paraguay, M. gouzaoubira (Bolivia, Guyana francesa y Paraguay, M. rufina (Ecuador, Colombia, Blastoceros dichotomus (Bolivia, Paraguay, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Bolivia, Hippocamelus antisensis (Argentina, y Pudu mephistopholes (Perú, Colombia. De modo comparativo se analizaron los niveles de diversidad genética de 4 especies de Cerviadae euroasiáticos (Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, Capreolus capreolus y Capreolus pygargus. Los géneros Odocoileus y Mazama fueron los que presentaron unos niveles
    de variabilidad genética más elevados (H=0.7056+0.2037 y H=0.7962+0.2357.

  6. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  7. Efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of captive and free ranging cervid ruminants. Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are a free-ranging species of large cervid with a habitat that includes large US national parks. Minimally ...

  8. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO... College, Colorado Springs, CO. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from...

  9. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de esta

  10. The Feeding and Breeding of Cervus eldii hainanus in Guangzhou Area%海南坡鹿在广州地区的饲养与繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫卓东; 夏晓潮; 邹洁建; 陈武

    2012-01-01

    1999年广州动物园从海南引进一对海南坡鹿进行饲养和繁殖,至今已繁殖5胎,成活4头,成活率达80%.海南坡鹿在广州地区的发情期为每年12月至翌年3月,发情高峰期为1~2月,妊娠期237~240天.海南坡鹿的精饲料以正大康地公司出口的奶牛D19颗粒料为主,辅以黄豆、苹果、番薯,草料以象草和苜蓿草为主.海南坡鹿引种到广州地区进行繁育是可行的.%In 1999, a pair of Cervus eldii hainanus were introduced from Hainan and reared in Guangzhou Zoo. Since 2000, five Cervus eldii hainanus were born and the survival rate of these deers was 80% . In Guangzhou region, the estrus of Cervus eldii hainanus was from December to februry of next year whose peak was from January to Februry and the pregnancy was 237 ~ 240 days. The diet of Cervus eldii hainanus was D19 pellet for cow which was supplied by Chia Tai Conti Company, associated with soybean, apple and sweet potato, napier grass and alfalfa grass. It is feasible that Cervus eldii hainanus is introduced to rear in Guangzhou region.

  11. Relations between nutritional condition and survival of North American elk Cervus elaphus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.; Cook, R.C.; Hall, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    We related annual and seasonal survival of four populations of elk Cervus elaphus in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to measures and indices of individual nutritional condition. Among populations, for all mortality (human and non-human causes) sources inclusive, annual survival of adult females was correlated with a rump body condition score (rs = 0.627, P = 0.071), and survival over spring-summer-autumn (SSA) was correlated with mean ingesta-free body fat (IFBF; rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rump body condition score (rBCS; rs = 0.615, P = 0.050). For non-human mortality sources only, survival through SSA was correlated with IFBF (rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rBCS (rs = 0.615, P = 0.050), and survival over winter was correlated with withers body condition score (rs = 0.677, P = 0.045). For human-caused mortality sources only, survival over SSA was correlated with rBCS (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036) and IFBF (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036). For individuals, logistic analysis found that individual likelihood of dying from all mortality sources inclusive was best predicted (??2 = 8.3, P = 0.004, ?? = -1.24) by longissimus dorsi (loin) muscle thickness, a measure of protein catabolism. For only non-human mortality sources, a model (??2 = 16.1, P = 0.0003) containing both loin muscle thickness (??2 = 5.7, P = 0.017, ??= -1.02) and percent ingesta-free body fat (??2 = 4.9, P = 0.027, ?? = -0.35) best predicted individual susceptibility to mortality. Odds ratios indicated that odds of dying increased approximately 3X for each centimeter of loin muscle catabolized and 1.4X for each percent less body fat. No condition indices at the individual level were related to survival from human-caused mortality sources. Our study populations were characterized by low-marginal condition (i.e. mean ingesta-free body fat levels of 5.9-12.3% for lactating cows in late autumn); this likely increased the prominence of measures of muscle catabolism relative to fat accretion in influencing individual elk survival

  12. Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Hugh W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM. In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD, also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations. Results Here we show that European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to intra-cerebral (i/c challenge with BSE positive cattle brain pool material resulting in clinical neurological disease and weight loss by 794–1290 days and the clinical signs are indistinguishable to those reported in deer with CWD. Spongiform changes typical of TSE infections were present in brain and accumulation of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrPd was present in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in lymphoid or other tissues. Western immunoblot analysis of brain material showed a similar glycosylation pattern to that of BSE derived from infected cattle and experimentally infected sheep with respect to protease-resistant PrP isoforms. However, the di-, mono- and unglycosylated bands migrated significantly (p Conclusion This study shows that deer are susceptible to BSE by intra-cerebral inoculation and display clinical signs and vacuolar pathology that are similar to those

  13. 78 FR 52600 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Colorado dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Black Forest Fire. Incident Period: 06/11/2013 through 06/21/2013. Effective Date:...

  14. 75 FR 60151 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of COLORADO dated 09/23/2010. Incident: Fourmile Canyon Fire. Incident Period: 09/06/2010 through 09/18/2010. Effective...

  15. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  16. Observations on rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Bhat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations on seasonal rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu were recorded in Dachigam National Park (DNP during the years 2005 to 2007. A total of 24 breeding herds were seen. The size of the herd varied from 2-5, and usually comprised of one large stag and one or more hinds. The rutting season commenced in the main valley of lower Dachigam by late September and extended up to the first week of November. The peak was from October 9 to 20. The stags in rut became intolerant of each other and separated. The most conspicuous feature of the rut was the reverberating resonant roars by stags. The courtship behaviour was observed on six occasions and only mature stags (8-tined and above were involved in courtship. Various anthropogenic activities in the habitat were found to impair the rutting behaviour of deer.

  17. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  18. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado II. Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-05-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 microg/g from Horsethief, 46 microg/g from Adobe Creek, 38 microg/g from North Pond, and 6.0 microg/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  19. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  20. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  1. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  2. 梅花鹿耶尔森氏菌感染的诊断和治疗%THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CERVUS NIPPON INFECTED WITH YERSINIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蕾; 张再蓉; 王成东; 余星明; 赵波

    2001-01-01

    Four sika deers (Cervus nippon) (3 males, and 1 female) with depression, loss of appetite, high body temperature and hematochezia were dead in June, 1999 and Yersinia was cultured from their pathological materials. In addition, the susceptibility of Yersinia to antibiotics and the toxicity to mice were detected. All the other sika deers contacted with the died animals were treated with amikacin sulfate and protected from the disease.

  3. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health...

  4. Notes and comments on Colorado Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Colorado refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  5. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  6. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  7. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  8. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline... individual were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline Company property in Adams County, CO. The human... Colorado professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Arapaho Tribe of the Wind...

  9. Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-05-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. They are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. Tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. Ticks were collected monthly from January 2007 to December 2014 from red deer on a natural reserve located in a meso-Mediterranean environment in Central Spain. A total of 8978 specimens of ixodid ticks were recovered with a mean Parasitization Index of 65.06 ticks/deer. Red deer were infected the whole year round with a summer-spring pattern and two secondary peaks in February and October. The main species was Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch followed by Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer and Ixodes ricinus L. Hyalomma lusitanicum has a complex life cycle in which several generations initiate their cycle at different times throughout the year, most probably lasting more than 1 year. We also describe the ability of nymphs to feed on large ungulates even though their habitual host is wild rabbit.

  10. Genital and sperm characteristics of wild, free ranging red deer stags (Cervus elaphus L hunted in different regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Gizejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to establish reference values for sperm morphology in wild red deer, genital tracts were collected from thirty-six 3 11 years old free-ranging, wild red deer stags (Cervus elaphus L shot down during 3 consecutive mating seasons (1996-1998 at three different environmental regions of Poland, defining two major ecotypes: (i highland (outer eastern Carpathian range, Bieszczady mountains and, (ii lowland (Mazuria and Pomerania and studied within 4.5h 49h after death for testis (T, epididymides (E and vesicular gland (VG variables. Spermatozoa collected from the E-cauda were examined for motility and morphology (light and electron microscopy levels. Both T size and weight and VS-weight differed with age (P<0.05-0.01 while habitat influenced T size and weight (P<0.01 a well as sperm motility (P<0.05. Neither sperm numbers nor morphology showed significant differences, mostly owing to the large variation recorded among stags (range 1 72%. Domain-grouped sperm morphological deviations were <5%, the mean total proportion of abnormal spermatozoa ranging 7.2-17.5%. Although variation was present, the values ought to be used as reference for spermiogrammes.

  11. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

  12. Sex determination of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) using nested PCR from feces collected in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shoki; Motoi, Yuta; Nagai, Kazuya; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Asano, Makoto; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2011-12-01

    We describe a method for determining the sex of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) from feces collected in the field. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR), partial sequences of the sex determination region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene and X zinc finger protein (ZFX) gene were amplified. In 19 individuals with sex information, the correct sex was successfully detected and sequences of target amplicons were completely matched between muscle and feces from the rectum. Among 75 fecal samples collected noninvasively in the field, 68-71 samples (90.7-94.7%) yielded successful sex determinations. Using this technique, feces collected in the field would enhance the utility of genetic analysis. As a result, instead of biomaterials, these samples can serve as new or alternative materials. Finally, it can be expected that this technique will contribute to reveal in advanced detail of the population dynamics and genetic diversity that needed to carry out effective population control and to reduce the extinction risk of sika deer.

  13. Genetic diversity among Chinese sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations and relationships between Chinese and Japanese sika deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a cervid endemic to mainland and insular Asia and endangered. We analyzed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region for four subspecies to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and evolutionary history in China. 335 bp were sequenced and eight haplotypes were identified based on 25 variable sites among the populations. Sika deer in China showed lower genetic diversity, suggesting a small effective population size due to habitat fragmentation, a low number of founder individuals, or the narrow breeding program. AMOVA analysis indicated that there was significant genetic subdivision among the four populations, but no correlation between the genetic and geographic distance. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that Chinese sika deer may be divided into three genetic clades, but the genetic structure among Chinese populations was inconsistent with subspecies designations and present geographic distribution. Including the sequence data of Japanese sika deer, the results indicated that Chinese populations were more closely related to Southern Japanese populations than to the Northern Japanese one, and the Taiwan population was closer to populations of Northeastern China and Sichuan than to those of Southern China.

  14. Cervus elaphus Foraging Impacts on Plants and Soils at an Ungrazed Desert Grass/Shrubland in Northwestern New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis C. Bender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated Cervus elaphus herbivory and trampling impacts on plants and soils on Chaco Culture National Historical Park (Chaco, a desert grass/shrubland in northwestern New Mexico, USA, most (63% of which has been protected from grazing by domestic livestock since 1948. We conducted grazing, browse, and water infiltration surveys in areas which received different amounts of C. elaphus use (use and control, 2004–2007. Browse utilization was <32% on monitored species and Odocoileus hemionus use accounted for the majority of browsing. Live plant cover was greater on areas receiving more C. elaphus use, and no grass species were used above recommended levels. Stubble heights of Bouteloua spp. were positively related to relative C. elaphus use on some areas, suggesting possible stimulation of grassland productivity by C. elaphus grazing. Water infiltration rates either did not differ among use or control sites or were faster in use sites, indicating no impacts of C. elaphus use on soil compaction. At current C. elaphus densities (0.2–0.4/km2, negative impacts to plants and soils were not seen on Chaco, and some evidence suggests that light grazing is optimizing desert grasslands of Chaco.

  15. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  16. 77 FR 11524 - Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2012, Town of Walden, Colorado (Walden) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... area within which Walden may, without further Commission authorization, provide natural...

  17. 半圈养条件下白唇鹿行为时间分配及活动规律的研究%Time Budget and Behaviour Pattern of Cervus Albirostris in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何利军; 丁由中; 王小明; 夏述忠

    2001-01-01

    From March to April,1998,the authors studied the time budget andbehaviour patterns of Cervus albirostris in Shanghai Wild Animal Park.We analyzed the results from 23 days′observation for different sex and weather were analyzed.Cervus albirostris spent about 50% daytime in resting,and 40% daytime in feeding.Resting behaviour was presented from 8∶00 to 17∶00.The female spent more resting time than the male(p<0.05)in fine days.The female spent less standing time than the male in rainy days(p<0.01).Cervus albirostris spent more standing time in fine days than in rainy days(p<0.05 for the male,p<0.01 for the female).

  18. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laurie T.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C.; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colo...

  19. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  20. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  1. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  2. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  6. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  7. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  8. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  9. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  10. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed.

  11. Immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally infected European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagleish Mark P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. Those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. Although there are no reported cases to date of natural BSE in European deer, BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. Moreover, several species of North America's cervids are highly susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE that has become endemic. Should BSE infection have been introduced into the UK deer population, the CWD precedent could suggest that there is a danger for spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. This study compares the immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of BSE and CWD in experimentally-infected European red deer (Cervus elpahus elaphus. Results After intracerebral or alimentary challenge, BSE in red deer more closely resembled natural infection in cattle rather than experimental BSE in small ruminants, due to the lack of accumulation of abnormal PrP in lymphoid tissues. In this respect it was different from CWD, and although the neuropathological features of both diseases were similar, BSE could be clearly differentiated from CWD by immunohistochemical and Western blotting methods currently in routine use. Conclusion Red deer are susceptible to both BSE and CWD infection, but the resulting disease phenotypes are distinct and clearly distinguishable.

  12. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  13. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  14. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  15. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  16. Effectiveness of the AHEC Concept in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Colorado's area health education program, the SEARCH program, designed to alleviate the maldistribution of health manpower, is described. It recruits new professionals to underserved areas through student/resident rotations and retains those professionals already there by providing accessible continuing education. (Author/MLW)

  17. Assessment of the genetic relationship between Dictyocaulus species from Bos taurus and Cervus elaphus using complete mitochondrial genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dictyocaulus species are strongylid nematodes of major veterinary significance in ruminants, such as cattle and cervids, and cause serious bronchitis or pneumonia (dictyocaulosis or “husk”. There has been ongoing controversy surrounding the validity of some Dictyocaulus species and their host specificity. Here, we sequenced and characterized the mitochondrial (mt genomes of Dictyocaulus viviparus (from Bos taurus with Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti from red deer (Cervus elaphus, used mt datasets to assess the genetic relationship between these and related parasites, and predicted markers for future population genetic or molecular epidemiological studies. Methods The mt genomes were amplified from single adult males of D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti (from red deer by long-PCR, sequenced using 454-technology and annotated using bioinformatic tools. Amino acid sequences inferred from individual genes of each of the two mt genomes were compared, concatenated and subjected to phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference (BI, also employing data for other strongylids for comparative purposes. Results The circular mt genomes were 13,310 bp (D. viviparus and 13,296 bp (Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti in size, and each contained 12 protein-encoding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, consistent with other strongylid nematodes sequenced to date. Sliding window analysis identified genes with high or low levels of nucleotide diversity between the mt genomes. At the predicted mt proteomic level, there was an overall sequence difference of 34.5% between D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti, and amino acid sequence variation within each species was usually much lower than differences between species. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 mt proteins showed that both D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti were closely related, and grouped to the exclusion of

  18. 75 FR 23288 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... will be held on June 4, 2010, in Dolores, Colorado; August 13, 2010, in Gunnison, Colorado; and October... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323; August 13, 2010, at the Holiday Inn Express at 910 E. Tomichi,...

  19. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  20. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  1. Preliminary data on the density and structure of a fallow deer (Cervus dama population in the Foreste Casentinesi M. Falterona and Campigna National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cicognani

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a sample area covering 1200 ha located in the northern part of the Foreste Casentinesi National Park a survey was conducted in 1996 and 1997 on the Fallow deer (Cervus dama population. The survey was conducted during the rutting period. The censusing method is an adaptation of the Lincoln Index estimation where the capture, marking and recapture process was replaced by individual observations in "lekking areas". Since the stay of the bucks in a territory is not uniform, due to the high level of variability of the reproductive strategies, the mixing of the bucks improves the reliability of the method. The estimate of the total population was 189, the sex ratio was 1:1 and the yearlings/adults ratio was 1:2.2.

  2. No evidence that wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Iberian Peninsula are a reservoir of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, T; Martin-Hernando, M P; Boadella, M; Fernández-de-Mera, I G; Balseiro, A; Sevilla, I A; Vicente, J; Maio, E; Vieira-Pinto, M; Alvarez, J; Pérez-de-la-Lastra, J M; Garrido, J; Gortazar, C

    2012-06-01

    The potential role of red deer (Cervus elaphus) as a reservoir of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection is largely unknown. A total of 332 wild red deer were investigated using post-mortem examination, bacteriology and serology. Only three animals (1.12%) were found to have lesions on histopathological examination and no MAP bacteria were recovered on culture. The results suggest it is unlikely that wild red deer make a significant contribution to the maintenance of MAP infection in the region. The cross-reactivity of the ELISAs used indicates this diagnostic modality is ineffective in the detection of MAP infection in this species. The implications of these results for the control of this important pathogen in both livestock and wildlife are discussed.

  3. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  4. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  5. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque,...

  6. 76 FR 28071 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Canyon de Chelly, AZ. This notice is... Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New...

  7. 76 FR 35010 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... burial context are consistent with Ancient Puebloan cultural practices. In June 2005, human remains... burials and the individuals were transferred to the Colorado Historical Society in November 2005 (OAHP.... Fragments of the human remains were discovered eroding from an arroyo wall on the property of Kelly Place,...

  8. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  9. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Creek East Tract described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by... lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., May 15, 2012. The sealed bid must be submitted on or before 10...

  10. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  11. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  12. Colorado Hispanics: A Report of Selected Social Concerns, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    This publication offers a compilation of 12 reports on selected social concerns pertaining to the Hispanic community in Colorado and provides a comprehensive overview of demographic information and information on health, education, and social welfare issues. The first report looks at Colorado's multicultural population through a demographic…

  13. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  14. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  15. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is a unique geographical region for air quality studies, including research of surface level ozone. Not only does surface ozone play a critical role in regulating the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, but is a primary contributor to local smog and leads to public health complications and altered ecosystem functioning. The high frequency of sunny days, increasing population and pollution, and Mountain/Valley air dynamics of this region provide atmospheric conditions suitable for production and accumulation of ozone at the surface. This region of Colorado is currently in an ozone non-attainment status due to an assortment of contributing factors. Precursor emissions from pollution, wild-fires, and gas and oil production; along with stratosphere-troposphere exchange, can all result in high ozone episodes over the Colorado Front Range. To understand the dynamics of ozone accumulation in this region, Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors have been continuously sampling ozone from 4 different altitudes since the early 2000s. Analysis of ozone data in relation to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), wind-conditions and back-trajectory air mass origins help to address local ozone precursor emissions and resulting high ozone episodes. Increased ozone episodes are scrutinized with regards to dominant wind direction to determine main precursor emission sources. Analysis of this data reveals a strong influence of precursor emissions from the North-East wind sector, with roughly 50% of ozone exceedances originating from winds prevailing from this direction. Further, correlation with methane is enhanced when prevailing winds are from the North-East; indicative of influence from natural gas processes and feedlot activity. Similar analysis is completed for the North-West wind sector exceedances, with strong correlation to carbon monoxide; likely related to emissions from biomass burning events and forest fires. In depth analysis of

  16. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  17. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  18. Conifer health classification for Colorado, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Curry, Stacy E.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Colorado has undergone substantial changes in forests due to urbanization, wildfires, insect-caused tree mortality, and other human and environmental factors. The U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center evaluated and developed a methodology for applying remotely-sensed imagery for assessing conifer health in Colorado. Two classes were identified for the purposes of this study: healthy and unhealthy (for example, an area the size of a 30- x 30-m pixel with 20 percent or greater visibly dead trees was defined as ?unhealthy?). Medium-resolution Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery were collected. The normalized, reflectance-converted, cloud-filled Landsat scenes were merged to form a statewide image mosaic, and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Renormalized Difference Infrared Index (RDII) were derived. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was done using the Landsat multispectral bands, the NDVI, the RDII, and 30-m U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED). The classification was constrained to pixels identified in the updated landcover dataset as coniferous or mixed coniferous/deciduous vegetation. The statewide results were merged with a separate health assessment of Grand County, Colo., produced in late 2008. Sampling and validation was done by collecting field data and high-resolution imagery. The 86 percent overall classification accuracy attained in this study suggests that the data and methods used successfully characterized conifer conditions within Colorado. Although forest conditions for Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) are easily characterized, classification uncertainty exists between healthy/unhealthy Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Pi?on (Pinus edulis), and Juniper (Juniperus sp.) vegetation. Some underestimation of conifer mortality in Summit County is likely, where recent (2008) cloud-free imagery was unavailable. These classification uncertainties are primarily due to the spatial and

  19. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  20. Ecosystem trends in the Colorado Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Baron, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Binkley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Biological conservation is increasingly moving toward an ecosystem and landscape approach, recognizing the prohibitive cost and difficulty of a species-by-species approach (LaRoe 1993). Also, statewide (e.g., Gap Analysis Program) and national surveys (e.g., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program or EMAP) are conducted at a scale and level of resolution that do not meet the needs of most small land-management units that require detailed information at the ecosystem and landscape scale (Stohlgren 1994). The Colorado Rockies are an ideal outdoor laboratory for ecosystem science and management. The escalating environmental threats described in this article compelled us to design a landscape-scale assessment of the status and trends of biotic resources.

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  2. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  3. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Mean-annual erosion potential for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of the mean-annual erosion potential of a 30-meter raster cell in Colorado and...

  5. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  6. Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah. A database of...

  7. Corbiculae fluminea as a bioindicator on the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tissue samples from Asiatic clam (Corbimla fluminea) from the lower Colorado River were analyzed for trace element concentrations. Selenium and arsenic were elevated...

  8. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Lewis children graves (site # 5JA1478) on...

  9. Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162895.html Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado Doctors say problem may become more ... Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term heavy marijuana use can cause chronic vomiting and abdominal pain ...

  10. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  11. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  12. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  13. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  15. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemborg, H. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  16. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  17. Effect of the Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei on the Prevention of an Allergic Airway Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yun Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1, regulatory T (Treg, and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05 when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  18. Evaluation of habitat use by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in north-central New Mexico using global positioning system radio collars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-04-01

    In 1996 the authors initiated a study to identify habitat use in north-central New Mexico by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. They collared six elk in the spring of 1996 with GPS radio collars programmed to obtain locational fixes every 23 h. Between April 1, 1996 and January 7, 1997, they collected >1,200 fixes with an approximately 70% observation rate. They have interfaced GPS locational fixes of elk and detailed vegetation maps using the geographical information system to provide seasonal habitat use within mountainous regions of north-central New Mexico. Based on habitat use and availability analysis, use of grass/shrub and pinon/juniper habitats was generally higher than expected during most seasons and use of forested habitats was lower than expected. Most of the collared elk remained on LANL property year-round. The authors believe the application of GPS collars to elk studies in north-central New Mexico to be a more efficient and effective method than the use of VHF (very-high frequency) radio collars.

  19. Identification of swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli Cuvier) potential habitat in Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Uttarakhand, India using multi-criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, S; Kushwaha, S P S; Gaur, Priyanka

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims to identify the potential habitat for swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli Cuvier) in Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve in the Uttarakhand province of India using multi-criteria analysis. The study area represents one of the last remnant habitats of the flagship species, the swamp deer in Uttarakhand, which is considered as vulnerable. The study showed that only 6.08% of the study area (225 km(2)) was highly suitable to suitable for the swamp deer. An area of 135.52 km(2) (60.23%) turned out to be moderately suitable. Within the officially designated Conservation Reserve (area 37.84 km(2)), 10.91% (4.13 km(2)) area was found highly suitable to suitable, while 74.19% (28.07 km(2)) happens to be moderately suitable. Only 14 km(2) area, which was found as suitable habitat for swamp deer falls short of the space required by a population of 134 animals. The problem could be mitigated if the agricultural land (2.47 km(2)) adjacent to the Jhilmil Jheel is brought under the Reserve management. This would provide additional area to meet the fodder requirement. The study brings out a particularly grim situation with limited options for conservation and management of the swamp deer in the Indo-Gangetic plains. It also emphasizes the role of geospatial techniques in quick appraisal of habitat attributes and identification of potential sites for protected areas.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Hungarian red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) from high-throughput sequencing data and its phylogenetic position within the family Cervidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Krisztián; Barta, Endre; Bana, Nóra Á; Nagy, János; Horn, Péter; Orosz, László; Stéger, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is mitochondrial DNA analysis, which can be used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and for molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the development of sequencing technology, more and more mitochondrial sequences have been made available in public databases, including whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. These data have been used for phylogenetic analysis of animal species, and for studies of evolutionary processes. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a Central European red deer, Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, from Hungary by a next generation sequencing technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16 354 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region, all of which are arranged similar as in other vertebrates. We made phylogenetic analyses with the new sequence and 76 available mitochondrial sequences of Cervidae, using Bos taurus mitochondrial sequence as outgroup. We used 'neighbor joining' and 'maximum likelihood' methods on whole mitochondrial genome sequences; the consensus phylogenetic trees supported monophyly of the family Cervidae; it was divided into two subfamilies, Cervinae and Capreolinae, and five tribes, Cervini, Muntiacini, Alceini, Odocoileini, and Capreolini. The evolutionary structure of the family Cervidae can be reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genomes; which method could be used broadly in phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of animal taxa.

  1. Molecular detection of Theileria sp. ZS TO4 in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and questing Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in Eastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Biro, Nora; Harl, Josef; Worliczek, Hanna L; Beiglböck, Christoph; Farkas, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G

    2013-11-01

    Theileria spp. are intracellular protozoa transmitted by ixodid ticks. T. parva and T. annulata are highly pathogenic and responsible for serious disease in domestic ruminants in tropical and subtropical countries. However, asymptomatic findings of Theileria sp. in wild ungulates lead to the suggestion that wild ruminants play a role as reservoirs for these piroplasms. In a game enclosure in Eastern Austria (Federal county of Burgenland), piroplasms were detected with molecular analysis in blood samples of all 80 examined asymptomatic red deer (Cervus elaphus). Furthermore, piroplasms were detected in four out of 12 questing nymphs of Haemaphysalis concinna. In 32 Ixodes ticks sampled on-site, no Theileria DNA was detected. Sequence analysis identified these samples from both red deer and ticks as Theileria sp. ZS TO4. Our findings indicate that farmed red deer serve as asymptomatic carriers and adapted intermediate hosts of Theileria sp. in Central Europe and H. concinna was identified as a possible vector species of Theileria sp. ZS TO4.

  2. X- and Y-chromosome specific variants of the amelogenin gene allow sex determination in sheep (Ovis aries and European red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenig B

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple and precise methods for sex determination in animals are a pre-requisite for a number of applications in animal production and forensics. However, some of the existing methods depend only on the detection of Y-chromosome specific sequences. Therefore, the abscence of a signal does not necessarily mean that the sample is of female origin, because experimental errors can also lead to negative results. Thus, the detection of Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences is advantageous. Results A novel method for sex identification in mammals (sheep, Ovis aries and European red deer, Cervus elaphus is described, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of a part of the amelogenin gene. A partial sequence of the amelogenin gene of sheep and red deer was obtained, which exists on both X and Y chromosomes with a deletion region on the Y chromosome. With a specific pair of primers a DNA fragment of different length between the male and female mammal was amplified. Conclusion PCR amplification using the amelogenin gene primers is useful in sex identification of samples from sheep and red deer and can be applied to DNA analysis of micro samples with small amounts of DNA such as hair roots as well as bones or embryo biopsies.

  3. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Skuce, Philip J.; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K.; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W.; Taggart, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson’s R = 0.89, p hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  4. Novel sequence types of Chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n = 4) and in the deer fecal sample (n = 1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies.

  5. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  6. Colorado Better Buildings Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie; Yancey, Lea

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  7. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  8. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  9. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  10. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  11. 78 FR 62657 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... November 15, 2013, in Dolores, Colorado. ADDRESSES: The Southwest Colorado RAC meeting will be held November 15, 2013, at the Dolores Public Lands Center, 29211 Highway 184, Dolores, CO 81323. The...

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  13. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  14. Geology of the Gypsum Gap quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gypsum Gap quadrangle is one eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comparative study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through a arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The core consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  15. Geology of the Davis Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bryner, Leonid

    1953-01-01

    The Davis Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  16. Geology of the Anderson Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Anderson Mesa quadrangle is one of the eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteenth quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quarternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-tending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive slat and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists of largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  17. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  18. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  19. US Army hangar, Fort Carson, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The US Army's first solar-ventilated hangar is located at Fort Carson, Colorado. Fumes from the fuel tanks of up to 30 helicopters stored in the building are displaced with solar-warmed fresh air. A conventional gas-heated ventilation system had been specified, but a value engineering analysis done for the Corps of Engineers showed that a solar-heated ventilation system would be comparable in cost to what was specified, so the design was changed. The fans were installed with the original building in 1992, but the solar cladding system was installed later, in 1995. The panels had to be supplied later as a retrofit project because of scheduling concerns at the time of construction. The solar-transpired collectors cover 725 m{sup 2} of the south wall above the hangar doors and heat 107,000 m{sup 3}/h of ventilation air. Cost savings have been calculated at US $14,000 (ECU 12,600) a year based on energy savings of 974,000 kWh a year. (author)

  20. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  1. 马鹿亚种间杂交后代背最长肌脂肪酸的分析研究%Analysis on fatty acids of meat of cervus elaphus subspecies hybrid offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓群; 韩玲

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography was used for analyzing fatty acids extracted from longissimus dorsi muscle of three subspecies hybrid offspring of cervus elaphus: Tian - shah stock ( C. elaphus songaricus), Tian - shan x Qing - hal crossbred and Tian -shan x Qing - hai x Talimu crossbred. The result indicated that: ( 1 ) Saturated fatty acids took the highest percentage of the fatty acids composition from all the three cervus elaphus mentioned above. Palmitic acid was the major composition; (2) The nutritional value of the rne~t of Tian - shan x Qing - hai crossbred was higher than that of Tian -shan and Tian -shan x Qing - hai ~ Talimu, it can offer nutritional meat which meet food standard by cress - breeding; (3) Fatty acids with odd number carbon atom showed anticancer activity were also found in the meat from all three cervus elaphus. The results of this article could provide theoretical evidence for the development of functional food from meat of cervus elaphus.%采用气相色谱技术对马鹿不同亚种间杂交后代——天山马鹿、天青二元杂交马鹿和天青塔三元杂交马鹿背最长肌中的20种脂肪酸进行分析研究,结果表明:三种马鹿背最长肌脂肪酸组成及含量各有特点,但是饱和脂肪酸含量均最高,棕榈酸为主要组成成分。都含有一定量的具有抗癌活性的奇数碳原子脂肪酸,含量分别为:3.73%、7.28%和0.71%,该结果为马鹿内在功能食品领域的发展提供了理论依据。从营养角度出发,天青二元杂交马鹿肉比天山马鹿和天青塔三元杂交马鹿具有更高的营养价值,可以通过杂交育种来选育营养价值更符合膳食标准的健康马鹿肉品原料。

  2. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  3. 梅花鹿 FGF10基因的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatics analysis of on FGF10 in Cervus nippon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠妍; 刘华淼; 魏海军

    2014-01-01

    应用生物信息学的方法对梅花鹿 FG F10基因的核苷酸和氨基酸序列进行了初步的生物信息学分析,包括理化性质分析、信号肽和跨膜结构域分析、磷酸化位点和疏水性分析、蛋白质二级结构分析、功能结构域分析以及系统进化分析.结果表明:梅花鹿FG F10基因编码213个氨基酸,蛋白相对分子量为23.84 kD ,为碱性不稳定蛋白;存在信号肽和跨膜结构域;共有26个磷酸化位点;二级结构主要由α螺旋、β转角、延伸链和随机卷曲组成.具有FG F典型的FG F结构域.系统进化分析显示,梅花鹿FG F10与哺乳动物FG F10相似性较高,并且与牛、羊在亲缘关系上最相近.为梅花鹿 FG F10基因的结构和功能的进一步研究打下了坚实的理论基础.%We use the bioinformatics approach to analyse the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of FGF10 of Cervus nippon ,including as the character of physical and chemical ,the sigal peptide and transmembrane domain prediction ,analysis of phosphorylation sites and hydrophobicity ,secondary structure prediction domains ,prediction of the conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis .The re-sults showed that FGF10 of Cervus nippon encode a deduced 213 amino acid ,had a predicted molecu-lar weight of 23 .84 kD ,and the protein which had sigal peptide ,transmembrane domain and 26 phosphorylation sites is alkaline and instability .Helix secondary structure mainly composed of αhe-lix ,βturn ,extended strand and random crimped .And it also had a special FGF domain .Phyloge-netic analysis showed that FGF10 of deer had a very high homology with mammals ,and with cattle and sheep on the closest genetic relationship .These studies built a theoretical foundation for the fur-ther research on the structure and function of FG F10 .

  4. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to...

  5. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  6. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... liquor ordinances for the purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian country. The Colorado...

  7. Latinos in Colorado: A Profile of Culture, Changes, and Challenges. Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    It is projected that the population of Colorado will increase by 25% between 1990 and 2000. The Latino community will experience a slight increase in the proportion of Colorado's population, and will remain the largest ethnic group over the next 30 years. The chapters in this profile describe the Latino population of Colorado. The following essays…

  8. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the Colorado Springs, CO, Class C...) information for the City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. The operating requirements remain the...

  9. 77 FR 32393 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... date for the amendment of Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO, until September 20, 2012. The FAA is taking this action to allow additional time...

  10. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  11. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Reid

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  12. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P; Sharma, Lalit K; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  13. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  14. Inhibitory effects of deer antler aqua-acupuncture, the pilose antler of Cervus Korean TEMMINCK var mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Kye; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Young-Choon; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-07-01

    Water extract of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA) prepared from the growing antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, was used to investigate the efficacy of a traditional immunosuppressive and immuno-activating Korean aqua-acupuncture, on the development of type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. The onset of arthritis was observed at the 24th day after the CII-immunization in rats, and the severity of CIA was gradually developed. As compared with rats treated with saline, DAA i.p. injected at doses of more than 50 microg/kg once a day for 14 days inhibited the ability of inguinal lymph node cells to produce T cell cytokines interleukin 2 and interferon-gamma when the cells were obtained from rats 24 days after immunization and cultured in vitro with CII. Treatment with DAA also inhibited the production of macrophage cytokines interleukin-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to in vitro stimulation of lymph node and macrophage cells with CII. In addition, in order to evaluate the influence of DAA on the incidence and development of arthritis in rat CIA, rats were immunized twice at a 3-week interval with bovine CII, with DAA being given i.p. once a day for 14 days with four different regimens. A 14-day course of DAA treatment at a daily dose of 100 microg/kg, which began on the day of the first CII immunization, suppressed the development of arthritis, as well as antibody formation and delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII. Treatment with DAA, which started on the same day as the booster immunization, also resulted in inhibition of development of arthritis and of immune responses to CII. However, treatment with DAA, which was prophylactically started prior to a primary immunization, did not inhibit the development of arthritis and immune response to CII. Furthermore, DAA extract did not affect the established diseases.

  15. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus: indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P Ensing

    Full Text Available Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus, one in the Netherlands (red deer, the other in Canada (elk. GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands or after sunrise (Canada and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale and local weather (on an annual scale. In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  16. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus): indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, Erik P; Ciuti, Simone; de Wijs, Freek A L M; Lentferink, Dennis H; Ten Hoedt, André; Boyce, Mark S; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS) is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus), one in the Netherlands (red deer), the other in Canada (elk). GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands) or after sunrise (Canada) and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale) and local weather (on an annual scale). In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in) light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  17. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida

    2016-09-01

    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park.

  18. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amanda C; Schuster, Greta; Cobb, W Jacob; James, Andrea M; Cooper, Susan M; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Holman, Patricia J

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, the generally non-pathogenic trypanosome of cattle is designated Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri and is distinguished morphologically from Trypanosoma (M.) cervi, a trypanosome originally described in mule deer and elk. Phylogenetic studies of the Megatrypanum trypanosomes using various molecular markers reveal two lineages, designated TthI and TthII, with several genotypes within each. However, to date there is very limited genetic data for T. theileri, and none for the Megatrypanum trypanosomes found in wild ungulates, in the U.S. In this study U.S. isolates from cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were compared by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis and their incidence in cattle and WTD in south Texas counties was investigated. Phylogenetic analyses showed clear separation of the bovine and cervine trypanosomes. Both lineages I and II were represented in the U.S. cattle and WTD parasites. Lineage I cattle isolates were of a previously described genotype, whereas WTD and elk isolates were of two new genotypes distinct from the cattle trypanosomes. The cattle isolate of lineage II was of a previously reported genotype and was divergent from the WTD isolate, which was of a new genotype. In La Salle, Starr, Webb, and Zapata counties in south Texas a total of 51.8% of white-tailed deer were positive for trypanosomes by 18S rDNA PCR. Of the cattle screened in Webb County, 35.4% were positive. Drought conditions prevailing in south Texas when the animals were screened suggest the possibility of a vector for Trypanosoma other than the ked (Lipoptena mazamae) and tabanid flies (Tabanus spp. and Haematopota spp.).

  19. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  20. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  1. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  2. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  3. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berl.Eggplant cultivations are constantly attacked by a number of serious pests (e.g. the fruit and shoot borer, the Colorado potato beetle, soil-borne fungi)...

  4. 75 FR 45654 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO, that meets the definition of object...

  5. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  6. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  7. 75 FR 52649 - Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73...

  8. 78 FR 37474 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for...

  9. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  10. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  11. USDA-ARS Colorado maize water productivity data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service conducted a water productivity field trial for irrigated maize in northeastern Colorado in 2008 through 2011. The dataset, which is available online from the USDA National Agricultural Library, includes measurements of irrigation, precipitation, soil water sto...

  12. Public School-Public Library Cooperation in Sheridan, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelver, Ann E.

    The Arapahoe Regional Library District and the Sheridan School District, in Colorado, cooperated in developing a library to serve both high school students and the general community. Initially funded by a Library Services and Construction Act grant, this cooperative venture succeeded because of the intense preplanning done by school and library…

  13. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  14. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  15. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  16. The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

  17. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  18. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Evaluation of Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. A.; Yale, M. S.; Bennett, D. E.; Haugan, M. P.; Bryan, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a widely used instrument designed to measure student attitudes toward physics and learning physics. Previous research revealed a fairly complex factor structure. In this study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data from an undergraduate introductory…

  20. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    distributed to newspapers and radio and television stations throughout the Lower Colorado River Basin and to areas of potential interest outside the basin, was...Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae

  1. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  2. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  3. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.L.

    1978-08-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations. (LK)

  4. Telehealth: Families Finding Ways to Connect in Rural Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    JFK Partners, at the University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, is currently implementing a study on the use of telehealth (receiving treatment or services using videoconferencing technology, such as Skype) and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety. The study is an exploratory grant from Health Resources and Services…

  5. Colorado Model Content Standards for Theatre: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This booklet lists six model content standards in theater arts for elementary and secondary school students in the state of Colorado. The six standards cited in the booklet are: (1) Students develop interpersonal skills and problem-solving capabilities through group interaction and artistic collaboration; (2) Students understand and apply the…

  6. Anti-bone resorption activity of deer antler aqua-acupunture, the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe (Nokyong) in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Kap-Sung; Choi, Byeong-Joon; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Seung-Duk; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-01-15

    Effect of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA), prepared from the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, a traditional immunosuppressive acupuncture, was evaluated to assess the reductions in bone mass, strength, and turnover in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. For measuring the above parameters, a 20-day dosing experiment was performed using 6-week-old female Lewis rats. Arthritis was induced by injecting the adjuvant into the hind paw of the Lewis rats. The age-dependent increases in the body weight, lumbar bone mineral content and density (BMC and BMD) and compressive strength were disturbed in the arthritic rats. At 10 days, the histomorphometric parameters of bone formation (BFR/BS and BFR/BV) and the serum osteocalcin levels were significantly reduced compared with the baseline controls of Lewis rats. However, the BMC values corrected for body weight did not differ significantly between the arthritic and normal rats, and the bone minerals were not reduced when they were compared with the baseline controls. At 20 days, the parameters of bone minerals and strength of the lumbar body in the arthritic rats, both with and without correction for body weight, were significantly reduced compared with the baseline controls. The trabecular mineralizing surface remained significantly reduced and the osteoclast numbers were increased. DAA at the doses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 microg/kg, administered by Shinsu (B23) acupuncture daily from the start of the experiment, significantly prevented the development of the chronic paw edema at 20 days. The reductions in the parameters such as bone minerals, strength, and trabecular bone formation, and the increase in osteoclast number were alleviated by this DAA. Age-dependent increases in the lumbar height, disturbed by the adjuvant injection, were also maintained. These results indicated that a 20-day-period is necessary to obtain sufficient reductions in the bone mass and strength of the lumbar body

  7. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  8. Public Library Trustees of Colorado: Responsibilities and Opportunities. A Manual for the Trustees of Colorado Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Library Association, Denver.

    This basic reference on the responsibilities and opportunities of library trustees provides information on the public libraries of Colorado and how they are established, operated, and funded, as well as clues to needed information--i.e., some philosophy, many facts, opinions, recommended practices, and suggestions. Chapters focus on the types of…

  9. Identification of sika deer and red deer using partial cytochrome b and 12s ribosomal RNA genes%运用Cytb 和12s rRNA 基因鉴别梅花鹿(Cervus nippon)和马鹿(Cervus elaphus)的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 白素英; 徐艳春; 张伟; 马建章

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted on the identifications of the degraded samples of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) by phylogenetic and nucleotide distance analysis of partial Cytb and 12s rRNA genes sequences. 402 bp Cytb genes were achieved by PCR-sequencing using DNA extracted from 8 case samples, and contrasted with 27 sequences of Cytb gene downloaded from GenBank database. The values of three nucleotide distance between three suspected samples and sika deer were identical (0.026±0.006), which was smaller than the smallest nucleotide distance between eastern red deer and sika deer (0.036). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of sika deer and red deer indicated that the evidences located within the same cluster as sika deer. The evidences were sika deer materials. As the same way, other three suspected samples were derived from red deer. The results were further confirmed by phylogenetic and nucleotide distance analysis of 387 bp 12s rRNA gene. The method was powerful and less time-consuming and helpful to reduce the related cases with wildlife.%本研究介绍了运用细胞色素b基因和12s核糖体RNA基因部分序列的系统学和核甘酸距离分析来鉴别降解的梅花鹿和马鹿样品.采用PCR和直接测序技术获得了8份嫌疑样品402 bp细胞色素b基因序列,并与来自GenBank数据库 27份同源的细胞色素b基因序列进行比对.3份嫌疑样品与梅花鹿的核甘酸距离值相同(0.026±0.006),小于梅花鹿与东部马鹿间最小的核甘酸距离值(0.036).并且梅花鹿和马鹿的系统学分析表明这些样品与梅花鹿聚为一枝,因此可以推测它们来源于梅花鹿.同样的方法得出另3份嫌疑样品来源于马鹿.该结果被387 bp12s核糖体RNA基因序列的系统学和核甘酸距离分析进一步证实.该方法是有效的,花费的时间少,能帮助减少同类野生动物案件的发生.

  10. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  11. Differences in evaluation of three different approaches in home range sizes of red deer Cervus elaphus in Western Carpathians / Rozdiely vo vyhodnotení veľkosti domovských okrskov jeleňa lesného Cervus elaphus v Západných Karpatoch tromi rôznymi prístupmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alfadil Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cieľom tohto príspevku bolo porovnať rozdiely v aplikácií troch rôznych prístupov k vyhodnocovaniu veľkosti domovských okrskov vybraných samčích jedincov jeleňa lesného (Cervus elaphus v Západných Karpatoch. Výskum bol vykonaný v Kremnických vrchoch, situovaných v centrálnej časti Slovenska na vzorke troch jedincov sledovaných VHF (Very High Frequency rádiotelemetriou. Údaje boli vyhodnocované v rámci troch sezón (zima, leto a ruja. Na odhad veľkosti domovských okrskov boli použité tri metódy: Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP, Kernel Home Range (KHR and Local Convex Hull (LoCoH. Sezónne rozdiely vo veľkosti domovských okrskov boli analyzované použitím analýzy variancie (ANOVA. Výsledky poukázali na rozdiely vo veľkosti domovských okrskov a jadrových zón v populácii jelenej zveri. Migračný typ jedinca mal väčší okrsok v porovnaní s ostatnými, tento rozdiel však nebol štatisticky významný. Metóda LoCoH s použitím malej vzorky dát významne podhodnocuje odhady veľkosti domovských okrskov.

  12. Bathymetry of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mohrmann, Jacob S.

    2017-03-06

    To better characterize the water supply capacity of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pueblo Board of Water Works and Colorado Mountain College, carried out a bathymetry survey of Clear Creek Reservoir. A bathymetry map of the reservoir is presented here with the elevation-surface area and the elevation-volume relations. The bathymetry survey was carried out June 6–9, 2016, using a man-operated boat-mounted, multibeam echo sounder integrated with a Global Positioning System and a terrestrial survey using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. The equipment and methods used in this study allowed water-resource managers to maintain typical reservoir operations, eliminating the need to empty the reservoir to carry out the survey.

  13. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2006-06-01

    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  14. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  15. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  16. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  17. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  18. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  19. Multicriteria GIS modeling of wind and solar farms in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Jason R. [Metropolitan State College of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, CB 22 P.O. Box 173362-22, Denver, CO 80217-3362 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The majority of electricity and heat in Colorado comes from coal and natural gas; however, renewable energy sources will play an integral role in the state's energy future. Colorado is the 11th windiest state and has more than 250 sunny days per year. The objectives of this research are to: 1) determine which landcover classes are affiliated with high wind and solar potential; and 2) identify areas that are suitable for wind and solar farms using multicriteria GIS modelling techniques. Renewable potential (NREL wind speed measurements at 50 m above the ground and NREL annual insolation data), landcover, population density, federal lands, and distance to roads, transmission lines, and cities were reclassified according to their suitability. Each was assigned weights based on their relative importance to one another. Superb wind classes are located in high alpine areas. Unfortunately, these areas are not suitable for large-scale wind farm development due to their inaccessibility and location within a sensitive ecosystem. Federal lands have low wind potential. According to the GIS model, ideal areas for wind farm development are located in northeastern Colorado. About 41 850 km{sup 2} of the state has model scores that are in the 90-100% range. Although annual solar radiation varies slightly, inter-mountain areas receive the most insolation. As far as federal lands, Indian reservations have the greatest solar input. The GIS model indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located in northwestern Colorado and east of Denver. Only 191 km{sup 2} of the state had model scores that were in the 90-100% range. These results suggest that the variables used in this analysis have more of an effect at eliminating non-suitable areas for large-scale solar farms; a greater area exists for suitable wind farms. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial

  20. Zia Taqueria: Building a Local Supply Chain in Southwestern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Sullins, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Zia Taqueria is a full-service restaurant in Durango, Colorado whose owners have steadily increased the proportion of local vegetables, grains and meats they source and serve to their customers. They created new supply chains that add value to heritage products grown in the Four Corners area, invested in building capacity in local farming operations, and created a restaurant brand known for its commitment to serving high-quality, reasonably priced meals. In addition to operating a profitable ...

  1. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  2. Geologic map of the Clifton Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Clifton 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Colorado River/I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides interpretations of the Quaternary stratigraphy and geologic hazards in this area of the Grand Valley. The Clifton 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 16 different Quaternary units. Five prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains a large landslide deposit on the southern slopes of Mount Garfield. The landslide developed in the Mancos Shale and contains large blocks of the overlying Mesaverde Group. In addition, the landslide is a source of debris flows that have closed I-70 in the past. The major bedrock unit in the quadrangle is the Mancos Shale of Upper Cretaceous age. The map is accompanied by text containing unit descriptions, and sections on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and economic geology (including sand and gravel). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately 20 references are cited at the end of the report.

  3. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  4. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  5. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  6. 鹿茸氨基酸口服液基础配方开发%Development of Based Formulation of Cervus elaphus Amino Acid Oral Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝奇; 陈新; 徐会丹

    2013-01-01

    目的:开发氨基酸口服液的基础配方.方法:选取同一产地的两份鹿茸细粉,按提取方法不同分为仿生组和超声组,比较各组样品中氨基酸含量,并使用SIMCA-P软件进行主成分分析.结果:两组样本间存在显著性差异,其中蛋氨酸、脯氨酸、精氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸、缬氨酸差异最为明显;获得核心氨基酸组群配方为蛋氨酸0.96%,脯氨酸11.50%,精氨酸8.29%,苏氨酸2.64%,异亮氨酸1.71%,苯丙氨酸2.62%,缬氨酸3.46%;基础氨基酸组群为天门冬氨酸7.39%,丝氨酸4.07%,谷氨酸13.31%,甘氨酸21.72%,丙氨酸10.30%,亮氨酸4.64%,酪氨酸0.97%,赖氨酸5.07%,组氨酸1.36%.结论:鹿茸经人体消化后氨基酸配比与之自然状态下存在一定区别.以鹿茸消化后氨基酸配比为基础,开发的鹿茸氨基酸口服液可更好地发挥鹿茸的补益功效.%Objective:To develop based formulation of Cervus elaphus amino acid oral liquid.Method:Selected two C.elaphus powder from the same origin,divided into the biomimetic group and the ultrasound group according to different extraction methods.The content of amino acid of different groups was compared,and SIMCA-P statistical software was adopted to do principal component analysis.Result:There was a significant difference between samples from two groups,especially methionine,proline,arginine,threonine,isoleucine,phenylalanine and valine.Formulation of core amino acids group was as following:methionine 0.96%,proline 11.50%,arginine 8.29%,threonine 2.64%,isoleucine 1.71%,phenylalanine 2.62% and valine 3.46% ; Formulation of based amino acids group was aspartic acid 7.39%,serine 4.07%,glutamic acid 13.31%,glycine 21.72%,alanine 10.30%,leucine 4.64%,tyrosine 0.97%,lysine 5.07%,histidine 1.36%.Conclusion:There are some differences in amino acid proportion between the natural state and the digestion state.With amino acids

  7. From Compassion Fatigue to Resilience: Children's Hospital Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly; Griffin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare is a stressful profession. The executives at Children's Hospital Colorado are well aware of the affects that caring for sick children and the pressure associated with it have on our entire staff. Understanding what compassion fatigue looks like as well as the importance of stress management and its role in overall wellness for each of our employees led to the interest and support of HeartMath/Caritas workshops. Methods: HeartMath/Caritas training transformed into a program to help staff connect with why they got into this profession and provides the tools to help staff members function in the immense stress they are faced with every day. Six-hour workshops are offered to every employee of Children's Hospital Colorado, supported and paid for by the wellness program in the human resource department. These trainings intentionally brought Caritas and HeartMath together with an understanding that the two programs match passion with science, trust with hope, and conviction with confidence. Results: Results illustrate the positive effect the workshops have had on staff. Both qualitative data, in the form of written feedback from participants, and quantitative results (Table) support the continued need for these workshops with more exposure to ensure all employees can attend. Table Quantitative Results of HeartMath/Caritas Workshops at The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado Personal Quality: n = 64 % Pre-Workshop % Post-Workshop % Change My life is deeply fulfilling 56 70 14 Calm 29 45 16 Worried 39 22 17 Cynical 17 6 11 It's difficult for me to calm down after I've been upset 13 4 9 Rapid heartbeats 10 5 5=3ppl Muscle tension 33 23 10 Conclusion: Healthcare providers work in immense levels of stress. HeartMath/Caritas workshops are one way Children's Hospital Colorado supports its staff in dealing with compassion fatigue and burnout. The passion for sustaining this work comes from understanding how these programs have personally affected those

  8. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  9. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft... Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment and Draft Environmental Impact... related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft RMP Amendment/Draft EIS by any of...

  10. 75 FR 52015 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that...

  11. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum,...

  12. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Tribe, Crow Tribe, Fort Belknap Indian Community, and Three Affiliated Tribes (73 FR 8359-8360, February... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The...

  13. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of...

  14. 78 FR 64196 - Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado On August 21... existing activation limit of FTZ 123, on behalf of Pillow Kingdom, Inc., in Aurora, Colorado....

  15. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  16. 78 FR 58344 - Proposed Information Collection: Colorado River Total Value Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection: Colorado River Total Value Survey AGENCY: National... Colorado River riparian resource, and on alternative flow release scenarios from Glen Canyon Dam designed to protect canyon flora and fauna. The final survey will provide information for the...

  17. Guggenheim for Governor: Antisemitism, Race, and the Politics of Gilded Age Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1893 financial panic struck Colorado. The price of silver, in a protracted downward spiral since the conclusion of the Civil War, finally crashed. With economic and political turmoil come angry responses, as people search for scape-goats to explain their new and unexpected poverty. And in Gilded Age Colorado, one of those angry…

  18. Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Meyer, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    The Records of the Colorado Flower Growers Association (CFGA) is an archival collection documenting the association prior to its 1979 name change. The CFGA was founded in 1928 to support the production and marketing of greenhouse flowers grown commercially in the state. In 1979, the organization changed its name to the Colorado Greenhouse Growers…

  19. Migrant Labor Problems in the 1970's. Staff Report to the Colorado General Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State General Assembly, Denver. Legislative Council.

    Updating the findings reported in Colorado Legislative Publication No. 72, "Migratory Labor in Colorado," published in December of 1962, this 1970 staff report describes existing economic conditions of both growers and seasonal farm workers, governmental and private services available to the migrants, and some of the major migrant issues…

  20. 78 FR 49318 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 08/06/2013. Incident: Royal Gorge Fire. Incident Period:...

  1. 78 FR 57923 - Colorado Disaster #CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 09/12/2013. Incident: West Fork Fire Complex. Incident Period:...

  2. 78 FR 44186 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 07/15/2013. Incident: West Fork Fire Complex Incident Period:...

  3. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  4. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management of... acres of public lands within Saguache, Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado,...

  5. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  6. Principals' Understanding of Teacher Evaluations Connected to the Colorado Student Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded analysis involved exploring the knowledge and understanding school principals have on teacher evaluations and the connections to students' scores on the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). The problem was that Colorado does not have a comprehensive and consistent standards-based teacher evaluation system managed…

  7. 77 FR 13627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Colorado by the Denver Medical Examiner's Office. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 128. There is no information available as to where or how the remains were recovered. The medical examiner determined that the... Anthropology, the remains were transferred to History Colorado. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 175....

  8. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  9. 78 FR 66267 - Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake... establishing a safety zone upon the navigable waters of the Colorado River in support of the HITS Triathlon.... is sponsoring the HITS Triathlon Series, which will involve 1,200 swimmers transiting North...

  10. Geologic map of the Frisco quadrangle, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bartos, Paul J.; Williams, Cindy L.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Frisco quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, K.S., 1999, Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift?partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 141-152.), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts the northeastern corner of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Tenmile Range and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, Ogden, 1987, Rock units of the Precambrian- basement in Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1321-A, 54 p.). The oldest sedimentary unit is the Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The sedimentary rocks are intruded by sills and dikes of dacite porphyry sills of Swan Mountain, dated at 44 Ma (Marvin, R.F., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., and Zartman, R.E., 1989, U.S. Geological Survey radiometric ages, compilation ?C??Part five?Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming: Isochron/West, no. 53, p. 14-19. Simmons, E.C., and Hedge, C.E., 1978, Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of Tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

  11. Climate Variability: Adaptation Strategies for Colorado River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulp, T. J.; Prairie, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The importance of the Colorado River system to the western United States and the Republic of Mexico is well documented. Much has been written recently in response to the lingering drought and increasing demands on the system. Questions such as "has the river run out of water?", "how low can it go?", and "will Lake Mead go dry?" express the concern that the river system will be hard-pressed to continue to meet future demands, particularly if droughts tend toward increased magnitudes and longer durations. Reservoirs on the main stream of the Colorado River are managed by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), on behalf of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior (Secretary). Over 80% of the 60 million acre-feet of storage capacity is contained in Lake Powell and Lake Mead, large reservoirs that are located in each of the sub-basins (Upper Basin and Lower Basin) defined in the 1922 Colorado River Compact. In response to the worst drought conditions in approximately one hundred years of recorded history and the lack of specific operational guidelines for operation of Lake Powell and Lake Mead for drought and low reservoir conditions, the Secretary adopted new operational guidelines in December 2007 that will be used for an interim period (through 2026). The Interim Guidelines were the result of an intense, three-year effort in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Several alternative operational rules were compared with respect to future potential impacts to Colorado River resources, including lake levels, water delivery, hydropower production, water quality, recreation, and fish and wildlife and published in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Due to the large uncertainty regarding future inflows into the system, particularly in a changing climate, these comparisons were presented in probabilistic terms in order to assess the risk of key events (e.g., the timing and magnitude of water shortages). Because it is

  12. Hydrology of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, P.A.; Boettcher, A.J.; Snipes, R.J.; Mcintyre, H.J.

    1969-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. (See index map, fig. 1). The purpose of the investigation is to provide information for planning and implementing improved water-development and management practices. The major water problems in the San Luis Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deterioration of ground-water chemical quality, and (4) failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mexico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande Compact. This report describes the hydrologic environment, extent of water-resource development, and some of the problems related to that development. Information presented is based on data collected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. Subsequent reports are planned as the investigation progresses. The San Luis Valley extends about 100 miles from Poncha Pass near the northeast corner of Saguache County, Colo., to a point about 16 miles south of the Colorado-New Mexico State line. The total area is 3,125 square miles, of which about 3,000 are in Colorado. The valley is nearly flat except for the San Luis Hills and a few other small areas. The Colorado part of the San Luis Valley, which is described in this report, has an average altitude of about 7,700 feet. Bounding the valley on the west are the San Juan Mountains and on the east the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Most of the valley floor is bordered by alluvial fans deposited by streams originating in the mountains, the most extensive being the Rio Grande fan (see block diagram, fig. 2 in pocket). Most of the streamflow is derived from snowmelt from 4,700 square miles of watershed in the surrounding mountains. The northern half of the San Luis Valley is internally drained and is referred to as the closed basin. The lowest part of this area is known locally as the "sump." The

  13. The temporal and spatial relationship between NDVI and climatological parameters in Colorado

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the spatial and temporal relationship between AVHRR/NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climatological parameters (temperature and precipitation), which, in some sense, is influenced by topographical factors and land-cover types in Colorado. The correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients have been computed pixel by pixel over Colorado in order to analyze the relationship. The temporal variation and correlation of AVHRR/NDVI, temperature and precipitation were analyzed with a sampling method. The study reveals that there exists a close correspondence between monthly NDVI and temperature, which has strong impact from temperature on the changes of NDVI in Colorado. The spatial changes of NDVI are not influenced obviously by the precipitation since these two variables are different from each other in time series in Colorado. The study clearly revealed the spatial variation and its distribution patterns of relationship between NDVI and climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) in Colorado.

  14. An Analysis of The Early Development and Protection of the Colorado River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts an environmental analysis of the Colorado River in Southwest America.and examines the early issues of economic development and environmental protection on the Colorado River Basin from a historical perspective.The thesis first provides a brief description of the geography of the Colorado River,paying special attention to the early exploration of the Colorado River by Native Americans and later European colonizers as well as their different attitudes toward nature.Then the thesis looks at the forces of economic development and nature preservation in the progressive era against the arid setting of the Southwest.In the conclusion,the author demonstrates the importance and necessity of the environmental protection of the Colorado River in the beginning period of the America West.

  15. Diagnosing Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to Colorado Floods in September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, P.; Patricola, C. M.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Unusually heavy rainfall occurred over the Colorado Front Range during the second week of September 2013, with record or near-record totals recorded in several locations. It was associated predominantly with a stationary large-scale weather pattern (akin to the North American Monsoon, which occurs earlier in the year) that drove a strong plume of deep moisture inland from the Gulf of Mexico and eastern tropical Pacific towards the Front Range foothills. The resulting floods across the South Platte River basin impacted several thousands of people and many homes, roads, and businesses. A recent study using observational-based re-analysis to drive the regional WRF model finds that, given very little change in the large-scale weather pattern, there is an increase in atmospheric water vapour over northeast Colorado under anthropogenic climate warming, with a positive dynamical feedback drawing in moisture from further afield. This leads to a substantial increase in the magnitude and odds of heavy rainfall occurring over northeast Colorado during the rainy week of September 2013. Here we develop this work by including a hydrological modelling component in order to investigate any anthropogenic influence on the actual flood magnitude and occurrence across the South Platte basin during that time. We use WRF precipitation output from the aforementioned study - in both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic configurations for September 2013 - to drive the recently developed high-resolution WRF-Hydro model over the basin and generate river runoff. Thus by comparing changes in runoff under the anthropogenic / non-anthropogenic driving conditions we assess any influence on the magnitude and odds of flood occurrence. Integral to this, we test the sensitivity of our results to hydrological parameters, such as infiltration, base flow, and land use/cover.

  16. Opportunities to protect instream flows in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembly, Terrence L.

    1987-01-01

    This document combines the efforts of several individuals, agencies, and organizations toward a common objective: the identification, description, and preliminary evaluation of promising opportunities for protecting instream uses of water under existing laws in Colorado and Wyoming. This report is intended for the use of State and Federal planning and management personnel who need an overview of potential opportunities for preserving instream flows. It is not intended to replace or challenge the advice of agency counsel, nor it is written to provide legal advice. Instead, it is designed as a guide for the person trying to find his or her way among sometimes bewildering State statues and administrative practices. This report is not, and should not be taken as, official policy or prediction of future actions by any agency. It is simply a summary of some potential opportunities for protecting instream uses. Toward these objectives, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Water Resources Analysis Project, contracted in 1977 with Richard Dewsnup and Dallin Jensen to identify available strategies under State and Federal laws, interstate compacts, and water quality laws. A second firm, Enviro Control, Inc., was contracted to evaluate the most promising strategies. Two of the resulting documents were Instream Flow Strategies for Colorado and Instream Flow Strategies for Wyoming, which have been revised, updated, and combined in this report. Discussion of instream flow programs ad opportunities for each State--Colorado and Wyoming-- are written so that each report can be read independently, with minimal cross referencing from one State report to another.

  17. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  19. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

  1. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  2. Analysis of Nutritional Components and Active Components in Cervus elaphus kansuensis Meat%甘肃马鹿肉营养成分及活性物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍; 谢宗平; 李君兰; 郭兆斌; 余群力

    2013-01-01

    以甘肃马鹿肉为实验材料,检测分析了甘肃马鹿肉的营养成分及活性物质.结果表明:甘肃马鹿水分含量为72.88g/100g,蛋白质27.49g/100g,脂肪2.13g/100g,灰分1.09g/100g;铁14.96mg/100g,锌0.84mg/100g,铜0.199mg/100g,硒1.22μg/100g,磷15.72mg/100g;总氨基酸含量为81.08g/100g,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的38.87%;过氧化物歧化酶63.42U/mg,雌二醇157.88pg/mL,睾酮0.78ng/mL.生长激素0.76ng/mL.甘肃马鹿肉具有高蛋白、低脂肪、丰富的矿物质、氨基酸含量全面等特点,并含有一定量的活性物质,对人体有较高的营养和滋补价值,是优质的动物性食品资源.%Healthy,adult,pasture-raised Cervus elaphus kansuensis ere slaughtered and Longissimus dorsi samples were taken for the measurement of nutritional components and active components by routine methods.The results showed that the Longissimus dorsi of Cervus elaphus kansuensis contained 72.88 g of water,27.49 g of protein,2.13 g of fat,1.09 g of ash,14.96 mg of Fe,0.84 mg of Zn,0.199 mg of Cu,1.22 μg of Se,and 15.72 mg of P per 100 g.The total amino acid content was 81.08% with the essential amino acids together accounting for 38.87% of the total amino acids.Additionally,the levels of SOD,estradiol,testosterone and growth hormone were detected to be 63.42 U/mg,157.88 pg/mL,0.78 ng/mL and 0.76 ng/mL,respectively.These data demonstrate that the meat of Cervus elaphus kansuensis has good quality characteristics such as high protein,low fat,abundant minerals and a full range of amino acids in large quantities,and also contain some active substances,indicating high nutritional and nourishing value for the human body as an excellent source of animal-derived food.

  3. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.; Howard, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma. Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the inclusion

  4. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  5. Colorado State University: A Midscale Market Solar Customer Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Despite substantial increases in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment between 2005 and 2015, a large untapped market for solar PV deployment still exists in midscale market investments by universities. Recent estimates show that if all universities in the United States installed enough solar PV to meet 25% of their annual electricity consumption, this would cumulatively result in just over 16 gigawatts (GW) of additional installed PV capacity. Within this context, midscale market projects - loosely defined as solar PV installations ranging from 100 kilowatts (kW) to 2 megawatts (MW), but more broadly representing installations not captured in the residential or utility-scale sectors - could be an attractive option for universities. This case study focuses on one university solar customer, Colorado State University (CSU), to provide a detailed example of the challenges, solutions, and opportunities associated with university solar power procurement. Between 2009 and 2015, a combined 6,754 kW of both ground-mounted and rooftop solar PV was installed across multiple CSU campuses in Fort Collins, Colorado. This case study highlights CSU's decision-making process, campus engagement strategies, and relationships with state, local, and utility partners, which have culminated in significant on-campus PV deployment.

  6. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

  7. Crustal kinematics of the Colorado Plateau from GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. A.; Broermann, J.; Bennett, R. A.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from new continuous and campaign GPS networks spanning the state of Arizona and the southern portion of Utah. The 33 station continuous GPS network, funded by the NSF EarthScope Program, supplements a sparse distribution of continuous GPS stations that comprise the NSF EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory network. The campaign network originally established by the National Geodetic survey in the mid-1990's, has been reoccupied two or more times over the past five years with support from the Arizona Geological Survey. The data from the continuous GPS stations are analyzed independently with the GIPSY and GAMIT software. The new horizontal velocity data set provides an improved image of deformation in the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Northern and Southern Basin and Ranges Provinces. Preliminary modeling of the crustal kinematics reveals that only a very limited part of the region can be modeled as a rigid-body rotation. Most of the area is part of a broad zone of diffuse east-west directed extension from the Rio Grande Rift in the East to the Mojave Desert in the west. Only near the transition from the northern Colorado Plateau to the northern Basin and Range Province is the extension more localized. Besides a discussion of the regional kinematics, we will also discuss the affect the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake had on the geodetic data in the southern Basin and Range.

  8. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  9. Hypothesis of historical effects from selenium on endangered fish in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic selenium contamination of aquatic ecosystems was first associated with cooling reservoirs of coal-fired power plants in the late 1970s, and later with drainage water from agricultural irrigation activities in the 1980s. In the 1990s, selenium contamination has been raised as a concern in the recovery of currently endangered fish in the Colorado River system. Widespread contamination from seleniferous drain waters from agriculture has been documented in the upper and lower Colorado River basins. Historically, irrigation started in the upper Colorado River basin in the late 1880s. In the 1930s, selenium concentrations in various drains, tributaries, and major rivers in the upper and lower Colorado River basins were in the 100s and 1000s of ??g/L. Native fish inhabiting large rivers such as the Colorado pikeminnow and razorback sucker were abundant before 1890, but became rare after 1910 to 1920, before the influence of mainstem reservoirs in the upper and lower Colorado River. A hypothesis is presented that selenium contamination of the tributaries and major rivers of the Colorado River basin in the 1890 to 1910 period caused the decline of the endangered fish and continues to inhibit their recovery. ?? 1999 by ASP.

  10. Purificación y caracterización de la mioglobina de reno

    OpenAIRE

    Ortúñez Sanz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    La mioglobina es una hemoproteína que se encuentra en el músculo esquelético y cardiaco de los vertebrados. Su función principal es la de almacenar y facilitar la difusión del oxígeno. Se ha aislado la mioglobina de reno (Rangifer tarandus L.) mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular en Sephacryl S-100 y cromatografía de intercambio aniónico en Q-Sepharosa. Su masa molecular (16924) y secuencia coinciden con la de la mioglobina del ciervo europeo (Cervus elaphus L.). Se ha obtenido un mo...

  11. Autentificación de carnes procedentes de especies de caza mayor por técnicas genéticas

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo Martín , Violeta

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral ha consistido en la identificación de carnes procedentes de las siguientes especies de caza mayor: ciervo (Cervus elaphus), gamo(Dama dama), corzo (Capreolus capreolus), rebeco (Rupicapra rupicapra), cabra montés (Capra pyrenaica), muflón (Ovis ammon) y jabalí (Sus scrofa) por técnicas genéticas tales como PCR-RFLP, PCR con cebadores específicos y PCR en tiempo real. Para el desarrollo de técnicas de PCR-RFLP, se emplearon los marcadores mitocondriales 12S A...

  12. Topaz rhyolites of Nathrop, Colorado: Lava domes or rheomorphic flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, B. M.; Panter, K. S.; Van Der Voo, R.

    2013-12-01

    Deposits of topaz-bearing rhyolite at Ruby and Sugarloaf Mountains in central Colorado are considered to be remnants of lava domes. The deposits are part of the Late Eocene-Oligocene Central Colorado Volcanic Field [1] that lies along the eastern margin of the Arkansas Graben of the Rio Grande Rift. Topaz-bearing rhyolite lava domes and flows have been identified elsewhere in Colorado and the western U.S., but an assortment of geomorphological, lithostratigraphical, and textural features of Ruby and Sugarloaf Mountains call into question their strict classification as such. Alternatively, the lava flows may be interpreted as rheomorphic ignimbrites. The volcanic deposits encompass a sequence of steeply (~70°) west-dipping units that form two N-S elongated edifices ~0.5 km long and a few hundred meters high. Their common lithostratigraphy from bottom to top is tuff breccia, vitrophyre, and flow-banded rhyolite. The tuff breccia includes large (up to ~1 m) pumice blocks and lithics that vary from nearly absent to moderately abundant (10-20%). At Sugarloaf lithics include rare cobble-sized clasts of granite, but the majority consists of flow-banded rhyolite. The tuff breccia grades normally upward into the vitrophyre with increased welding and a eutaxitic fabric defined by fiamme with increasing aspect ratios. Lithics are abundant in the vitrophyre at Sugarloaf but are rare or absent in the vitrophyre at Ruby Mountain. The transition from the vitrophyre to the flow-banded rhyolite is abrupt (welding fabric is apparent at both locations. At Ruby Mountain, evidence of vapor-phase alteration and an interlocked mosaic of quartz crystals in the groundmass is not typically found in deposits of effusive origin and is not a result of metamorphism. Preliminary remnant magnetism (RM) indicates no discernible tectonic modification of deposits on Sugarloaf Mountain, indicating that the steep westward dip is a primary depositional feature. This result supports the view of a

  13. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of

  14. Time Budget and Behavior Pattern of Semi-free Cervus nippon in spring%散放条件下春季梅花鹿行为时间分配的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振生; 吴建平; 滕丽微

    2002-01-01

    From April to May in 1998, time budget and behavior patterns of semi-free Cervus nippon were studied in Pingshan Wildlife Experimental Farm. The results showed that grazing behavior accounts the most for activity time in spring, next for ruminating and bedding behaviors, and the least for alerting and moving behaviors. In a day, there are three grazing peaks (namely, 7:00~10:00, 12:00~14:00 and 16:00~17:00). The female spend more moving time than the male do. The male spend more alert and bedding time than the female. C. nippong spend more grazing time in cloudy days than in fine and rainy days, whileC. nippon spends less alert and moving time in cloudy days. Sex and weather influence activity time budget of C. nippon. More significant differences exist between male and female's moving behaviors (F = 10.09,P < 0.01 ), while significant differences exist between bedding ( F = 5.96, P < 0.05) and alert ( F = 4.52, P < 0.05) be haviors. More significant differences exist between grazing ( F = 8.39, P < 0.01) and alert ( F = 6.11, P < 0.01 ) behav iors due to weather factor, while significant differences exist between bedding ( F = 4.27, P < 0.05) and moving ( F =5.32, P<0.05) behaviors.

  15. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  17. Pre-mancos gas fields in Northwest Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaker, R.; Jedlicka, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pre-Mancos gas fields of northwestern Colorado are on the N.-plunging Douglas Creek arch and E.-W.-trending Axial uplift. Most of the fields produce from sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group and the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. Gas also is produced from the Frontier, Entrada, Shinarump, and Weber, of Late Cretaceous, Jurassic, Traissic, and Permian ages, respectively. Dakota and Morrison gas accumulations are controlled primarily by stratigraphic variations of the sandstone reservoirs. Most of the gas being sold is from fields on the Douglas Creek arch because of the availability of pipelines. The total volume of gas sold in 1964 was 1,993 million cu ft and cumulative production was 33,789 million cu ft. The Elk Springs-Winter Valley Field is cited as typical of the area's pre-Mancos gas fields.

  18. Experimental Marvin Windshield Effects on Precipitation Records in Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robert D.; Crow, Loren W.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of the Leadville, Colorado, precipitation records that include a reported record-breaking storm (and flood) at higher elevations in the Rocky Mountains has indicated that the use of an experimental Marvin windshield (designed to decrease the effects of wind on precipitation-gage catchment of snow during winter) resulted in substantially overregistered summer precipitation for 1919 to 1938. The July monthly precipitation for these years was over-registered by an average of 157 percent of the long-term July monthly precipitation at Leadville. The cause of the overregistration of precipitation was the almost 4-foot-top-diameter cone-shaped windshield that had the effect of 'funneling' hail and rain splash into the rain gage. Other nearby precipitation gages, which did not use this Marvin windshield, did not have this trend of increased precipitation for the same period. Streamflow records from the Leadville area also do not indicate an increase in streamflow from 1919 to 1938.

  19. Follow-up on hang gliding injuries in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissoff, W B

    1976-01-01

    In a period extending from July 1973 to December 1975, seven fatal hang glider accidents were recorded in Colorado, all among experienced pilots. In addition, 11 serious nonfatal injuries were reported, which may represent only a fraction of those occurring. Accidents were noted to be multifactorial, caused by (1) pilot error, (2) equipment failure, (3) terrain hazards, and (4) possible design shortcomings. Accidents can be expected to decline in frequency with improved pilot training programs, grading and regulation of sites, and standardized safety clothing. No doubt over time, the less safe standard Rogallo wing will be replaced by the more stable Superkites and controlled collapsibles, which offer a higher safety margin. In the last analysis, this sport will remain a popular yet high risk endeavor (Figs. 2 through 5).

  20. 1996 monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites was near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Surface remediation was completed at the Gunnison site in December 1995. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres of wetlands and mitigation of this loss is through the enhancement of 17.8 acres of riparian plant communities in six spring-fed areas on US Bureau of Land Management mitigation sites. A five-year monitoring program was then implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This report provides the results of the third year of the monitoring program.

  1. On edge melting under the Colorado Plateau margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, Sean; Reid, Mary R.; Blichert-Toft, Janne

    2016-07-01

    Asthenosphere beneath the relatively thin lithosphere of the Basin and Range province appears to be juxtaposed in step-like fashion against the Colorado Plateau's thick lithospheric keel. Primary to near-primary basalts are found above this edge, in the San Francisco-Morman Mountain volcanic fields, north central Arizona, western USA. We show that at least two distinct peridotite-dominated mantle end-members contributed to the origin of the basalts. One has paired Nd and Hf isotopic characteristics that cluster near the mantle array and trace element patterns as expected for melts generated in the asthenosphere, possibly in the presence of garnet. The second has isotopic compositions displaced above the ɛHf - ɛNd mantle array which, together with its particular trace element characteristics, indicate contributions from hydrogenous sediments and/or melt (carbonatite or silicate)-related metasomatism. Melt equilibration temperatures obtained from Si- and Mg-thermobarometry are mostly 1340-1425°C and account for the effects of water (assumed to be 2 wt.%) and estimated CO2 (variable). Melt equilibration depths cluster at the inferred location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ˜70-75 km beneath the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau but scatter to somewhat greater values (˜100 km). Melt generation may have initiated in or below the garnet-spinel facies transition zone by edge-driven convection and continued as mantle and/or melts upwelled, assimilating and sometimes equilibrating with shallower contaminated mantle, until melts were finally extracted.

  2. Geologic map of the Palisade quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The Palisade 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 22 different Quaternary units. Two prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains many mass movement deposits. Extensive landslide deposits are present along the eastern part of the quadrangle. These massive landslides originate on the flanks of Grand Mesa, in the Green River and Wasatch Formations, and flow west onto the Palisade quadrangle. In addition, large areas of the eastern and southern parts of the map are covered by extensive pediment surfaces. These pediment surfaces are underlain by debris flow deposits also originating from Grand Mesa. Material in these deposits consists of mainly subangular basalt cobbles and boulders and indicate that these debris flow deposits have traveled as much as 10 km from their source area. The pediment surfaces have been divided into 5 age classes based on their height above surrounding drainages. Two common bedrock units in the map area are the Mancos Shale and the Mesaverde Group both of Upper Cretaceous age. The Mancos shale is common in low lying areas near the western map border. The Mesaverde Group forms prominent sandstone cliffs in the north-central map area. The map is accompanied by a separate pamphlet containing unit descriptions, a section on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and a section on economic geology (including sand and gravel, and coal). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately twenty references are cited at the end of the report.

  3. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  4. Paleomagnetism of clastic dikes along the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, S. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous clastic dikes occur within the Proterozoic basement along nearly 75km of the Front Range of Colorado. These dikes are composed predominately of well-rounded, non-metamorphosed quartz and are red in color due to the abundance of authigenic hematite. The Cambrian Sawatch sandstone is assumed by most studies to be the source of dike sediments due to its similar composition. Despite over a century of study, the origins, age, and emplacement mechanisms of these dikes remain enigmatic. A preliminary paleomagnetic study of the clastic dikes using standard demagnetization techniques indicates the presence of a complex multicomponent magnetization with at least three components. An easterly and moderately steep component residing in hematite was resolved from several dikes and corresponds to an early Cambrian pole position when compared to the apparent polar wander path of North America. An east-southeasterly and shallow magnetization, also residing in hematite, yields a pole of early Paleozoic age. The third component is northwesterly and steep down and is Mesozoic or Cenozoic in age. These results are similar to a previous paleomagnetic study (Kost, MS thesis, Univ. Colorado) in 1984 of different dikes which found poorly defined early and late Paleozoic, as well as Mesozoic-Cenozoic components. Many researchers suggest emplacement occurred during faulting that was associated with either the Ancestral Rockies uplift of the late Paleozoic or the Laramide orogeny of the late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic. The presence of magnetizations of Cambrian age, with subsequent younger remagnetizations, indicates that the emplacement of many of the dikes preceded both of these tectonic events.

  5. Contaminants in Waterbirds, Grackles, and Swallows Nesting on the Lower Colorado River, Arizona, 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals were assessed in 106 eggs representing nine avian species nesting at four lower Colorado River...

  6. A collaborative approach to diabetes management: the choice made for Colorado schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school nursing leadership partnered with the National Association of School Nurses to adapt components of the Managing and Preventing Diabetes and Weight Gain Program (MAP), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Healthy Learner Model for Chronic Condition Management, integral to MAP, provided guidance for the Colorado Collaborative to design the Diabetes Resource Nurse Program. The program supports the practicing school nurse, and facilitates collaboration between the family, school, and health care provider. This article describes how stakeholders in Colorado chose to collaborate when faced with rising tensions over how to best manage students with diabetes.

  7. Tree Transect Starting Locations (Points) at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector point dataset representing the starting location of tree transects at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  8. Private well water in Colorado: collaboration, data use, and public health outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric M; Van Dyke, Mike; Kuhn, Stephanie; Mitchell, Jane; Dalton, Hope

    2015-01-01

    As a result of participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Private Well Initiative and Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking), the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment was able to inventory private well water quality data, prioritize potential health concerns associated with drinking water from these wells, and create a Web portal for sharing public health information regarding private well water. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment collaborated with a local health department to pilot the project prior to a public implementation. Approximately 18 data sets were identified and inventoried. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment also participated in development and pilot testing of best practices for display of well water quality data with other Tracking states. Available data sets were compiled and summarized, and the data made available on the Colorado Tracking portal using geographic information system technology to support public health outreach regarding private wells.

  9. 76 FR 6819 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Colorado River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... River Valuation Survey AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We..., health, and safety. Other federal rules (National Environmental Policy Act, 1969 and NPS guidelines...: Colorado River Valuation Survey. Type of Request: New. Affected Public: General public;...

  10. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jones, A. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This report explores the correlation between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders by examining a data set of builders and homes in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, market between 2006 and 2014. During this time, the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009 occurred, and new-home sales plummeted both nationally and in Colorado Springs. What is evident from an analysis of builders and homes in Colorado Springs is that builders who had Home Energy Rating System (HERS) ratings performed on some or all of their homes during the Recession remained in business during this challenging economic period. Many builders who did not have HERS ratings performed on their homes at that time went out of business or left the area. From the analysis presented in this report, it is evident that a correlation exists between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders, although the reasons for this correlation remain largely anecdotal and not yet clearly understood.

  11. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  12. Preliminary project proposal : White Ranch Units, Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Colorado Division of Wildlife to purchase the White Ranch property in Saguache County as partial fulfillment...

  13. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil...

  14. Biophyiscal settings and wildfire frequencies in the Colorado Desert ecological section of California, 1984 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster dataset contains biophysical settings (band 1) and wildfire frequencies (band 2) within the Colorado Desert ecological section of California. Biophysical...

  15. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant, Bernstein & Associates, 1041 Lafayette St., Denver, CO 80218, telephone (303) 894-0648. SUPPLEMENTARY... of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant, Bernstein & Associates, 1041 Lafayette St., Denver, CO...

  16. Boundary for Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park (BLCA), Colorado (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This administrative boundary for Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park (BLCA), Colorado contains 6 polygons showing National Park Service (NPS) lands, and...

  17. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRF

  18. Cored Cottonwood Tree Sample Cluster Polygons at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector polygon dataset representing the location of sample clusters of cored trees at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  19. Raster Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  20. Bedrock Geology of the turkey Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the Turkey Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of fault locations...

  1. Quality characterization of Cretaceous coal from the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpchmg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and ARC/INFO point coverage of coal geochemistry in the Colorado Plateau. This GIS layer was created from the U.S. Geological Survey's USCHEM...

  2. Master's Level Graduate Training in Medical Physics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the master's degree program in medical physics developed at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Required courses for the program, and requirements for admission are included in the appendices. (HM)

  3. Colorado River Wildlife Management Area (Green River Easements) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Colorado River Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  4. Oil Shale Core Holes Containing Nahcolite in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes that contain nahcolite in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile,...

  5. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  6. Colorado geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for developing the geothermal resources of Colorado is detailed. Constraints that are limiting geothermal energy development are described. Area development plans, an institutional analysis, and the outreach program are presented. (MHR)

  7. 78 FR 13373 - Notice of Availability of the Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... from four key environmental ``change agents:'' Climate change, wildfires, invasive species, and... effectively to climate change, wildfire, and other environmental challenges that transcend land management... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregional...

  8. Background Contaminants Evaluation of the Republican River Drainage- Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Republican River Basin is a very large watershed in west-central Kansas, eastern Colorado, Wyoming and southern Nebraska. This study was conducted to determine...

  9. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  10. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Bed Structure in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany bed structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009 National...

  11. Reporting Polygons to Summarize Overburden Material Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Reporting polygons were created to display and quantify overburden material above the Mahogany Zone, by PLSS section, in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a...

  12. Raster Dataset Model of the Mahogany Bed Structure in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the Mahogany bed structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009...

  13. Mahogany Ledge Digital Structure Contour Lines of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge structure contour lines were needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale...

  14. Raster Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a...

  15. Oil Shale Core Hole and Rotary Hole Locations in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes and rotary holes in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile, Google...

  16. Raster Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Bed in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany bed was needed to perform calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of...

  17. Raster Dataset Model of Nahcolite Resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ESRI GRID raster datasets were created to display and quantify nahcolite resources for eight oil shale zones in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  18. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Bed in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany bed was needed to perform calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009...

  19. The Base of the Parachute Creek Member Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The base of the Parachute Creek Member outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale...

  20. Field Plot and Observation Points for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 525 field plot and observation locations visited in 2003 and 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project for Colorado National...

  1. [Draft] Environmental Impact Statement : San Luis Valley Project : Colorado Closed Basin Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, is a multi-purpose water resource plan designated to salvage and deliver...

  2. 76 FR 43719 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains were removed from near Laguna, Cibola County, NM. This... removed from Maxson site number 121, a rock fall near Laguna, Cibola County, NM, by Asa Maxson,...

  3. Digital geospatial datasets in support of hydrologic investigations of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey developed this dataset as part of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (FRIRP). One goal of the FRIRP was to provide...

  4. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  5. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard ranch (5JA784) on Arapaho National...

  6. Final unioned files for Yampa coal field resource calculations, northwestern Colorado (yam*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and final unioned polygon coverages used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  7. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, D.; Lantz, E.

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  8. Flora of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, S.J.; Shepperd, W.D.; Reichert, D.W.; Cone, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The report lists 441 vascular plant taxa in 228 genera and 63 families encountered on the 9,300-ha Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Synonyms appearing in previous publications and other works pertaining to the Fraser Experimental Forest, as well as appropriate Colorado floras and less-technical field guides, are included. Plant communities and habitats are discussed, and a list of 54 lichens is also presented. A glossary of related terms is included.

  9. Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to Change: Climate, Ecosystems, and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne Belnap; David R. Bowling; Susan Schwinning; Ehleringer, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau is located in the interior, dry end of two moisture trajectories coming from opposite directions, which have made this region a target for unusual climate fluctuations. A multi-decadal drought event some 850 years ago may have eliminated maize cultivation by the first human settlers of the Colorado Plateau, the Fremont and Anasazi people, and contributed to the abandonment of their settlements. Even today, ranching and farming are vulnerable to drought and struggle to per...

  10. Sustainable water deliveries from the Colorado River in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Tim P.; Pierce, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River supplies water to 27 million users in 7 states and 2 countries and irrigates over 3 million acres of farmland. Global climate models almost unanimously project that human-induced climate change will reduce runoff in this region by 10–30%. This work explores whether currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River system are sustainable under different climate-change scenarios. If climate change reduces runoff by 10%, scheduled deliveries will be missed ≈5...

  11. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, W. P.; T. C. Piechota; Gangopadhyay, S.; T. Pruitt

    2011-01-01

    The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month) forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) using the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecasting Syste...

  12. Costs and Savings Associated With Community Water Fluoridation Programs in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. O’Connell, PhD

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Local, state, and national health policy makers require information on the economic burden of oral disease and the cost-effectiveness of oral health programs to set policies and allocate resources. In this study, we estimate the cost savings associated with community water fluoridation programs (CWFPs in Colorado and potential cost savings if Colorado communities without fluoridation programs or naturally high fluoride levels were to implement CWFPs. Methods We developed an economic model to compare the costs associated with CWFPs with treatment savings achieved through averted tooth decay. Treatment savings included those associated with direct medical costs and indirect nonmedical costs (i.e., patient time spent on dental visit. We estimated program costs and treatment savings for each water system in Colorado in 2003 dollars. We obtained parameter estimates from published studies, national surveys, and other sources. We calculated net costs for Colorado water systems with existing CWFPs and potential net costs for systems without CWFPs. The analysis includes data for 172 public water systems in Colorado that serve populations of 1000 individuals or more. We used second-order Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the inherent uncertainty of the model assumptions on the results and report the 95% credible range from the simulation model. Results We estimated that Colorado CWFPs were associated with annual savings of $148.9 million (credible range, $115.1 million to $187.2 million in 2003, or an average of $60.78 per person (credible range, $46.97 to $76.41. We estimated that Colorado would save an additional $46.6 million (credible range, $36.0 to $58.6 million annually if CWFPs were implemented in the 52 water systems without such programs and for which fluoridation is recommended. Conclusion Colorado realizes significant annual savings from CWFPs; additional savings and reductions in morbidity could be achieved if fluoridation

  13. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  14. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Beard, L. Sue; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  15. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  16. 75 FR 3333 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...This rule revises the minimum size requirement under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee for Area No. 2 (Committee). This rule changes the minimum size requirement from 1\\7/8\\ inches in diameter to 2 inches in diameter or 4......

  17. A Dreissena Risk Assessment for the Colorado River Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Nonnative zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, respectively; see photo above) were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in the 1980s and subsequently spread to watersheds of the Eastern United States (Strayer and others, 1999). The introduction of Dreissena mussels has been economically costly and has had large and far-reaching ecological impacts on these systems. Quagga mussels were found in Lakes Mead and Havasu in January 2007. Given the likelihood that quagga mussels and, eventually, zebra mussels will be introduced to Lake Powell and the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, it is important to assess the risks that introduction of Dreissena mussels pose to the Colorado River ecosystem (here defined as the segment of river from just below Glen Canyon Dam to Diamond Creek; hereafter CRE). In this report, I assess three different types of risks associated with Dreissena and the CRE: (1) the risk that Dreissena will establish at high densities in the CRE, (2) the risk of ecological impacts should Dreissena establish at high densities in the CRE or in Lake Powell, and (3) the risk that Dreissena will be introduced to tributaries of the CRE. The risk of Dreissena establishing within the CRE is low, except for the Lees Ferry tailwater reach where the risk appears high. Dreissena are unlikely to establish at high densities within the CRE or its tributaries because of high suspended sediment, high ratios of suspended inorganic:organic material, and high water velocities, all of which interfere with the ability of Dreissena to effectively filter feed. The rapids of Grand Canyon may represent a large source of mortality to larval Dreissena, which would limit their ability to disperse and colonize downstream reaches of the CRE. In contrast, conditions within the Lees Ferry tailwater generally appear suitable for Dreissena establishment, with the exception of high average water velocity. If Dreissena establish within the

  18. Geologic map of the Silt Quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, R.R.; Scott, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Silt 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift, the Grand Hogback, and the eastern Piceance Basin. The Wasatch Formation was subdivided into three formal members, the Shire, Molina, and Atwell Gulch Members. Also a sandstone unit within the Shire Member was broken out. The Mesaverde Group consists of the upper Williams Fork Formation and the lower Iles Formation. Members for the Iles Formation consist of the Rollins Sandstone, the Cozzette Sandstone, and the Corcoran Sandstone Members. The Cozzette and Corcoran Sandstone Members were mapped as a combined unit. Only the upper part of the Upper Member of the Mancos Shale is exposed in the quadrangle. From the southwestern corner of the map area toward the northwest, the unfaulted early Eocene to Paleocene Wasatch Formation and underlying Mesaverde Group gradually increase in dip to form the Grand Hogback monocline that reaches 45-75 degree dips to the southwest (section A-A'). The shallow west-northwest-trending Rifle syncline separates the northern part of the quadrangle from the southern part along the Colorado River. Geologic hazards in the map area include erosion, expansive soils, and flooding. Erosion includes mass wasting, gullying, and piping. Mass wasting involves any rock or surficial material that moves downslope under the influence of gravity, such as landslides, debris flows, or rock falls, and is generally more prevalent on steeper slopes. Locally, where the Grand Hogback is dipping greater than 60 degrees and the Wasatch Formation has been eroded, leaving sandstone slabs of the Mesa Verde Group unsupported over vertical distances as great as 500 m, the upper part of the unit has collapsed in landslides, probably by a process of beam-buckle failure. In

  19. Colorado Yule Marble; building stone of the Lincoln Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elaine S.

    1999-01-01

    The Colorado Yule marble, quarried in Marble, Colo., is a very pure white marble, and it has been widely acclaimed for its quality and purity. This marble has been used for many prominent buildings; one of the most notable is the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., built nearly 80 years ago. Although most of the marble in the memorial appears to be in very good condition, some of the stones have developed pronounced surficial roughness and show a significant loss of carved details and rounded edges compared with adjacent stones. Because adjacent blocks of marble receive nearly identical exposure to weathering agents that cause deterioration of the marble, it seems very likely that this pronounced difference in durability of adjacent stones arises from some inherent characteristic of the marble. The Colorado Yule marble is a nearly pure calcite marble with minor inclusions of mica, quartz, and feldspar. Compositions of the calcite and the inclusion phases in the marble are typical for those phases. The calcite grains that compose the marble are irregularly shaped and range from 100 to 600 micrometers in diameter. The texture of the marble is even, with a slight preferred directional elongation that is visible when the marble is cut in certain directions. Physical tests of the marble show that its strength is comparable to that of other marbles typically used in buildings. Variations in the durability of the marble, like those seen at the Lincoln Memorial, are not related to variations in calcite composition or to the presence of inclusions in the marble. Most likely, the variations arise from differences in the calcite grain boundaries and the degree to which the grains interlock with one another. Weak grain boundaries that permit water or solutions to penetrate into the marble and dissolve the calcite grains at their edges cause the marble to disaggregate or ?sugar.? Subtle differences in texture that occur in the marble from various parts of the quarry probably

  20. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1983-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, in the Front Range west of Denver, Colorado, is the largest vein-type uranium deposit in the United States. The deposit is situated in a steeply dipping fault system that cuts Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The host rocks represent a submarine volcanic system with associated chert and iron- and sulfide-rich pelitic rocks. Where faulted, the more competent garnetiferous and quartzitic units behaved brittlely and created a deep, narrow conduit. The ores formed 70-72 m.y. ago beneath 3 km of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Mineralization included two episodes of alteration and three stages of vein-mineralization. Early carbonate-sericite alteration pseudomorphically replaced mafic minerals, whereas the ensuing hematite-adularia episode replaced only the earlier alteration assemblage. Early vein mineralization produced a minor sulfide-adularia-carbonate assemblage. Later vein mineralization generated the uranium ores in two successive stages. Carbonates, sulfides, and adularia filled the remaining voids. Clastic dikes composed of fault gouge and, locally, ore were injected into new and existing fractures. Geologic and chemical evidence suggest that virtually all components of the deposit were derived from major hornblende gneiss units and related rocks. The initial fluids were evolved connate/metamorphic water that infiltrated and resided along the extensive fault zones. Complex fault movements in the frontal zone of the eastern Front Range caused the fluids to migrate to the most permeable segments of the fault zones. Heat was supplied by increased crustal heat flow related to igneous activity in the nearby Colorado mineral belt. Temperatures decreased from 225?C to 125?C during later mineralization, and the pressure episodically dropped from 1000 bars. The CO2 fugacity was initially near 100 bars, and uranium was carried as a dicarbonate complex. Sudden decreases in confining pressure during fault movement caused evolution of CO2

  1. Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1986-01-01

    of a population are difficult to detect locally. Contemporary issues in the conservation of native species demand regional and continental perspectives (Samson and Knopf 1982). Thus, management activities at specific sites are often viewed as short-sighted by planners and conservation critics. This paper illustrates how these contemporary theories can influence a local conservation perspective. That perspective is developed around historical processes that have led to cosmopolitism of the local avifauna on the Colorado Division of Wildlife's South Platte Wildlife Management Area (SPWMA) near Crook, Colorado.

  2. Conservation planning for the Colorado River in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Rasmussen,; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning is increasingly recognized as necessary for providing the greatest possible conservation benefits for restoration efforts. Rigorous, science-based resource assessment, combined with acknowledgement of broader basin trends, provides a solid foundation for determining effective projects. It is equally important that methods used to prioritize conservation investments are simple and practical enough that they can be implemented in a timely manner and by a variety of resource managers. With the help of local and regional natural resource professionals, we have developed a broad-scale, spatially-explicit assessment of 146 miles (~20,000 acres) of the Colorado River mainstem in Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah that will function as the basis for a systematic, practical approach to conservation planning and riparian restoration prioritization. For the assessment we have: 1) acquired, modified or created spatial datasets of Colorado River bottomland conditions; 2) synthesized those datasets into habitat suitability models and estimates of natural recovery potential, fire risk and relative cost; 3) investigated and described dominant ecosystem trends and human uses, and; 4) suggested site selection and prioritization approaches. Partner organizations (The Nature Conservancy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management and Utah Forestry Fire and State Lands) are using the assessment and datasets to identify and prioritize a suite of restoration actions to increase ecosystem resilience and improve habitat for bottomland species. Primary datasets include maps of bottomland cover types, bottomland extent, maps of areas inundated during high and low flow events, as well as locations of campgrounds, roads, fires, invasive vegetation treatment areas and other features. Assessment of conditions and trends in the project area entailed: 1) assemblage of existing data on geology, changes in stream flow, and predictions of future conditions; 2) identification

  3. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  4. The Colorado Plateau III: integrating research and resources management for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.

  5. A Colorado Response to the Information Society: The Changing Academic Library. Proceedings of a Conference (Denver, Colorado, October 6-7, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn, Ed.

    As suggested by a Colorado Academic Library Master Plan developed in 1982, a statewide conference that brought together academicians and librarians was held to explore the role of academic libraries in the information society. People came in teams of three from institutions and included library directors, academic vice presidents, and faculty…

  6. Simulating the potential effects of climate change in two Colorado basins and at two Colorado ski areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.; Hay, L.; Markstrom, S.

    2011-01-01

    The mountainous areas of Colorado are used for tourism and recreation, and they provide water storage and supply for municipalities, industries, and agriculture. Recent studies suggest that water supply and tourist industries such as skiing are at risk from climate change. In this study, a distributed-parameter watershed model, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), is used to identify the potential effects of future climate on hydrologic conditions for two Colorado basins, the East River at Almont and the Yampa River at Steamboat Springs, and at the subbasin scale for two ski areas within those basins. Climate-change input files for PRMS were generated by modifying daily PRMS precipitation and temperature inputs with mean monthly climate-change fields of precipitation and temperature derived from five general circulation model (GCM) simulations using one current and three future carbon emission scenarios. All GCM simulations of mean daily minimum and maximum air temperature for the East and Yampa River basins indicate a relatively steady increase of up to several degrees Celsius from baseline conditions by 2094. GCM simulations of precipitation in the two basins indicate little change or trend in precipitation, but there is a large range associated with these projections. PRMS projections of basin mean daily streamflow vary by scenario but indicate a central tendency toward slight decreases, with a large range associated with these projections. Decreases in water content or changes in the spatial extent of snowpack in the East and Yampa River basins are important because of potential adverse effects on water supply and recreational activities. PRMS projections of each future scenario indicate a central tendency for decreases in basin mean snow-covered area and snowpack water equivalent, with the range in the projected decreases increasing with time. However, when examined on a monthly basis, the projected decreases are most dramatic during fall and

  7. A class III archaeological survey of twelve region wide fencing upgrade locations in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, Jackson, Moffat, Pitkin, and Routt counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Department of Transportation proposes to upgrade existing right-of-way fencing along roadways at twelve separate locations in northwestern Colorado. To...

  8. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    1994-11-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km 2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP.

  9. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  10. Geology of the Pine Mountain quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Pine Mountain quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over mush of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in sizer from irregular masses containing only a few ton of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  11. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  12. Geology of the Red Canyon quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, E.J.; Jobin, D.A.

    1953-01-01

    The Red Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium, minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  13. Geology of the Paradox quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withington, C.F.

    1954-01-01

    The Paradox quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation, Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  14. Geology of the Atkinson Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, E.J.

    1953-01-01

    The Atkinson Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that rangein age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Bath". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstone of favorable composition.

  15. Geology of the Roc Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.

    1954-01-01

    The Roc Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan mineral belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary in sandstones of favorable composition.

  16. Geology of the Juanita Arch quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.

    1954-01-01

    The Juanita Arch quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore ro large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstone of favorable construction.

  17. Geology of the Uravan quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Butler, A.P.; McKay, E.J.; Boardman, Robert L.

    1954-01-01

    The Uravan quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to the related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  18. Geology of the Calamity Mesa quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Stager, Harold K.

    1953-01-01

    The Calamity Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks the range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  19. Geology of the Gateway quadrangle, Mesa county Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gateway quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  20. An ecosystem approach to combat desertification on the Colorado Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Amanda

    2004-12-01

    Desertification of shrub and grassland into pinyon-juniper woodland is occurring over much of the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. As trees invade, they out-compete shrubs and grasses, increasing erosion rates and reducing infiltration of moisture into the soil. This has caused habitat problems for wildlife, and reduced forage for livestock. These impacts also affect the human communities that rely on ranching and tourism related to hunting. Past land use and management practices including heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression and introduction of exotic annual plants are believed to have led to current conditions. The Montrose office of the Bureau of Land Management has implemented an ecosystem-based program to reverse the desertification process on public land. The program is centered on detailed landscape objectives describing the desired vegetation mosaic on 360,000 ha of public land. The objectives outline proportions of plant seral stages and arrays of patch sizes for each planning unit. These objectives are based on priority management issues and the need to replicate a natural vegetation mosaic. Where the existing mosaic does not meet objectives, mechanical vegetation treatments and prescribed fire are used to create early and mid-seral patches on the ground. This restored vegetation pattern and type should be sustained over time through a natural fire regime and improved livestock management. Because many uncertainties exist, an adaptive management process is being used that allows mosaic objectives to be changed or processes modified where monitoring or scientific research indicate a need.

  1. Analysis of Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, R.; Kutscher, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports that, currently, most utilities in the state of Colorado are subject to the 20% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) passed by voters in 2004 and expanded by the state legislature in 2007. However, because of bonuses and exemptions written into the law, the true required renewable energy penetration is only 12.3%, making the law less then adequate for addressing climate change. The study aims to assess the real renewable energy and carbon impacts of the current RPS and investigates the benefits of increasing the RPS to true 20% and 30% values. A user input-driven predictive Excel model was developed to find the proper technology spread, electrical outputs, and carbon reduction for each RPS. It was found that while all the RPS variants are technically feasible based on available renewable resources, only the 30% RPS meets the carbon reductions that are thought necessary to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. The report then comments on the results and what RPS percentage will be the most acceptable avenue.

  2. Analysis of drought determinants for the Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balling Jr, R.C. [Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Goodrich, G.B. [Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter season Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) and precipitation variations in the Basin. We find that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) explains more variance in PHDI than El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the planetary temperature combined for the Basin as a whole. When rotated PCA is used to separate the Basin into two regions, the lower portion of the Basin is similar to the Basin as a whole while the upper portion, which contains the high-elevation locations important to hydrologic yield for the watershed, demonstrates poorly defined relationships with the teleconnections. The PHDI for the two portions of the Basin are shown to have been out of synch for much of the twentieth century. In general, teleconnection indices account for 19% of the variance in PHDI leaving large uncertainties in drought forecasting.

  3. Paper 5944 Changing Climates @ Colorado State: It's Everybody's Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Denning, S.; Betsill, M.; Klein, J. A.; Fiege, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the help of faculty from all eight colleges, twenty-seven departments, and numerous other entities on and off the Colorado State University campus, this education and outreach initiative is based on the premises that climate change is everybody's business and that everyone has something to offer in meeting its challenges. Beginning in 2007, CC@CSU has organized some 120 talks to audiences totaling some 6,000, helping inform the student body and community and catalyzing relationships among faculty and researchers across campus. It has offered communication coaching to scientists (and others) who want to translate their expertise for the public. And it has developed a multidisciplinary website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) with over 450 annotated entries, all college-level content, primer-level clarity, on topics that include climate science and ecology, economics and emotions, ethics and policy, communication and activism, paleoclimate and human history, and much more. This presentation will address the basic questions of why, who, how, what, for whom, and so what, concluding with some of the key lessons learned about communicating across disciplinary boundaries on this important subject.

  4. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  5. The Colorado front range: anatomy of a Laramide uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl; Bryant, Bruce; Reed, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Along a transect across the Front Range from Denver to the Blue River valley near Dillon, the trip explores the geologic framework and Laramide (Late Cretaceous to early Eocene) uplift history of this basement-cored mountain range. Specific items for discussion at various stops are (1) the sedimentary and structural record along the upturned eastern margin of the range, which contains several discontinuous, east-directed reverse faults; (2) the western structural margin of the range, which contains a minimum of 9 km of thrust overhang and is significantly different in structural style from the eastern margin; (3) mid- to late-Tertiary modifications to the western margin of the range from extensional faulting along the northern Rio Grande rift trend; (4) the thermal and uplift history of the range as revealed by apatite fission track analysis; (5) the Proterozoic basement of the range, including the significance of northeast-trending shear zones; and (6) the geologic setting of the Colorado mineral belt, formed during Laramide and mid-Tertiary igneous activity.

  6. Comment on ``Abandoned Mines, Mountain Sports, and Climate Variability: Implications for the Colorado Tourism Economy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert M.; Belanger, Laura

    2004-02-01

    An article in Eos (23 September 2003) focused on the Snake River Basin in Summit County, Colorado, and relied extensively on a water quality study conducted by Hydrosphere Resource Consultants at Keystone Resort. As the authors of this study, we wish to correct and clarify several points regarding the results of our investigations, as well as comment on the article's overall findings regarding Colorado's ski industry. The article's overall premise is that climate variability, combined with the legacy of acid rock drainage (ARD), has created a complex environment in which Colorado's tourism economy must operate. Colorado's ski industry and the Snake River Basin serve as case studies. While we generally agree with the premise that the Colorado tourism industry's operating environment is complex, we differ with the authors' theories regarding the environmental factors driving snow-making expansion and four-season resort development. The authors make presumptions about the ski industry and Keystone that are inaccurate. In fact, the ski industry may not be the most appropriate tourism sector for illustrating the impacts of climatic variations.

  7. Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to Change: Climate, Ecosystems, and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Belnap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado Plateau is located in the interior, dry end of two moisture trajectories coming from opposite directions, which have made this region a target for unusual climate fluctuations. A multi-decadal drought event some 850 years ago may have eliminated maize cultivation by the first human settlers of the Colorado Plateau, the Fremont and Anasazi people, and contributed to the abandonment of their settlements. Even today, ranching and farming are vulnerable to drought and struggle to persist. The recent use of the Colorado Plateau primarily as rangeland has made this region less tolerant to drought due to unprecedented levels of surface disturbances that destroy biological crusts, reduce soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, and increase rates of soil erosion. The most recent drought of 2002 demonstrated the vulnerability of the Colorado Plateau in its currently depleted state and the associated costs to the local economies. New climate predictions for the southwestern United States include the possibility of a long-term shift to warmer, more arid conditions, punctuated by megadroughts not seen since medieval times. It remains to be seen whether the present-day extractive industries, aided by external subsidies, can persist in a climate regime that apparently exceeded the adaptive capacities of the Colorado Plateau's prehistoric agriculturalists.

  8. Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to change: Climate, ecosystems, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Belnap, J.; Bowling, David R.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau is located in the interior, dry end of two moisture trajectories coming from opposite directions, which have made this region a target for unusual climate fluctuations. A multidecadal drought event some 850 years ago may have eliminated maize cultivation by the first human settlers of the Colorado Plateau, the Fremont and Anasazi people, and contributed to the abandonment of their settlements. Even today, ranching and farming are vulnerable to drought and struggle to persist. The recent use of the Colorado Plateau primarily as rangeland has made this region less tolerant to drought due to unprecedented levels of surface disturbances that destroy biological crusts, reduce soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, and increase rates of soil erosion. The most recent drought of 2002 demonstrated the vulnerability of the Colorado Plateau in its currently depleted state and the associated costs to the local economies. New climate predictions for the southwestern United States include the possibility of a long-term shift to warmer, more arid conditions, punctuated by megadroughts not seen since medieval times. It remains to be seen whether the present-day extractive industries, aided by external subsidies, can persist in a climate regime that apparently exceeded the adaptive capacities of the Colorado Plateau's prehistoric agriculturalists.

  9. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  10. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Mangano, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  11. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  12. Introduction: CRevolution 2: origin and evolution of the Colorado River System II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Beard, L. Sue; House, Kyle; Young, Richard A.; Aslan, Andres; Billingsley, George; Pederson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium held in Flagstaff, Arizona, in May 2010, had 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built on two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus where possible, while also articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau–Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift, with consensus that multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology are needed to test the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forcings in shaping the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences, and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in the shaping landscape of elevated plateaus.

  13. 78 FR 50091 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum of Natural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Shannon, Curator of Cultural Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, 218 UCB... Museum of Natural History have determined that: Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), the five cultural items... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum...

  14. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for...

  15. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental...

  16. Rural Poverty and the Law in Southern Colorado. American Bar Foundation Series on Legal Services for the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Legal problems of the rural poor in 2 counties of southern Colorado (Conejos and Costilla) are examined in this 1970 report. The empirical research for this project consisted of 3 phases: (1) determination (by questionnaire) of attitudes of rural Colorado attorneys toward the legal problems of the indigenous poor; (2) the use of unstructured…

  17. 76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Cañon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Ca on City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride... Carbon Monoxide Attainment/Maintenance Plan Colorado Springs Attainment/ Maintenance Area'' and ``Revised...,'' ``Final Revised PM10 Maintenance Plan for the Pagosa Springs Attainment/Maintenance Area,'' and...

  18. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jones, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-26

    The building industry needs to understand how energy ratings can impact homebuilders. Of interest is how energy efficiency may or may not have a positive impact on homebuilders’ business success. Focusing on Colorado Springs, Colorado, as a case study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team IBACOS suggests a win–win between a builder’s investment in energy efficiency and that builder’s ability to sell homes. Although this research did not ultimately determine why a correlation may exist, a builder’s investment in voluntary energy-efficiency programs correlated with that builder’s ability to survive the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009. This report explores the relationship between energy-efficiency ratings and the market performance of several builders in Colorado Springs.

  19. Forecasting the Colorado River Discharge Using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrkesh, Amirhossein

    2014-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model is a computational approach commonly used for modeling the complex relationships between input and output parameters. Prediction of the flow rate of a river is a requisite for any successful water resource management and river basin planning. In the current survey, the effectiveness of an Artificial Neural Network was examined to predict the Colorado River discharge. In this modeling process, an ANN model was used to relate the discharge of the Colorado River to such parameters as the amount of precipitation, ambient temperature and snowpack level at a specific time of the year. The model was able to precisely study the impact of climatic parameters on the flow rate of the Colorado River.

  20. The changing face of academic health centers: a path forward for the University of Colorado Denver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M Roy; Krugman, Richard D

    2008-09-01

    This article describes a decade of major changes at an academic health center (AHC) and university. The authors describe two major changes undertaken at the University of Colorado and its AHC during the past 10 years and the effects of these changes on the organization as a whole. First, the AHC's four health professional schools and two partner hospitals were completely relocated from a space-limited urban campus to a closed Army base. The impact of that change and the management of its potential disruption of academic programs are discussed in detail. In the middle of this total relocation, the AHC campus was consolidated with a general academic campus within the University of Colorado system, compounding the challenge. The authors describe the strategies employed to implement this major consolidation, including changing the organizational structure and selecting the new name of the university--the University of Colorado Denver.

  1. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  2. Experimental and serologic observations on avian pneumovirus (APV/turkey/Colorado/97) infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, B; Senne, D A; Pedersen, J C; Gidlewski, T; Edson, R K

    2000-01-01

    An avian pneumovirus (APV) was isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado (APV/Colorado) showing clinical signs of a respiratory disease. The results of virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent antibody tests showed that the APV/Colorado was partially related to APV subgroup A but was unrelated to APV subgroup B. Turkeys experimentally inoculated with the APV/Colorado were observed for signs, lesions, seroconversion, and virus shedding. Thirty-six 7-wk-old turkeys were distributed into three groups. Eighteen turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with APV/Colorado, six were placed in contact at 1 day postinoculation (DPI), and 12 served as noninoculated controls. Tracheal swabs and blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 DPI. Tissues were collected from three inoculated and two control turkeys on aforementioned days for pathologic examination and APV isolation. Inoculated turkeys developed respiratory disease, yielded APV at 3, 5, and 7 DPI, and seroconverted at 10 DPI. Contact turkeys yielded APV at 7 and 10 DPI. No gross lesions were observed in the turbinates, infraorbital sinuses, and trachea. However, microscopic examination revealed acute rhinitis, sinusitis, and tracheitis manifested by congestion, edema, lymphocytic and heterophilic infiltration, and loss of ciliated epithelia. The inflammatory lesions were seen at 3 DPI and became extensive at 5 and 7 DPI. Active regenerative changes in the epithelia were seen at 10 and 14 DPI. Serologic survey for the presence of antibodies in commercial turkeys (24,504 sera from 18 states) and chickens (3,517 sera from 12 states) to APV/Colorado showed seropositive turkeys in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota and no seropositive chickens. This report is the first on the isolation of an APV and APV infection in the United States.

  3. Measurements of Fluorescent Bioaerosol Particles in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, A. E.; Emerson, J. B.; Fierer, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols are of atmospheric interest due to their potential importance as cloud condensation and heterogeneous ice nuclei and because they represent a sizeable fraction of coarse mode aerosol in some locations. Relatively little data exists, however, regarding diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles of bioaerosols and the meteorological processes that control them. Newly developed real-time instrumentation allows for sensitive, high time resolution detection of fluorescent bioaerosols and is uniquely suited to address key uncertainties in the sources, distributions and behavior of these particles in the atmosphere. Here we present observations of ambient fluorescent biological aerosol made on the Front Range of Colorado using a custom-modified Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS) during the summer and fall of 2013. The summertime measurements were made from the roof of the NOAA ESRL David Skaggs Research Center in Boulder and the fall measurements were made both at the surface and aloft at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory Tall Tower. We examine diurnal variations in loading and size distribution of fluorescent bioaerosol at the two locations. We also investigate the relationship between meteorological events and fluorescent bioaerosol. For example, we observe higher concentrations and markedly different number distributions associated with precipitation events. Simultaneous filter samples were collected for DNA sequencing and flow cytometry. To our knowledge this represents the first such comparison for the WIBS under ambient conditions and the microbial identification accomplished with the filters adds significantly to the analysis. This data set will provide useful insight into the sources, loadings and properties of fluorescent bioaerosol and the local and regional processes that drive them.

  4. Municipal geothermal heat utilization plan for Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    A study has been made of the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing the geothermal resource underlying Glenwood Springs Colorado, to heat a group of public buildings. The results have shown that the use of geothermal heat is indeed feasible when compared to the cost of natural gas. The proposed system is composed of a wellhead plate heat exchanger which feeds a closed distribution loop of treated water circulated to the buildings which form the load. The base case system was designed to supply twice the demand created by the seven public buildings in order to take advantage of some economies of scale. To increase the utilization factor of the available geothermal energy, a peaking boiler which burns natural gas is recommended. Disposal of the cooled brine would be via underground injection. Considerable study was done to examine the impact of reduced operating temperature on the existing heating systems. Several options to minimize this problem were identified. Economic analyses were completed to determine the present values of heat from the geothermal system and from the present natural gas over a 30 year projected system life. For the base case savings of over $1 million were shown. Sensitivities of the economics to capital cost, operating cost, system size and other parameters were calculated. For all reasonable assumptions, the geothermal system was cheaper. Financing alternatives were also examined. An extensive survey of all existing data on the geology of the study has led to the prediction of resource parameters. The wellhead temperature of produced fluid is suspected to lie between 140 and 180/sup 0/F (60 and 82/sup 0/C). Flowrates may be as high as 1000 gpm (3800 liters per minute) from a reservoir formation that is 300 ft (90 m) thick beginning about 500 ft (150 m) below the suggested drill site in the proposed Two Rivers Park.

  5. Reclamation studies on oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.W.; Redente, E.F.

    1980-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Some of the more significant results are: (1) a soil cover of at least 61 cm in conjunction with a capiallary barrier provided the best combination of treatments for the establishment of vegetation and a functional microbial community, (2) aboveground production values for native and introduced species mixtures are comparable after three growing seasons, (3) cover values for native species mixtures are generally greater than for introduced species, (4) native seed mixtures, in general, allow greater invasion to occur, (5) sewage sludge at relatively low rates appears to provide the most beneficial overall effect on plant growth, (6) cultural practices, such as irrigated and mulching have significant effects on both above- and belowground ecosystem development, (7) topsoil storage after 1.5 years does not appear to significantly affect general microbial activities but does reduce the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil at shallow depths, (8) populations of mycorrhizal fungi are decreased on severely disturbed soils if a cover of vegetation is not established, (9) significant biological differences among ecotypes of important shrub species have been identified, (10) a vegetation model is outlined which upon completion will enable the reclamation specialist to predict the plant species combinations best adapted to specific reclamation sites, and (11) synthetic strains of two important grass species are close to development which will provide superior plant materials for reclamation in the West.

  6. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Cortez quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J A

    1982-09-01

    Six stratigraphic units are recognized as favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy in the Cortez 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. These units include the Jurassic Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation and the Entrada Sandstone, the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Permian Cutler Formation. Four areas are judged favorable for the Morrison members which include the Slick Rock, Montezuma Canyon, Cottonwood Wash and Hatch districts. The criteria used to determine favorability include the presence of the following (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox Basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Two areas of favorability are recognized for the Chinle Formation. These areas include the Abajo Mountain and Aneth-Ute Mountain areas. The criteria used to determine favorability include the sandstone-to-mudstone ratio for the Chinle Formation and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Two favorable areas are recognized for the Cutler Formation. Both of these areas are along the northern border of the quadrangle between the Abajo Mountains and the Dolores River Canyon area. Two areas are judged favorable for the Entrada Sandstone. One area is in the northeast corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district and the second is along the eastern border of the quadrangle on the southeast flank of the La Plata Mountains.

  7. Geologic Map of the San Luis Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    The map area includes San Luis and the primarily rural surrounding area. San Luis, the county seat of Costilla County, is the oldest surviving settlement in Colorado (1851). West of the town are San Pedro and San Luis mesas (basalt-covered tablelands), which are horsts with the San Luis fault zone to the east and the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone to the west. The map also includes the Sanchez graben (part of the larger Culebra graben), a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the east). The oldest rocks exposed in the map area are the Pliocene to upper Oligocene basin-fill sediments of the Santa Fe Group, and Pliocene Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of 3.7?4.8 Ma old flood basalts. Landslide deposits and colluvium that rest on sediments of the Santa Fe Group cover the steep margins of the mesas. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesas and in the graben is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The alluvial deposits are subdivided into three Pleistocene-age units and three Holocene-age units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surfaces, the largest of which is known as the Costilla Plain. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map area are from earthquakes, landslides, and localized flooding. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. The landslides may have seismogenic origins; that is, they may be stimulated by strong ground shaking during large earthquakes. Machette and Thompson based this geologic map entirely on new mapping, whereas Drenth supplied geophysical data and interpretations.

  8. Mercury dynamics in the Rocky Mountain, Colorado, snowpack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was monitored at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site (Colorado, USA, 40° N from interstitial air extracted from the snowpack at depths ranging from the snow surface to 10 cm above the soil. A highly dynamic cycling of mercury (Hg in this mid-latitude snowpack was observed. Patterns were driven by both GEM production in surface snow and GEM destruction in the deeper snowpack layers. Thorough mixing and vertical transport processes were observed through the snowpack. GEM was photochemically produced near the snow-air interface throughout the entire winter, leading to enhanced GEM levels in interstitial air of surface snow of up to 8 ng m−3. During low-wind periods, GEM in surface snow layers remained significantly above ambient air levels at night as well, which may indicate a potential weak GEM production overnight. Analyses of vertical GEM gradients in the snowpack show that surface GEM enhancements efficiently propagated down the snowpack, with a temporal lag in peak GEM levels observed with increasing depth. Downward diffusion was responsible for much of these patterns, although vertical advection also contributed to vertical redistribution. Destruction of GEM in the lower snowpack layers was attributed to dark oxidation of GEM. Analysis of vertical GEM / CO2 flux ratios indicated that this GEM destruction occurred in the snow and not in the underlying soil. The strong, diurnal patterns of photochemical GEM production at the surface ultimately lead to re-emission losses of deposited Hg back to the atmosphere. The NWT data show that highest GEM surface production and re-emissions occur shortly after fresh snowfall, which possibly resupplies photoreducible Hg to the snowpack, and that photochemical GEM reduction is not radiation-limited as it is strong even on cloudy days.

  9. Ground-water flow and quality near Canon City, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, G.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water in aquifers that underlie the Lincoln Park area near Canon City, Colorado, contains measurable concentrations of chemical constituents that are similar to those in raffinate (liquid waste) produced by a nearby uranium ore processing mill. The objective of this study was to expand the existing geohydrologic data base by collecting additional geohydrologic and water quality, in order to refine the description of the geohydrologic and geochemical systems in the study area. Geohydrologic data were collected from nine tests wells drilled in the area between the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam and Lincoln Park. Lithologic and geophysical logs of these wells indicated that the section of Vermejo Formation penetrated consisted of interbedded sandstone and shale. The sandstone beds had a small porosity and small hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater flow from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam to Lincoln Park seemed to be along an alluvium-filled channel in the irregular and relatively undescribed topography of the Vermejo Formation subcrop. North of the De Weese Dye Ditch, the alluvium becomes saturated and groundwater generally flows to the northeast. Water samples from 28 sites were collected and analyzed for major ions and trace elements; selected water samples also were analyzed for stable isotopes; samples were collected from wells near the uranium ore processing mill, from privately owned wells in Lincoln Park, and from the test wells drilled in the intervening area. Results from the quality assurance samples indicate that cross-contamination between samples from different wells was avoided and that the data are reliable. Water in the alluvial aquifer underlying Lincoln Park is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type. Small variations in the composition of water in the alluvial aquifer appears to result from a reaction of water leaking from the De Weese Dye Ditch with alluvial material. Upward leakage from underlying aquifers does not seem to be significant in

  10. Observations of two sprite-producing storms in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Lyons, Walter A.; Cummer, Steven A.; Fuchs, Brody R.; Dolan, Brenda; Rutledge, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Stanley, Mark; Ashcraft, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Two sprite-producing thunderstorms were observed on 8 and 25 June 2012 in northeastern Colorado by a combination of low-light cameras, a lightning mapping array, polarimetric and Doppler radars, the National Lightning Detection Network, and charge moment change measurements. The 8 June event evolved from a tornadic hailstorm to a larger multicellular system that produced 21 observed positive sprites in 2 h. The majority of sprites occurred during a lull in convective strength, as measured by total flash rate, flash energy, and radar echo volume. Mean flash area spiked multiple times during this period; however, total flash rates still exceeded 60 min-1, and portions of the storm featured a complex anomalous charge structure, with midlevel positive charge near -20°C. The storm produced predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning. All sprite-parent flashes occurred on the northeastern flank of the storm, where strong westerly upper level flow was consistent with advection of charged precipitation away from convection, providing a pathway for stratiform lightning. The 25 June event was another multicellular hailstorm with an anomalous charge structure that produced 26 positive sprites in less than 1 h. The sprites again occurred during a convective lull, with relatively weaker reflectivity and lower total flash rate but relatively larger mean flash area. However, all sprite parents occurred in or near convection and tapped charge layers in adjacent anvil cloud. The results demonstrate the sprite production by convective ground strokes in anomalously charged storms and also indicate that sprite production and convective vigor are inversely related in mature storms.

  11. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  12. 1997 Monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado Wetlands Mitigation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleaned up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) (1.7 hectares [ha]) of wetlands. This loss is mitigated by the enhancement of six spring-fed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land (mitigation sites). Approximately 254 ac (1 03.3 ha) were fenced at the six sites to exclude grazing livestock. Of the 254 ac (103.3 ha), 17.8 ac (7.2 ha) are riparian plant communities; the rest are sagebrush communities. Baseline grazed conditions of the riparian plant communities at the mitigation sites were measured prior to fencing. This report discusses results of the fourth year of a monitoring program implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. Three criteria for determining success of the mitigation were established: plant height, vegetation density (bare ground), and vegetation diversity. By 1996, Prospector Spring, Upper Long`s Gulch, and Camp Kettle met the criteria. The DOE requested transfer of these sites to BLM for long-term oversight. The 1997 evaluation of the three remaining sites, discussed in this report, showed two sites (Houston Gulch and Lower Long`s Gulch) meet the criteria. The DOE will request the transfer of these two sites to the BLM for long-term oversight. The last remaining site, Sage Hen Spring, has met only two of the criteria (percent bare ground and plant height). The third criterion, vegetation diversity, was not met. The vegetation appears to be changing from predominantly wet species to drier upland species, although the reason for this change is uncertain. It may be due to below-normal precipitation in recent years, diversion of water from the spring to the stock tank, or manipulation of the hydrology farther up gradient.

  13. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  14. Ozone Precursor Trends in Colorado and Their Relevance to Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, G. E.; Frazier, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas development has occurred in Colorado for over 150 years. With the increasing use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, development of shale oil resources has increased significantly during the past ten years. One of the areas is the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin in northeast Colorado, where there are now over 20,000 active wells. The North Front Range area of Colorado, including Denver, is a non-attainment area for ozone, where emissions from oil and gas development in the D-J Basin are a major concern. If a lower ozone standard is promulgated by EPA, other areas of Colorado will likely be designated as non-attainment as well. Colorado has instituted a number of regulations on the oil and gas industry over the past decade to help reduce emissions. The Denver metropolitan area has also grown significantly over the past decades to a population of over 2.6 million, which adds an urban component to the mix of ozone precursor emissions. Ambient monitoring of ozone precursors, including non-methane organic compounds and carbonyls, has been performed at a number of locations in the North Front Range area of Colorado over the past 12 years. Two of these sites have been in continuous operation since 2012; one site is located in the core of the city of Denver, while the other is located in the center of the oil and gas development area and has recorded high levels of ethane. Additionally, air monitoring sites operating on the western slope of Colorado that includes the Piceance Basin have data as far back as 2004. We present trends from the ozone precursor monitoring conducted in Colorado, and discuss how these precursors may contribute to ozone formation, particularly those related to oil and gas development. These data are valuable for emissions inventory work and model validation related to upcoming State Implementation Plans for ozone. The data will also be used in association with the 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment

  15. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  16. Cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the avian pneumovirus (Colorado isolate) F protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, I; Huggins, M B; Davis, P J; Shilleto, R; Orbell, S J; Cook, J K

    2001-10-01

    The F protein of the Colorado isolate of avian pneumovirus (APV), expressed from a DNA plasmid, was recognized by antiserum to both A and B subgroup APVs. After two intramuscular injections of turkeys with this plasmid, a homologous antibody response was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This antibody also recognized subgroup A APV. However, there was no neutralization of the Colorado isolate or of subgroup A or B viruses. Although no significant clinical protection was detected following homologous challenge of poults, an anamnestic serological response was seen, suggesting that a systemic antibody response but no local mucosal immunity was induced.

  17. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2002–14 humpback chub aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Van Haverbeke, David R.; Dodrill, Michael J.

    2017-01-31

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered cyprinid species endemic to the Colorado River. The largest remaining population of the species spawns and rears in the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has altered the main-stem Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Cold, clear water releases from the dam result in a river that is generally unsuitable for successful humpback chub reproduction. During the early 1990s, nine locations within the main-stem Colorado River were identified as humpback chub aggregations—areas with a consistent and disjunct group of fish with no significant exchange of individuals with other aggregations. We monitored main-stem Colorado River aggregations of humpback chub in Grand Canyon during 2010 to 2014 and compared our results to previous investigations. Relative abundance, as described by catch per unit effort (fish per hour) of adult humpback chub at most main-stem aggregations, generally increased from the 1990s to 2014. In addition, distribution of humpback chub in the main-stem Colorado River has increased since the 1990s. Movement of humpback chub between the Little Colorado River and other aggregations likely adds fish to those aggregations. There is clear evidence of reproduction near the 30-Mile aggregation, and reproduction at Middle Granite Gorge and downstream seems likely based on catches of gravid fish and captures of very young fish, especially during relatively warm water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, 2004 to 2011. Humpback chub relative abundance at Shinumo and Havasu Creek inflows increased following translocations of young humpback chub starting in 2009. In light of this information, we modify the original nine aggregations, combining two previously separate aggregations and dropping two locations to form six distinct aggregations of humpback chub. Trends in humpback chub abundance at main-stem aggregations, relative to management actions (for example

  18. A quarter century of research on the Colorado Plateau: a compilation of the Colorado Plateau Biennial Conference Proceedings for 1993-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Charles; Drost, Charles A.; Selleck, S. Shane

    2015-01-01

    This Open-File Report is a compilation of the work published in the Colorado Plateau Biennial Conference book series over the span of the past nearly quarter century (conferences held between 1991–2011). The primary focus of the conferences has been to work toward integrating new science findings into management of the region’s natural and cultural resources. This conference and book series has begun a tradition of cooperation and community, bridging cultural, social, and biophysical research interests and addressing the needs of scientists and land managers working in a complex geographic area. We include here the abstracts for each of the 11 books in the series, as well as links to files with comprehensive literature citations and author listings. The goal of this compilation is to encourage further cooperation and communication on research and management issues of the Colorado Plateau among researchers, land managers, Native American tribes, and the public.   

  19. 海南坡鹿栖息地的外来植物调查%Field Survey of Alien Plants in Habitats of Hainan Eld's Deer ( Cervus eldi hainanus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符明利; 吴琳琳; 侯荣; 林思亮

    2012-01-01

    Hainan Eld's deer ( Cervus eldi hainanus ) is a national - level protected species and endemic to China. The stability and development of Eld's deer habitats play a significant role in population growth. Alien invasive plants can affect habitats ir- reversibly over long time periods. We surveyed the alien plants in Hainan Datian National Nature Reserve, where Hainan Eld's deer occur, using line transects and quadrats from 2009 to 2011. We recorded 115 alien plant species of 40 families and 95 genera. Among these, 80 herbs accounted for 70% and most are tropical species, 50% were introduced from the Americas and were mainly distributed in grasslands. The widely distributed alien plants impact the abundance and distribution of native spe- cies and may have a negative effect on Eld's deer food resource in future. We make several recommendations for effective man- agement and conservation. Our survey results can provide a basis for maintaining the stability of Hainan Eld's deer habitat.%海南坡鹿是中国特有的国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物,其栖息地的稳定和发展对该物种种群有重要意义。潜在的外来入侵植物会对栖息地产生长期不可恢复的影响。因此,我们于2009—2011年采用样方调查和线路调查相结合的方法对海南坡鹿的栖息地海南大田国家级自然保护区内的外来植物进行了调查,共记录外来植物40科95属115种。其中,草本植物80种,占总物种数的69.6%;不论从科区系还是属区系上看,外来植物的区系分布都具有热带性;50.4%的外来植物产自美洲,在草地中分布最多。保护区内分布广泛的外来植物已对乡土物种产生一定的影响,也将可能对坡鹿的食物资源产生不利影响。根据调查结果,我们提出了一些保护管理建议。

  20. The influence of herd size, conspecific risk, and predation risk on the vigilance of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, and, Interest, learning, and a thematic biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Mark A.

    This dissertation is a composite of biological and educational research. The biological research concerns Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus ) behavior. The educational research presents ideas and findings on the influence of a thematic general biology course on student interest and perception of learning. The dissertation begins with a Preface that attempts to bring the ideas presented in later chapters together. Chapter One is a review of the literature concerning sociality, social behaviors, and elk biology. It summarizes current research literature as a means of introduction to Chapter Two. Chapter Two presents findings concerning the effects of herd size, predation risk, and the risk of being near conspecifics on two behaviors commonly associated with social animals---vigilance and aggression. Vigilance and aggression were measured in elk in Yellowstone National Park in two regions that varied in their presence of elk predators (wolves---Canis lupus, and grizzly bears---Ursus arctos) and in two seasons (spring and fall) that varied in the risks of being near conspecifics. Overall, male and female elk responded very differently. Male elk adjust their vigilance and aggression in response to changes in conspecific risk, but not to changes in predation risk. Female elk adjust their vigilance in response to changes in predation risk, but not to changes in conspecific risk. Males show no response in vigilance to changes in herd size. Non-reproductive females, however, adjust their levels of vigilance with changes in herd size in high risk regions. Interestingly, in the spring, vigilance decreases with increasing herd size, but in the fall, vigilance increases with increasing herd size. Chapter Three presents findings concerning the influence of a thematic course design on student perceptions of interest and teaming in a non-major's biology course (Bins 100: Concepts of Biology). I compared responses on student evaluations from two sections of Bios 100 taught in a

  1. Prediction of water flows in Colorado River, Argentina Predicción de caudales en río Colorado, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pierini, Jorge O.; Gómez,Eduardo A; Luciano Telesca

    2012-01-01

    The identification of suitable models for predicting daily water flow is important for planning and management of water storage in reservoirs of Argentina. Long-term prediction of water flow is crucial for regulating reservoirs and hydroelectric plants, for assessing environmental protection and sustainable development, for guaranteeing correct operation of public water supply in cities like Catriel, 25 de Mayo, Colorado River and potentially also Bahía Blanca. In this paper, we analyze in Bu...

  2. Geochemistry of Standard Mine Waters, Gunnison County, Colorado, July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Graves, Jeffrey T.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In many hard-rock-mining districts water flowing from abandoned mine adits is a primary source of metals to receiving streams. Understanding the generation of adit discharge is an important step in developing remediation plans. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage basin near Crested Butte, Colorado as a superfund site because drainage from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to the stream. Elk Creek flows into Coal Creek, which is a source of drinking water for the town of Crested Butte. In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity and identified areas of the underground workings for additional work. Mine drainage, underground-water samples, and selected spring water samples were collected in July 2009 for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a follow-up study. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 2 and 3 of the Standard Mine, two spring samples, and an Elk Creek sample. Reported analyses include field measurements (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential), major constituents and trace elements, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic determinations. Overall, water samples collected in 2009 at the same sites as were collected in 2006 have similar chemical compositions. Similar to 2006, water in Level 3 did not flow out the portal but was observed to flow into open workings to lower parts of the mine. Many dissolved constituent concentrations, including calcium, magnesium, sulfate, manganese, zinc, and cadmium, in Level 3 waters substantially are lower than in Level 1 effluent. Concentrations of these dissolved constituents in water samples collected from Level 2 approach or exceed concentrations of Level 1 effluent

  3. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3}(420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}).

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  5. Migrant Programs in the Southwestern States -- Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory was prepared for use by agencies working with migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the Southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The directory lists programs, services, and resources available to migrants in these states.…

  6. 78 FR 59230 - Special Local Regulations; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations; Annual Marine Events on the Colorado River, Between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona) Within the San Diego...

  7. Evaluation of Student Engagement Assessment in Colorado State University's Warner College of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Debra Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a participatory program evaluation of student engagement assessment in Colorado State University's (CSU) Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR). The college requested the evaluation after completing two pilot studies of undergraduate engagement which led them to consider establishing the…

  8. A Coordinated Mental Health Crisis Response: Lessons Learned from Three Colorado School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Sievering, Kathryn S.; Armstrong, Charlotte; Stonis, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a crisis response framework based on the authors' first-hand experience following three Colorado school shootings. During each crisis response, one or more of the authors joined school and/or district crisis teams, providing direct assistance and leadership. The authors' experiences helped guide subsequent responses and…

  9. 77 FR 76871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... 8, to Paul Tourangeau, Air Director, Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment... model the predicted visibility improvement from SCR. Other Comments: A number of commenters objected to... attempted to justify this by a short discussion of its belief that ``the costs of control should have...

  10. 75 FR 37749 - White River National Forest, Colorado, Oil and Gas Leasing Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Forest Service White River National Forest, Colorado, Oil and Gas Leasing Environmental Impact Statement... Oil and Gas Leasing and Final EIS and Record of Decision. The proposed revision includes the following: Changing what lands will be available for oil and gas leasing; changing or adding stipulations to...

  11. 75 FR 4373 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., Huerfano, Pueblo, and El Paso Counties, Colorado in two segments (the Spanish Peaks and Aguilar Laterals.... The proposed Raton 2010 Expansion Project includes the following proposed facilities: Spanish Peaks... decision. \\1\\ Interventions may also be filed electronically via the Internet in lieu of paper. See...

  12. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration and management of the..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.7 Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project...

  13. Assessment of a Refined Short Acculturation Scale for Latino Preteens in Rural Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) was used to assess acculturation among 137 fourth- and fifth-grade children in rural southern Colorado, including 11 Mexican, 33 Mexican American, and 93 Euro-American children. The SASH-Y, especially questions related to language use, was found to be robust with a young, rural Latino…

  14. Extensive Green Roof Species and Soilless Media Evaluations in Semi-arid Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, soilless media blends and plant interactions on an existing, modular-extensive (shallow, 10 cm deep) green roof in Denver, Colo...

  15. Regulation of the juvenile hormone titre in the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Three main topics were investigated in regulation of the titre of juvenile hormone in haemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say): enzymic breakdown of the hormone; binding and protection of the hormone by carrier proteins; the synthetic capacity of the corpora allata.J

  16. The Influence of Dam Discharge Regime and Canyon Orientation on Ecosystem Metabolism in the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T. A.; Tietjen, T.; Wright, S.

    2005-05-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam and the beginning of flow regulation of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1963, considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding the aquatic ecology of this altered ecosystem. Understanding what controls resource availability has been a central focus of these efforts because the Colorado River supports populations of sport fish and endangered humpback chub, both of which appear to be strongly resource limited. There is evidence that dam discharge regime and canyon orientation influence algal standing crop due to their effects on water velocity (scour) and solar insolation, respectively. We explored whether these physical factors influenced rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, two different metrics of resource availability, in the clear tailwater section of the Colorado River by conducting whole system metabolism measurements across a range of discharge regimes and in reaches with different orientation (i.e. N-S vs. E-W). We found that while both discharge regime and canyon orientation influence rates of primary production, seasonal changes in light availability appear to have a far stronger influence on rates of primary production in the Colorado River. Water temperature appeared to be the main driver of ecosystem respiration.

  17. Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Flynn, J.L.; Paschke, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is an important water source for irrigated agriculture and domestic supplies in northeastern Colorado. To address the needs of Colorado's Groundwater Protection Program, the U.S. Geological Survey designed and installed a groundwater monitoring-well network in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Agriculture in 2008 to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer underlying areas of irrigated agriculture in eastern Colorado. A 30-well network was designed to provide for statistical representation of water-quality conditions by using a computerized technique to generate randomly distributed potential groundwater sampling sites based on aquifer extent, extent of irrigated agricultural land, depth to water from land surface, and saturated thickness. Twenty of the 30 sites were selected for well installation, and wells were drilled and installed during the period June-September 2008. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Documentation of the well-network design, site selection, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development records is presented in this report.

  18. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  19. Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado and the West: A Modeling Sensitivity and GIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Resource Planning Model is a capacity expansion model designed for a regional power system, such as a utility service territory, state, or balancing authority. We apply a geospatial analysis to Resource Planning Model renewable energy capacity expansion results to understand the likelihood of renewable development on various lands within Colorado.

  20. 77 FR 4826 - Notice of the Joint Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... discussion during the RAC meeting may include working group reports, the National Landscape Conservation... recreation sites along the Upper Colorado River. Fees have been charged here since 1998. Adjustments are... field manager and working group reports, recreation, fire management, land use planning,...

  1. 75 FR 26988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... Mountain Tribe and the Southern Ute Indian Tribe in an area stretching from southwestern to south...

  2. 76 FR 74074 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Final Environmental... construction and address any project impacts to waters of the United States and jurisdictional wetlands....

  3. Importance of the 2014 Colorado River Delta pulse flow for migratory songbirds: Insights from foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Greeney, Harold F.; Van Riper, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River provides critical riparian areas in an otherwise arid region and is an important stopover site for migrating landbirds. In order to reverse ongoing habitat degradation due to drought and human-altered hydrology, a pulse flow was released from Morelos Dam in spring of 2014, which brought surface flow to dry stretches of the Colorado River in Mexico. To assess the potential effects of habitat modification resulting from the pulse flow, we used foraging behavior of spring migrants from past and current studies to assess the relative importance of different riparian habitats. We observed foraging birds in 2000 and 2014 at five riparian sites along the Lower Colorado River in Mexico to quantify prey attack rates, prey attack maneuvers, vegetation use patterns, and degree of preference for fully leafed-out or flowering plants. Prey attack rate was highest in mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in 2000 and in willow (Salix gooddingii) in 2014; correspondingly, migrants predominantly used mesquite in 2000 and willow in 2014 and showed a preference for willows in flower or fruit in 2014. Wilson’s warbler (Cardellina pusilla) used relatively more low-energy foraging maneuvers in willow than in tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) or mesquite. Those patterns in foraging behavior suggest native riparian vegetation, and especially willow, are important resources for spring migrants along the lower Colorado River. Willow is a relatively short-lived tree dependent on spring floods for dispersal and establishment and thus spring migrants are likely to benefit from controlled pulse flows.

  4. The Impact of the Recession on Public Library Use in Colorado: A Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…

  5. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: By letter dated October 10... Agreement States to specifically amend their Agreements to regulate uranium mill tailings (11e.(2)...

  6. 76 FR 43803 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Southern Colorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... (FWS) wage areas. The final rule redefines Dolores, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties... 9694) to redefine Dolores, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties, CO, and the Curecanti... Navajo New Mexico: McKinley San Juan Area of Application. Survey area plus: Colorado: Dolores...

  7. 76 FR 9694 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Colorado Appropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... would redefine Dolores, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties, CO, and the Curecanti... would redefine Dolores, Montrose, Ouray, San Juan, and San Miguel Counties, CO, and the Curecanti... deciding factor. Dolores County is currently defined to the Southern Colorado area of application....

  8. 77 FR 11573 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...; they were received through police seizures or private citizens in Arapaho, Boulder, Delta, Dolores..., at minimum, two individuals were transferred to History Colorado by the Dolores County, CO, Sheriff's... Dolores County, CO. The exact origin of the remains is unknown. Osteological analysis determined that...

  9. Use of the Colorado SURGE System for Continuing Education for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fead, J. W. N.

    The Colorado State University Resources in Graduate Education (SURGE) program is described in this report. Since it is expected that not all the participants in a graduate engineering program will be able to attend university-based lectures, presentations are video-taped and transported to industrial plants, engineering offices, and other…

  10. A protecting group-free synthesis of the Colorado potato beetle pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Zhongtao; Buter, Jeffrey; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Jäger, Manuel; Dickschat, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    A novel synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has been developed based on a Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in combination with a chemoselective alcohol oxidation using catalytic [(neocuproine)PdOAc](2)OTf2. Employing this approach, the phe

  11. 77 FR 24673 - Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests; Colorado; Federal Coal Lease Modifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... vital to the local and regional economies. Coal from the North Fork Valley helps fuel clean coal... Forest Service Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests; Colorado; Federal Coal Lease... decide whether or not to consent to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) modifying the Federal Coal Leases...

  12. Water clarity of the Colorado River—Implications for food webs and fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Kennedy, Theodore; Topping, David; Griffiths, Ronald; Fry, Kyrie

    2016-11-01

    The closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 resulted in drastic changes to water clarity, temperature, and flow of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. The Colorado River is now much clearer, water temperature is less variable throughout the year, and the river is much colder in the summer months. The flow—regulated by the dam—is now less variable annually, but has larger daily fluctuations than during pre-dam times. All of these changes have resulted in a different fish community and different food resources for fish than existed before the dam was built. Recent monitoring of water clarity, by measuring turbidity, has helped scientists and river managers understand modern water-clarity patterns in the dam-regulated Colorado River. These data were then used to estimate pre-dam turbidity in the Colorado River in order to make comparisons of pre-dam and dam-regulated conditions, which are useful for assessing biological changes in the river over time. Prior to dam construction, the large sediment load resulted in low water clarity almost all of the time, a condition which was more favorable for the native fish community.

  13. Filaria taxideae in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) of Colorado, USA, and commonly associated filarial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Karen A; Martin, Laura E R; Baeten, Laurie A; Webb, Brett T; LeVan, Ivy K; Ballweber, Lora R; Wolfe, Lisa L

    2013-07-01

    During 2007-09, we necropsied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Colorado, USA. Eight of 51 (16%) had severe infections with the subcutaneous filarid nematode Filaria taxideae, and four of the infected skunks (50%) had dermatitis that was histologically associated with parasite ova in the skin.

  14. Bureau of Reclamation-Lower Colorado River Management Plan for the Yuma Clapper Rail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presently there are just over 4,200 acres of cattail/bulrush along the lower Colorado River (LCR) in the United States, most of which is managed by the U.S. Fish and...

  15. Analysis of Non-Tactical Vehicle Utilization at Fort Carson Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Thomas A. Smart Automotive Insight Birmingham, MI Steven T. Eick TARDEC Warren, MI ABSTRACT The Department of Defense (DOD) is...Tactical Vehicle Utiliztation at Fort Carson Colorado 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven Eick ; Thomas

  16. 76 FR 8326 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part or section number. c. Explain why you agree or disagree; suggest... Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) to quantify the visibility impacts from Colorado sources on Class... was obtained from technical work performed by the WRAP.\\4\\ (The complete weight of evidence...

  17. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  18. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  19. Solar Energy Development on Department of Defense Installations in the Mojave and Colorado Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Wildflowers . Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/ca/st/en/fo/bakersfield/Programs/carrizo/cpnmflowers1.html. BLM. (2010c). California Desert Conservation...2.2 Legal Regime governing Mojave and Colorado Deserts .................................... 2-13 2.2.1 California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA...2-15 2.2.2 California Desert Protection Act (CDPA) of 1994

  20. 78 FR 45495 - Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Forest Service Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation... statement. SUMMARY: The Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest, proposes to salvage timber... comments-rockv-mountain-rio-qrande-conejos-peak@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to 719-852-6250, with...

  1. 78 FR 72706 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... in this notice by January 2, 2014. ADDRESSES: Christopher Green, Colorado State University, B-218 Clark Building, c/o Christopher Green, 1787 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80525, telephone (970) 213... are present, although burned and unburned animal bone, late prehistoric arrow points, and...

  2. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  3. Sustainable water deliveries from the Colorado River in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tim P; Pierce, David W

    2009-05-05

    The Colorado River supplies water to 27 million users in 7 states and 2 countries and irrigates over 3 million acres of farmland. Global climate models almost unanimously project that human-induced climate change will reduce runoff in this region by 10-30%. This work explores whether currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River system are sustainable under different climate-change scenarios. If climate change reduces runoff by 10%, scheduled deliveries will be missed approximately 58% of the time by 2050. If runoff reduces 20%, they will be missed approximately 88% of the time. The mean shortfall when full deliveries cannot be met increases from approximately 0.5-0.7 billion cubic meters per year (bcm/yr) in 2025 to approximately 1.2-1.9 bcm/yr by 2050 out of a request of approximately 17.3 bcm/yr. Such values are small enough to be manageable. The chance of a year with deliveries Colorado River flow from the 20th century, which was unusually wet; if the river reverts to its long-term mean, shortfalls increase another 1-1.5 bcm/yr. With either climate-change or long-term mean flows, currently scheduled future water deliveries from the Colorado River are not sustainable. However, the ability of the system to mitigate droughts can be maintained if the various users of the river find a way to reduce average deliveries.

  4. Colorado and the Higher Education Voucher Experiment: Finance Revolution or "Hail Mary Pass?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Travis

    2005-01-01

    In May 2004, Colorado Governor Bill Owens signed Senate Bill 189 into law, essentially transforming how public higher education is funded in that state. The measure, the first of its kind in the nation, changes the flow of state appropriations from the traditional enrollment-based black grant to institutions into two more market-based streams: (1)…

  5. The Psychoeducational Characteristics of School-Aged Students in Colorado with Educationally Significant Hearing Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1996-01-01

    This study of 461 Colorado students (ages 7-18) with deafness or partial hearing investigated the students' psychoeducational development by age and hearing loss, including syntactic comprehension and production, reading comprehension, social maturity, speech intelligibility, and math calculation skills. Traditional standardized measures of…

  6. Native fish sanctuaries of the lower Colorado River: Cibola High Levee Pond, Desert Pupfish Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the Colorado River was one of the most formidable rivers in the world. Each spring, melting snow from the mountains scoured the desert landscape moving millions of tons of sediment to the sea. The Grand Canyon lays testament to its erosive nature. Summer heat would bring seasonal droughts, reducing the river to a trickle impacting humans, animals, and fish.

  7. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-05

    GUNN so" a. 105VI A [ads SALIDA to(, A- I Ponce, Tous 50 2 Haswell Creek AP ’all or & Ca , Lm enross Arlington Sargent, 1 10Park IF renc Sugar 6...headquartered at Ent Air Force Base near downtown Colorado Springs, thus reopening the base. When the 15th Air Force moved to California in December 1949

  8. Passive microwave studies of snowpack properties. [Walden and Steamboat Spring, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Foster, J. L.; Rango, A.; Schmugge, T.

    1978-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperatures were measured for the snowpacks at Walden and Steamboat Springs, Colorado during 1976 and 1977 aircraft experiments. Variations in measured brightness temperatures are attributed to snow grain and crystal sizes, liquid water content, and snowpack temperature. Results demonstrate that shorter wavelength radiation is scattered more strongly than longer wavelength radiation.

  9. Sericite from the Silverton caldera, Colorado: correlation among structure, composition, origin, and particle thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Lee, M.; Nadeau, P.H.; Northrop, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The mineralogy and the origin of a suite of almost pure sericites, collected from fractures in hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the Silverton caldera in the western San Juan Mountains of Colorado, USA, are analysed.-J.A.Z.

  10. Generalized geologic map of part of the upper Animas River watershed and vicinity, Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, D.B.; Bove, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    This dataset represents geology compiled for the upper Animas River Watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The source data used are derived from 1:24,000, 1:20,000, 1:48,000 and 1:250,000-scale geologic maps by geologists who have worked in this area since the early 1960's.

  11. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT HISTOLOGY LABORATORY XYLENE USE - FORT CARSON, COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the WREAFS program, RREL has performed a waste minimization opportunity assessment (WMOA) at the Evans Community Hospital Histopathology Laboratory on the Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado, in the area of waste xylene and ethyl alcohol contaminated with human tissue. The waste...

  12. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  13. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The fun

  14. 77 FR 67830 - Establishment of Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area, Colorado and New Mexico... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Sangre de...

  15. 78 FR 50103 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Representatives of any Indian tribe or Native.... ADDRESSES: Christopher Green, Colorado State University, B-218 Clark Building, c/o Christopher Green, 1787... the Native American human remains and any present-day Indian tribe. According to final judgments...

  16. 78 FR 59960 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... present-day Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations. Representatives of any Indian tribe or Native.... ADDRESSES: Christopher Green, Colorado State University, B-218 Clark Building, c/o Christopher Green, 1787... the Native American human remains and any present-day Indian tribe. Pursuant to 43 CFR 10.16,...

  17. Guidelines for School Property Accounting in Colorado, Part II--General Fixed Asset Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiverson, Clare L.

    The second publication of a series of three issued by the Colorado Department of Education is designed as a guide for local school districts in the development of a property accounting system. It defines and classifies groups of accounts whereby financial information, taken from inventory records, may be transcribed into debit and credit entries…

  18. 75 FR 38768 - Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness-Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness--Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat Enhancement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental...

  19. 76 FR 61261 - Safety Zone; IJSBA World Finals; Lower Colorado River, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... not be hindered by the safety zone. Recreational vessels will not be allowed to transit through the... vessels intending to transit or anchor in a portion of the lower Colorado River at Lake Havasu from... Captain of the Port will cease enforcement of this safety zone and will announce that fact via...

  20. 78 FR 33703 - Safety Zone; Great Western Tube Float; Colorado River; Parker, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... transit through the safety zone if they request and receive permission from the Captain of the Port or his... or operators of vessels intending to transit or anchor in the impacted portion of the Colorado River... announce that fact via Broadcast Notice to Mariners. (c) Definitions. The following definition applies...

  1. Childhood Poverty in Colorado: A Closer Look at a Statewide Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The nation's recent economic problems underscore the urgency of addressing the challenges that low-income families face. The current economic downturn will exacerbate what already are troubling trends in Colorado--namely, that too many children in the state live in poverty and these numbers are growing rapidly. Until updated data are available, it…

  2. Regional variability in dust-on-snow processes and impacts in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, S. McKenzie; Painter, Thomas H.; Belnap, Jayne; Holland, Lacey; Reynolds, Richard; Goldstein, Harland; Lin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dust deposition onto mountain snow cover in the Upper Colorado River Basin frequently occurs in the spring when wind speeds and dust emission peaks on the nearby Colorado Plateau. Dust loading has increased since the intensive settlement in the western USA in the mid 1880s. The effects of dust-on-snow have been well studied at Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA) in the San Juan Mountains, CO, the first high-altitude area of contact for predominantly southwesterly winds transporting dust from the southern Colorado Plateau. To capture variability in dust transport from the broader Colorado Plateau and dust deposition across a larger area of the Colorado River water sources, an additional study plot was established in 2009 on Grand Mesa, 150 km to the north of SBBSA in west central, CO. Here, we compare the 4-year (2010–2013) dust source, deposition, and radiative forcing records at Grand Mesa Study Plot (GMSP) and Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), SBBSA's subalpine study plot. The study plots have similar site elevations/environments and differ mainly in the amount of dust deposited and ensuing impacts. At SASP, end of year dust concentrations ranged from 0.83 mg g−1 to 4.80 mg g−1, and daily mean spring dust radiative forcing ranged from 50–65 W m−2, advancing melt by 24–49 days. At GMSP, which received 1.0 mg g−1 less dust per season on average, spring radiative forcings of 32–50 W m−2 advanced melt by 15–30 days. Remote sensing imagery showed that observed dust events were frequently associated with dust emission from the southern Colorado Plateau. Dust from these sources generally passed south of GMSP, and back trajectory footprints modelled for observed dust events were commonly more westerly and northerly for GMSP relative to SASP. These factors suggest that although the southern Colorado Plateau contains important dust sources, dust contributions from other dust sources contribute to dust loading in this region

  3. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved selenium load and concentration in the Gunnison and Colorado Rivers near Grand Junction, Colorado, water years 1986--2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of elevated selenium concentrations, many western Colorado rivers and streams are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Colorado 303(d) list, including the main stem of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah border. Selenium is a trace metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other adverse impacts in birds and fish, including several threatened and endangered fish species. Salinity in the upper Colorado River has been the focus of source-control efforts for many years. Although salinity loads and concentrations have been previously characterized at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo., and at the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line, trends in selenium load and concentration at these two stations have not been studied. The USGS, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Water Conservation District, evaluated dissolved selenium (herein referred to as "selenium") load and concentration trends at these two sites to inform decision makers on the status and trends of selenium. This report presents results of the evaluation of trends in selenium load and concentration for two USGS streamflow-gaging stations: the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo. ("Gunnison River site"), USGS site 09152500, and the Colorado River near Colorado-Utah State line ("Colorado River site"), USGS site 09163500. Flow-adjusted selenium loads were estimated for the beginning water year (WY) of the study, 1986, and the ending WY of the study, 2008. The difference between flow-adjusted selenium loads for WY 1986 and WY 2008 was selected as the method of analysis because flow adjustment removes the natural variations in load caused by changes in mean-daily streamflow, emphasizing human-caused changes in selenium load and concentration. Overall changes in human-caused effects

  4. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  5. Aggregate supply and demand modeling using GIS methods for the front range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ahmet; Turner, Keith

    2004-07-01

    The combined use of allocation modeling and geographical information system (GIS) technologies for providing quantitative assessments of aggregate supply and demand is evaluated using representative data for the Front Range Urban Corridor (FRUC) in Colorado. The FRUC extends from the Colorado-Wyoming border to south of Colorado Springs, and includes Denver and the major urban growth regions of Colorado. In this area, aggregate demand is high and is increasing in response to population growth. Neighborhood opposition to the establishment of new pits and quarries and the depletion of many deposits are limiting aggregate supplies. Many sources are already covered by urban development or eliminated from production by zoning. Transport of aggregate by rail from distant resources may be required in the future. Two allocation-modeling procedures are tested in this study. Network analysis procedures provided within the ARC/INFO software, are unsatisfactory. Further aggregate allocation modeling used a model specifically designed for this task; a modified version of an existing Colorado School of Mines allocation model allows for more realistic market analyses. This study evaluated four scenarios. The entire region was evaluated with a scenario reflecting the current market and by a second scenario in which some existing suppliers were closed down and new potential suppliers were activated. The conditions within the Denver metropolitan area were studied before and after the introduction of three possible rail-to-truck aggregate distribution centers. GIS techniques are helpful in developing the required database to describe the Front Range Urban Corridor aggregate market conditions. GIS methods allow the digital representation of the regional road network, and the development of a distance matrix relating all suppliers and purchasers.

  6. Modeled streamflow metrics on small, ungaged stream reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay V. Reynolds,; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-20

    Modeling streamflow is an important approach for understanding landscape-scale drivers of flow and estimating flows where there are no streamgage records. In this study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Colorado State University, the objectives were to model streamflow metrics on small, ungaged streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin and identify streams that are potentially threatened with becoming intermittent under drier climate conditions. The Upper Colorado River Basin is a region that is critical for water resources and also projected to experience large future climate shifts toward a drying climate. A random forest modeling approach was used to model the relationship between streamflow metrics and environmental variables. Flow metrics were then projected to ungaged reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin using environmental variables for each stream, represented as raster cells, in the basin. Last, the projected random forest models of minimum flow coefficient of variation and specific mean daily flow were used to highlight streams that had greater than 61.84 percent minimum flow coefficient of variation and less than 0.096 specific mean daily flow and suggested that these streams will be most threatened to shift to intermittent flow regimes under drier climate conditions. Map projection products can help scientists, land managers, and policymakers understand current hydrology in the Upper Colorado River Basin and make informed decisions regarding water resources. With knowledge of which streams are likely to undergo significant drying in the future, managers and scientists can plan for stream-dependent ecosystems and human water users.

  7. Cold and transition season cloud condensation nuclei measurements in western Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ward

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that orographic precipitation and the water resources that depend on it in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are sensitive to the variability of the region's aerosols, whether emitted locally or from distant sources. However, observations of cloud droplet nucleating aerosols in western Colorado, climatologically upwind of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, have been limited to a few studies at a single, northern site. To address this knowledge gap, atmospheric aerosols were sampled at a ground site in southwestern Colorado and in low-level north to south transects of the Colorado Western Slope as part of the Inhibition of Snowfall by Pollution Aerosols (ISPA-III field campaign. Total particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentrations were measured for a 24-day period in Mesa Verde National Park, in September and October 2009. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between mid-troposphere atmospheric pressure to the west of the site and the total particle count at the ground site, but no similar statistically significant relationship was found for the observed CCN. These data were supplemented with particle and CCN number concentration, as well as particle size distribution measurements collected aboard the King Air platform during December 2009. A CCN closure attempt was performed and suggested that the sampled aerosol may have had a low hygroscopicity that changed little with the large-scale wind direction. Together, the sampled aerosols from these field programs were characteristic of a rural continental environment with CCN number concentrations that varied slowly in time, and little in space along the Western Slope.

  8. Water-quality and ancillary data collected from the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo, Texas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Meghan C.; Canova, Michael G.; Asquith, William H.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    The Arroyo Colorado is in the lower Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas and extends from near Mission, Texas, eastward to the Laguna Madre estuarine and coastal marine system, which separates Padre Island from the Texas mainland. Streamflow in the Arroyo Colorado primarily is sustained by effluent from municipal wastewater-treatment plants along the stream banks. Since 1986, the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado from the port of Harlingen to the Laguna Madre has been designated by the State of Texas as an impaired water body because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Efforts to develop predictive water-quality models for the tidal segment of the Arroyo Colorado have been hampered by a lack of physical, biological, and biochemical data. Specifically, data on primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, sediment deposition rates, and the relations between these processes and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the stream have been inadequate to support water-quality modeling efforts. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a study in 2006 to collect data associated with primary algal productivity, nutrient cycling, and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the tidal segment (2201) of the Arroyo Colorado near Rio Hondo. Specific objectives of the study were to (1) characterize water quality by measuring basic properties; (2) characterize the concentrations of carbon and nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids; (3) measure the seasonal differences of nutrient-dependent algal growth and algal production in the water column; (4) measure oxygen respiration or production rates; and (5) measure rates of sediment deposition.

  9. Cold and transition season cloud condensation nuclei measurements in western Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ward

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that orographic precipitation and the water resources that depend on it in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are sensitive to the variability of the region's aerosols, whether emitted locally or from distant sources. However, observations of cloud-active aerosols in western Colorado, climatologically upwind of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, have been limited to a few studies at a single, northern site. To address this knowledge gap, atmospheric aerosols were sampled at a ground site in southwestern Colorado and in low-level north to south transects of the Colorado Western Slope as part of the Inhibition of Snowfall by Pollution Aerosols (ISPA-III field campaign. Total particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentration were measured for a 24-day period in Mesa Verde National Park, climatologically upwind of the San Juan Mountains, in Sept. and Oct. 2009. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between mid-troposphere atmospheric pressure to the west of the site and the total particle count at the ground site, but no similar statistically significant relationship for the observed CCN. These data were supplemented with particle and CCN number concentration, as well as particle size distribution measurements aboard the KingAir platform during December 2009. A CCN closure attempt was performed using the size distribution information and suggested that the sampled aerosol in general had low hygroscopicity that changed slightly with the large-scale wind direction. Together, the sampled aerosols from these field programs were characteristic of a rural continental environment with a cloud active portion that varied slowly in time, and little in space along the Western Slope.

  10. Continuing Colorado plateau uplift by delamination-style convective lithospheric downwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A; Schmandt, B; Miller, M S; Liu, K; Karlstrom, K E; Crow, R S; Lee, C-T A; Humphreys, E D

    2011-04-28

    The Colorado plateau is a large, tectonically intact, physiographic province in the southwestern North American Cordillera that stands at ∼1,800-2,000 m elevation and has long been thought to be in isostatic equilibrium. The origin of these high elevations is unclear because unlike the surrounding provinces, which have undergone significant Cretaceous-Palaeogene compressional deformation followed by Neogene extensional deformation, the Colorado plateau is largely internally undeformed. Here we combine new seismic tomography and receiver function images to resolve a vertical high-seismic-velocity anomaly beneath the west-central plateau that extends more than 200 km in depth. The upper surface of this anomaly is seismically defined by a dipping interface extending from the lower crust to depths of 70-90 km. The base of the continental crust above the anomaly has a similar shape, with an elevated Moho. We interpret these seismic structures as a continuing regional, delamination-style foundering of lower crust and continental lithosphere. This implies that Pliocene (2.6-5.3 Myr ago) uplift of the plateau and the magmatism on its margins are intimately tied to continuing deep lithospheric processes. Petrologic and geochemical observations indicate that late Cretaceous-Palaeogene (∼90-40 Myr ago) low-angle subduction hydrated and probably weakened much of the Proterozoic tectospheric mantle beneath the Colorado plateau. We suggest that mid-Cenozoic (∼35-25 Myr ago) to Recent magmatic infiltration subsequently imparted negative compositional buoyancy to the base and sides of the Colorado plateau upper mantle, triggering downwelling. The patterns of magmatic activity suggest that previous such events have progressively removed the Colorado plateau lithosphere inward from its margins, and have driven uplift. Using Grand Canyon incision rates and Pliocene basaltic volcanism patterns, we suggest that this particular event has been active over the past ∼6 Myr.

  11. A site-specific assessment of the risk of ammonia to endangered Colorado Pikeminnow and Razorback Sucker populations in the upper Colorado River adjacent to the Atlas Mill Tailings Pile, Moab, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlas Mill Tailings Pile is located adjacent to the Upper Colorado River near Moab, Utah. Milling of ore ceased in 1984 and the Atlas Corporation subsequently...

  12. Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.

    1956-01-01

    In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little

  13. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  14. Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

    2011-12-01

    We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be

  15. Backwater manipulations for endangered fishes: Management implications of selenium on National Wildlife Refuges of the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many studies have evaluated selenium in the lower Colorado River, but none have reviewed selenium levels after river water has been directed into previously isolated...

  16. Coal fields and outlines of coal-bearing strata in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpcf*g)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages of coal fields and coal-bearing formations in the Colorado Plateau. These GIS layers were created by combining numerous...

  17. Coal-mine production history from 1984 through 1995 in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpmphg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage containing 12 years (1984 through 1995) of coal mining history in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. This layer was derived...

  18. Hydrologic Soil Group for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (hsg_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — hsg_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing the hydrologic soil group (HSG) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The HSG for an area is...

  19. Available Water Capacity for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (awc_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — awc_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing the available water capacity (AWC) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. AWC (available water...

  20. Results of the Aquatic Monitoring Program in streams at the Rocky Flats Site : Golden, Colorado 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aquatic monitoring program was initiated in the summer 200 I at the Rocky Flats EnvironmentalTechnology Site (Rocky Flats) in Golden, Colorado, and was conducted...