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Sample records for ciervo colorado cervus

  1. Estudios preliminares del núcleo espermático de ciervo colorado (Cervus elaphus Red deer (Cervus elaphus sperm nucleus preliminary studies

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    M.R Ferrari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan el valor del contenido haploide de ADN, varias características de la distribución de la cromatina y algunas determinaciones morfométricas del núcleo espermático de ciervo colorado (Cervus elaphus. De acuerdo con nuestro conocimiento es la primera vez que se establece el contenido haploide de ADN en la especie. La Reacción de Feulgen se hizo sobre extendidos de semen obtenidos por electroeyaculación de un macho adulto. Se determinaron mediante microespectrofotometría de barrido y teniendo como patrón de referencia eritrocitos de pollo: el contenido medio haploide de ADN (3,88+0,58 pg, la relación absorbancia máxima/absorbancia media (3,01+0,08 y la absorbancia máxima, que se encontró en la base del núcleo espermático. Se hicieron determinaciones morfométricas sobre imágenes digitalizadas de núcleos espermáticos, también coloreados con la Reacción de Feulgen. Los siguientes caracteres se midieron sobre el plano principal: área (26,12+0,20 ì m2, perímetro (20,01+0,07 ì m, diagonal máxima (7,82+0,03 ì m, diagonal mínima (4,25+0,03 ì m y se establecieron las relaciones diagonal máxima/diagonal mínima (1,85+0,01 y forma (0,81+0,01. Tanto las mediciones de absorbancia como las determinaciones morfométricas mostraron coeficientes de variación bajos (In this work we measured the red deer (Cervus elaphus haploide DNA content, several nuclear sperm morphometric characteristics and some chromatin distribution parameters. According to our knowledge, it is the first time that the DNA content was measured on this species. Feulgen Reaction, which is specific and stoichiometric for DNA, was carried out on semen smears obtained by electroeyaculación from an adult male. Using microespectrophotometry and Gallus domesticus as standard species, the haploid DNA content was determined (3.88+0.58 pg. Chromatin distribution was evaluated using characteristics such as maximun and average absorbance and their

  2. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Argentina

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    J P Soler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de ataxia enzoótica (AE en ciervos rojos en cautiverio ocurrido en Argentina. La AE es una patología de los ciervos que causa parálisis lenta y progresiva de las extremidades posteriores y ha sido asociada a la deficiencia de cobre. Su presentación suele ser a partir de los 9 meses de edad. El problema afectó a dos ciervas rojas con debilidad de los miembros posteriores. Se realizó necropsia a una hembra preñada. Se tomaron muestras de órganos en formol al 10%, de suero y sangre entera. Al feto también se le realizó necropsia y se le tomó una muestra de hígado. A partir de muestras de pasto se determinaron los niveles de Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo y SO4. En el agua se analizaron los valores de sales totales, SO4, Ca, Mg, Na y Cl. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad en el establecimiento fue del 0,14%. Los valores de Cu hepático hallados en la hembra y su feto fueron 14,6 ppm y 337 ppm MS, respectivamente. El nivel de Cu en sangre de la cierva fue de 0,5 μg/ml y el hematocrito de 46%. En mιdula espinal se encontró degeneración mielínica generalizada con pérdida de la vaina de mielina, siendo de mayor severidad en las regiones dorsales de la médula. Se observó también vacuolización de la sustancia blanca sin respuesta inflamatoria. Los niveles hepáticos de Cu en la hembra necropsiada se encontraban por debajo del valor considerado como límite, pero a pesar de esto la cupremia se hallaba dentro del rango de referencia siendo ésta una característica comúnmente observada en los casos de deficiencia de Cu. Los valores de Cu hepático fetal también estaban por debajo del rango considerado como normal. A pesar de que los parámetros medidos en pasto y agua al momento del problema estaban dentro de valores de referencia, es probable que los ciervos hayan estado expuestos previamente a bajos valores de Cu dietario durante un tiempo prolongado, lo cual pudo verse agravado por la gran demanda de Cu que ejerce el

  3. Composición y calidad de la dieta del ciervo (Cervus elaphus L. en el norte de la península ibérica

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    Garin, I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant composition and quality of the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. diet in the northern Iberian peninsula The feeding pattern of red deer varies greatly among the different European populations. The aim of our study was to elucidate the plant composition and the quality of the red deer diet in the Pyrenees (Northern Iberian peninsula. Over a one-year period, the red deer fed mainly on browse, pines being the main food. However, unlike other populations on the Iberian peninsula, consumption of herbaceous plants was higher than browse in the spring-summer period. Nevertheless, the diet of Pyrenean red deer shared some features with the Mediterranean populations such as browsing on woody legumes. Fecal nitrogen content, as an index of diet quality, showed low annual values with a marked decrease in winter. The overall feeding pattern was similar to that of other Central European populations. The large size of the surveyed population probably affected its high level of browse consumption and poor quality diet.

  4. Caballos y ciervos : Una aproximación a la evolución climática y económica del Paleolítico superior en el Mediterráneo peninsular

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    Xavier Esteve

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Caballos y ciervos son las principales presas de caza mayor en los yacimientos del Paleolítico superior en la cuenca mediterranea de la Península Ibérica. Sólo las cabras monteses pueden llegar a tener mayor importancia en yacimientos situados en áreas abruptas o montañosas. A pesar de los pocos requerimientos climáticos de ambas especies, podemos comprobar una clara relación entre los episodios más fríos del final del Pleistoceno y la caza del caballo y la presencia de los restos de ciervo en los yacimientos arqueológicos durante los momentos más templados. Nuestros resultados indican la existencia de una especie de frontera bioclimática Equus/Cervus que se desplazó de sur a norte en la cuenca medietrranea de la peninsula Ibérica a lo largo del Paleolítico superior.

  5. La captura del ciervo vivo en el arte prehistórico

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    Pilar Utrilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un recorrido por la representaciones de ciervos en el arte prehistórico que no presentan heridas sino que parecen ser objeto de una captura mediante armas arrojadizas, lazos o directamente a mano. Se insertan algunos de ellos en un ritual ceremonial que quizá tuviera relación con ritos de iniciación.

  6. Colorado

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    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  7. Candil de ciervo decorado magdaleniense del yacimiento de Santa Catalina (Bizkaia, España. Tecnología y funcionalidad

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    BERGANZA, E., RUIZ IDARRAGA, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un candil de ciervo decorado recuperado en el nivel III, Magdaleniense superior, de la cueva de Santa Catalina (Lekeitio, Bizkaia. Hacemos su estudio tecnológico y el análisis de las representaciones grabadas.

  8. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  9. La ¡nasibilidad de lo real: el ciervo huidizo de la identidad The Inaccessibility of Truth: The Elusive Deer of Identity

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    Lola Proaño Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo responde a la pregunta por la posibilidad de una lectura política de los productos teatrales latinoamericanos de los últimos años, enfatizando la presencia de «lo político» en forma de rupturas lógicas y de sentido que dislocan el escenario teatral desde adentro. El grupo cubano El Ciervo Encantado, (2005-2008 busca -según el programa de mano- encontrar en Visiones de la cubanosofía, «ese ciervo escurridizo que es la identidad». La escena despliega, mediante múltiples técnicas teatrales, la incapacidad del lenguaje -lo simbólico- para captarla. La propuesta escenifica lo que se niega: la imposibilidad de aprehender la identidad exhibiendo sólo las sucesivas identificaciones que no la alcanzan. La escena señala que ellas han sido solamente un espejismo, resultado del reflejo de los discursos culturales producidos a través de la historia.This article is an answer to the question on the possibility of a political interpretation of recent Latin American dramatic products, emphasising on «political issues» through meaningful and logical ruptures that dislocate the stage from within. The Cuban theatre troupe El Ciervo Encantado (2005-2008, based on its programme, aims to find in Visiones de la cubanosofía, «the elusive deer that is identity». On stage is displayed, through various theatrical techniques, the incapacity of language -its symbolic aspect- to capture it. The proposal stages what is denied: the impossibility to apprehend identity by only presenting the successive identifications that cannot reach it. The scene states that it has only been an illusion caused by the reflection of the cultural discourses created through history.

  10. La composición y propiedades mecánicas de cuernas y huesos de ciervo como fuente de información para gestionar ecosistemas

    OpenAIRE

    T. Landete-Castillejos; Garcia, A.; F. Ceacero; Gallego, L.

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio hace una revisión de una línea de investigación que muestra cómo, en el ciervo, la composición mineral, propiedades mecánicas del material óseo de la cuerna, estructura e incluso histología de las cuernas están influidos por un juego de factores interrelacionados tales como la nutrición, tipo de gestión, calidad del hábitat, y densidad de población. Así, evaluar estas características se convierte en una herramienta diagnóstica que aporta información sobre las deficiencias mineral...

  11. The population size, demography and the harvest strategy for the red deer (Cervus elaphus L. in the Polish eastern Carpathians

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    Merta, D.

    2002-12-01

    sex-ratio était de 1:1,6, et la relation faon/femelle était de 31 faons pour 100 femelles. En appliquant un modèle de dynamique de population, nous avons calculé le taux de recrutement, lequel peut aller de 10,5% à 18,1 % du total de la population au mois de mars; il était négativement corrélé avec la densité de population de loups. La simulation sur ordinateur des différentes stratégies d'extraction a montré que le has pourcentage de vieux mâles observé dans la population actuelle était dû à la surchasse des mâles âgés de 2-5 ans. Nous pouvons recommander que la pression de chasse sur les jeunes mâles ne dépasse pas 30% du nombre total de mâles chassés.
    [es]
    Durante febrero del 2000 se estimó la densidad de población y el número de ciervos (Cervus elaphusL. en 8 distritos forestales (Baligród, Cisna, Dukla, Lutowiska, Komacza, Stuposiany, Rymanów y Wetlina por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en la nieve. Se obtuvo un total de 4081 individuos para el área de estudio (134.000 ha de bosque. La densidad media fue de 30,4 ciervos/1000 ha y su rango osciló de 10,1 ciervos/1000 ha (Distrito Forestal de Wetlina a 39,3 individuos/ 1000 ha (Distrito Forestal de Dukla. En septiembre de 2000 la observación de 952 individuos arrojó una sex-ratio de 1:1,6 (machos: hembra y un índice de 31 crías por cada 100 hembras. La tasa de reclutamiento anual se calculó mediante un modelo de dinámica poblacional, oscilando ésta entre el 10,5% y el 18,1% del tamaño poblacional en marzo y estando correlacionada negativamente con la densidad de lobos. Un programa informático de simulación de distintas estrategias de aprovechamiento cinegético mostró que el bajo porcentaje de machos viejos era debido a un exceso de caza de los venados de 2 a 5 años de edad. Por lo tanto, se recomendó que la proporción de machos jóvenes en el cupo no debería superar el 30% del total de machos cazados.

  12. Validación y uso de Espectrocopía de Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS) para el estudio de alimentación de ciervo (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) y gamo (Dama dama) en ecosistemas mediterráneos

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    Tellado-Ruiz, María-Sierra

    2016-01-01

    [ES]En este estudio desarrollamos y validamos un método de Espectroscopía de Reflectancia en la región del infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) para determinar, de forma indirecta a partir de heces, la calidad de la dieta de dos especies de cérvidos en ambiente mediterráneo. Se estudió el contenido de fibra ácido detergente (ADF) y fibra neutro detergente (NDF), el contenido de lignina, el índice de carbono/nitrógeno (C:N), la digestibilidad enzimática (EDOM) y de la pared celular (CWD), la cantidad de ...

  13. Genetic structure of the Danish red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, ELSEMARIE KRAGH; OLESEN, CARSTEN RIIS; PERTOLDI, CINO;

    2008-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in Denmark became almost extinct in recent historical times due to over-hunting. The species has subsequently recovered within remote areas, but non-Danish individuals have been introduced at several localities. To assess genetic structure, past demographi...

  14. A PCR-based assay for discriminating Cervus and Rangifer (Cervidae) antlers with mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Eung Soo; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun; Ryuk, Jin-Ah; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Go Ya; Seo, Doo Won; Lee, Mi Young

    2012-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating Rangifer antlers from true Cervus antlers using agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and allelic discrimination. Specific primers labeled with fluorescent tags were designed to amplify fragments from the mitochondrial D-loop genes for various Cervus subspecies and Rangifer tarandus differentially. A 466-bp fragment that was observed for both Cervus and Rangifer antlers served as a positive control, while a 270-bp fragment was specifically amplified only from Rangifer antlers. Allelic discrimination was used to differentiate between Cervus and Rangifer antlers, based on the amplification of specific alleles for both types of antlers. These PCR-based assays can be used for forensic and quantitative analyses of Cervus and Rangifer antlers in a single step, without having to obtain any sequence information. In addition, multiple PCR-based assays are more accurate and reproducible than a single assay for species-specific analysis and are especially useful in this study for the identification of original Cervus deer products from fraudulent Rangifer antlers.

  15. Analysis on nutritional component of Cervus elaphus products%马鹿鹿产品营养成分分析

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    应茵; 刘静; 张立实; 李黎; 叶颖慧; 杨月欣

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究马鹿鹿产品的营养成分.方法 根据各营养素的国家标准测定马鹿鹿产品(鹿肉、鹿尾、鹿鞭和鹿筋)蛋白质、脂肪、水分、灰分、氨基酸、矿物质及维生素的含量,并采用计算法计算碳水化合物和能量,与梅花鹿进行比较.结果 马鹿与梅花鹿各个部位的营养特点较为相似.马鹿鹿肉、马鹿鹿尾、马鹿鹿鞭和马鹿鹿筋的蛋白质含量分别是22.6、70.7、85.8和89.5g/100g;氨基酸评分分别是97、78、45和37;在马鹿的4种鹿产品中,马鹿鹿尾的脂肪、钾、钙、铁、胆固醇、维生素B2、维生素B12含量最高,马鹿鹿筋蛋白质含量最高,钾、锌含量最低.马鹿鹿肉的蛋白质、胆固醇、钾、铁、锌、维生素B2、维生素B12的营养质量指数均大于2,脂肪营养质量指数值小于1.结论 马鹿鹿肉是一种高蛋白、低脂肪,富含钾、铁、锌、维生素B2维生素B12和必需氨基酸的动物性食物.%Objective To investigate nutrient values in the Cervus elaphus, so as to provide a scientific basis for choosing products by businesses and consumers. Methods According to the national standards required for various nutritional elements, the amount of protein, energy, fat, water, ash, amino acids, minerals, vitamin in different parts of the Cervus elaphus ( venison, tail, penis cervi, sinew ) were determined, carbohydrate and energy were calculated, and were compared with Cervus nippon. Results Nutritive characteristics of Cervus elaphus and Cervus nippon were similar. The respective portion of protion in Cervus elaphus venison, Cervus elaphus tail, Cervus elaphus penis cervi, Cervus elaphus sinew were 22.6, 70.7, 85.8 and 89. 5g/100g; The respective Amino acid score portion in Cervus elaphus venison, Cervus elaphus tail, Cervus elaphus penis cervi, Cervus elaphus sinew were 97, 78 , 45, 37. In all Cervus elaphus products, the highest contents of fat, cholesterol, calcium, potassium, iron, vitamin

  16. Sedici anni di censimenti del cervo sardo (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) nella riserva naturale WWF di Monte Arcosu

    OpenAIRE

    Murgia, Carlo; Murgia, Andrea; Deiana, Anna Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes data collected about consistence, density and social structure of Sardinian deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus Erxleben, 1777) subspecies of European deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) from 1989 to 2004. The study area is located in the WWF Faunal Park of Monte Arcosu (south-western of Sardinia). The flora of the Reserve is typical Mediterranean vegetation. The data have been collected with two different methods, using both roaring census and direct observations. Results s...

  17. Differential Immune Responses of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Mark; O'Brien, Rory; Mackintosh, Colin; Griffin, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Immune responses of red deer (Cervus elaphus) that presented with different levels of paucibacillary pathology were profiled to detail immune changes during the progression of Johne's disease. Immune responses were monitored using an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISA, and flow cytometry. Animals in the study were divided into outcome groups postmortem according to disease severity. All animals mounted IgG1 antibody an...

  18. Haematological values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot, to define their mean haematological values (red cell count, white cell count, differential leucocyte count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration). Male deer had a significantly higher red cell count and haemoglobin concentration, and a lower mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin content, than did female deer. PMID:1288471

  19. PENDUGAAN DAYA TAMPUNG RUSA LIAR (Cervus timorensis) DI PADANG RUMPUT MAR TAMAN NASIONAL WASUR MERAUKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi; Thimotius Sraun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi) at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  20. Kajian kualitas daging rusa sambar (cervus unicolor) buru dan dipeliharaan secara intensif

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    Sihombing, Juli Mutiara

    2012-01-01

    JULI MUTIARA SIHOMBING: The Meat Quality Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor) Hunting and Intensive maintained deer, guided by RISTIKA HANDARINI and HERLA RUSMARILIN. Information about sambar meat quality is still lacking, especially the comparison between Sambar deer hunting and intensively maintained. The purpose of this study to examine differences in the quality of game and deer venison reared intensively given feed with crude protein 16%. The research was conducted in deer captivity at Univ...

  1. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mingming Zhang; Zhensheng Liu; Liwei Teng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied sea...

  2. Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.

    2008-04-01

    Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (<40.0 ka 14C BP). The species persisted throughout the LGM on the Iberian Peninsula, in adjacent regions of South-Western France (Gascony, Dordogne, Languedoc), on the Italian Peninsula, in the Balkans and Greece, and east of the Carpathians in Moldavia. We suggest that genetic exchange between the populations of the Balkans and the East of the Carpathians remained uninterrupted during the LGM. The expansion of red deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

  3. PENDUGAAN DAYA TAMPUNG RUSA LIAR (Cervus timorensis DI PADANG RUMPUT MAR TAMAN NASIONAL WASUR MERAUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tjahyono Hariadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to know carrying capacity of rusa deer (Cervus timorensisi at Mar, Wasur National Park Merauke district. The data collected were spesies of grasses, production each species and carrying capacity. The results showed species of grasses were Cynadon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Phragmites karka. Mar was dominated by Cynadon dactylon. The production of Cynodon dactylon was 2.183 kg/ha. The carryng capacity of rusa deer was 0.5 ha/head/year.

  4. Adrenal response to ACTH stimulation in Rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T

    1984-01-01

    Resting cortisol values in immobilized mature Rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the response to synthetic ACTH were investigated. The mean level of cortisol in mature Rusa stags was found to be 3.80 ng/ml (SD = 0.87, N = 18). Over the range 0.37-6.0 i.u. the adrenal response to ACTH challenge was linearly related to the log dose ACTH administered (r = 0.998). More than 6 i.u. of ACTH caused maximal stimulation of the adrenal gland. Rusa deer appear to be much more sensitive to ACTH administration than other species. PMID:6150796

  5. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  6. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

  7. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  8. Bilateral microphthalmia and aphakia associated with multiple eye abnormalities in a free-living European red deer calf (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Franco; Vercelli, Antonella; Carminato, Antonio; Luchesa, Lucio; Pasolli, Claudio; Cova, Mariapia; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Vascellari, Marta

    2012-04-01

    A free-living European red deer calf (Cervus elaphus) was euthanized due to bilateral microphthalmia. Lens was missing, replaced by proliferating squamous epithelial cells; hyperplastic squamous cells, sebaceous and mucinous glands were observed within the cornea with the characteristics of inclusion cyst. Findings were consistent with congenital microphthalmia/aphakia, with multiple eye abnormalities.

  9. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  10. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  11. Malignant catarrhal fever in farmed Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). 2. Animal transmission and virological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, H A; Denholm, L J

    1982-03-01

    A disease with clinical signs and histological lesions similar to malignant catarrhal fever in cattle was transmitted from Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) to rabbits. This was accomplished on 3 separate occasions, and the disease was serially passaged in rabbits up to 11 times. The clinical signs in affected rabbits were pyrexia, depression, anorexia, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. These signs were seen in 27 of 38 inoculated rabbits with the mean incubation period being 12 days (range 8 to 20 days). Histologically, affected rabbits exhibited mononuclear perivascular cuffing and vasculitis in the brain, heart, liver and kidney. Lymph nodes and spleen showed destruction and loss of mature lymphocytes and lymphoid follicles and an increased number of large lymphoblastoid cells. These clinical signs and lesions were not detected in control rabbits. The disease was not transmitted to cattle, sheep, guinea pigs or mice, nor was an agent isolated in cattle, deer or rabbit tissue cultures, or in chicken embryos. PMID:7115234

  12. Serum biochemical values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot. Serum mean biochemical values from shot deer are presented for blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus. Mean total protein and albumin increased with age. There was an age-associated increase of gamma globulins. Mean creatine kinase activity and creatinine, albumin and phosphorus concentrations were higher in stags than in hinds. Pregnant hinds had lower mean creatine kinase activity and phosphorus and higher mean alanine aminotransferase and total protein than non-pregnant hinds. Mean calcium concentration increased when deer were agitated before bleeding. PMID:1288472

  13. An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in young rusa deer (Cervus timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, N W; Jonsson, N N; Young, M P; Gordon, A N; McColl, K A

    1997-10-01

    On the basis of clinical signs and histological findings eight 9-month-old male rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) were diagnosed with sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. Following a variable course involving rectal temperatures around 40.5 degrees C, depression, inappetence, diarrhoea, corneal opacity and hypopyon all animals died or were euthanased over a 5-week period. Severe multifocal vasculitis, mainly periglomerular and in the arcuate vessels were consistent histological findings which in the past have been adequate to confirm clinical diagnosis of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever. A nested polymerase chain reaction test has been used to detect a sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever PRC product, 238 base-pairs in size, in DNA extracted from lymphocyte preparations. The result supported the diagnosis of sheep associated-malignant catarrhal fever in these deer. PMID:9406629

  14. Two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus desmarest, 1822 in Leyte Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvie Potot Portugaliza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the necropsy findings of two potentially zoonotic parasites infecting the Philippine brown deer (Cervus mariannus in Leyte Island, Philippines. A female deer aging approximately 5-year was presented for necropsy to the Diagnostic Laboratory at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Visayas State University. Gross pathology was recorded and the selected organs having lesion were collected for histopathological studies. Results showed severe necrotizing lesions in the nasal and palatal areas, infestation of calliphorid maggots, hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, lung atelectasis and duodenitis. Heavy ruminal fluke infection was also observed. Two potentially zoonotic parasites namely Fasciola gigantica and Sarcocystis spp. were identified. The Philippine brown deer appears to have a role in transmission and amplification of zoonotic parasites, and can also be threatened by diseases caused by the parasites.

  15. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%).

  16. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  17. Observations on the eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M; Hurlin, J C; Lebel, S; Chardonnet, P

    1997-08-01

    The eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of 14 farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) of known birth date and their live weights were observed about every 2 weeks from 12 to 30 months of age. The permanent incisor pattern was 11, 14-17 months; 12, 18-23 months; 13, 20-26 months; and 14, 22-27 months. There was no significant relationship between body weight and timing of permanent incisor eruption. PMID:16031978

  18. Response of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to wind-power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Leslie, David M.; Jenks, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Wind-power development is occurring throughout North America, but its effects on mammals are largely unexplored. Our objective was to determine response (i.e., home-range, diet quality) of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to wind-power development in southwestern Oklahoma. Ten elk were radiocollared in an area of wind-power development on 31 March 2003 and were relocated bi-weekly through March 2005. Wind-power construction was initiated on 1 June 2003 and was completed by December 2003 with 45 active turbines. The largest composite home range sizes (>80 km2) occurred April-June and September, regardless of the status of wind-power facility development. The smallest home range sizes (wind-power facility. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes and percent nitrogen in feces suggested that wind-power development did not affect nutrition of elk during construction. Although disturbance and loss of some grassland habitat was apparent, elk were not adversely affected by wind-power development as determined by home range and dietary quality.

  19. Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

    2014-10-01

    Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

  20. Anti-resorptive effect of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Hong; Cao, Yi; Wang, Rui-Lin; Fei, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Pu; Liu, Jing

    2010-06-01

    Anti-bone resorption activity of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) were evaluated in ovariectomized Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized group (OVX) and pilose antler blood treated group. The ovariectomized rats were treated with pilose antler blood orally in 4000 microl/kg daily doses for 10 weeks. Compared with SHAM group, serum 17 beta-estradiol level decreased significantly and osteocalcin level increased significantly in OVX group, indicating successful model of osteoporosis. The experiments showed that the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and left femur in OVX group decreased remarkably compared to SHAM group but normalized by treatment with pilose antler blood. Additionally, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-land testosterone were lower obviously in OVX group than those in SHAM group but preserved by pilose antler blood treatment. However, no obvious changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin were observed among three groups. These results suggested that administration of pilose antler blood was effective in alleviating osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

  1. Malignant catarrhal fever in farmed Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). 1. Clinico-pathological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, L J; Westbury, H A

    1982-03-01

    A sporadic fatal disease is described in 7 Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) from 5 deer farms in Victoria. Bilateral ophthalmia and wasting were the most significant signs in a clinical course varying from 4 to 34 days. Bilateral hypopyon, peripheral corneal opacities and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration of the renal cortex with pronounced mural thickening and dilatation of vessels at the cortico-medullary junction were the only consistent lesions. Haemorrhagic ileitis, colitis and typhlitis were the major lesions in two deer that died 4 and 6 days after onset of clinical disease. Ecchymotic haemorrhages and sub-serosal haematomas on the intestines and mesentery were the main finding in cases with a longer clinical course. Other gross lesions varied between cases. The most significant histological lesion was fibrinoid necrotising vasculitis with adventitial lymphoid cell infiltration characteristic of bovine malignant catarrhal fever. Mucosal erosions seen in protracted cases of this disease were associated with lymphoid cell infiltration into foci of degenerating epithelial cells. In many lymph nodes there was severe follicular necroses. In chronic cases extensive proliferation of lymphoblastoid cells was seen in the parafollicular cortex and medullary sinuses of nodes which also showed discrete follicular necrosis. PMID:6981408

  2. Do red deer stags (Cervus elaphus use roar fundamental frequency (F0 to assess rivals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Garcia

    Full Text Available It is well established that in humans, male voices are disproportionately lower pitched than female voices, and recent studies suggest that this dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0 results from both intrasexual (male competition and intersexual (female mate choice selection for lower pitched voices in men. However, comparative investigations indicate that sexual dimorphism in F0 is not universal in terrestrial mammals. In the highly polygynous and sexually dimorphic Scottish red deer Cervus elaphus scoticus, more successful males give sexually-selected calls (roars with higher minimum F0s, suggesting that high, rather than low F0s advertise quality in this subspecies. While playback experiments demonstrated that oestrous females prefer higher pitched roars, the potential role of roar F0 in male competition remains untested. Here we examined the response of rutting red deer stags to playbacks of re-synthesized male roars with different median F0s. Our results show that stags' responses (latencies and durations of attention, vocal and approach responses were not affected by the F0 of the roar. This suggests that intrasexual selection is unlikely to strongly influence the evolution of roar F0 in Scottish red deer stags, and illustrates how the F0 of terrestrial mammal vocal sexual signals may be subject to different selection pressures across species. Further investigations on species characterized by different F0 profiles are needed to provide a comparative background for evolutionary interpretations of sex differences in mammalian vocalizations.

  3. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  4. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany. PMID:27617204

  5. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  6. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  7. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  8. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  9. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  10. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  11. Detection and identification of Theileria infection in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Khan, Muhanmad Kasib; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Junlong

    2012-06-01

    The sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) is a first-grade state-protected animal in China and designated a threatened species by the World Conservation Union. To detect hemoparasite infection of sika deer, blood samples were collected from 24 animals in the Hubei Province Deer Center. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the V4 hypervariable region encoding 18S rRNA was analyzed by reverse line blot hybridization assay. PCR products hybridized with Babesia / Theileria genus-specific probes but failed to hybridize with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of a novel, or variant, species. Here 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from 7 isolates. Alignment and BlastN of the cloned sequences revealed high similarities to the homologous 18S rRNA genes and ITS genes of Theileria cervi (AY735122), Theileria sp. CNY1A (AB012194), and Theileria sp. ex Yamaguchi (AF529272). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rRNA gene and ITS sequences showed that all cloned sequences were grouped within the Theileria clade. Phylogeny based on the 18S rRNA gene divided the organisms into 2 groups. Group 1 was closest to Theileria sp. ex Yamaguchi (AF529272), and group 2 was distinct from all other identified Theileria and Babesia species. These results suggest the existence of Theileria sp. infection in sika deer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cervine Theileria sp. in China.

  12. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  13. Natural diet and food habitat use of the Tarim red deer, Cervus elaphus yarkandensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Jianfang; YANG Weikang; GAO Xingyi

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the natural diet and food habitat use of Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), a study was carried out in Qiemo, Xinjiang, China from October 2000 to June 2001. Direct observation combined with faecal analysis method was used to determine the natural diet of red deer. 15 different species of plant were identified as food items. Among them, 13 species of plants were identified in winter diet and 9 species in summer. Red deer consumed a wider range of species in winter because of their nutrient requirement as well as the shortage of food and the scarcity of high-quality forage in the study area. Phragmites communis, Glycyrrhiza inflata and populus diversifolia were frequently present in the deer's diet whenever in winter and summer. Among them, Phragmites communis was the most abundant plant in the area and was included in the deer's diet. Observation on food selection frequency of captive Tarim red deer showed that Populus diversifolia was the first preferred species. However, this food was limited in the study area. Five food habitat types were found in the study area according to plant association: (1)Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association, (2) Tamarix ramosissima-Halostachys caspica association, (3) Tamarix ramosissima-Phragmites communis association, (4) Populus diversifoliaPhragmites communis association, (5) Burned area.Among them, Phragmites communis-Tamarix ramosissima association (reed meadow and reed marsh)was preferred to other types within the study area whenever in summer and winter. Dense reed cover could reduce the chance of detection from predator and obstruct attack from predator. Furthermore, under the cover of the reed, Tarim red deer was protected from direct solar radiation during the hours of www. scichina.com www.springerlink.com hot day in summer. The reed meadow and marsh was preferred, presumably because the red deer could minimize their movements while searching for food, water and cover.

  14. Antlers of Cervus elaphus as biomonitors of {sup 90}Sr in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Vallejo, I. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.e [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Salas, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Adequate radioprotection of the environment requires the identification of biomonitors sensitive to the variation of its radionuclide content. Due to the chemical similarities between calcium and strontium, calcified tissues of mammals are considered to be good {sup 90}Sr biomonitors. This work considered Cervus elaphus antlers which, being shed annually, can give information about the importance of radiostrontium contamination in an ecosystem in the time period required for the growth of the antler. The samples were collected at various points of W and SW Spain. The mean value of their {sup 90}Sr content was (70 {+-} 43 (S.D.)) Bq/kg d.w., range (16-218) Bq/kg d.w., and the radionuclide was evenly distributed in the different parts of the antler. There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. The antlers' content of {sup 226}Ra (from the natural uranium series) and the contents of some stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, and K) were also determined. The values for these stable elements were practically constant in the analyzed samples, and the concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr > {sup 90}Sr > {sup 226}Ra - Research highlights: {yields} There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. {yields} The content of stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, K) in the analyzed antlers were practically constant. {yields} The concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr >{sup 90}Sr >{sup 226}Ra.

  15. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population. PMID:24382104

  16. Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Dagleish

    Full Text Available European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus are susceptible to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, when challenged intracerebrally but their susceptibility to alimentary challenge, the presumed natural route of transmission, is unknown. To determine this, eighteen deer were challenged via stomach tube with a large dose of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent and clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, presence and distribution of abnormal prion protein and the attack rate recorded. Only a single animal developed clinical disease, and this was acute with both neurological and respiratory signs, at 1726 days post challenge although there was significant (27.6% weight loss in the preceding 141 days. The clinically affected animal had histological lesions of vacuolation in the neuronal perikaryon and neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Abnormal prion protein, the diagnostic marker of transmissible encephalopathies, was primarily restricted to the central and peripheral nervous systems although a very small amount was present in tingible body macrophages in the lymphoid patches of the caecum and colon. Serial protein misfolding cyclical amplification, an in vitro ultra-sensitive diagnostic technique, was positive for neurological tissue from the single clinically diseased deer. All other alimentary challenged deer failed to develop clinical disease and were negative for all other investigations. These findings show that transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to European red deer via the alimentary route is possible but the transmission rate is low. Additionally, when deer carcases are subjected to the same regulations that ruminants in Europe with respect to the removal of specified offal from the human food chain, the zoonotic risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, from consumption of

  17. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  18. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  19. Relations between nutritional condition and survival of North American elk Cervus elaphus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.; Cook, R.C.; Hall, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    We related annual and seasonal survival of four populations of elk Cervus elaphus in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to measures and indices of individual nutritional condition. Among populations, for all mortality (human and non-human causes) sources inclusive, annual survival of adult females was correlated with a rump body condition score (rs = 0.627, P = 0.071), and survival over spring-summer-autumn (SSA) was correlated with mean ingesta-free body fat (IFBF; rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rump body condition score (rBCS; rs = 0.615, P = 0.050). For non-human mortality sources only, survival through SSA was correlated with IFBF (rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rBCS (rs = 0.615, P = 0.050), and survival over winter was correlated with withers body condition score (rs = 0.677, P = 0.045). For human-caused mortality sources only, survival over SSA was correlated with rBCS (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036) and IFBF (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036). For individuals, logistic analysis found that individual likelihood of dying from all mortality sources inclusive was best predicted (??2 = 8.3, P = 0.004, ?? = -1.24) by longissimus dorsi (loin) muscle thickness, a measure of protein catabolism. For only non-human mortality sources, a model (??2 = 16.1, P = 0.0003) containing both loin muscle thickness (??2 = 5.7, P = 0.017, ??= -1.02) and percent ingesta-free body fat (??2 = 4.9, P = 0.027, ?? = -0.35) best predicted individual susceptibility to mortality. Odds ratios indicated that odds of dying increased approximately 3X for each centimeter of loin muscle catabolized and 1.4X for each percent less body fat. No condition indices at the individual level were related to survival from human-caused mortality sources. Our study populations were characterized by low-marginal condition (i.e. mean ingesta-free body fat levels of 5.9-12.3% for lactating cows in late autumn); this likely increased the prominence of measures of muscle catabolism relative to fat accretion in influencing individual elk survival

  20. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  1. Observations on rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae in Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Bhat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations on seasonal rutting behaviour of Hangul Deer Cervus elaphus hanglu were recorded in Dachigam National Park (DNP during the years 2005 to 2007. A total of 24 breeding herds were seen. The size of the herd varied from 2-5, and usually comprised of one large stag and one or more hinds. The rutting season commenced in the main valley of lower Dachigam by late September and extended up to the first week of November. The peak was from October 9 to 20. The stags in rut became intolerant of each other and separated. The most conspicuous feature of the rut was the reverberating resonant roars by stags. The courtship behaviour was observed on six occasions and only mature stags (8-tined and above were involved in courtship. Various anthropogenic activities in the habitat were found to impair the rutting behaviour of deer.

  2. Changes in plasma levels of cortisol and corticosterone after acute ACTH stimulation in rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1985-01-01

    Resting cortisol and corticosterone levels in immobilized mature rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the influence of synthetic ACTH on the cortisol/corticosterone ratio (F/B ratio) were investigated. The basal concentration of cortisol was found to be 14.07 nmol/l (SD = 9.3, N = 15) and corticosterone was 3.79 nmol/l (SD = 2.3, N = 15). The cortisol/corticosterone ratio for the basal level was 5.31 (SD = 3.9, N = 15). After ACTH administration the cortisol/corticosterone ratio increased to 11.41 (SD = 5.4, N = 147) regardless of doses of ACTH administered to individual stags. The adrenal response to ACTH administration has a potential application for selection of deer most suitable for deer farming. PMID:2863041

  3. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    1977-04-01

    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  4. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gómez-Rendón

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de esta

  5. 梅花鹿耶尔森氏菌感染的诊断和治疗%THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CERVUS NIPPON INFECTED WITH YERSINIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蕾; 张再蓉; 王成东; 余星明; 赵波

    2001-01-01

    Four sika deers (Cervus nippon) (3 males, and 1 female) with depression, loss of appetite, high body temperature and hematochezia were dead in June, 1999 and Yersinia was cultured from their pathological materials. In addition, the susceptibility of Yersinia to antibiotics and the toxicity to mice were detected. All the other sika deers contacted with the died animals were treated with amikacin sulfate and protected from the disease.

  6. Population genetic structure of wild and farmed rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia inferred from polymorphic microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    Garine-Wichatitsky de, M.; De Meeûs, Thierry; Chevillon, Christine; BERTHIER, D.; Barre, N.; Thevenon, S.; Maillard, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Historical records indicate that 12 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) were introduced in New-Caledonia during the 1870s. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci to assess the genetic differentiation and diversity of farmed and wild deer populations. Past genetic bottlenecks were detected in both sub-populations, although higher genetic diversity was maintained in farmed populations, probably due to the regular introduction of reproducers from wild populations and from other farms....

  7. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were m...

  8. 78 FR 29321 - Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Forest Service Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory... National Forest. Proposals, updates, and other information can be found on the Colorado Recreation...

  9. 77 FR 32980 - Notice of Correction to Filing of Plats, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Management (BLM) published a Notice of Filing of Plats by the Colorado State Office, Lakewood, Colorado . The... Surveyor for Colorado, BLM, Colorado State Office, 2850 Youngfield Street, Lakewood, Colorado...

  10. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  11. Cervus elaphus Foraging Impacts on Plants and Soils at an Ungrazed Desert Grass/Shrubland in Northwestern New Mexico, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis C. Bender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated Cervus elaphus herbivory and trampling impacts on plants and soils on Chaco Culture National Historical Park (Chaco, a desert grass/shrubland in northwestern New Mexico, USA, most (63% of which has been protected from grazing by domestic livestock since 1948. We conducted grazing, browse, and water infiltration surveys in areas which received different amounts of C. elaphus use (use and control, 2004–2007. Browse utilization was <32% on monitored species and Odocoileus hemionus use accounted for the majority of browsing. Live plant cover was greater on areas receiving more C. elaphus use, and no grass species were used above recommended levels. Stubble heights of Bouteloua spp. were positively related to relative C. elaphus use on some areas, suggesting possible stimulation of grassland productivity by C. elaphus grazing. Water infiltration rates either did not differ among use or control sites or were faster in use sites, indicating no impacts of C. elaphus use on soil compaction. At current C. elaphus densities (0.2–0.4/km2, negative impacts to plants and soils were not seen on Chaco, and some evidence suggests that light grazing is optimizing desert grasslands of Chaco.

  12. Molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Rocchigiani, Guido; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Nardoni, Simona; Leoni, Alessandro; Nicoloso, Sandro; Mancianti, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (Cervus elaphus) living in Italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by PCR for A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. Thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. In particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for Babesia divergens, 6 (10%) for C. burnetii, 2 (3.33%) for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reaction was observed for F. tularensis. Thirteen (21.67%) animals resulted co-infected by two or three pathogens. Red deer is confirmed as competent reservoir of A. phagocytophilum and B. divergens, but not of B. burgdorferi. This is the first report of C. burnetii-positive red deer in central Italy. Hunters may be at risk of infection both through infected ticks and during the infected cervids carcasses dressing. PMID:27477510

  13. Genetic diversity among Chinese sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations and relationships between Chinese and Japanese sika deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a cervid endemic to mainland and insular Asia and endangered. We analyzed variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region for four subspecies to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and evolutionary history in China. 335 bp were sequenced and eight haplotypes were identified based on 25 variable sites among the populations. Sika deer in China showed lower genetic diversity, suggesting a small effective population size due to habitat fragmentation, a low number of founder individuals, or the narrow breeding program. AMOVA analysis indicated that there was significant genetic subdivision among the four populations, but no correlation between the genetic and geographic distance. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that Chinese sika deer may be divided into three genetic clades, but the genetic structure among Chinese populations was inconsistent with subspecies designations and present geographic distribution. Including the sequence data of Japanese sika deer, the results indicated that Chinese populations were more closely related to Southern Japanese populations than to the Northern Japanese one, and the Taiwan population was closer to populations of Northeastern China and Sichuan than to those of Southern China.

  14. Use of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine as a contraceptive agent in free-ranging tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shideler, S E; Stoops, M A; Gee, N A; Howell, J A; Lasley, B L

    2002-01-01

    The potential for the application of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception in wildlife population management has been tested over a 15 year period and promises to provide a useful wildlife management tool. These studies have provided evidence indicating that the use of PZP immunocontraception in wildlife: (i) is effective at both the physiological and population level (Liu et al., 1989; Kirkpatrick et al., 1996; Turner et al., this supplement); (ii) is deliverable by remote means (Kirkpatrick et al., 1990; Shideler, 2000); (iii) is safe in pregnant animals (Kirkpatrick and Turner, this supplement); (iv) is reversible (Kirkpatrick et al., 1991; Kirkpatrick and Turner, this supplement); (v) results in no long-term debilitating health problems (Kirkpatrick et al., 1995; Turner and Kirkpatrick, this supplement); (vi) has no implications for passage through the food chain (Harlow and Lane, 1988); and (vii) is reasonably inexpensive (J. F. Kirkpatrick, personal communication). This report presents the results of a 5 year study in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes), 3 years of which were on the application of PZP immunocontraception to an expanding elk population living in a wilderness area of Point Reyes National Seashore in Marin County, CA, where hunting is not allowed and culling is not publicly acceptable.

  15. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  16. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  17. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  18. 半圈养条件下白唇鹿行为时间分配及活动规律的研究%Time Budget and Behaviour Pattern of Cervus Albirostris in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何利军; 丁由中; 王小明; 夏述忠

    2001-01-01

    From March to April,1998,the authors studied the time budget andbehaviour patterns of Cervus albirostris in Shanghai Wild Animal Park.We analyzed the results from 23 days′observation for different sex and weather were analyzed.Cervus albirostris spent about 50% daytime in resting,and 40% daytime in feeding.Resting behaviour was presented from 8∶00 to 17∶00.The female spent more resting time than the male(p<0.05)in fine days.The female spent less standing time than the male in rainy days(p<0.01).Cervus albirostris spent more standing time in fine days than in rainy days(p<0.05 for the male,p<0.01 for the female).

  19. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone concentrations and LH-RH responsiveness in mature, male rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1986-01-01

    Plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in immobilized or yarded rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) were investigated over a two-year period. Testosterone concentrations showed a minor elevation in autumn (May) and reached maximal levels in late winter-early spring (August) coinciding with the rut. Luteinizing hormone in plasma was only detectable from January to May. Maximal responsiveness of the pituitary-gonadal axis to LH-RH stimulation was recorded in August. The combination of Fentaz (fentanylcitrate and azaperone) and Rompun (xylazine hydrochloride) for immobilizing deer influences hypothalamic function. PMID:2869876

  20. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  1. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  2. Notes and comments on Colorado Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Colorado refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  3. Characteristics of Antioxidant Systems of Yellow Fraction of Red Deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) Semen During the Rutting Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Szurnicka, M; Dziekonska, A; Kordan, W; Giżejewski, Z; Filipowicz, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to make the preliminary characterization of the antioxidant defence systems of the yellow fraction (YF) of red deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) semen during the rutting period. The semen was collected using artificial vagina (AV). The studies included spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also analysed the contents of low-molecular antioxidants such as L-glutathione (GSH + GSSG), L-ascorbate (ASC) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Additionally, the samples were subjected to PAGE and stained for SOD and GPx activities. It was demonstrated that the yellow fraction exhibited activities of SOD and GPx, with the highest activities in September and October. CAT activity was not detected. Staining for the SOD and GPx activities confirmed three protein bands with SOD activity and one protein band with GPx activity. The content of GSH + GSSG was similar in trials dating from October to December contrary to the content of ASC which was high in samples from September and October. The stable rate of TAS was observed during the whole rutting period. The results of this study showed that the YF of red deer semen is equipped with basic battery of antioxidant enzymes comprising SOD and GPx, with the supporting role of GSH + GSSG and ASC. Moreover, the samples obtained at the peak of the rutting period occurring from September to October had the highest enzymatic activity in comparison with remaining months of the rutting period, which contributed to the high quality of the semen by preventing it from the formation of oxidative stress during the short period of intense sexual activity of male red deer. The better understanding of the mechanisms of antioxidant defence systems in the YF of deer's semen may contribute to the potential use of this fraction in technology of wild ruminant semen preservation. PMID:26854018

  4. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  5. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  6. ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO EPSILON TOXIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN CAPTIVE RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) OVER A 13-MONTH PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Christopher; Duffard, Nicolas; Beauchamp, Guy; Boullier, Séverine; Locatelli, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (Cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. Antibody production to the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Animals from group 1 (9 mo old; n = 6) were naïve and received an initial vaccination with a booster vaccine 4 wk apart and one annual booster. Animals from group 2 (21 mo old; n = 10) had been previously vaccinated 12 mo prior and received a first annual booster at the beginning of this study and a second annual booster 12 mo later. The multivalent clostridial vaccine induced a high antibody response that peaked after each injection and then slowly decreased with time. In group 1, a booster vaccine was required to obtain an initial high humoral response. The annual booster injection induced a strong, rapid, and consistent anamnestic response in both groups. The serologic responses persisted significantly over the baseline value for 9-12 mo in group 1, but more than 12 mo in group 2. It is unknown whether the measured humoral immune responses would have been protective as no challenge studies were performed. Further investigation is needed to determine the protective antibody titers to challenge and how long this immunity might persist after vaccination. PMID:27010263

  7. 梅花鹿 LHβ基因的克隆及序列分析%The Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Cervus nippon LHβ Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竭航; 陈彬龙; 吴楠; 李地艳; 雷美艳; 张承露; 曾德军

    2015-01-01

    【目的】克隆梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区并进行序列分析。【方法】采用 PCR 克隆测序的方法获得梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区全序列,采用 ProtParam tool 等分子生物学工具对梅花鹿 LHβ蛋白的分子量、等电点、二级结构、蛋白功能等进行预测,并采用 MEGA 6.0软件构建进化树以确定其系统发育地位。【结果】梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区全长462 bp (GenBank 序列号为 KT199365),包含了 ATG 起始密码子和 TAA 终止密码子,共编码141个氨基酸,蛋白质分子量为15.17 kDa,等电点为8.00。梅花鹿 LHβ蛋白均位于膜外,无跨膜结构,平均疏水性(GRAVY)为0.391,蛋白功能预测显示,该蛋白最有可能为激素,这与本研究的目的基因相符。进化树分析结果表明,梅花鹿LHβ基因与山羊、绵羊和牛等反刍动物较近,其中与绵羊最近。【结论】梅花鹿 LHβ基因 CDS 区序列与绵羊 LHβ基因最近。%Objective]The aim of this study is to clone the LHβ gene CDS of Cervus nippon and analyze the structure and features of LHβprotein.[Method]The LHβ gene CDS of Cervus nip-pon was obtained by PCR,cloning and sequencing.Then,the structure and features of LHβpro-tein,including molecular weight,isoelectric point,secondary structure,function were predicted by online molecular biological tool,such as ProtParam tool.Meanwhile,we constructed a phylo-genetic tree by MEGA 6.0 software to further explain the genetic basis for this gene.[Results]The full CDS sequence of Cervus nippon LHβ gene was 462 bp (GenBank Accession No. KT199365),encoding 141 amino acids,which contained ATG start codon,and TGA stop codon, with a calculated molecular weight of 15.17 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.00.No conserved transmembrane region was detected and all of the amino acids were located outside the membrane. The average of hydrophobicity (GRAVY)was 0.391.Function predicted results showed that the function of

  8. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  9. Glycolytic potential and ultimate muscle pH values in red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate pH value of meat (measured at approx. 24 hours post slaughter gives information about the technological quality, i.e. shelf life, colour, water-holding properties and tenderness and is a direct consequence of muscle glycogen (energy levels at slaughter. It may therefore also indicate whether or not the animal has been exposed to stressful energy depleting events prior to slaughter. In the present study, 141 animals (130 red deer (Cervus elaphus and 11 fallow deer (Dama dama were included to investigate the relationship between ultimate pH and residual glycogen concentration in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus. In addition, the muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH values in three red deer muscles (Mm. triceps brachii, longissimus and biceps femoris were studied. M. triceps brachii had higher ultimate pH and lower glycogen content compared with the other two studied muscles. The frequency of intermediate DFD (5.8≤ pH<6.2 was 5.4% in red deer M. longissimus, compared with 9.1% in fallow deer, while the frequency of DFD (pH≥ 6.2 was much lower in red deer (3.8% than in fallow deer (54.5%. A curvilinear relationship between ultimate pH and total glucose concentration (glycogen and glucose 30 min post slaughter in red deer and fallow deer M. longissimus was found. The relationship between muscle pH and lactic acid concentration however, was indicated to be linear. A significant variation in total glucose concentration at ultimate pH below 5.80 was observed, including values in the range from 18 to 123 mmol/kg wet tissue. It was concluded that further studies are needed to further explore the relationship between muscle glycogen content and technological and sensory quality attributes of meat from different deer species.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning:Köttets pH-värde (mätt ca 24 timmar efter slakt har stor betydelse för den teknologiska kvaliteten som t. ex. hållbarhet, färg, vattenhållande förmåga och m

  10. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  11. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  12. No evidence that wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Iberian Peninsula are a reservoir of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, T; Martin-Hernando, M P; Boadella, M; Fernández-de-Mera, I G; Balseiro, A; Sevilla, I A; Vicente, J; Maio, E; Vieira-Pinto, M; Alvarez, J; Pérez-de-la-Lastra, J M; Garrido, J; Gortazar, C

    2012-06-01

    The potential role of red deer (Cervus elaphus) as a reservoir of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection is largely unknown. A total of 332 wild red deer were investigated using post-mortem examination, bacteriology and serology. Only three animals (1.12%) were found to have lesions on histopathological examination and no MAP bacteria were recovered on culture. The results suggest it is unlikely that wild red deer make a significant contribution to the maintenance of MAP infection in the region. The cross-reactivity of the ELISAs used indicates this diagnostic modality is ineffective in the detection of MAP infection in this species. The implications of these results for the control of this important pathogen in both livestock and wildlife are discussed.

  13. Oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against Brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M; Ficht, Thomas A; Davis, Donald S; Elzer, Philip H; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Rice-Ficht, Allison C

    2009-10-01

    Bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), USA, are infected with Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. Bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. An efficacious Brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool in a disease prevention and control program. We evaluated Strain 19 (S19) in a sustained release vehicle consisting of alginate microspheres containing live vaccine. In a challenge study using red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) as a model for elk, alginate, a naturally occurring polymer combined with a protein of Fasciola hepatica vitelline protein B was used to microencapsulate S19. Red deer were orally or subcutaneously immunized with 1.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units (CFUs) using microencapsulated S19. Humoral and cellular profiles were analyzed bimonthly throughout the study. The vaccinated red deer and nonvaccinated controls were challenged 1 yr postimmunization conjunctivally with 1 x 10(9) CFUs of B. abortus strain 2308. Red deer vaccinated with oral microencapsulated S19 had a statistically significant lower bacterial tissue load compared with controls. These data indicate for the first time that protection against Brucella-challenge can be achieved by combining a commonly used vaccine with a novel oral delivery system such as alginate-vitelline protein B microencapsulation. This system is a potential improvement for efficacious Brucella-vaccine delivery to wildlife in the GYA. PMID:19901378

  14. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  15. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Denver, Colorado, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  16. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  17. 78 FR 57923 - Colorado Disaster #CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00065 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  18. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  19. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  20. The Colorado Plateau: High, Wide, and Windswept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Bibi; Brook, Richard; Fischman, Shelly; Jacobson, LouAnn; Smith, Shelley; Tisdale, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Explores the natural forces that created the Colorado Plateau, examines a few of the myriad plants and animals inhabiting the six life zones on the plateau, and provides an overview of the challenges faced by land managers seeking to care for the plateau's extraordinary life and land forms. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  1. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Claude, Jr., Ed.; Moore, Beverly, Ed.

    This master plan for Colorado academic libraries assesses current strengths and weaknesses of public and private academic libraries in the state and forecasts the role of academic libraries in support of higher education. The plan consists of a series of recommendations divided into six related and overlapping sections: access, collection…

  2. Acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems: wolf(Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) as model species

    OpenAIRE

    Passilongo, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The high variability of vocalization is due to their function, the habitat where they evolved and the physical constraints of the emitters. The aim of this study were to analyse the acoustic behaviour of two large terrestrial mammals, wolf (Canis lupus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus), in relation to resources maintenance and mating systems. Firstly, I analysed the Italian wolf howl. I found two forms of howl; both types are uttered within the lowest frequencies of the wolf’s vocal range,...

  3. Salinity in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, western Colorado, 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David L.; von Guerard, Paul B.

    1996-01-01

    Salinity, or the dissolved-solids concentration, is the measure of salts such as sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate that are dissolved in water. About one-half of the salinity in the Colorado River Basin is from natural sources (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995), such as thermal springs in the Glenwood-Dotsero area, located about 90 miles upstream from Grand Junction (fig. 1). Effects of human activities, such as irrigation, reservoir evaporation, and transbasin diversions, have increased the levels of salinity in the Colorado River. High salinity can affect industrial and municipal water users by causing increased water-treatment costs, increased deterioration of plumbing and appliances, increased soap needs, and undesirable taste of drinking water. High salinity also can cause lower crop yields by reducing water and nutrient uptake by plants and can increase agricultural production costs because of higher leaching and drainage requirements. Agricultural losses might occur when salinity reaches about 700?850 milligrams per liter (U.S Department of the Interior, 1994). Figure 1. Irrigated area in the Grand Valley and locations of sampling sites for the 1994?95 salinity study of the Colorado River. The Colorado River is the major source of irrigation water to the Grand Valley (fig. 1) and also is one source of water for the Clifton Water District, which supplies domestic water to part of the eastern Grand Valley. During spring and early summer in 1994, the Colorado River in the Grand Valley had lower than average streamflow. There was concern by water users about the effect of this low streamflow on salinity in the river. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study to evaluate salinity in the Colorado River. This fact sheet describes results of that study. The specific objectives of the fact sheet are to (1) compare salinity in the Colorado River among

  4. Gunnison, Colorado subpile study report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To protect human health and the environment, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison Subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study

  5. BENEFITS OF CONTROLLING SALINE WATER IN COLORADO

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, Lindsey; Houk, Eric E.; Schuck, Eric C.; Frasier, W. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    The Arkansas River in Colorado is confronted with a salinity issue; the majority of this salinity problem is due to agricultural runoff caused by irrigation. Reducing applications of irrigation water through adoption of more technically efficient irrigation systems is one means of improving water quality in the Arkansas River basin. This research uses positive mathematical programming to model the cropping practices of the farms along the Arkansas River. It examines the affect of acreage and ...

  6. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  7. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  8. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline... individual were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline Company property in Adams County, CO. The human remains were discovered while Suncor was excavating a trench as part of mitigation efforts concerning...

  9. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  10. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  11. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Creek East Tract described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by... lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., May 15, 2012. The sealed bid must be submitted on or before 10...

  12. Molecular detection of Theileria sp. ZS TO4 in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and questing Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in Eastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Biro, Nora; Harl, Josef; Worliczek, Hanna L; Beiglböck, Christoph; Farkas, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G

    2013-11-01

    Theileria spp. are intracellular protozoa transmitted by ixodid ticks. T. parva and T. annulata are highly pathogenic and responsible for serious disease in domestic ruminants in tropical and subtropical countries. However, asymptomatic findings of Theileria sp. in wild ungulates lead to the suggestion that wild ruminants play a role as reservoirs for these piroplasms. In a game enclosure in Eastern Austria (Federal county of Burgenland), piroplasms were detected with molecular analysis in blood samples of all 80 examined asymptomatic red deer (Cervus elaphus). Furthermore, piroplasms were detected in four out of 12 questing nymphs of Haemaphysalis concinna. In 32 Ixodes ticks sampled on-site, no Theileria DNA was detected. Sequence analysis identified these samples from both red deer and ticks as Theileria sp. ZS TO4. Our findings indicate that farmed red deer serve as asymptomatic carriers and adapted intermediate hosts of Theileria sp. in Central Europe and H. concinna was identified as a possible vector species of Theileria sp. ZS TO4.

  13. På vej mod en dansk krondyrforvaltning (Cervus elaphus): Hvad mangler vi at vide, og hvad mangler vi at gøre?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Haugaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    bestanden og jagtudbyttet på, vil være at frede de unge hjorte mod at have fri jagt på dem, som har nået ”høstklar” alder. Ud over at sikre jægerne et bedre udbytte vil en sådan ”mindstemålsmodel” modvirke selektion for tidligere kønsmodenhed og mindre kropstørrelse for hjorte. In Denmark, red deer (Cervus....... We compared the harvest outcome and demographic composition of these theoretical models with two Danish red deer populations with contrasting land owner structure and hunting regimes (Djursland and Oksbøl). Djursland (hunting seasons 2008/9-2012/13) represents a ‘typical’ Danish landscape, comprising...... multiple owners of small or larger estates each of which run their own hunting practices. In this area, 1-year old males were protected in an effort to increase the proportion of mature stags in the population. The population on Oksbøl (1985/86-2012/13) is managed by the Danish Nature Agency, with the aim...

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Hungarian red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) from high-throughput sequencing data and its phylogenetic position within the family Cervidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Krisztián; Barta, Endre; Bana, Nóra Á; Nagy, János; Horn, Péter; Orosz, László; Stéger, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is mitochondrial DNA analysis, which can be used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and for molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the development of sequencing technology, more and more mitochondrial sequences have been made available in public databases, including whole mitochondrial DNA sequences. These data have been used for phylogenetic analysis of animal species, and for studies of evolutionary processes. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a Central European red deer, Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, from Hungary by a next generation sequencing technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16 354 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region, all of which are arranged similar as in other vertebrates. We made phylogenetic analyses with the new sequence and 76 available mitochondrial sequences of Cervidae, using Bos taurus mitochondrial sequence as outgroup. We used 'neighbor joining' and 'maximum likelihood' methods on whole mitochondrial genome sequences; the consensus phylogenetic trees supported monophyly of the family Cervidae; it was divided into two subfamilies, Cervinae and Capreolinae, and five tribes, Cervini, Muntiacini, Alceini, Odocoileini, and Capreolini. The evolutionary structure of the family Cervidae can be reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genomes; which method could be used broadly in phylogenetic evolutionary analysis of animal taxa. PMID:27165525

  15. Population genetic structure of wild and farmed rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia inferred from polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; de Meeûs, T; Chevillon, C; Berthier, D; Barré, N; Thévenon, S; Maillard, J-C

    2009-12-01

    Historical records indicate that 12 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) were introduced in New-Caledonia during the 1870s. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci to assess the genetic differentiation and diversity of farmed and wild deer populations. Past genetic bottlenecks were detected in both sub-populations, although higher genetic diversity was maintained in farmed populations, probably due to the regular introduction of reproducers from wild populations and from other farms. The genetic structure of farmed and wild populations differed significantly. There was a significant isolation by distance for wild populations, whereas farmed populations were significantly differentiated between farms independently from their geographical proximity. Wild rusa deer consisted of small populations (with effective population sizes ranging between 7 and 19 individuals depending on the methods used), with a low parent-offspring dispersion range (0.20-2.02 km). Genetic tools and direct observations provided congruent estimates of dispersion and population sizes. We discuss the relevance of our results for management purposes. PMID:19680748

  16. Effect of the Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei on the Prevention of an Allergic Airway Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yun Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1, regulatory T (Treg, and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05 when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  17. X- and Y-chromosome specific variants of the amelogenin gene allow sex determination in sheep (Ovis aries and European red deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenig B

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple and precise methods for sex determination in animals are a pre-requisite for a number of applications in animal production and forensics. However, some of the existing methods depend only on the detection of Y-chromosome specific sequences. Therefore, the abscence of a signal does not necessarily mean that the sample is of female origin, because experimental errors can also lead to negative results. Thus, the detection of Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences is advantageous. Results A novel method for sex identification in mammals (sheep, Ovis aries and European red deer, Cervus elaphus is described, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of a part of the amelogenin gene. A partial sequence of the amelogenin gene of sheep and red deer was obtained, which exists on both X and Y chromosomes with a deletion region on the Y chromosome. With a specific pair of primers a DNA fragment of different length between the male and female mammal was amplified. Conclusion PCR amplification using the amelogenin gene primers is useful in sex identification of samples from sheep and red deer and can be applied to DNA analysis of micro samples with small amounts of DNA such as hair roots as well as bones or embryo biopsies.

  18. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Skuce, Philip J.; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K.; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W.; Taggart, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson’s R = 0.89, p hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  19. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  20. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  1. Habitat acoustics of Rocky Mountain elk in Colorado and European Red deer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Tobias; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye;

      Male vocal displays are rarely so dramatically different in closely related subspecies as in Cervus elaphus. Many studies investigated the evolution of the European Red deer low pitched roaring sounds, but little is known about why the Rocky Mountain elk evolved high pitched bugles. We investig...

  2. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  3. 马鹿亚种间杂交后代背最长肌脂肪酸的分析研究%Analysis on fatty acids of meat of cervus elaphus subspecies hybrid offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓群; 韩玲

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography was used for analyzing fatty acids extracted from longissimus dorsi muscle of three subspecies hybrid offspring of cervus elaphus: Tian - shah stock ( C. elaphus songaricus), Tian - shan x Qing - hal crossbred and Tian -shan x Qing - hai x Talimu crossbred. The result indicated that: ( 1 ) Saturated fatty acids took the highest percentage of the fatty acids composition from all the three cervus elaphus mentioned above. Palmitic acid was the major composition; (2) The nutritional value of the rne~t of Tian - shan x Qing - hai crossbred was higher than that of Tian -shan and Tian -shan x Qing - hai ~ Talimu, it can offer nutritional meat which meet food standard by cress - breeding; (3) Fatty acids with odd number carbon atom showed anticancer activity were also found in the meat from all three cervus elaphus. The results of this article could provide theoretical evidence for the development of functional food from meat of cervus elaphus.%采用气相色谱技术对马鹿不同亚种间杂交后代——天山马鹿、天青二元杂交马鹿和天青塔三元杂交马鹿背最长肌中的20种脂肪酸进行分析研究,结果表明:三种马鹿背最长肌脂肪酸组成及含量各有特点,但是饱和脂肪酸含量均最高,棕榈酸为主要组成成分。都含有一定量的具有抗癌活性的奇数碳原子脂肪酸,含量分别为:3.73%、7.28%和0.71%,该结果为马鹿内在功能食品领域的发展提供了理论依据。从营养角度出发,天青二元杂交马鹿肉比天山马鹿和天青塔三元杂交马鹿具有更高的营养价值,可以通过杂交育种来选育营养价值更符合膳食标准的健康马鹿肉品原料。

  4. Conifer health classification for Colorado, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Curry, Stacy E.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Colorado has undergone substantial changes in forests due to urbanization, wildfires, insect-caused tree mortality, and other human and environmental factors. The U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center evaluated and developed a methodology for applying remotely-sensed imagery for assessing conifer health in Colorado. Two classes were identified for the purposes of this study: healthy and unhealthy (for example, an area the size of a 30- x 30-m pixel with 20 percent or greater visibly dead trees was defined as ?unhealthy?). Medium-resolution Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery were collected. The normalized, reflectance-converted, cloud-filled Landsat scenes were merged to form a statewide image mosaic, and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Renormalized Difference Infrared Index (RDII) were derived. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was done using the Landsat multispectral bands, the NDVI, the RDII, and 30-m U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED). The classification was constrained to pixels identified in the updated landcover dataset as coniferous or mixed coniferous/deciduous vegetation. The statewide results were merged with a separate health assessment of Grand County, Colo., produced in late 2008. Sampling and validation was done by collecting field data and high-resolution imagery. The 86 percent overall classification accuracy attained in this study suggests that the data and methods used successfully characterized conifer conditions within Colorado. Although forest conditions for Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) are easily characterized, classification uncertainty exists between healthy/unhealthy Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Pi?on (Pinus edulis), and Juniper (Juniperus sp.) vegetation. Some underestimation of conifer mortality in Summit County is likely, where recent (2008) cloud-free imagery was unavailable. These classification uncertainties are primarily due to the spatial and

  5. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  6. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P; Sharma, Lalit K; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  7. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida

    2016-09-01

    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park.

  8. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Reid

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  9. A possible role for rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs in spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S; Husein, A; Hutchinson, G; Copeman, D

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs. PMID:10224527

  10. A field survey on the status of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida

    2016-09-01

    One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park. PMID:27605778

  11. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  12. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p advantages of cELISA over FE: i) the ability to store samples long term (frozen) without apparent loss in diagnostic power; and ii) reduced labour and the ability to process large batches. Further evaluation of cELISA sensitivity in red deer, where a range of fluke burdens can be obtained, is desirable. In the interim, the cELISA is a practicable diagnostic for F. hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable geographic, temporal, sex and age related differences in F. hepatica prevalence in wild Scottish Highland red deer. PMID:27598003

  13. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  15. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  16. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  17. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  18. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description...

  19. Mean-annual erosion potential for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of the mean-annual erosion potential of a 30-meter raster cell in Colorado and...

  20. Saturated thickness of the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 472 (Arnold and others, 2009). This data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado....

  1. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  2. Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah. A database of...

  3. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  4. Corbiculae fluminea as a bioindicator on the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tissue samples from Asiatic clam (Corbimla fluminea) from the lower Colorado River were analyzed for trace element concentrations. Selenium and arsenic were...

  5. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  6. Colorado River cutthroat habitat resistance and resilience to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Colorado River cutthroat trout, Oncorhyncus clarki pleuriticus , occupy less than 12% of their historic range. Restoration and conservation of this species are currently under way across the upper Colorado River basin, but guidance to inform management decisions related to the impacts of climate change on cutthroat is lacking. Shifts in the thermal distribution of freshwater fish have been documented, and will continue to occur as cold water habitat is threatened by warming water temperatures...

  7. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information

  8. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  9. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  10. Colorado Better Buildings Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie; Yancey, Lea

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  11. 75 FR 66786 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Exploration for Coal in Colorado License Application COC-74447

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... State Office, 2850 Youngfield Street, Lakewood, Colorado 80215, and the BLM, Little Snake Field Office... Director, in writing, at the BLM Colorado State Office, 2850 Youngfield Street, Lakewood, Colorado...

  12. 75 FR 44983 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Exploration for Coal in Colorado; License Application COC-74235

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Office, 2850 Youngfield Street, Lakewood, Colorado 80215 and the BLM, Uncompahgre Field Office, 2505 S..., in writing, at the BLM Colorado State Office, 2850 Youngfield Street, Lakewood, Colorado 80215...

  13. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  14. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  15. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  16. Acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Miller, R J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Pérez de León, A A

    2014-02-24

    In the Neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. In Mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in Rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in R. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. In this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in R. microplus collected from red deer in the Mexican tropics. Engorged R. microplus females were collected from a red deer farm in Yucatan, Mexico. The larval packet test was used to detect resistance to the organophosphates (OPs) chlorpyrifos and coumaphos, synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) cypermethrin and permethrin, and the phenylpyrazol, fipronil. Resistance to the formamidine amitraz (Am), and ivermectin was ascertained using the larval immersion test. Data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations and resistance ratios to kill 50% (RR50) and 99% (RR99) of the tick population under evaluation in relation to susceptible reference strains. Additionally, allele specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus. The R. microplus population from red deer in Yucatan showed very high resistance to the two SPs evaluated (RRs>72.2 for cypermethrin; RR for permethrin resistance was so high a dose-response curve was not possible). All individual larvae tested to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus were homozygous. The same tick population showed different levels of resistance to OPs (chlorpyrifos: RR50=1.55, RR99=0.63; coumaphos: RR50=6.8, RR99=5.9), fipronil (RR50=1.8, RR99=0.9), and amitraz (RR50=2.3, RR99=4.4). Resistance to ivermectin was regarded as moderate (RR50=7.1, RR99=5.0). This is the first report of R. microplus ticks collected from red

  17. Geology of the Gypsum Gap quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gypsum Gap quadrangle is one eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comparative study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through a arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The core consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  18. Geology of the Davis Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bryner, Leonid

    1953-01-01

    The Davis Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  19. Geology of the Anderson Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Anderson Mesa quadrangle is one of the eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteenth quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quarternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-tending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive slat and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists of largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  20. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  1. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  2. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  3. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  4. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  5. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  6. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  7. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE's deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program

  8. 40 CFR 52.331 - Committal SIP for the Colorado Group II PM10 areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Committal SIP for the Colorado Group II... SIP for the Colorado Group II PM10 areas. On April 14, 1989, the Governor submitted a Committal SIP for the Colorado Group II PM10 areas. The SIP commits the State to continue to monitor for...

  9. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  10. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to...

  11. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  12. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes...

  13. 2010 Kids Count in Colorado! Far from Average: Growing Gaps in Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable resource…

  14. Differences in evaluation of three different approaches in home range sizes of red deer Cervus elaphus in Western Carpathians / Rozdiely vo vyhodnotení veľkosti domovských okrskov jeleňa lesného Cervus elaphus v Západných Karpatoch tromi rôznymi prístupmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alfadil Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cieľom tohto príspevku bolo porovnať rozdiely v aplikácií troch rôznych prístupov k vyhodnocovaniu veľkosti domovských okrskov vybraných samčích jedincov jeleňa lesného (Cervus elaphus v Západných Karpatoch. Výskum bol vykonaný v Kremnických vrchoch, situovaných v centrálnej časti Slovenska na vzorke troch jedincov sledovaných VHF (Very High Frequency rádiotelemetriou. Údaje boli vyhodnocované v rámci troch sezón (zima, leto a ruja. Na odhad veľkosti domovských okrskov boli použité tri metódy: Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP, Kernel Home Range (KHR and Local Convex Hull (LoCoH. Sezónne rozdiely vo veľkosti domovských okrskov boli analyzované použitím analýzy variancie (ANOVA. Výsledky poukázali na rozdiely vo veľkosti domovských okrskov a jadrových zón v populácii jelenej zveri. Migračný typ jedinca mal väčší okrsok v porovnaní s ostatnými, tento rozdiel však nebol štatisticky významný. Metóda LoCoH s použitím malej vzorky dát významne podhodnocuje odhady veľkosti domovských okrskov.

  15. Is the Profile of the Colorado River in the Colorado Plateau in Equilibrium With Bedrock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, R. D.; Pederson, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Colorado River sets the pace for the erosion of the Colorado Plateau and part of the Rocky Mountains, and the evolution of its long-profile may hold the key to resolving debate over the region's late Cenozoic erosional and tectonic history. Significant reach (10 km) and canyon-scale (100 km) gradient variations occur along the modern profile of this mixed bedrock-alluvial river, and there are multiple hypotheses for the controls on its gradient: 1) knickzones related to active tectonics in western Grand Canyon, 2) coarse bed material from tributary side-canyons, and 3) bedrock resistance as a direct control with respect to channel substrate or an indirect control in terms of hillslope processes in tributary catchments and the production and comminution of bed material. The goal of this study is to test for a spatial relation between hydraulic driving forces and bedrock resisting forces at reach and canyon-scales within and between Glen and Grand canyons. The river encounters diverse rock types that vary in hardness and fracture density. Field and GIS results aimed at testing the bedrock resistance hypothesis for Glen and Grand canyons indicate a spatial relation between rock-mass strength (RMS) and channel gradient. Reach-scale gradients vary as much as a factor of 20 through Grand Canyon, with steep reaches having significantly higher compressive strengths and wide fracture spacings. Glen Canyon, on the other hand, has dramatically lower channel gradient, weaker RMS properties, and reaches with steep gradients that do not correlate to either debris fans or changes in bedrock type but do coincide with geologic structures. The presence of a bedrock or debris-fan frequency correlation to the majority of gradient variations argues against tectonic origins of knickzones and suggests a relation between bedrock resistance and the profile of the Colorado River exists. However, when these results are combined with the distribution of tributary debris fans and their

  16. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  17. Induction of Sperm Acrosome Reaction wti h Calcium Ionophore A23187 in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus)%钙离子载体诱发马鹿精子顶体反应效果1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平; 邹琦; 商兰; 刘伟石

    2014-01-01

    Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sperm was capacitated in vitro by swimming-up and the acrosome reaction (AR) was in-duced by Calcium ionophore A23187 to choose an optimal A23187 system during AR.A23187 of 0.01-100 μmol/L can enhance the ratio of AR on the capacitated sperm and 0.1μmol/L A23187 can obtain the highest ratio of AR (74.00%± 2.62%) for 5-min treatment time.AR of capacitated sperm can, but the uncapacitated sperm cannot, be induced by A23187 in wapiti.%以马鹿( Cervus elaphus)为试验动物,采用上浮法诱导马鹿精子体外获能,以钙离子载体( A23187)诱导马鹿精子顶体反应,进而摸索钙离子载体( A23187)诱发其顶体反应的适宜体系。结果表明:0.01~100.00μmol/L的A23187可提高获能马鹿精子的顶体反应率;其中适宜的A23187浓度为0.10μmol/L,反应的时间为5 min,顶体反应率为(74.00±2.62)%。 A23187能促进获能马鹿精子的顶体反应,但不能显著(P>0.05)促进未获能马鹿精子的顶体反应。

  18. 鹿茸氨基酸口服液基础配方开发%Development of Based Formulation of Cervus elaphus Amino Acid Oral Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝奇; 陈新; 徐会丹

    2013-01-01

    目的:开发氨基酸口服液的基础配方.方法:选取同一产地的两份鹿茸细粉,按提取方法不同分为仿生组和超声组,比较各组样品中氨基酸含量,并使用SIMCA-P软件进行主成分分析.结果:两组样本间存在显著性差异,其中蛋氨酸、脯氨酸、精氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸、缬氨酸差异最为明显;获得核心氨基酸组群配方为蛋氨酸0.96%,脯氨酸11.50%,精氨酸8.29%,苏氨酸2.64%,异亮氨酸1.71%,苯丙氨酸2.62%,缬氨酸3.46%;基础氨基酸组群为天门冬氨酸7.39%,丝氨酸4.07%,谷氨酸13.31%,甘氨酸21.72%,丙氨酸10.30%,亮氨酸4.64%,酪氨酸0.97%,赖氨酸5.07%,组氨酸1.36%.结论:鹿茸经人体消化后氨基酸配比与之自然状态下存在一定区别.以鹿茸消化后氨基酸配比为基础,开发的鹿茸氨基酸口服液可更好地发挥鹿茸的补益功效.%Objective:To develop based formulation of Cervus elaphus amino acid oral liquid.Method:Selected two C.elaphus powder from the same origin,divided into the biomimetic group and the ultrasound group according to different extraction methods.The content of amino acid of different groups was compared,and SIMCA-P statistical software was adopted to do principal component analysis.Result:There was a significant difference between samples from two groups,especially methionine,proline,arginine,threonine,isoleucine,phenylalanine and valine.Formulation of core amino acids group was as following:methionine 0.96%,proline 11.50%,arginine 8.29%,threonine 2.64%,isoleucine 1.71%,phenylalanine 2.62% and valine 3.46% ; Formulation of based amino acids group was aspartic acid 7.39%,serine 4.07%,glutamic acid 13.31%,glycine 21.72%,alanine 10.30%,leucine 4.64%,tyrosine 0.97%,lysine 5.07%,histidine 1.36%.Conclusion:There are some differences in amino acid proportion between the natural state and the digestion state.With amino acids

  19. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  20. Promoting Equalization and Local Control in Financing Colorado's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Judith K.; King, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Per-pupil property valuation extremes among Colorado school districts are as varied as the landscape. A foundation plan levels funding disparities for school operations, but financing of major capital outlay projects still depends on local property taxation. Funds are needed to finance classroom technologies and Internet connections. (MLH)

  1. Evaluation of Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. A.; Yale, M. S.; Bennett, D. E.; Haugan, M. P.; Bryan, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a widely used instrument designed to measure student attitudes toward physics and learning physics. Previous research revealed a fairly complex factor structure. In this study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data from an undergraduate introductory…

  2. Problem Based Learning at the University of Colorado at Denver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Judith A.; Grabinger, R. Scott

    This paper provides a brief overview of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) as an instructional methodology. A description of a graduate program for practicing teachers at the University of Colorado at Denver (UCD) is also included. Problem-based learning is a student-centered instructional methodology that teaches content and skills within a knowledge…

  3. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ozone in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanes, L. N.; Sadighi, K.; Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) can pose several health risks to humans, such as an increased number of and intensity of asthma attacks. Considering this, it is important that ozone levels are monitored. While municipal air quality monitors are present in cities like Boulder, Colorado, these monitors often only consider regional analysis, neglecting the variability of compounds, such as ozone or carbon monoxide, over smaller distances. Small-scale (approximately 1 kilometer) spatial variability in ozone is important because humans experience these small scales on a daily basis. Using low-cost, next-generation air quality monitors ("pods") developed at the University of Colorado-Boulder, we assessed small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone in Boulder, Colorado. This was done by placing clusters of 4-5 pods within approximately 1 kilometer of each other at specific sites in the city of Boulder. We collected data at two sites: one on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus (i.e., an urban site) and one outside of the city (i.e., a rural site). Pods were left in their positions for one to two weeks allowing for observation of ozone trends. As expected the typical diurnal trend was observed; however, further analysis revealed differences between these daily trends. Data collected by the pods allows for better understanding of small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone and how this may be driven by nearby sources.

  4. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  5. 78 FR 62001 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00066

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00066 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1...: 06/24/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  6. 78 FR 62001 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925... Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC...

  7. From Colorado to Guam: Infant Diagnostic Audiological Evaluations by Telepractice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Deborah; Eclavea, Elaine; Dreith, Susan; Habte, Bereket

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot project in which infants in Guam who refer on newborn hearing screening receive diagnostic audiological evaluation conducted by audiologists in Colorado over the Internet (telepractice). The evaluation is completed in real time using commercially-available software and personal computers to control the diagnostic…

  8. Colorado Model Content Standards for Music: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The state of Colorado has set forth five content standards for music education in its public schools: (1) students sing or play on instruments a varied repertoire of music, alone or with others; (2) students will read and notate music; (3) students will create music; (4) students will listen to, analyze, evaluate, and describe music; and (5)…

  9. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  10. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  11. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

  13. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  14. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  15. Telehealth: Families Finding Ways to Connect in Rural Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    JFK Partners, at the University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, is currently implementing a study on the use of telehealth (receiving treatment or services using videoconferencing technology, such as Skype) and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety. The study is an exploratory grant from Health Resources and Services…

  16. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  17. Building Blocks to Colorado's Content Standards: Mathematics, Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Young, Darcy; Amundson, Jane L.; Bowers, Lori Goodwin; Koehn, Jo; Triolo-Moloney, Sharon; Vendegna, Nan; Peterson, Sandra

    The Building Blocks to Colorado's Content Standards were developed to connect early childhood education to the K-12 content standards, to advocate for appropriate teaching strategies for preschool children, and to support awareness and understanding of early childhood foundational skills among parents and teachers. Five sets of building blocks are…

  18. Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin Water Supply & Demand Study (Study), part of the Basin Study Program under the Department of the Interior's WaterSMART Program, is being conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States. The purpose of the Study is to assess future water supply and demand imbalances in the Colorado River Basin over the next 50 years and develop and evaluate options and strategies to resolve those imbalances. The Study is being conducted over the period from January 2010 to September 2012 and contains four major phases: Water Supply Assessment, Water Demand Assessment, System Reliability Analysis, and Development and Evaluation of Opportunities for balancing supply and demand. To address the considerable amount of uncertainty in projecting the future state of the Colorado River system, the Study has adopted a scenario planning approach that has resulted in four water supply scenarios and up to six water demand scenarios. The water supply scenarios consider hydrologic futures derived from the observed historical and paleo-reconstructed records as well as downscaled global climate model (GCM) projections. The water demand scenarios contain differing projections of parameters such as population growth, water use efficiency, irrigated acreage, and water use for energy that result in varying projections of future demand. Demand for outdoor municipal uses as well as agricultural uses were adjusted based on changing rates of evapotranspiration derived from downscaled GCM projections. Water supply and demand scenarios are combined through Reclamation's long-term planning model to project the effects of future supply and demand imbalances on Colorado River Basin resources. These projections lend to an assessment of the effectiveness of a broad range of options and strategies to address future imbalances.

  19. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work

  20. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  1. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  2. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  3. Analysis of Nutritional Components and Active Components in Cervus elaphus kansuensis Meat%甘肃马鹿肉营养成分及活性物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍; 谢宗平; 李君兰; 郭兆斌; 余群力

    2013-01-01

    以甘肃马鹿肉为实验材料,检测分析了甘肃马鹿肉的营养成分及活性物质.结果表明:甘肃马鹿水分含量为72.88g/100g,蛋白质27.49g/100g,脂肪2.13g/100g,灰分1.09g/100g;铁14.96mg/100g,锌0.84mg/100g,铜0.199mg/100g,硒1.22μg/100g,磷15.72mg/100g;总氨基酸含量为81.08g/100g,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的38.87%;过氧化物歧化酶63.42U/mg,雌二醇157.88pg/mL,睾酮0.78ng/mL.生长激素0.76ng/mL.甘肃马鹿肉具有高蛋白、低脂肪、丰富的矿物质、氨基酸含量全面等特点,并含有一定量的活性物质,对人体有较高的营养和滋补价值,是优质的动物性食品资源.%Healthy,adult,pasture-raised Cervus elaphus kansuensis ere slaughtered and Longissimus dorsi samples were taken for the measurement of nutritional components and active components by routine methods.The results showed that the Longissimus dorsi of Cervus elaphus kansuensis contained 72.88 g of water,27.49 g of protein,2.13 g of fat,1.09 g of ash,14.96 mg of Fe,0.84 mg of Zn,0.199 mg of Cu,1.22 μg of Se,and 15.72 mg of P per 100 g.The total amino acid content was 81.08% with the essential amino acids together accounting for 38.87% of the total amino acids.Additionally,the levels of SOD,estradiol,testosterone and growth hormone were detected to be 63.42 U/mg,157.88 pg/mL,0.78 ng/mL and 0.76 ng/mL,respectively.These data demonstrate that the meat of Cervus elaphus kansuensis has good quality characteristics such as high protein,low fat,abundant minerals and a full range of amino acids in large quantities,and also contain some active substances,indicating high nutritional and nourishing value for the human body as an excellent source of animal-derived food.

  4. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2006-06-01

    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  5. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  6. Breeding densities and migration periods of common snipe in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.R.; Ryder, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Breeding densities and migration periods of Common Snipe in Colorado were investigated in 1974-75. Sites studied were near Fort Collins and in North Park, both in north central Colorado; in the Yampa Valley in northwestern Colorado; and in the San Luis Valley in south central Colorado....Estimated densities of breeding snipe based on censuses conducted during May 1974 and 1975 were, by region: 1.3-1.7 snipe/ha near Fort Collins; 0.6 snipe/ha in North Park; 0.5-0.7 snipe/ha in the Yampa Valley; and 0.5 snipe/ha in the San Luis Valley. Overall mean densities were 06 and 0.7 snipe/ha in 1974 and 1975 respectively. On individual study sites, densities of snipe ranged from 0.2 to 2.1 snipe/ha. Areas with shallow, stable, discontinuous water levels, sparse, short vegetation, and soft organic soils had the highest densities.....Twenty-eight nests were located having a mean clutch size of 3.9 eggs. Estimated onset of incubation ranged from 2 May through 4 July. Most nests were initiated in May.....Spring migration extended from late March through early May. Highest densities of snipe were recorded in all regions during l&23 April. Fall migration was underway by early September and was completed by mid-October with highest densities occurring about the third week in September. High numbers of snipe noted in early August may have been early migrants or locally produced juveniles concentrating on favorable feeding areas.

  7. Damming Grand Canyon: The 1923 USGS Colorado River Expedition

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Diane E.; Webb, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    In 1923, America paid close attention, via special radio broadcasts, newspaper headlines, and cover stories in popular magazines, as a government party descended the Colorado to survey Grand Canyon. Fifty years after John Wesley Powell's journey, the canyon still had an aura of mystery and extreme danger. At one point, the party was thought lost in a flood. Something important besides adventure was going on. Led by Claude Birdseye and including colorful characters such as early river-runner E...

  8. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  9. Infant feeding practices of migrant farmlaborers in Northern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley, Beth

    1989-01-01

    The infant feeding practices and associated environment of 49 infants (6-23 months) of migrant farm laborers in Northern Colorado were investigated during the summer of 1987. Information was collected on 1) breastfeeding practices, 2) introduction of foods and liquids, 3) nutrition and health practices and inadequacies, 4) home living environment, 5) health history, and 6) demographics. Data on the sources of food and nutrition information was collected regarding the 1) u...

  10. Cooperative Meat Packing, lessons learned from Sterling Colorado Beef Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.

    1981-01-01

    Integration into meatpacking is a marketing alternative for livestock producers. For those considering such a step, Sterling Colorado Beef Co. provides a valuable learning experience. Feeders willing to commit capital, cattle, and time established the cooperative. Members said primary benefits were having a guaranteed market outlet and receiving a fair market price, rather than receiving a higher price or obtaining additional returns from meatpacking. Members attributed the cooperative's succ...

  11. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  12. Cost effectiveness of the 1993 Model Energy Code in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family homes in Colorado. The goal of this analysis was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to current construction practice in Colorado based on an objective methodology that determined the total life-cycle cost associated with complying with the 1993 MEC. This analysis was performed for the range of Colorado climates. The costs and benefits of complying with the 1993 NIEC were estimated from the consumer`s perspective. The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for homes built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to vary from 0.9 year in Steamboat Springs to 2.4 years in Denver. Compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1190 to $2274, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $119 to $227 (at 10% down). The net present value of all costs and benefits to the home buyer, accounting for the mortgage and taxes, varied from a savings of $1772 in Springfield to a savings of $6614 in Steamboat Springs. The ratio of benefits to costs ranged from 2.3 in Denver to 3.8 in Steamboat Springs.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  14. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  15. Application of a hybrid model to reduce bias and improve precision in population estimates for elk (Cervus elaphus inhabiting a cold desert ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Schoenecker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating the size of wildlife populations is critical to wildlife management and conservation of species. Raw counts or “minimum counts” are still used as a basis for wildlife management decisions. Uncorrected raw counts are not only negatively biased due to failure to account for undetected animals, but also provide no estimate of precision on which to judge the utility of counts. We applied a hybrid population estimation technique that combined sightability modeling, radio collar-based mark-resight, and simultaneous double count (double-observer modeling to estimate the population size of elk in a high elevation desert ecosystem. Combining several models maximizes the strengths of each individual model while minimizing their singular weaknesses. We collected data with aerial helicopter surveys of the elk population in the San Luis Valley and adjacent mountains in Colorado State, USA in 2005 and 2007. We present estimates from 7 alternative analyses: 3 based on different methods for obtaining a raw count and 4 based on different statistical models to correct for sighting probability bias. The most reliable of these approaches is a hybrid double-observer sightability model (model MH, which uses detection patterns of 2 independent observers in a helicopter plus telemetry-based detections of radio collared elk groups. Data were fit to customized mark-resight models with individual sighting covariates. Error estimates were obtained by a bootstrapping procedure. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to double-observer modeling. The resulting population estimate corrected for multiple sources of undercount bias that, if left uncorrected, would have underestimated the true population size by as much as 22.9%. Our comparison of these alternative methods demonstrates how various components of our method contribute to

  16. The 2014 Greeley, Colorado Earthquakes: Science, Industry, Regulation, and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Weingarten, M.; Nakai, J.; Ge, S.

    2014-12-01

    On June 1, 2014 (UTC) a magnitude 3.2 earthquake occurred east of the town of Greeley, Colorado. The earthquake was widely felt, with reports from Boulder and Golden, over 60 miles away from the epicenter. The location of the earthquake in a region long considered aseismic but now the locus of active oil and gas production prompted the question of whether this was a natural or induced earthquake. Several classic induced seismicity cases hail from Colorado, including the Rocky Mountain Arsenal earthquakes in the 1960s and the Paradox Valley earthquakes in western Colorado. In both cases the earthquakes were linked to wastewater injection. The Greeley earthquake epicenter was close to a Class II well that had been injecting waste fluid into the deepest sedimentary formation of the Denver Basin at rates as high as 350,000 barrels/month for less than a year. The closest seismometers to the June 1 event were more than 100 km away, necessitating deployment of a local seismic network for detailed study. IRIS provided six seismometers to the University of Colorado which were deployed starting within 3 days of the mainshock. Telemetry at one site allowed for real time monitoring of the ongoing seismic sequence. Local media interest was extremely high with speculation that the earthquake was linked to the oil and gas industry. The timetable of media demand for information provided some challenges given the time needed for data collection and analysis. We adopted a policy of open data and open communication with all interested parties, and made proactive attempts to provide information to industry and regulators. After 3 weeks of data collection and analysis, the proximity and timing of the mainshock and aftershocks to the C4A injection well, along with a sharp increase in seismicity culminating in an M 2.6 aftershock, led to a decision by the Colorado Oil and Gas Corporation Commission (COGCC) to recommend a temporary halt to injection at the C4A injection well. This was the

  17. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state's 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs

  18. Time Budget and Behavior Pattern of Semi-free Cervus nippon in spring%散放条件下春季梅花鹿行为时间分配的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振生; 吴建平; 滕丽微

    2002-01-01

    From April to May in 1998, time budget and behavior patterns of semi-free Cervus nippon were studied in Pingshan Wildlife Experimental Farm. The results showed that grazing behavior accounts the most for activity time in spring, next for ruminating and bedding behaviors, and the least for alerting and moving behaviors. In a day, there are three grazing peaks (namely, 7:00~10:00, 12:00~14:00 and 16:00~17:00). The female spend more moving time than the male do. The male spend more alert and bedding time than the female. C. nippong spend more grazing time in cloudy days than in fine and rainy days, whileC. nippon spends less alert and moving time in cloudy days. Sex and weather influence activity time budget of C. nippon. More significant differences exist between male and female's moving behaviors (F = 10.09,P < 0.01 ), while significant differences exist between bedding ( F = 5.96, P < 0.05) and alert ( F = 4.52, P < 0.05) be haviors. More significant differences exist between grazing ( F = 8.39, P < 0.01) and alert ( F = 6.11, P < 0.01 ) behav iors due to weather factor, while significant differences exist between bedding ( F = 4.27, P < 0.05) and moving ( F =5.32, P<0.05) behaviors.

  19. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyun; Jeon, Byongtae; Kang, Sungki; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Myonghwa; Jang, Seyoung; Park, Pyojam; Kim, Sangwoo; Moon, Sangho

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (palkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth. PMID:26194228

  20. Geologic map of the Frisco quadrangle, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bartos, Paul J.; Williams, Cindy L.

    2002-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Frisco quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, K.S., 1999, Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift?partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 141-152.), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts the northeastern corner of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Tenmile Range and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, Ogden, 1987, Rock units of the Precambrian- basement in Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1321-A, 54 p.). The oldest sedimentary unit is the Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The sedimentary rocks are intruded by sills and dikes of dacite porphyry sills of Swan Mountain, dated at 44 Ma (Marvin, R.F., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., and Zartman, R.E., 1989, U.S. Geological Survey radiometric ages, compilation ?C??Part five?Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming: Isochron/West, no. 53, p. 14-19. Simmons, E.C., and Hedge, C.E., 1978, Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of Tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

  1. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  2. 77 FR 1027 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Beryllium, Vinyl provision. chloride. The deletion is consistent with section 112(b)(6) of the Act. See... proposed approval of changes to Colorado Regulation No. 3 (70 FR 72744) can be found in a docket under... published June 3 and November 22, 2010 (75 FR 31306; 75 FR 71029). EPA approved Colorado's...

  3. 77 FR 13627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Colorado by the Denver Medical Examiner's Office. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 128. There is no information available as to where or how the remains were recovered. The medical examiner determined that the... Anthropology, the remains were transferred to History Colorado. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 175....

  4. Principals' Understanding of Teacher Evaluations Connected to the Colorado Student Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded analysis involved exploring the knowledge and understanding school principals have on teacher evaluations and the connections to students' scores on the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). The problem was that Colorado does not have a comprehensive and consistent standards-based teacher evaluation system managed…

  5. 75 FR 42771 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum.... 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum,...

  6. 75 FR 52015 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that...

  7. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum,...

  8. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Tribe, Crow Tribe, Fort Belknap Indian Community, and Three Affiliated Tribes (73 FR 8359-8360, February... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The...

  9. 75 FR 57290 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum..., 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the...

  10. 75 FR 52019 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that...

  11. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of...

  12. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian tribe stated...

  13. 75 FR 45655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  14. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  15. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  16. 78 FR 50103 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico & Utah may proceed. Colorado State University is responsible for... Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma); Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico & Utah; Pueblo of San Ildefonso, New Mexico; Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation, Colorado; and the Ute...

  17. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  18. 77 FR 69765 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...)/Table. 3. OECD Requirements; Export Shipments 75 FR 1236-1262, January 8, Colorado Hazardous Regulations... Library at the address and contact above, or the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment... November 2, 1984 (49 FR 41036), to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management program. We...

  19. 76 FR 53693 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application COC-74911, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Oxbow Mining, LLC, on a pro rata cost-sharing basis, in a program for the exploration of coal deposits... participate in this exploration program must send written notice to both the BLM and Oxbow Mining, LLC, as...: Oxbow Mining, LLC, Attn: Steve Weist, 3737 Hwy 133, Somerset, Colorado 81434 and BLM, Colorado...

  20. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  1. Carnations and the Floriculture Industry: Documenting the Cultivation and Marketing of Flowers in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Meyer, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    The Records of the Colorado Flower Growers Association (CFGA) is an archival collection documenting the association prior to its 1979 name change. The CFGA was founded in 1928 to support the production and marketing of greenhouse flowers grown commercially in the state. In 1979, the organization changed its name to the Colorado Greenhouse Growers…

  2. Diagnosing Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to Colorado Floods in September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, P.; Patricola, C. M.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Unusually heavy rainfall occurred over the Colorado Front Range during the second week of September 2013, with record or near-record totals recorded in several locations. It was associated predominantly with a stationary large-scale weather pattern (akin to the North American Monsoon, which occurs earlier in the year) that drove a strong plume of deep moisture inland from the Gulf of Mexico and eastern tropical Pacific towards the Front Range foothills. The resulting floods across the South Platte River basin impacted several thousands of people and many homes, roads, and businesses. A recent study using observational-based re-analysis to drive the regional WRF model finds that, given very little change in the large-scale weather pattern, there is an increase in atmospheric water vapour over northeast Colorado under anthropogenic climate warming, with a positive dynamical feedback drawing in moisture from further afield. This leads to a substantial increase in the magnitude and odds of heavy rainfall occurring over northeast Colorado during the rainy week of September 2013. Here we develop this work by including a hydrological modelling component in order to investigate any anthropogenic influence on the actual flood magnitude and occurrence across the South Platte basin during that time. We use WRF precipitation output from the aforementioned study - in both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic configurations for September 2013 - to drive the recently developed high-resolution WRF-Hydro model over the basin and generate river runoff. Thus by comparing changes in runoff under the anthropogenic / non-anthropogenic driving conditions we assess any influence on the magnitude and odds of flood occurrence. Integral to this, we test the sensitivity of our results to hydrological parameters, such as infiltration, base flow, and land use/cover.

  3. Opportunities to protect instream flows in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembly, Terrence L.

    1987-01-01

    This document combines the efforts of several individuals, agencies, and organizations toward a common objective: the identification, description, and preliminary evaluation of promising opportunities for protecting instream uses of water under existing laws in Colorado and Wyoming. This report is intended for the use of State and Federal planning and management personnel who need an overview of potential opportunities for preserving instream flows. It is not intended to replace or challenge the advice of agency counsel, nor it is written to provide legal advice. Instead, it is designed as a guide for the person trying to find his or her way among sometimes bewildering State statues and administrative practices. This report is not, and should not be taken as, official policy or prediction of future actions by any agency. It is simply a summary of some potential opportunities for protecting instream uses. Toward these objectives, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Water Resources Analysis Project, contracted in 1977 with Richard Dewsnup and Dallin Jensen to identify available strategies under State and Federal laws, interstate compacts, and water quality laws. A second firm, Enviro Control, Inc., was contracted to evaluate the most promising strategies. Two of the resulting documents were Instream Flow Strategies for Colorado and Instream Flow Strategies for Wyoming, which have been revised, updated, and combined in this report. Discussion of instream flow programs ad opportunities for each State--Colorado and Wyoming-- are written so that each report can be read independently, with minimal cross referencing from one State report to another.

  4. 2014 Kids Count in Colorado! The Big Picture: Taking the Whole Child Approach to Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as…

  5. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  6. Chemical loading rates from precipitation in the Colorado Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Michael C.; LEWIS Jr., WILLIAM M.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical composition of bulk (= wet + dry) precipitation was measured at two stations in the Colorado Rocky Mountains for each of 150 consecutive weeks. The stations were located at 3000 m elevation approximately 6 km east of the Continental Divide and 40 km north of Denver. Chemical species routinely measured included particulate C, N, P and H; dissolved organic C, P and N; conductance and total alkalinity; SO4=, CI-, NO3--N, NO2--N, NH4+-N, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, H2PO4-–P and H+. Particulates...

  7. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  8. Gimnasio Sebastiani. Holy trinity high school - Trinidad, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Toll, Henry

    1959-05-01

    Full Text Available Para completar las instalaciones y facilidades de que se ha dotado el Instituto Católico de Segunda Enseñanza de Trinidad, Colorado (Estados Unidos, se proyectó un gimnasio cubierto que podría ser utilizado como campo de deportes para baloncesto, representaciones, audiciones y actos públicos. El proyecto fue redactado por Toll & Milan, arquitectos, entidad disuelta actualmente y de la que el autor formaba parte como proyectista. En la formación de este proyecto se utilizaron las recomendaciones de un buen número de gabinetes de estudio y consulta.

  9. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  10. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  11. An experiment to control nonnative fish in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins,, Lewis G., Jr.; Yard, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.

  12. The temporal and spatial relationship between NDVI and climatological parameters in Colorado

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the spatial and temporal relationship between AVHRR/NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climatological parameters (temperature and precipitation), which, in some sense, is influenced by topographical factors and land-cover types in Colorado. The correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients have been computed pixel by pixel over Colorado in order to analyze the relationship. The temporal variation and correlation of AVHRR/NDVI, temperature and precipitation were analyzed with a sampling method. The study reveals that there exists a close correspondence between monthly NDVI and temperature, which has strong impact from temperature on the changes of NDVI in Colorado. The spatial changes of NDVI are not influenced obviously by the precipitation since these two variables are different from each other in time series in Colorado. The study clearly revealed the spatial variation and its distribution patterns of relationship between NDVI and climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) in Colorado.

  13. An Analysis of The Early Development and Protection of the Colorado River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts an environmental analysis of the Colorado River in Southwest America.and examines the early issues of economic development and environmental protection on the Colorado River Basin from a historical perspective.The thesis first provides a brief description of the geography of the Colorado River,paying special attention to the early exploration of the Colorado River by Native Americans and later European colonizers as well as their different attitudes toward nature.Then the thesis looks at the forces of economic development and nature preservation in the progressive era against the arid setting of the Southwest.In the conclusion,the author demonstrates the importance and necessity of the environmental protection of the Colorado River in the beginning period of the America West.

  14. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period.

  15. The rural utility response to Colorado's electricity mandates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to incorporate more renewable energy sources into their electricity mix. This was evident by the state's support for Amendment 37, which was passed due to strong support in the Denver metro area-representing nearly half of the state's population. Support for the bill was poor in the rest of the state. Nevertheless, in 2007, the state expanded up Amendment 37 by forcing the utilities in rural communities to diversify their electricity mix. This study surveyed the managers at the state's various rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in an effort to gage their attitudes concerning: carbon legislation, conservation and efficiency programs, and their plans for making the transition away from fossil fuel generation. - Highlights: → Communities served by rural utilities opposed Colorado's state-wide RPS, but were forced to adhere anyway. → Most rural utilities are very concerned about the economic impacts of trying to diversify their energy portfolios. → Many of these unregulated utilities were already pushing DSM programs to promote conservation and improve efficiency.

  16. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  17. Technical progress report. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1977 to November 1, 1978, under Contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A002 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. The research activities of the Laboratory spanned a broad range of interests over the past year. Numerous topics in charged-particle spectroscopy and reaction studies, neutron time-of-flight measurements, and gamma-ray investigations performed at the cyclotron laboratory are covered in this report. In addition, several items in intermediate energy nuclear physics as studied at Los Alamos and Indiana University by members of the Laboratory are reported. The efforts in nuclear theory include studies in nuclear reaction mechanisms and pion scattering as related to the experimental program. Information is also included on apparatus and facility development, cyclotron operation, outside users, publications, and reports. Separate abstracts were written for thirty items in this report having significant amounts of data. (RWR)

  18. 1992 Colorado Economic Impact Study for the US Department of Energy and Colorado Department of Health Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of the 1992 Colorado Economic Impact Study (CEIS) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project are outlined below. All dollar amounts used in the study are in year-of-expenditure dollars. The total funding requirement for the State of Colorado for the UMTRA Project is estimated to be $66.8 million, or 10 percent of the remedial action costs for the UMTRA Project in Colorado. The UMTRA Project will generate $487.5 million in gross labor income in Colorado between 1983 and 1996. This includes $54.4 million in state and local tax revenues and $41.2 million in federal individual income tax revenues. The net economic benefit of the UMTRA Project to Colorado is $355.1 million. For every dollar the State of Colorado invests in the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.32 in gross labor income. The employment impact to the Western Slope region is significant. The UMTRA Project will create a total employment impact of 13,749 fulltime equivalents (FTES) spread over. a period of 13 years in seven site areas. Nearly 100 percent of the labor will be drawn from the local communities. The State of Colorado's Western Slope is anticipated to be minimally impacted by the phaseout of the UMTRA Project. Unlike industries that shut down operations without warning, the UMTRA Project workers, local government, and businesses know the schedule for completion and can consider and prepare for the impact of UMTRA Project conclusion. Further, because the majority of the work force is local, there has not been a significant investment in each community's infrastructure. Any small increases in the infrastructure will not be abandoned at the end of the UMTRA Project due to a marked increase in migration out of the local community

  19. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of

  20. Evaluation of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations for Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Bock, Andrew R.; Char, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, evaluated the predictive uncertainty of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations representative of natural streamflow conditions in Colorado. This study evaluates the predictive uncertainty of mean-monthly streamflow-regression equations developed in a 2009 U.S. Geological Survey study using streamflow data collected over the entire period of record at each streamgage through calendar year 2013. The study area for this report is limited to the Mountain, Northwest, Rio Grande, and Southwest hydrologic regions of Colorado.

  1. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. 1996 monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites was near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Surface remediation was completed at the Gunnison site in December 1995. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres of wetlands and mitigation of this loss is through the enhancement of 17.8 acres of riparian plant communities in six spring-fed areas on US Bureau of Land Management mitigation sites. A five-year monitoring program was then implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This report provides the results of the third year of the monitoring program.

  3. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  4. Paleomagnetism of clastic dikes along the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, S. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous clastic dikes occur within the Proterozoic basement along nearly 75km of the Front Range of Colorado. These dikes are composed predominately of well-rounded, non-metamorphosed quartz and are red in color due to the abundance of authigenic hematite. The Cambrian Sawatch sandstone is assumed by most studies to be the source of dike sediments due to its similar composition. Despite over a century of study, the origins, age, and emplacement mechanisms of these dikes remain enigmatic. A preliminary paleomagnetic study of the clastic dikes using standard demagnetization techniques indicates the presence of a complex multicomponent magnetization with at least three components. An easterly and moderately steep component residing in hematite was resolved from several dikes and corresponds to an early Cambrian pole position when compared to the apparent polar wander path of North America. An east-southeasterly and shallow magnetization, also residing in hematite, yields a pole of early Paleozoic age. The third component is northwesterly and steep down and is Mesozoic or Cenozoic in age. These results are similar to a previous paleomagnetic study (Kost, MS thesis, Univ. Colorado) in 1984 of different dikes which found poorly defined early and late Paleozoic, as well as Mesozoic-Cenozoic components. Many researchers suggest emplacement occurred during faulting that was associated with either the Ancestral Rockies uplift of the late Paleozoic or the Laramide orogeny of the late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic. The presence of magnetizations of Cambrian age, with subsequent younger remagnetizations, indicates that the emplacement of many of the dikes preceded both of these tectonic events.

  5. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652

  6. The Colorado Plateau and its Role in the Laramide Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The Colorado Plateau is a relatively undeformed region bordered on the south and west by the highly extended Basin and Range province and on the north and east by the towering Laramide uplifts of the Rocky Mountains. Tectonically, the Plateau is a part of the Laramide orogen and contains basement-cored uplifts similar in style to those of the Rocky Mountains but with lower structural and topographic relief. Together, these observations have led some workers to hypothesize that the Plateau is anomalously strong and behaved as a rigid microplate during the Laramide orogeny. Evidence for a fundamental difference between the Plateau and the Rocky Mountains is largely circumstantial however, and is not supported by structural, topographic, geophysical or crustal assemblage data. The gradation in deformational intensity is better explained as the product of northeastward-increasing tectonic force, which is a predictable result of coupling between the North American crust and the flat, northeastward-subducting Farallon slab. Assuming that coupling-related stress and crustal strength are approximately constant, net force (and hence deformational intensity) grow with distance over which the coupling is active resulting in low tectonic force/minor deformation in the hinterland and high force/intense deformation in the foreland just before the subducting slab loses contact with the overriding plate. Minimal deformation of the Colorado Plateau is thus a logical result of its location in the hinterland of the Laramide orogen. Interpreted northeastward translation and clockwise rotation of the Plateau are consistent with a normal along-strike "bow and arrow" orogenic shortening profile and require no special explanation.

  7. On edge melting under the Colorado Plateau margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, Sean; Reid, Mary R.; Blichert-Toft, Janne

    2016-07-01

    Asthenosphere beneath the relatively thin lithosphere of the Basin and Range province appears to be juxtaposed in step-like fashion against the Colorado Plateau's thick lithospheric keel. Primary to near-primary basalts are found above this edge, in the San Francisco-Morman Mountain volcanic fields, north central Arizona, western USA. We show that at least two distinct peridotite-dominated mantle end-members contributed to the origin of the basalts. One has paired Nd and Hf isotopic characteristics that cluster near the mantle array and trace element patterns as expected for melts generated in the asthenosphere, possibly in the presence of garnet. The second has isotopic compositions displaced above the ɛHf - ɛNd mantle array which, together with its particular trace element characteristics, indicate contributions from hydrogenous sediments and/or melt (carbonatite or silicate)-related metasomatism. Melt equilibration temperatures obtained from Si- and Mg-thermobarometry are mostly 1340-1425°C and account for the effects of water (assumed to be 2 wt.%) and estimated CO2 (variable). Melt equilibration depths cluster at the inferred location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ˜70-75 km beneath the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau but scatter to somewhat greater values (˜100 km). Melt generation may have initiated in or below the garnet-spinel facies transition zone by edge-driven convection and continued as mantle and/or melts upwelled, assimilating and sometimes equilibrating with shallower contaminated mantle, until melts were finally extracted.

  8. Contaminants in Waterbirds, Grackles, and Swallows Nesting on the Lower Colorado River, Arizona, 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals were assessed in 106 eggs representing nine avian species nesting at four lower Colorado River...

  9. Development and Adoption of a Watershed Approach to Compensatory Mitigation: Experiences in Colorado and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article, we examine the adoption of the watershed approach and its technical methods into regulatory programs in Colorado and California. Specific steps and motives for the adoption are explained. Through close collaboration, regulators have systematically been made aware...

  10. Mahogany Ledge Digital Structure Contour Lines of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge structure contour lines were needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale...

  11. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  12. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  13. Background Contaminants Evaluation of the Republican River Drainage- Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Republican River Basin is a very large watershed in west-central Kansas, eastern Colorado, Wyoming and southern Nebraska. This study was conducted to determine...

  14. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Bed Structure in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany bed structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009 National...

  15. Raster Dataset Model of the Mahogany Bed Structure in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the Mahogany bed structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009...

  16. 76 FR 43719 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains were removed from near Laguna, Cibola County, NM. This... removed from Maxson site number 121, a rock fall near Laguna, Cibola County, NM, by Asa Maxson,...

  17. Geospatial Dataset of Agricultural Lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007 - 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the extent and spatial distribution of irrigated agricultural lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin for 2007-10. The boundaries in this...

  18. Depth to water in the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado, 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). This grid represents the depth to groundwater in the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado in 2000....

  19. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  20. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil...

  1. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  2. Raster Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Bed in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany bed was needed to perform calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of...

  3. Raster Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  4. Raster Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI GRID raster data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a...

  5. Bedrock Geology of the turkey Creek Drainage Basin, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set describes bedrock geology of the Turkey Creek drainage basin in Jefferson County, Colorado. It was digitized from maps of fault locations...

  6. Cored Cottonwood Tree Sample Cluster Polygons at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector polygon dataset representing the location of sample clusters of cored trees at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  7. Preliminary project proposal : White Ranch Units, Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Colorado Division of Wildlife to purchase the White Ranch property in Saguache County as partial fulfillment...

  8. Master's Level Graduate Training in Medical Physics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the master's degree program in medical physics developed at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Required courses for the program, and requirements for admission are included in the appendices. (HM)

  9. The Base of the Parachute Creek Member Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The base of the Parachute Creek Member outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale...

  10. Raster Dataset Model of Nahcolite Resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ESRI GRID raster datasets were created to display and quantify nahcolite resources for eight oil shale zones in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  11. Oil Shale Core Hole and Rotary Hole Locations in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes and rotary holes in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile, Google...

  12. Reporting Polygons to Summarize Overburden Material Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Reporting polygons were created to display and quantify overburden material above the Mahogany Zone, by PLSS section, in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a...

  13. Colorado River Wildlife Management Area (Green River Easements) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Colorado River Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  14. Oil Shale Core Holes Containing Nahcolite in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes that contain nahcolite in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile,...

  15. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Bed in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany bed was needed to perform calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009...

  16. Field Plot and Observation Points for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 525 field plot and observation locations visited in 2003 and 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project for Colorado National...

  17. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  18. Final unioned files for Yampa coal field resource calculations, northwestern Colorado (yam*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and final unioned polygon coverages used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  19. Colorado geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for developing the geothermal resources of Colorado is detailed. Constraints that are limiting geothermal energy development are described. Area development plans, an institutional analysis, and the outreach program are presented. (MHR)

  20. Tree Transect Starting Locations (Points) at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector point dataset representing the starting location of tree transects at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  1. Digital geospatial datasets in support of hydrologic investigations of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey developed this dataset as part of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (FRIRP). One goal of the FRIRP was to provide...

  2. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jones, A. [IBACOS, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This report explores the correlation between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders by examining a data set of builders and homes in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, market between 2006 and 2014. During this time, the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009 occurred, and new-home sales plummeted both nationally and in Colorado Springs. What is evident from an analysis of builders and homes in Colorado Springs is that builders who had Home Energy Rating System (HERS) ratings performed on some or all of their homes during the Recession remained in business during this challenging economic period. Many builders who did not have HERS ratings performed on their homes at that time went out of business or left the area. From the analysis presented in this report, it is evident that a correlation exists between energy efficiency and the business success of home builders, although the reasons for this correlation remain largely anecdotal and not yet clearly understood.

  3. [Draft] Environmental Impact Statement : San Luis Valley Project : Colorado Closed Basin Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Closed Basin Division, San Luis Valley Project, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, is a multipurpose water resource plan designated to salvage and deliver...

  4. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  5. Costs and Savings Associated With Community Water Fluoridation Programs in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. O’Connell, PhD

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Local, state, and national health policy makers require information on the economic burden of oral disease and the cost-effectiveness of oral health programs to set policies and allocate resources. In this study, we estimate the cost savings associated with community water fluoridation programs (CWFPs in Colorado and potential cost savings if Colorado communities without fluoridation programs or naturally high fluoride levels were to implement CWFPs. Methods We developed an economic model to compare the costs associated with CWFPs with treatment savings achieved through averted tooth decay. Treatment savings included those associated with direct medical costs and indirect nonmedical costs (i.e., patient time spent on dental visit. We estimated program costs and treatment savings for each water system in Colorado in 2003 dollars. We obtained parameter estimates from published studies, national surveys, and other sources. We calculated net costs for Colorado water systems with existing CWFPs and potential net costs for systems without CWFPs. The analysis includes data for 172 public water systems in Colorado that serve populations of 1000 individuals or more. We used second-order Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the inherent uncertainty of the model assumptions on the results and report the 95% credible range from the simulation model. Results We estimated that Colorado CWFPs were associated with annual savings of $148.9 million (credible range, $115.1 million to $187.2 million in 2003, or an average of $60.78 per person (credible range, $46.97 to $76.41. We estimated that Colorado would save an additional $46.6 million (credible range, $36.0 to $58.6 million annually if CWFPs were implemented in the 52 water systems without such programs and for which fluoridation is recommended. Conclusion Colorado realizes significant annual savings from CWFPs; additional savings and reductions in morbidity could be achieved if fluoridation

  6. Assessment of Human-Coyote Conflicts: City and County of Broomfield, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Stan; Young, Julie; Riley, Seth

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2011, the Anthem Highlands neighborhood of the City and County of Broomfield (Broomfield), Colorado experienced multiple serious incidents between humans and coyotes. Broomfield has a detailed policy about coexisting with wildlife in general, and coyotes in particular, that includes extensive public education and outreach. Because of the serious nature of the incidents, the Colorado Division of Parks and Wildlife, with assistance from USDA-Wildlife Services and in collaborati...

  7. Record of Decision Colorado River Interim Surplus Guidelines Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Secretary of the Department of the Interior

    2001-01-01

    This document constitutes the Record of Decision (ROD) of the Department of the Interior, regarding the preferred alternative for Colorado River Interim Surplus Guidelines (Guidelines). The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) is vested with the responsibility of managing the mainstream waters of the lower Colorado River pursuant to federal law. This responsibility is carried out consistent with applicable federal law. Reclamation, as the agency that is designated to act on the Secretary’s b...

  8. Comparative analysis of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) resistance monitoring methods

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Slađan; Zabel Anton; Kostić Miodrag; Šestović Milorad

    2003-01-01

    Insecticide efficacy for Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) control rapidly decreases due to development of resistance. Resistance causes harmful impact to both, economy and ecology. Resistance monitoring has one of the most important roles in avoiding these problems. Early detection and resistance monitoring could prolong use of insecticides. Standard laboratory methods (impregnated filter papers, insect dipping glass surface spraying and topical application) for Colorado...

  9. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  10. Revealing Differences Between Curricula Using the Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Zwolak, Justyna P.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics (CUE) Diagnostic is an exam developed as part of the curriculum reform at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). It was designed to assess conceptual learning within upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M). Using the CUE, we have been documenting students' understanding of E&M at Oregon State University (OSU) over a period of 5 years. Our analysis indicates that the CUE identifies concepts that are generally difficult for students, regardle...

  11. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, D.; Lantz, E.

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  12. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Beard, L. Sue; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  13. 海南坡鹿栖息地的外来植物调查%Field Survey of Alien Plants in Habitats of Hainan Eld's Deer ( Cervus eldi hainanus )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符明利; 吴琳琳; 侯荣; 林思亮

    2012-01-01

    Hainan Eld's deer ( Cervus eldi hainanus ) is a national - level protected species and endemic to China. The stability and development of Eld's deer habitats play a significant role in population growth. Alien invasive plants can affect habitats ir- reversibly over long time periods. We surveyed the alien plants in Hainan Datian National Nature Reserve, where Hainan Eld's deer occur, using line transects and quadrats from 2009 to 2011. We recorded 115 alien plant species of 40 families and 95 genera. Among these, 80 herbs accounted for 70% and most are tropical species, 50% were introduced from the Americas and were mainly distributed in grasslands. The widely distributed alien plants impact the abundance and distribution of native spe- cies and may have a negative effect on Eld's deer food resource in future. We make several recommendations for effective man- agement and conservation. Our survey results can provide a basis for maintaining the stability of Hainan Eld's deer habitat.%海南坡鹿是中国特有的国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生动物,其栖息地的稳定和发展对该物种种群有重要意义。潜在的外来入侵植物会对栖息地产生长期不可恢复的影响。因此,我们于2009—2011年采用样方调查和线路调查相结合的方法对海南坡鹿的栖息地海南大田国家级自然保护区内的外来植物进行了调查,共记录外来植物40科95属115种。其中,草本植物80种,占总物种数的69.6%;不论从科区系还是属区系上看,外来植物的区系分布都具有热带性;50.4%的外来植物产自美洲,在草地中分布最多。保护区内分布广泛的外来植物已对乡土物种产生一定的影响,也将可能对坡鹿的食物资源产生不利影响。根据调查结果,我们提出了一些保护管理建议。

  14. A Dreissena Risk Assessment for the Colorado River Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Nonnative zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, respectively; see photo above) were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in the 1980s and subsequently spread to watersheds of the Eastern United States (Strayer and others, 1999). The introduction of Dreissena mussels has been economically costly and has had large and far-reaching ecological impacts on these systems. Quagga mussels were found in Lakes Mead and Havasu in January 2007. Given the likelihood that quagga mussels and, eventually, zebra mussels will be introduced to Lake Powell and the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, it is important to assess the risks that introduction of Dreissena mussels pose to the Colorado River ecosystem (here defined as the segment of river from just below Glen Canyon Dam to Diamond Creek; hereafter CRE). In this report, I assess three different types of risks associated with Dreissena and the CRE: (1) the risk that Dreissena will establish at high densities in the CRE, (2) the risk of ecological impacts should Dreissena establish at high densities in the CRE or in Lake Powell, and (3) the risk that Dreissena will be introduced to tributaries of the CRE. The risk of Dreissena establishing within the CRE is low, except for the Lees Ferry tailwater reach where the risk appears high. Dreissena are unlikely to establish at high densities within the CRE or its tributaries because of high suspended sediment, high ratios of suspended inorganic:organic material, and high water velocities, all of which interfere with the ability of Dreissena to effectively filter feed. The rapids of Grand Canyon may represent a large source of mortality to larval Dreissena, which would limit their ability to disperse and colonize downstream reaches of the CRE. In contrast, conditions within the Lees Ferry tailwater generally appear suitable for Dreissena establishment, with the exception of high average water velocity. If Dreissena establish within the

  15. Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) documented in colorado based on recordings of its distinctive echolocation call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.A.; Navo, K.W.; Bonewell, L.; Mosch, C.J.; Adams, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Allen's big-eared bat (Idionycteris phyllotis) inhabits much of the southwestern USA, but has not been documented in Colorado. We recorded echolocation calls consistent with I. phyllotis near La Sal Creek, Montrose County, Colorado. Based on characteristics of echolocation calls and flight behavior, we conclude that the echolocation calls described here were emitted by I. phyllotis and that they represent the first documentation of this species in Colorado.

  16. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1983-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, in the Front Range west of Denver, Colorado, is the largest vein-type uranium deposit in the United States. The deposit is situated in a steeply dipping fault system that cuts Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The host rocks represent a submarine volcanic system with associated chert and iron- and sulfide-rich pelitic rocks. Where faulted, the more competent garnetiferous and quartzitic units behaved brittlely and created a deep, narrow conduit. The ores formed 70-72 m.y. ago beneath 3 km of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Mineralization included two episodes of alteration and three stages of vein-mineralization. Early carbonate-sericite alteration pseudomorphically replaced mafic minerals, whereas the ensuing hematite-adularia episode replaced only the earlier alteration assemblage. Early vein mineralization produced a minor sulfide-adularia-carbonate assemblage. Later vein mineralization generated the uranium ores in two successive stages. Carbonates, sulfides, and adularia filled the remaining voids. Clastic dikes composed of fault gouge and, locally, ore were injected into new and existing fractures. Geologic and chemical evidence suggest that virtually all components of the deposit were derived from major hornblende gneiss units and related rocks. The initial fluids were evolved connate/metamorphic water that infiltrated and resided along the extensive fault zones. Complex fault movements in the frontal zone of the eastern Front Range caused the fluids to migrate to the most permeable segments of the fault zones. Heat was supplied by increased crustal heat flow related to igneous activity in the nearby Colorado mineral belt. Temperatures decreased from 225?C to 125?C during later mineralization, and the pressure episodically dropped from 1000 bars. The CO2 fugacity was initially near 100 bars, and uranium was carried as a dicarbonate complex. Sudden decreases in confining pressure during fault movement caused evolution of CO2

  17. Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1986-01-01

    of a population are difficult to detect locally. Contemporary issues in the conservation of native species demand regional and continental perspectives (Samson and Knopf 1982). Thus, management activities at specific sites are often viewed as short-sighted by planners and conservation critics. This paper illustrates how these contemporary theories can influence a local conservation perspective. That perspective is developed around historical processes that have led to cosmopolitism of the local avifauna on the Colorado Division of Wildlife's South Platte Wildlife Management Area (SPWMA) near Crook, Colorado.

  18. Colorado Yule Marble; building stone of the Lincoln Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elaine S.

    1999-01-01

    The Colorado Yule marble, quarried in Marble, Colo., is a very pure white marble, and it has been widely acclaimed for its quality and purity. This marble has been used for many prominent buildings; one of the most notable is the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., built nearly 80 years ago. Although most of the marble in the memorial appears to be in very good condition, some of the stones have developed pronounced surficial roughness and show a significant loss of carved details and rounded edges compared with adjacent stones. Because adjacent blocks of marble receive nearly identical exposure to weathering agents that cause deterioration of the marble, it seems very likely that this pronounced difference in durability of adjacent stones arises from some inherent characteristic of the marble. The Colorado Yule marble is a nearly pure calcite marble with minor inclusions of mica, quartz, and feldspar. Compositions of the calcite and the inclusion phases in the marble are typical for those phases. The calcite grains that compose the marble are irregularly shaped and range from 100 to 600 micrometers in diameter. The texture of the marble is even, with a slight preferred directional elongation that is visible when the marble is cut in certain directions. Physical tests of the marble show that its strength is comparable to that of other marbles typically used in buildings. Variations in the durability of the marble, like those seen at the Lincoln Memorial, are not related to variations in calcite composition or to the presence of inclusions in the marble. Most likely, the variations arise from differences in the calcite grain boundaries and the degree to which the grains interlock with one another. Weak grain boundaries that permit water or solutions to penetrate into the marble and dissolve the calcite grains at their edges cause the marble to disaggregate or ?sugar.? Subtle differences in texture that occur in the marble from various parts of the quarry probably

  19. Simulating the potential effects of climate change in two Colorado basins and at two Colorado ski areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.; Hay, L.; Markstrom, S.

    2011-01-01

    The mountainous areas of Colorado are used for tourism and recreation, and they provide water storage and supply for municipalities, industries, and agriculture. Recent studies suggest that water supply and tourist industries such as skiing are at risk from climate change. In this study, a distributed-parameter watershed model, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), is used to identify the potential effects of future climate on hydrologic conditions for two Colorado basins, the East River at Almont and the Yampa River at Steamboat Springs, and at the subbasin scale for two ski areas within those basins. Climate-change input files for PRMS were generated by modifying daily PRMS precipitation and temperature inputs with mean monthly climate-change fields of precipitation and temperature derived from five general circulation model (GCM) simulations using one current and three future carbon emission scenarios. All GCM simulations of mean daily minimum and maximum air temperature for the East and Yampa River basins indicate a relatively steady increase of up to several degrees Celsius from baseline conditions by 2094. GCM simulations of precipitation in the two basins indicate little change or trend in precipitation, but there is a large range associated with these projections. PRMS projections of basin mean daily streamflow vary by scenario but indicate a central tendency toward slight decreases, with a large range associated with these projections. Decreases in water content or changes in the spatial extent of snowpack in the East and Yampa River basins are important because of potential adverse effects on water supply and recreational activities. PRMS projections of each future scenario indicate a central tendency for decreases in basin mean snow-covered area and snowpack water equivalent, with the range in the projected decreases increasing with time. However, when examined on a monthly basis, the projected decreases are most dramatic during fall and

  20. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  1. Geology of the Pine Mountain quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Pine Mountain quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over mush of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in sizer from irregular masses containing only a few ton of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  2. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  3. Geology of the Red Canyon quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, E.J.; Jobin, D.A.

    1953-01-01

    The Red Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium, minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  4. Geology of the Paradox quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withington, C.F.

    1954-01-01

    The Paradox quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation, Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  5. Geology of the Atkinson Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, E.J.

    1953-01-01

    The Atkinson Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that rangein age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Bath". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstone of favorable composition.

  6. Geology of the Roc Creek quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.

    1954-01-01

    The Roc Creek quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan mineral belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary in sandstones of favorable composition.

  7. Geology of the Juanita Arch quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.

    1954-01-01

    The Juanita Arch quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore ro large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstone of favorable construction.

  8. Geology of the Uravan quadrangle, Montrose county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Butler, A.P.; McKay, E.J.; Boardman, Robert L.

    1954-01-01

    The Uravan quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to the related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  9. Geology of the Calamity Mesa quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Stager, Harold K.

    1953-01-01

    The Calamity Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks the range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  10. Geology of the Gateway quadrangle, Mesa county Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gateway quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  11. Paper 5944 Changing Climates @ Colorado State: It's Everybody's Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Denning, S.; Betsill, M.; Klein, J. A.; Fiege, M.

    2014-12-01

    With the help of faculty from all eight colleges, twenty-seven departments, and numerous other entities on and off the Colorado State University campus, this education and outreach initiative is based on the premises that climate change is everybody's business and that everyone has something to offer in meeting its challenges. Beginning in 2007, CC@CSU has organized some 120 talks to audiences totaling some 6,000, helping inform the student body and community and catalyzing relationships among faculty and researchers across campus. It has offered communication coaching to scientists (and others) who want to translate their expertise for the public. And it has developed a multidisciplinary website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) with over 450 annotated entries, all college-level content, primer-level clarity, on topics that include climate science and ecology, economics and emotions, ethics and policy, communication and activism, paleoclimate and human history, and much more. This presentation will address the basic questions of why, who, how, what, for whom, and so what, concluding with some of the key lessons learned about communicating across disciplinary boundaries on this important subject.

  12. Analysis of Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, R.; Kutscher, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports that, currently, most utilities in the state of Colorado are subject to the 20% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) passed by voters in 2004 and expanded by the state legislature in 2007. However, because of bonuses and exemptions written into the law, the true required renewable energy penetration is only 12.3%, making the law less then adequate for addressing climate change. The study aims to assess the real renewable energy and carbon impacts of the current RPS and investigates the benefits of increasing the RPS to true 20% and 30% values. A user input-driven predictive Excel model was developed to find the proper technology spread, electrical outputs, and carbon reduction for each RPS. It was found that while all the RPS variants are technically feasible based on available renewable resources, only the 30% RPS meets the carbon reductions that are thought necessary to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. The report then comments on the results and what RPS percentage will be the most acceptable avenue.

  13. An ecosystem approach to combat desertification on the Colorado Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Amanda

    2004-12-01

    Desertification of shrub and grassland into pinyon-juniper woodland is occurring over much of the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. As trees invade, they out-compete shrubs and grasses, increasing erosion rates and reducing infiltration of moisture into the soil. This has caused habitat problems for wildlife, and reduced forage for livestock. These impacts also affect the human communities that rely on ranching and tourism related to hunting. Past land use and management practices including heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression and introduction of exotic annual plants are believed to have led to current conditions. The Montrose office of the Bureau of Land Management has implemented an ecosystem-based program to reverse the desertification process on public land. The program is centered on detailed landscape objectives describing the desired vegetation mosaic on 360,000 ha of public land. The objectives outline proportions of plant seral stages and arrays of patch sizes for each planning unit. These objectives are based on priority management issues and the need to replicate a natural vegetation mosaic. Where the existing mosaic does not meet objectives, mechanical vegetation treatments and prescribed fire are used to create early and mid-seral patches on the ground. This restored vegetation pattern and type should be sustained over time through a natural fire regime and improved livestock management. Because many uncertainties exist, an adaptive management process is being used that allows mosaic objectives to be changed or processes modified where monitoring or scientific research indicate a need. PMID:15641385

  14. Hydrology of coal-lease areas near Durango, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tom

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management leases Federal lands and minerals for coal mining near Durango, Colorado. This report addresses the hydrologic suitability of those lands for coal leasing; the report describes the general hydrology of the Durango area and, more specifically, the hydrology of the Stollsteimer Creek study area 32 miles east of the Durango and the Hay Gulch study area, 12 miles southwest of Durango. The most productive aquifers in the Durango study area are Quaternary alluvium and the tertiary Animas Formation. Water wells completed in alluvium typically yield 5 to 20 gallons/min; wells completed is the Animas Formation yield as much as 50 gallons/min. Water quality in these aquifers is variable, but it generally is suitable for domestic use. The coal-bearing Cretaceous Fruitland and Menefee Formations are mined by surface methods at the Chimney Rock Mine in the Stollsteimer Creek study area and by underground methods at the National King Coal Mine in the Hay Gulch study area. Effects of surface mining in the Stollsteimer Creek area are: (1) Dewatering of an alluvial aquifer; and (2) Local degradation of alluvium water quality by spoil-pile effluent. Effects of underground mining in the Hay Gulch area are: (1) Introduction of water with greater dissolved-solids concentrations into the upper Hay Gulch alluvium from mine runoff; (2) Subsidence fracturing which could dewater streams and the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

  15. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  16. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  17. Introduction: CRevolution 2: origin and evolution of the Colorado River System II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Beard, L. Sue; House, Kyle; Young, Richard A.; Aslan, Andres; Billingsley, George; Pederson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium held in Flagstaff, Arizona, in May 2010, had 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built on two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus where possible, while also articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau–Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift, with consensus that multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology are needed to test the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forcings in shaping the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences, and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in the shaping landscape of elevated plateaus.

  18. Climate change and changes in sediment transport capacity in the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Information is presented on changes in the sediment transport capacity of streams of the Colorado Plateau region of the United States. The changes in transport capacity may be due to changes in climate. Changes in the ability of three rivers in the Colorado Plateau to transport sediment were investigated (Paria River at Lees Ferry, Arizona; Sevier River at Hatch, Utah; and Little Colorado at Woodruff, Arizona) using an index to sediment transport potential (or capacity) of the rivers. The index is called a Sediment Transport Capacity Index (STCI). The parameters in the index are calibrated to measured sediment concentrations. Other investigators have postulated that there have been three climate regimes in the Colorado Plateau during the 20th century: 1905-1941, 1942-1977 and 1978-1998. Time series analyses of the STCI showed reasonably clearly that there was a change in the climate about 1941 and a high probability of a change about 1923-1929. The STCI time series for the Sevier River had the expected pattern because the STCI increased in the years following 1997 nearly to the pre-1942 values from lower 1942-1977 values. The Little Colorado River showed a similar pattern, but not nearly to the magnitude suggested by the change in precipitation. The STCI for the Paria River essentially did not change. Changes in sediment transport also are investigated in the lower San Juan River where alterations in the sediment balance of the river may be due to variations in the character of summer precipitation.

  19. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  20. Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to change: Climate, ecosystems, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Belnap, J.; Bowling, David R.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau is located in the interior, dry end of two moisture trajectories coming from opposite directions, which have made this region a target for unusual climate fluctuations. A multidecadal drought event some 850 years ago may have eliminated maize cultivation by the first human settlers of the Colorado Plateau, the Fremont and Anasazi people, and contributed to the abandonment of their settlements. Even today, ranching and farming are vulnerable to drought and struggle to persist. The recent use of the Colorado Plateau primarily as rangeland has made this region less tolerant to drought due to unprecedented levels of surface disturbances that destroy biological crusts, reduce soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, and increase rates of soil erosion. The most recent drought of 2002 demonstrated the vulnerability of the Colorado Plateau in its currently depleted state and the associated costs to the local economies. New climate predictions for the southwestern United States include the possibility of a long-term shift to warmer, more arid conditions, punctuated by megadroughts not seen since medieval times. It remains to be seen whether the present-day extractive industries, aided by external subsidies, can persist in a climate regime that apparently exceeded the adaptive capacities of the Colorado Plateau's prehistoric agriculturalists.

  1. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  2. A class III archaeological survey of twelve region wide fencing upgrade locations in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, Jackson, Moffat, Pitkin, and Routt counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Department of Transportation proposes to upgrade existing right-of-way fencing along roadways at twelve separate locations in northwestern Colorado. To...

  3. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. DOE responses to comments from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains responses by the US Department of Energy to comments from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on the Naturita remedial action plan. This was done in an attempt to clarify information. The site is an inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

  4. 78 FR 46521 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second 10-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... for the Colorado Springs area for the carbon monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standard... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Second 10-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental...

  5. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for...

  6. 78 FR 71550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... 1990. See 56 FR 56694, 56705, 56736 (November 6, 1991). EPA partially/conditionally approved Colorado's nonattainment area SIP for the Telluride PM 10 nonattainment area on September 19, 1994 (59 FR 47807) and fully approved the SIP on October 4, 1996 (61 FR 51784). On May 10, 2000, the Governor of Colorado submitted...

  7. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Colorado Springs AGENCY: Environmental...

  8. 78 FR 57496 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    .... See 56 FR 56694, 56705, 56736 (November 6, 1991). EPA fully approved Colorado's nonattainment area SIP for the Aspen area on September 14, 1994 (59 FR 47088). On November 9, 2001, the Governor of Colorado... plan and redesignation to attainment on May 15, 2003 (68 FR 26212). Eight years after an area...

  9. Rural Poverty and the Law in Southern Colorado. American Bar Foundation Series on Legal Services for the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Legal problems of the rural poor in 2 counties of southern Colorado (Conejos and Costilla) are examined in this 1970 report. The empirical research for this project consisted of 3 phases: (1) determination (by questionnaire) of attitudes of rural Colorado attorneys toward the legal problems of the indigenous poor; (2) the use of unstructured…

  10. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... on December 9, 2011, with the publication of a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (76 FR 77008... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft... Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendment and Draft Environmental...

  11. Childhood Obesity in Colorado: A Growing Problem--The Impact of the Epidemic and Recommendations for Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tara

    2007-01-01

    Colorado traditionally has ranked as one of the healthiest states in the nation, a claim that reinforces a culture of activity, community and well-being. Though Colorado is ahead of the curve in this area, Coloradans aren't immune to the growing trends that threaten the health of people across the nation. One of the most concerning elements of…

  12. Mercury dynamics in the Rocky Mountain, Colorado, snowpack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was monitored at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site (Colorado, USA, 40° N from interstitial air extracted from the snowpack at depths ranging from the snow surface to 10 cm above the soil. A highly dynamic cycling of mercury (Hg in this mid-latitude snowpack was observed. Patterns were driven by both GEM production in surface snow and GEM destruction in the deeper snowpack layers. Thorough mixing and vertical transport processes were observed through the snowpack. GEM was photochemically produced near the snow-air interface throughout the entire winter, leading to enhanced GEM levels in interstitial air of surface snow of up to 8 ng m−3. During low-wind periods, GEM in surface snow layers remained significantly above ambient air levels at night as well, which may indicate a potential weak GEM production overnight. Analyses of vertical GEM gradients in the snowpack show that surface GEM enhancements efficiently propagated down the snowpack, with a temporal lag in peak GEM levels observed with increasing depth. Downward diffusion was responsible for much of these patterns, although vertical advection also contributed to vertical redistribution. Destruction of GEM in the lower snowpack layers was attributed to dark oxidation of GEM. Analysis of vertical GEM / CO2 flux ratios indicated that this GEM destruction occurred in the snow and not in the underlying soil. The strong, diurnal patterns of photochemical GEM production at the surface ultimately lead to re-emission losses of deposited Hg back to the atmosphere. The NWT data show that highest GEM surface production and re-emissions occur shortly after fresh snowfall, which possibly resupplies photoreducible Hg to the snowpack, and that photochemical GEM reduction is not radiation-limited as it is strong even on cloudy days.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Cortez quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J A

    1982-09-01

    Six stratigraphic units are recognized as favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy in the Cortez 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. These units include the Jurassic Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation and the Entrada Sandstone, the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Permian Cutler Formation. Four areas are judged favorable for the Morrison members which include the Slick Rock, Montezuma Canyon, Cottonwood Wash and Hatch districts. The criteria used to determine favorability include the presence of the following (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox Basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Two areas of favorability are recognized for the Chinle Formation. These areas include the Abajo Mountain and Aneth-Ute Mountain areas. The criteria used to determine favorability include the sandstone-to-mudstone ratio for the Chinle Formation and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Two favorable areas are recognized for the Cutler Formation. Both of these areas are along the northern border of the quadrangle between the Abajo Mountains and the Dolores River Canyon area. Two areas are judged favorable for the Entrada Sandstone. One area is in the northeast corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district and the second is along the eastern border of the quadrangle on the southeast flank of the La Plata Mountains.

  14. 1997 Monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado Wetlands Mitigation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cleaned up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination near the town of Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) (1.7 hectares [ha]) of wetlands. This loss is mitigated by the enhancement of six spring-fed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land (mitigation sites). Approximately 254 ac (1 03.3 ha) were fenced at the six sites to exclude grazing livestock. Of the 254 ac (103.3 ha), 17.8 ac (7.2 ha) are riparian plant communities; the rest are sagebrush communities. Baseline grazed conditions of the riparian plant communities at the mitigation sites were measured prior to fencing. This report discusses results of the fourth year of a monitoring program implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. Three criteria for determining success of the mitigation were established: plant height, vegetation density (bare ground), and vegetation diversity. By 1996, Prospector Spring, Upper Long`s Gulch, and Camp Kettle met the criteria. The DOE requested transfer of these sites to BLM for long-term oversight. The 1997 evaluation of the three remaining sites, discussed in this report, showed two sites (Houston Gulch and Lower Long`s Gulch) meet the criteria. The DOE will request the transfer of these two sites to the BLM for long-term oversight. The last remaining site, Sage Hen Spring, has met only two of the criteria (percent bare ground and plant height). The third criterion, vegetation diversity, was not met. The vegetation appears to be changing from predominantly wet species to drier upland species, although the reason for this change is uncertain. It may be due to below-normal precipitation in recent years, diversion of water from the spring to the stock tank, or manipulation of the hydrology farther up gradient.

  15. Observations of two sprite-producing storms in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Lyons, Walter A.; Cummer, Steven A.; Fuchs, Brody R.; Dolan, Brenda; Rutledge, Steven A.; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Stanley, Mark; Ashcraft, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Two sprite-producing thunderstorms were observed on 8 and 25 June 2012 in northeastern Colorado by a combination of low-light cameras, a lightning mapping array, polarimetric and Doppler radars, the National Lightning Detection Network, and charge moment change measurements. The 8 June event evolved from a tornadic hailstorm to a larger multicellular system that produced 21 observed positive sprites in 2 h. The majority of sprites occurred during a lull in convective strength, as measured by total flash rate, flash energy, and radar echo volume. Mean flash area spiked multiple times during this period; however, total flash rates still exceeded 60 min-1, and portions of the storm featured a complex anomalous charge structure, with midlevel positive charge near -20°C. The storm produced predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning. All sprite-parent flashes occurred on the northeastern flank of the storm, where strong westerly upper level flow was consistent with advection of charged precipitation away from convection, providing a pathway for stratiform lightning. The 25 June event was another multicellular hailstorm with an anomalous charge structure that produced 26 positive sprites in less than 1 h. The sprites again occurred during a convective lull, with relatively weaker reflectivity and lower total flash rate but relatively larger mean flash area. However, all sprite parents occurred in or near convection and tapped charge layers in adjacent anvil cloud. The results demonstrate the sprite production by convective ground strokes in anomalously charged storms and also indicate that sprite production and convective vigor are inversely related in mature storms.

  16. Reclamation studies on oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.W.; Redente, E.F.

    1980-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Some of the more significant results are: (1) a soil cover of at least 61 cm in conjunction with a capiallary barrier provided the best combination of treatments for the establishment of vegetation and a functional microbial community, (2) aboveground production values for native and introduced species mixtures are comparable after three growing seasons, (3) cover values for native species mixtures are generally greater than for introduced species, (4) native seed mixtures, in general, allow greater invasion to occur, (5) sewage sludge at relatively low rates appears to provide the most beneficial overall effect on plant growth, (6) cultural practices, such as irrigated and mulching have significant effects on both above- and belowground ecosystem development, (7) topsoil storage after 1.5 years does not appear to significantly affect general microbial activities but does reduce the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil at shallow depths, (8) populations of mycorrhizal fungi are decreased on severely disturbed soils if a cover of vegetation is not established, (9) significant biological differences among ecotypes of important shrub species have been identified, (10) a vegetation model is outlined which upon completion will enable the reclamation specialist to predict the plant species combinations best adapted to specific reclamation sites, and (11) synthetic strains of two important grass species are close to development which will provide superior plant materials for reclamation in the West.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry and simulated solute transport, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Saulnier, George J.

    1980-01-01

    Oil-shale mining activities in Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado could adversely affect the ground- and surface-water quality in the basin. This study of the hydrology and geochemistry of the area used groundwater solute-transport-modeling techniques to investigate the possible impact of the mines on water quality. Maps of the extent and structure of the aquifer were prepared and show that a saturated thickness of 2,000 feet occurs in the northeast part of the basin. Ground-water recharge in the upland areas in the east, south, and west parts of the basin moves down into deeper zones in the aquifer and laterally to the discharge areas along Piceance and Yellow Creeks. The saline zone and the unsaturated zone provide the majority of the dissolved solids found in the ground water. Precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions are also occurring in the aquifer. Model simulations of groundwater pumpage in tracts C-a and C-b indicate that the altered direction of groundwater movement near the pumped mines will cause an improvement in groundwater quality near the mines and a degradation of water quality downgradient from the tracts. Model simulations of mine leaching in tract C-a and C-b indicate that equal rates of mine leaching in the tracts will produce much different effects on the water quality in the basin. Tract C-a, by virtue of its remote location from perennial streams, will primarily degrade the groundwater quality over a large area to the northeast of the tract. Tract C-b, by contrast, will primarily degrade the surface-water quality in Piceance Creek, with only localized effects on the groundwater quality. (USGS)

  18. Molybdenite in the Montezuma District of central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuerburg, George J.; Botinelly, Theodore; Watterson, John R.

    1974-01-01

    The Montezuma mining district, in the Colorado mineral belt, is defined by an assemblage of porphyry, ore, and altered rocks that originated in the venting of a Tertiary batholith through weak structures in Precambrian rocks. The ore consists of silver-lead-zinc veins clustered on the propylitic fringe of a geometrically complex system of altered rocks, which is centered on the intersection of the Oligocene Montezuma stock with the Montezuma shear zone of Precambrian ancestry. Alteration chemistry conforms to the standard porphyry-metal model but is developed around several small intrusives strung out along the shear zone and is expressed as a mottled pattern, rather than as the usual thick concentric zones centered on one large plug. The distribution of trace amounts of molybdenite is consistent with the postulate of molybdenite deposits in the district, but the mottled alteration pattern may signify small and scattered, possibly very deep, deposits. Disseminated molybdenite is essentially coextensive with altered rock and increases slightly in quantity toward the inner alteration zones. Two groups of molybdenite veins, associated with phyllic and potassic alteration, represent possible diffuse halos of molybdenite deposits. One group of veins resembles the Climax and Henderson deposits but was seen only in a small and isolated area of outcrops. The second group of molybdenite veins is in a bismuth-rich part of the Montezuma stock and underlies an area of bismuth veins; this group records the passage of contact metasomatic ore fluids. Another bismuth-rich area is in the southeast corner of the stock in a region of bismuth veins and may indicate a third group of molybdenite veins.

  19. Mercury dynamics in the Rocky Mountain, Colorado, snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faïn, X.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Obrist, D.; Williams, M. W.

    2013-06-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was monitored at the Niwot Ridge (NWT) Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Colorado, USA, 40° N) from interstitial air extracted from the snowpack at depths ranging from the snow surface to 10 cm above the soil. A highly dynamic cycling of mercury (Hg) in this mid-latitude snowpack was observed. Patterns were driven by both GEM production in surface snow and GEM destruction in the deeper snowpack layers. Thorough mixing and vertical transport processes were observed through the snowpack. GEM was photochemically produced near the snow-air interface throughout the entire winter, leading to enhanced GEM levels in interstitial air of surface snow of up to 8 ng m-3. During low-wind periods, GEM in surface snow layers remained significantly above ambient air levels at night as well, which may indicate a potential weak GEM production overnight. Analyses of vertical GEM gradients in the snowpack show that surface GEM enhancements efficiently propagated down the snowpack, with a temporal lag in peak GEM levels observed with increasing depth. Downward diffusion was responsible for much of these patterns, although vertical advection also contributed to vertical redistribution. Destruction of GEM in the lower snowpack layers was attributed to dark oxidation of GEM. Analysis of vertical GEM / CO2 flux ratios indicated that this GEM destruction occurred in the snow and not in the underlying soil. The strong, diurnal patterns of photochemical GEM production at the surface ultimately lead to re-emission losses of deposited Hg back to the atmosphere. The NWT data show that highest GEM surface production and re-emissions occur shortly after fresh snowfall, which possibly resupplies photoreducible Hg to the snowpack, and that photochemical GEM reduction is not radiation-limited as it is strong even on cloudy days.

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Cortez quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six stratigraphic units are recognized as favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy in the Cortez 10 x 20 Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. These units include the Jurassic Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation and the Entrada Sandstone, the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Permian Cutler Formation. Four areas are judged favorable for the Morrison members which include the Slick Rock, Montezuma Canyon, Cottonwood Wash and Hatch districts. The criteria used to determine favorability include the presence of the following (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox Basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Two areas of favorability are recognized for the Chinle Formation. These areas include the Abajo Mountain and Aneth-Ute Mountain areas. The criteria used to determine favorability include the sandstone-to-mudstone ratio for the Chinle Formation and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Two favorable areas are recognized for the Cutler Formation. Both of these areas are along the northern border of the quadrangle between the Abajo Mountains and the Dolores River Canyon area. Two areas are judged favorable for the Entrada Sandstone. One area is in the northeast corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district and the second is along the eastern border of the quadrangle on the southeast flank of the La Plata Mountains

  1. "Actionable" Climate Scenarios for Natural Resource Managers in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, I.; Rondeau, R.; Wyborn, C.

    2014-12-01

    Locally relevant projections of climate change provide critical insights for natural resource managers seeking to adapt their management activities to climate change. To provide such information, we developed narrative scenarios of future climate change and its impacts on different ecosystems in southwestern Colorado. This multi-institution and trans-disciplinary project seeks to provide useful and useable knowledge to facilitate climate change adaptation in the context of uncertainty. The narratives are intended to provide detailed insights into the range of changes that natural resource managers may face in the future. These scenarios were developed in an iterative process through interactions between ecologists, social and climate scientists. In our scenario development process, climate uncertainty is acknowledged by having multiple scenarios, where each scenario is regarded as a storyline with equal probability as another scenario. Rather than a qualitative narration of the general direction of change and range in responses, we quantified changes in several decision relevant climate and ecological responses based on our best available understanding and provided a tight storyline for each scenario to facilitate (a) a more augmented use of scientific information in a decision-making process, (b) differential responses from stakeholders across the different scenarios, and (c) identification of strategies that could work across these multiple scenarios. This presentation will discuss the process of selecting the scenarios, quantifying climate and ecological responses, and the criteria for building the narrative for each scenario. We will also cover the process by which these scenarios get used, and how the user feedbacks are integrated in further developing the tools and processes.

  2. Quantifying atmospheric nitrogen outflow from the Front Range of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, J. A.; Eilerman, S. J.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Nowak, J. B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Thompson, C. R.; Trainer, M.; Veres, P. R.; Wild, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere from urban, industrial, and agricultural sources can be transported and deposited far from the source regions, affecting vegetation, soils, and water of sensitive ecosystems. Mitigation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition requires emissions characterization and quantification. Ammonia (NH3), a full suite of gas-phase oxidized nitrogen compounds, and particulate matter were measured from an aircraft that flew downwind from concentrated animal feeding operations, oil and gas extraction facilities, and urban areas along the Colorado Front Range in March and April 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. Additionally, NH3 measurements from a fully instrumented aircraft that flew over the same region in July and August 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) are used to examine atmospheric nitrogen emission and transport. Cross-wind plume transects and altitude profiles were performed over the source regions and 60-240 km downwind. Plumes were transported in the boundary layer with large NH3 mixing ratios (typically 20-100 ppbv) and were tens of km wide. The NH3 in these plumes provided an atmospheric nitrogen burden greater than 0.2 kg N/ha. Nitrogen oxides and their oxidation products and particulate matter were also enhanced in the plumes, but with concentrations substantially less than NH3. With efficient transport followed by wet deposition, these plumes have the potential to provide a large nitrogen input to the neighboring Rocky Mountain National Park, where nitrogen deposition currently exceeds the ecological critical load of 1.5 kg N/ha/yr.

  3. Forecasting the Colorado River Discharge Using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrkesh, Amirhossein

    2014-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model is a computational approach commonly used for modeling the complex relationships between input and output parameters. Prediction of the flow rate of a river is a requisite for any successful water resource management and river basin planning. In the current survey, the effectiveness of an Artificial Neural Network was examined to predict the Colorado River discharge. In this modeling process, an ANN model was used to relate the discharge of the Colorado River to such parameters as the amount of precipitation, ambient temperature and snowpack level at a specific time of the year. The model was able to precisely study the impact of climatic parameters on the flow rate of the Colorado River.

  4. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jones, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-26

    The building industry needs to understand how energy ratings can impact homebuilders. Of interest is how energy efficiency may or may not have a positive impact on homebuilders’ business success. Focusing on Colorado Springs, Colorado, as a case study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team IBACOS suggests a win–win between a builder’s investment in energy efficiency and that builder’s ability to sell homes. Although this research did not ultimately determine why a correlation may exist, a builder’s investment in voluntary energy-efficiency programs correlated with that builder’s ability to survive the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009. This report explores the relationship between energy-efficiency ratings and the market performance of several builders in Colorado Springs.

  5. Experimental and serologic observations on avian pneumovirus (APV/turkey/Colorado/97) infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, B; Senne, D A; Pedersen, J C; Gidlewski, T; Edson, R K

    2000-01-01

    An avian pneumovirus (APV) was isolated from commercial turkeys in Colorado (APV/Colorado) showing clinical signs of a respiratory disease. The results of virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent antibody tests showed that the APV/Colorado was partially related to APV subgroup A but was unrelated to APV subgroup B. Turkeys experimentally inoculated with the APV/Colorado were observed for signs, lesions, seroconversion, and virus shedding. Thirty-six 7-wk-old turkeys were distributed into three groups. Eighteen turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with APV/Colorado, six were placed in contact at 1 day postinoculation (DPI), and 12 served as noninoculated controls. Tracheal swabs and blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 DPI. Tissues were collected from three inoculated and two control turkeys on aforementioned days for pathologic examination and APV isolation. Inoculated turkeys developed respiratory disease, yielded APV at 3, 5, and 7 DPI, and seroconverted at 10 DPI. Contact turkeys yielded APV at 7 and 10 DPI. No gross lesions were observed in the turbinates, infraorbital sinuses, and trachea. However, microscopic examination revealed acute rhinitis, sinusitis, and tracheitis manifested by congestion, edema, lymphocytic and heterophilic infiltration, and loss of ciliated epithelia. The inflammatory lesions were seen at 3 DPI and became extensive at 5 and 7 DPI. Active regenerative changes in the epithelia were seen at 10 and 14 DPI. Serologic survey for the presence of antibodies in commercial turkeys (24,504 sera from 18 states) and chickens (3,517 sera from 12 states) to APV/Colorado showed seropositive turkeys in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota and no seropositive chickens. This report is the first on the isolation of an APV and APV infection in the United States.

  6. Ozone Precursor Trends in Colorado and Their Relevance to Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, G. E.; Frazier, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas development has occurred in Colorado for over 150 years. With the increasing use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, development of shale oil resources has increased significantly during the past ten years. One of the areas is the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin in northeast Colorado, where there are now over 20,000 active wells. The North Front Range area of Colorado, including Denver, is a non-attainment area for ozone, where emissions from oil and gas development in the D-J Basin are a major concern. If a lower ozone standard is promulgated by EPA, other areas of Colorado will likely be designated as non-attainment as well. Colorado has instituted a number of regulations on the oil and gas industry over the past decade to help reduce emissions. The Denver metropolitan area has also grown significantly over the past decades to a population of over 2.6 million, which adds an urban component to the mix of ozone precursor emissions. Ambient monitoring of ozone precursors, including non-methane organic compounds and carbonyls, has been performed at a number of locations in the North Front Range area of Colorado over the past 12 years. Two of these sites have been in continuous operation since 2012; one site is located in the core of the city of Denver, while the other is located in the center of the oil and gas development area and has recorded high levels of ethane. Additionally, air monitoring sites operating on the western slope of Colorado that includes the Piceance Basin have data as far back as 2004. We present trends from the ozone precursor monitoring conducted in Colorado, and discuss how these precursors may contribute to ozone formation, particularly those related to oil and gas development. These data are valuable for emissions inventory work and model validation related to upcoming State Implementation Plans for ozone. The data will also be used in association with the 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment

  7. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 2, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Banta, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the Ground Water Atlas of the United States describes the aquifers in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. These four States, which comprise Segment 2 of this Atlas, are located in the Southwestern United States and extend from the rolling grasslands of the Great Plains on the east across the Rocky Mountains and Continental Divide to the desert basins of the Southwest. The 425,000-square-mile area ranges in altitude from about 14,400 feet above sea level in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to about 100 feet near the lower Colorado River in southwestern Arizona. All the ground water in Segment 2 ultimately is derived from infiltration of precipitation, which varies considerably with the altitude and topography of the area. The Great Plains Physiographic Province of the Central United States extends into eastern Colorado and New Mexico (fig. 1), where flat to rolling prairie (fig. 2) with scattered hills and bluffs gradually rises westward to 5,000 to 7,000 feet above sea level and abruptly gives way to the frontal ranges of the Rocky Mountains in the Southern Rocky Mountain and Basin and Range Physiographic Provinces. West of the frontal ranges in Colorado and northern New Mexico are additional and higher mountain ranges generally oriented north-south but with many spurs and extensions oriented in other directions. The many ranges of the Rocky Mountains are separated by valleys and high mountain parks (fig. 3). Colorado contains about three-fourths of the Nation's land area above 10,000 feet and has 53 mountain peaks higher than 14,000 feet. Most of these high peaks are located near the Continental Divide (fig. 1), which extends approximately north-south through central Colorado and western New Mexico. The altitude of the divide decreases in southern New Mexico to less than 4,500 feet in a few areas. Farther westward, the mountains are less prevalent and are interspersed with broad structural basins. These basins and the broad valleys of the

  8. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  9. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  10. Cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the avian pneumovirus (Colorado isolate) F protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, I; Huggins, M B; Davis, P J; Shilleto, R; Orbell, S J; Cook, J K

    2001-10-01

    The F protein of the Colorado isolate of avian pneumovirus (APV), expressed from a DNA plasmid, was recognized by antiserum to both A and B subgroup APVs. After two intramuscular injections of turkeys with this plasmid, a homologous antibody response was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This antibody also recognized subgroup A APV. However, there was no neutralization of the Colorado isolate or of subgroup A or B viruses. Although no significant clinical protection was detected following homologous challenge of poults, an anamnestic serological response was seen, suggesting that a systemic antibody response but no local mucosal immunity was induced.

  11. Geochemistry of Standard Mine Waters, Gunnison County, Colorado, July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Graves, Jeffrey T.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In many hard-rock-mining districts water flowing from abandoned mine adits is a primary source of metals to receiving streams. Understanding the generation of adit discharge is an important step in developing remediation plans. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage basin near Crested Butte, Colorado as a superfund site because drainage from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to the stream. Elk Creek flows into Coal Creek, which is a source of drinking water for the town of Crested Butte. In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity and identified areas of the underground workings for additional work. Mine drainage, underground-water samples, and selected spring water samples were collected in July 2009 for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a follow-up study. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 2 and 3 of the Standard Mine, two spring samples, and an Elk Creek sample. Reported analyses include field measurements (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential), major constituents and trace elements, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic determinations. Overall, water samples collected in 2009 at the same sites as were collected in 2006 have similar chemical compositions. Similar to 2006, water in Level 3 did not flow out the portal but was observed to flow into open workings to lower parts of the mine. Many dissolved constituent concentrations, including calcium, magnesium, sulfate, manganese, zinc, and cadmium, in Level 3 waters substantially are lower than in Level 1 effluent. Concentrations of these dissolved constituents in water samples collected from Level 2 approach or exceed concentrations of Level 1 effluent

  12. 78 FR 19444 - Pawnee National Grassland, Colorado; Oil and Gas Leasing Analysis Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Grassland, which may require a plan amendment. DATES: Scoping is an early and open process for... public is welcome to comment at any time throughout the process; however, comments received prior to 05...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pawnee National Grassland, Colorado; Oil and Gas Leasing...

  13. Use of the Colorado SURGE System for Continuing Education for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fead, J. W. N.

    The Colorado State University Resources in Graduate Education (SURGE) program is described in this report. Since it is expected that not all the participants in a graduate engineering program will be able to attend university-based lectures, presentations are video-taped and transported to industrial plants, engineering offices, and other…

  14. Release and uptake of volatile inorganic and organic gases through the snowpack at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmig, D.; Apel, E.; Blake, D.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lefer, B.L.; Meinardi, S.; Swanson, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Whole air drawn from four heights within the high elevation (3,340 m asl), deep, winter snowpack at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, were sampled into stainless steel canisters, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography for 51 volatile inorganic and organic gases. Two adjacent plots with similar snow co

  15. The Impact of the Recession on Public Library Use in Colorado: A Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…

  16. A Coordinated Mental Health Crisis Response: Lessons Learned from Three Colorado School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Sievering, Kathryn S.; Armstrong, Charlotte; Stonis, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a crisis response framework based on the authors' first-hand experience following three Colorado school shootings. During each crisis response, one or more of the authors joined school and/or district crisis teams, providing direct assistance and leadership. The authors' experiences helped guide subsequent responses and…

  17. Extensive Green Roof Species and Soilless Media Evaluations in Semi-arid Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, soilless media blends and plant interactions on an existing, modular-extensive (shallow, 10 cm deep) green roof in Denver, Colo...

  18. Shallow subsurface temperatures and some estimates of heat flow from the Colorado Plateau of northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Stone, C.; Bills, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature data to depths of a few hundred meters were obtained from 29 wells in northeastern Arizona; 12 in the region surrounding the San Francisco Volcanic Field, 8 in the Black Mesa area, and 9 in the south-central Colorado Plateau which includes the White Mountains. Although there was evidence for local hydrologic disturbances in many temperature profiles, most wells provided an estimate of the conductive thermal gradient at the site. A few thermal conductivities were measured and were combined with published regional averages for the north-central part of the Colorado Plateau to produce crude estimates of regional heat flux. None of the wells was accessible below the regional aquifers. To these depths, heat flow in the area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field appears to be controlled primarily by regional lateral water movement having a significant downward vertical component of velocity. The mean heat flow of 27 +- 5 mWm/sup -2/ is only a third to a quarter of what we would expect in this tectonic setting. The heat that is being carried laterally and downward probably is being discharged at low enthalpy and low elevation in springs and streams of the Colorado Plateau and Mogollon Rim. In the vicinity of Black Mesa, heat-flow averages about 60 mWm/sup -2/, characteristics of the coal interior of the Colorado Plateau. North of the White Mountain Volcanic Field, the average heat flow is about 95 mWm/sup -2/.

  19. Laramide to Holocene structural development of the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Eric A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Bryant, Bruce; Ehrlich, Timothy K.; Holdaway, Steven M.; Naeser, Charles W.; Lageson, David R.; Lester, Alan

    1999-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain province of the United States is a classic basement-involved foreland orogen. Deformation during the Late Cretaceous to Eocene Laramide orogeny created an anastomosing system of basement-cored arches that bound the northern and eastern margins of the Colorado Plateau and the elliptical sedimentary basins of the Rockies. The tectonic mechanism for Laramide deformation remains controversial, with proposed mechanisms ranging from subcrustal shear during low-angle subduction (Bird, 1988, 1998; Hamilton, 1988) to detachment of the upper crust during plate collision to the west (Oldow and others, 1990; Erslev, 1993). The Rocky Mountains south of Wyoming have the additional complication of a period of mid-Tertiary igneous activity and sedimentation that coincides with Neogene extension along the Rio Grande rift. This field trip (Fig. 1) will explore the Laramide to Holocene structural development of the southern Rocky Mountains by examining the geologic record exposed in the northern Front Range of Colorado. The Front Range starts north of Canon City, Colorado, and trends north-northwest to Golden, Colorado. North of Golden, the range takes a more northerly trend toward the Wyoming border where it bifurcates into the north-trending Laramie Range (Brewer and others, 1982) and the north-northwest-trending Medicine Bow Range.

  20. A protecting group-free synthesis of the Colorado potato beetle pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Zhongtao; Buter, Jeffrey; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Jäger, Manuel; Dickschat, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    A novel synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has been developed based on a Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in combination with a chemoselective alcohol oxidation using catalytic [(neocuproine)PdOAc](2)OTf2. Employing this approach, the phe

  1. Water clarity of the Colorado River—Implications for food webs and fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Kennedy, Theodore; Topping, David; Griffiths, Ronald; Fry, Kyrie

    2016-11-01

    The closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 resulted in drastic changes to water clarity, temperature, and flow of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. The Colorado River is now much clearer, water temperature is less variable throughout the year, and the river is much colder in the summer months. The flow—regulated by the dam—is now less variable annually, but has larger daily fluctuations than during pre-dam times. All of these changes have resulted in a different fish community and different food resources for fish than existed before the dam was built. Recent monitoring of water clarity, by measuring turbidity, has helped scientists and river managers understand modern water-clarity patterns in the dam-regulated Colorado River. These data were then used to estimate pre-dam turbidity in the Colorado River in order to make comparisons of pre-dam and dam-regulated conditions, which are useful for assessing biological changes in the river over time. Prior to dam construction, the large sediment load resulted in low water clarity almost all of the time, a condition which was more favorable for the native fish community.

  2. 77 FR 21453 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ....166(i)(5)(i)... Approved by Fully approved * * ). Beryllium, Vinyl interstate * Because the chloride... action at 76 FR 21835, April 19, 2011). Colorado has a federally approved NSR program for new and.... Background for This Action On December 7, 2005 (70 FR 72744), EPA published a notice of proposed...

  3. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  4. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT HISTOLOGY LABORATORY XYLENE USE - FORT CARSON, COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the WREAFS program, RREL has performed a waste minimization opportunity assessment (WMOA) at the Evans Community Hospital Histopathology Laboratory on the Ft. Carson Army Base, Colorado, in the area of waste xylene and ethyl alcohol contaminated with human tissue. The waste...

  5. Native fish sanctuaries of the lower Colorado River: Cibola High Levee Pond, Desert Pupfish Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the Colorado River was one of the most formidable rivers in the world. Each spring, melting snow from the mountains scoured the desert landscape moving millions of tons of sediment to the sea. The Grand Canyon lays testament to its erosive nature. Summer heat would bring seasonal droughts, reducing the river to a trickle impacting humans, animals, and fish.

  6. 76 FR 43803 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Southern Colorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... INFORMATION: On February 22, 2011, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (76 FR... the area of application of the Denver, CO, wage area in a final rule published in 2000 (65 FR 26119.... Survey area plus: Colorado: Alamosa Archuleta Baca Bent Chaffee Cheyenne Conejos Costilla Crowley...

  7. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., 2004 (69 FR 16599). The completion of the San Luis Resource Area TMP Environmental Assessment (EA) led..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management...

  8. Reflections on Re:Learning in Colorado: A Report for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This report presents a composite picture of the experiences and patterns of change exhibited by six Colorado high schools after implementing the nine itemized principles of the Coalition of Essential Schools, as espoused by Theodore Sizer in "Horace's Compromise." The nine principles are: intellectual focus, simple goals, universal goals,…

  9. 75 FR 26988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., as described in the Federal Register (71 FR 53470-53473, September 11, 2006). Also during that time... excavated from private land at the edge of Yellow Jacket Canyon, as described in the Federal Register (72 FR... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO...

  10. 78 FR 57923 - Colorado Disaster #CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: Small Business Administration.../2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing...: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  11. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  12. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Uranium milling alternative standards. SUMMARY: By letter dated October 10... Agreement States to specifically amend their Agreements to regulate uranium mill tailings (11e.(2)...

  13. Guidelines for School Property Accounting in Colorado, Part II--General Fixed Asset Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiverson, Clare L.

    The second publication of a series of three issued by the Colorado Department of Education is designed as a guide for local school districts in the development of a property accounting system. It defines and classifies groups of accounts whereby financial information, taken from inventory records, may be transcribed into debit and credit entries…

  14. Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado and the West: A Modeling Sensitivity and GIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Resource Planning Model is a capacity expansion model designed for a regional power system, such as a utility service territory, state, or balancing authority. We apply a geospatial analysis to Resource Planning Model renewable energy capacity expansion results to understand the likelihood of renewable development on various lands within Colorado.

  15. Mary Carroll Craig Bradford: Providing Opportunities to Colorado's Women and Children through Suffrage and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Heather Kleinpeter

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a historical biography on the life, suffrage and educational contributions of Mary Carroll Craig Bradford, a wife, mother, suffragist, teacher and educational administrator in the state of Colorado. The purpose of this dissertation was to find out exactly what Bradford's contributions were to her state. The initial observation…

  16. Uranium Geologic Drilling Project, Sand Wash Basin, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental assessment of drill holes in Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado considered the current environment; potential impacts from site preparation, drilling operations, and site restoration; coordination among local, state and federal plans; and consideration of alternative actions for this uranium drilling project

  17. Bureau of Reclamation-Lower Colorado River Management Plan for the Yuma Clapper Rail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presently there are just over 4,200 acres of cattail/bulrush along the lower Colorado River (LCR) in the United States, most of which is managed by the U.S. Fish...

  18. 76 FR 21272 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... sensitive to the economic consequences of Federal land management, whether for tourism or other purposes... management direction for conserving roadless areas on NFS land in Colorado in the Federal Register (73 FR...-specific rule to provide management direction for conserving and managing inventoried roadless areas...

  19. Moving Families Forward: An Introduction to TANF in Colorado during the Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" provided detailed information on appropriations and sources of financing for programs that help children across four domains: early childhood development and learning, health, education, and support services. This report dives deeper into one of the issues that surfaced in that report. The…

  20. Geology and hydrology of the deep bedrock aquifers in eastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    Deep bedrock aquifers are present in rocks of Cretaceous through Pennsylvanian age in eastern Colorado. These aquifers are the Laramie-Fox Hills (the uppermost aquifer studied), Fort Hays-Codell, Dakota-Cheyenne, Entrada-Dockum, Lyons, and Fountain. Structural mapping indicates the aquifers are 2,000 to 9,000 ft below land surface in most of eastern Colorado but outcrop in local areas in a narrow band along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Recharge primarily occurs in outcrops and produces a northerly or easterly groundwater flow to discharge areas along the South Platte or Arkansas Rivers. Deep aquifers also discharge by underflow to Kansas and Nebraska. Some water-yielding strata in the Dakota-Cheyenne aquifer are not in hydraulic connection with the aquifer, and abnormal fluid pressures, trapped hydrocarbons, and high dissolved-solids concentrations are found in these strata. Temperature and dissolved-solids mapping indicate water temperatures of 100 to 210 in northeastern Colorado and a zone of relatively fresh water extending through a 7,000 sq mi area of the Dakota-Cheyenne aquifer in southeastern Colorado. Water levels in the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer continue to decline as much as 12 ft/yr in local areas near Denver. (USGS)

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  2. 75 FR 37749 - White River National Forest, Colorado, Oil and Gas Leasing Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Forest Service White River National Forest, Colorado, Oil and Gas Leasing Environmental Impact Statement... Oil and Gas Leasing and Final EIS and Record of Decision. The proposed revision includes the following: Changing what lands will be available for oil and gas leasing; changing or adding stipulations to...

  3. 78 FR 49318 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00055 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  4. 78 FR 44186 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  5. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  6. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  7. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  8. Evaluation of Student Engagement Assessment in Colorado State University's Warner College of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Debra Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a participatory program evaluation of student engagement assessment in Colorado State University's (CSU) Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR). The college requested the evaluation after completing two pilot studies of undergraduate engagement which led them to consider establishing the…

  9. Migrant Programs in the Southwestern States -- Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory was prepared for use by agencies working with migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the Southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The directory lists programs, services, and resources available to migrants in these states.…

  10. 78 FR 63486 - Colorado; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing... Declared Disaster Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Colorado; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major...

  11. 77 FR 44649 - Colorado; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Colorado; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major...

  12. Equity in Excellence for Colorado's Future: "A Policy Audit and Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelau, Demarée K.

    2014-01-01

    Equity in Excellence is a two-year project launched in 2013 to support the implementation of Colorado's higher education reform agenda. With a focus on the metropolitan Denver area, the project intends to align the state's higher education policies with concrete, equity-focused actions at its public community colleges and four-year institutions.…

  13. Assessment of a Refined Short Acculturation Scale for Latino Preteens in Rural Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) was used to assess acculturation among 137 fourth- and fifth-grade children in rural southern Colorado, including 11 Mexican, 33 Mexican American, and 93 Euro-American children. The SASH-Y, especially questions related to language use, was found to be robust with a young, rural Latino…

  14. Childhood Poverty in Colorado: A Closer Look at a Statewide Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The nation's recent economic problems underscore the urgency of addressing the challenges that low-income families face. The current economic downturn will exacerbate what already are troubling trends in Colorado--namely, that too many children in the state live in poverty and these numbers are growing rapidly. Until updated data are available, it…

  15. Changes in Colorado Subalpine Fen Peat Stratigraphy and Humification During the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    This project focuses on the record of peat stratigraphy and decomposition preserved in cores taken from minerotrophic peatlands in Colorado. Subalpine peatlands in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and in the Colorado Plateau cover only about 2% of the state's land area, yet these wetlands provide important wildlife habitat and ecosystem services. The peatlands in Colorado are fens, and, while summer precipitation contributes to the local hydrology, the fens are only found in locations where winter snowpack persists long enough into the summers to maintain sufficiently high water tables to preserve the peat. We hypothesized that changes in summer precipitation and winter snowpack through the Holocene would be evident in the degree of peat humification and stratigraphy. We were interested in determining how warmer summer conditions early in the Holocene influenced precipitation, particularly summer monsoons, and thus, groundwater. In addition, our research using lake sediment cores in the region indicates that sediment organic content may fluctuate with paleotemperature. We sought to determine whether fens likewise preserve evidence of relatively low magnitude temperature changes, including those associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Since fens persist in the region only under marginal conditions, they are very sensitive to fluctuations in climate and consequent hydrological responses. Nine fens were sampled in the study. Fen stratigraphy was studied at all of the sites. Humification analysis and bulk density and organic content determinations were conducted at one-centimeter intervals on cores from four of the fens. Core chronology was established using radiocarbon dating. Our results suggest that warmer summers in the early Holocene led to earlier snowmelt at lower elevations. Fens located near the lower margins of the subalpine zone (<3100 m elevation) ceased to accumulate peat during this period, changing to alluvial

  16. Effect of Drought on Streamflow and Stream-Water Quality in Colorado, July through September 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafin, Daniel T.; Druliner, A. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    During 2002, Colorado experienced the State's worst drought since 1977. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into cooperative agreement with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment to evaluate the general effects of drought on the water quality of streams in Colorado during summer 2002 by analyzing a water-quality data set obtained during summer 2002 in cooperation with a variety of State and local governments. Water samples were collected at 148 stream sites in Colorado and were measured or analyzed for field properties, major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, bacteria, and dissolved and total recoverable metals. Mean annual streamflow was analyzed at 134 sites in Colorado, and mean summer (July-September) streamflow for 2002 was determined for 146 sites for water years 1978-2002. Mean annual streamflow for 2002 had an average percentile of 29.4 and mean summer streamflow for 2002 had an average percentile of 7.6 relative to 1978-2002. These results indicate that streamflow in Colorado was substantially less than median streamflow for the period and that the effect of drought on streamflow was greater during summer 2002 than during water year 2002 (October 1, 2001, through September 30, 2002). Few measured constituent concentrations or values were elevated or depressed on a widespread basis during summer 2002. Specific conductance was elevated (in the upper quartile relative to historical data) in five of the seven basins that had sufficient data for characterization, indicating that specific conductance likely was affected by drought in those basins. Chloride concentrations were elevated in three of five basins with sufficient data and indicate that chloride concentration generally was affected by drought in those basins. Sulfate concentration was elevated in four of six basins with sufficient data. The widespread elevation of specific conductance and concentrations of chloride and sulfate indicates that salinity generally was affected by

  17. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-2011*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Methods Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-2011) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Results Within Colorado those reporting “great-risk” to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Conclusions Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. PMID:24837585

  18. Mercury and selenium in fish of Fountain Creek, Colorado (USA): possible sources and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, D R; Herrmann, S J; Carsella, J S; McGarvy, C M; Foutz, H P; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Gregorich, J M; Turner, J A; Vanden Heuvel, B D

    2016-01-01

    Fountain Creek in Colorado USA is a major tributary that confluences with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado, the result being the tributary's influence on Arkansas River water quality affecting down-stream users. In a previous study, we found that bryophytes (aquatic plants) accumulated selenium in Fountain Creek watershed and this finding prompted us to investigate the extent of the metalloid in the whole-body tissues of fish. One hundred 11 fish (six species) were collected and analyzed for Se by inductively-coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry. Analysis of all analytical data also showed mercury in all of the fish whole bodies and selected tissues. There was a general increase in selenium but a decrease in mercury in fish with downstream travel-distance. The highest whole-body selenium was in Pueblo, Colorado (3393 µg/kg, dry weight; 906 µg/kg, wet weight); the highest mercury in fish was in the Monument Creek tributary north of Colorado Springs, Colorado (71 µg/kg, dry weight; 19 µg/kg, wet weight). In four tissues of 11 female fish captured, selenium was highest in the livers at eight sites but highest in the ovaries at three sites. Mercury was highest in the epaxial muscle at all sites. Selenium availability could be due to the watershed lithology and land uses; however, mercury could be carried by atmospheric deposition from coal-fired power plants and historic mining activities. Selenium in fish tissues and water samples were compared to U.S. national water quality criteria. PMID:27104125

  19. Continuing Colorado plateau uplift by delamination-style convective lithospheric downwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A; Schmandt, B; Miller, M S; Liu, K; Karlstrom, K E; Crow, R S; Lee, C-T A; Humphreys, E D

    2011-04-28

    The Colorado plateau is a large, tectonically intact, physiographic province in the southwestern North American Cordillera that stands at ∼1,800-2,000 m elevation and has long been thought to be in isostatic equilibrium. The origin of these high elevations is unclear because unlike the surrounding provinces, which have undergone significant Cretaceous-Palaeogene compressional deformation followed by Neogene extensional deformation, the Colorado plateau is largely internally undeformed. Here we combine new seismic tomography and receiver function images to resolve a vertical high-seismic-velocity anomaly beneath the west-central plateau that extends more than 200 km in depth. The upper surface of this anomaly is seismically defined by a dipping interface extending from the lower crust to depths of 70-90 km. The base of the continental crust above the anomaly has a similar shape, with an elevated Moho. We interpret these seismic structures as a continuing regional, delamination-style foundering of lower crust and continental lithosphere. This implies that Pliocene (2.6-5.3 Myr ago) uplift of the plateau and the magmatism on its margins are intimately tied to continuing deep lithospheric processes. Petrologic and geochemical observations indicate that late Cretaceous-Palaeogene (∼90-40 Myr ago) low-angle subduction hydrated and probably weakened much of the Proterozoic tectospheric mantle beneath the Colorado plateau. We suggest that mid-Cenozoic (∼35-25 Myr ago) to Recent magmatic infiltration subsequently imparted negative compositional buoyancy to the base and sides of the Colorado plateau upper mantle, triggering downwelling. The patterns of magmatic activity suggest that previous such events have progressively removed the Colorado plateau lithosphere inward from its margins, and have driven uplift. Using Grand Canyon incision rates and Pliocene basaltic volcanism patterns, we suggest that this particular event has been active over the past ∼6

  20. Modeled streamflow metrics on small, ungaged stream reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay V. Reynolds,; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-20

    Modeling streamflow is an important approach for understanding landscape-scale drivers of flow and estimating flows where there are no streamgage records. In this study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Colorado State University, the objectives were to model streamflow metrics on small, ungaged streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin and identify streams that are potentially threatened with becoming intermittent under drier climate conditions. The Upper Colorado River Basin is a region that is critical for water resources and also projected to experience large future climate shifts toward a drying climate. A random forest modeling approach was used to model the relationship between streamflow metrics and environmental variables. Flow metrics were then projected to ungaged reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin using environmental variables for each stream, represented as raster cells, in the basin. Last, the projected random forest models of minimum flow coefficient of variation and specific mean daily flow were used to highlight streams that had greater than 61.84 percent minimum flow coefficient of variation and less than 0.096 specific mean daily flow and suggested that these streams will be most threatened to shift to intermittent flow regimes under drier climate conditions. Map projection products can help scientists, land managers, and policymakers understand current hydrology in the Upper Colorado River Basin and make informed decisions regarding water resources. With knowledge of which streams are likely to undergo significant drying in the future, managers and scientists can plan for stream-dependent ecosystems and human water users.

  1. Satellite Observations of Drought and Falling Water Storage in the Colorado River Basin and Lake Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T.; Thomas, B.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade the Western US has experienced extreme drought conditions, which have affected both agricultural and urban areas. An example of water infrastructure being impacted by these droughts is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States at its full capacity that provides water and energy for several states in the Western US. Once Lake Mead falls below the critical elevation of 1050 feet above sea level, the Hoover Dam, the structure that created Lake Mead by damming flow within the Colorado River, will stop producing energy for Las Vegas. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, launched in 2002, have proven successful for monitoring changes in water storage over large areas, and give hydrologists a first-ever picture of how total water storage is changing spatially and temporally within large regions. Given the importance of the Colorado River to meet water demands to several neighboring regions, including Southern California, it is vital to understand how water is transported and managed throughout the basin. In this research, we use hydrologic remote sensing to characterize the human and natural water balance of the Colorado River basin and Lake Mead. The research will include quantifying the amount of Colorado River water delivered to Southern California, coupling the GRACE Total Water Storage signal of the Upper and Lower Colorado River with Landsat-TM satellite imagery and areal extent of Lake Mead water storage, and combining these data together to determine the current status of water availability in the Western US. We consider water management and policy changes necessary for sustainable water practices including human water use, hydropower, and ecosystem services in arid regions throughout the Western US.

  2. Cold and transition season cloud condensation nuclei measurements in western Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ward

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that orographic precipitation and the water resources that depend on it in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are sensitive to the variability of the region's aerosols, whether emitted locally or from distant sources. However, observations of cloud-active aerosols in western Colorado, climatologically upwind of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, have been limited to a few studies at a single, northern site. To address this knowledge gap, atmospheric aerosols were sampled at a ground site in southwestern Colorado and in low-level north to south transects of the Colorado Western Slope as part of the Inhibition of Snowfall by Pollution Aerosols (ISPA-III field campaign. Total particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentration were measured for a 24-day period in Mesa Verde National Park, climatologically upwind of the San Juan Mountains, in Sept. and Oct. 2009. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between mid-troposphere atmospheric pressure to the west of the site and the total particle count at the ground site, but no similar statistically significant relationship for the observed CCN. These data were supplemented with particle and CCN number concentration, as well as particle size distribution measurements aboard the KingAir platform during December 2009. A CCN closure attempt was performed using the size distribution information and suggested that the sampled aerosol in general had low hygroscopicity that changed slightly with the large-scale wind direction. Together, the sampled aerosols from these field programs were characteristic of a rural continental environment with a cloud active portion that varied slowly in time, and little in space along the Western Slope.

  3. Cold and transition season cloud condensation nuclei measurements in western Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ward

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that orographic precipitation and the water resources that depend on it in the Colorado Rocky Mountains are sensitive to the variability of the region's aerosols, whether emitted locally or from distant sources. However, observations of cloud droplet nucleating aerosols in western Colorado, climatologically upwind of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, have been limited to a few studies at a single, northern site. To address this knowledge gap, atmospheric aerosols were sampled at a ground site in southwestern Colorado and in low-level north to south transects of the Colorado Western Slope as part of the Inhibition of Snowfall by Pollution Aerosols (ISPA-III field campaign. Total particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentrations were measured for a 24-day period in Mesa Verde National Park, in September and October 2009. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between mid-troposphere atmospheric pressure to the west of the site and the total particle count at the ground site, but no similar statistically significant relationship was found for the observed CCN. These data were supplemented with particle and CCN number concentration, as well as particle size distribution measurements collected aboard the King Air platform during December 2009. A CCN closure attempt was performed and suggested that the sampled aerosol may have had a low hygroscopicity that changed little with the large-scale wind direction. Together, the sampled aerosols from these field programs were characteristic of a rural continental environment with CCN number concentrations that varied slowly in time, and little in space along the Western Slope.

  4. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  5. Geology of uranium deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountain province of Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the geology of uranium deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, an area of about 20,000 square miles. In January 1966, combined ore reserves and ore production at 28 uranium deposits were about 685,000 tons of ore averaging 0.24 percent U3O8 (3.32 million pounds U3O8). About half of these deposits each contain <1,000 tons of ore. The two largest deposits, the Pitch in the Marshall Pass locality southwest of Salida and the T-1 in the Cochetopa locality southeast of Gunnison, account for about 90 percent of all production and available reserves. The probability in excellent for major expansion of reserves in Marshall Pass and is favorable at a few other vein localities. There are six types of uranium deposits, and there were at least four ages of emplacement of these deposits in the southern part of the Colorado Rockies. There are eight types of host rocks of eight different ages. Veins and stratiform deposits each account for about 40 percent of the total number of deposits, but the veins of early and middle Tertiary age account for nearly all of the total reserves plus production. The remaining 20 percent of the deposits include uraniferous pegmatites, irregular disseminations in porphyry, and other less important types. The wall rocks at the large Tertiary vein deposits in the southern part of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, whereas Precambrian metamorphic wall rocks predominate at the large veins in the Front Range of the northern Colorado Rockies. Metallogenetic considerations and tectonic influences affecting the distribution of uranium in Colorado and in adjacent portions of the western United States are analyzed

  6. Reconnaissance-level application of physical habitat simulation in the evaluation of physical habitat limits in the Animas Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    The Animas River is in southwestern Colorado and flows mostly to the south to join the San Juan River at Farmington, New Mexico (Figure 1). The Upper Animas River watershed is in San Juan County, Colorado and is located in the San Juan Mountains. The lower river is in the Colorado Plateau country. The winters are cold with considerable snowfall and little snowmelt in the mountains in the upper part of the basin. The lower basin has less snow but the winters are still cold. The streamflows during the winter are low and reasonably stable.

  7. Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.

    1956-01-01

    In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little

  8. Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

    2011-12-01

    We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be

  9. The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, A.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.; Poppe, A. R.; Robertson, S. H.; Srama, R.; Shu, A. J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Wang, X.; Ccldas Team

    2010-12-01

    The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) is a member of the NASA Lunar Science Institute, focused on experimental and theoretical investigations of the lunar surface, including dusty plasma and impact processes, the origins of the lunar atmosphere, and the development of new instrument concepts, with a complementary program of education and community development. The tenuous lunar atmosphere is a surface-bound exosphere (SBE) similar to that found throughout the solar system, for example on Mercury, various icy satellites, over the rings of Saturn, on large asteroids, and on Kuiper Belt objects. Its time-dependent constituents arise from a dynamic balance between sources that may be sporadic (solar wind, sputtering, micrometeoroid impacts, outgassing) and loss mechanisms (escape, ionization), creating a natural dusty plasma laboratory. CCLDAS supports a diverse experimental program, performed in conjunction with theory and simulation, to investigate the near-surface lunar plasma environment, dust charging and mobilization, and the effects of micrometeoroids. The flagship device at CCLDAS is a dust accelerator, currently under construction, which will allow simulation of micrometeoroid impacts at speeds relevant to the lunar environment. The accelerator will be available for direct science investigation as well as instrument calibration; in addition to our own research program, the experimental facilities are open to the lunar and space physics community. One use will be to support the calibration of the Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) instrument, scheduled for launch in 2013 onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. LDEX will measure the density and temporal variation of micron and submicron sized dust particles released from the lunar surface and elevated to > 30 km altitude by micrometeoroid bombardment and/or electrostatic forces. The new Lunar Environment and Impact Laboratory (LEIL) at CCLDAS

  10. A site-specific assessment of the risk of ammonia to endangered Colorado Pikeminnow and Razorback Sucker populations in the upper Colorado River adjacent to the Atlas Mill Tailings Pile, Moab, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlas Mill Tailings Pile is located adjacent to the Upper Colorado River near Moab, Utah. Milling of ore ceased in 1984 and the Atlas Corporation subsequently...

  11. Efficacy Observation on Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide and Methotrexate Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis Combined with Osteoporosis%鹿瓜多肽联用甲氨蝶呤治疗类风湿关节炎合并骨质疏松的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李路浩; 矫立云; 梁伟军; 叶林景; 胡哲; 谭锦洪

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of cervus and cucumis polypeptide and methotrexate treating rheumatoid arthritis combined with osteo-porosis. Methods:72 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis combined with osteoporosis were divided equally into control group and treatment group, control group used methotrexate, treatment group adopted cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection and methotrexate, effects between the two groups was compared. Results:The total effective rate and bone density of bilateral wrist of treatment group were both higher than those of con-trol group (P<0.05);after treatment ESR, RF and CRP of the two groups were all significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and treat-ment group was lower than control group (P<0.05);relapse rate of treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05), both without adverse drug reactions during the treatment. Conclusion:Cervus and cucumis polypeptide and methotrexate has good effect in rheumatoid ar-thritis combined with osteoporosis, which can significantly improve the life quality of patient's, being worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察鹿瓜多肽联用甲氨蝶呤治疗合并骨质疏松的类风湿关节炎患的疗效。方法:72例合并骨质疏松的类风湿关节炎患者随机平分为对照组和治疗组,对照组采用甲氨蝶呤;治疗组采用鹿瓜多肽注射液及甲氨蝶呤,比较两组效果。结果:治疗组总有效率、双腕关节骨密度均显著高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗后两组患者ESR、RF、CRP水平均显著低于治疗前(P<0.05),且治疗组均低于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组病情复发率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),两组治疗期间均未见药物不良反应。结论:鹿瓜多肽联合甲氨蝶呤治疗合并骨质疏松症的类风湿关节炎患者具有良好疗效,能显著提高患者的生活质量,值得临床推广。

  12. Input Digital Datasets for the Soil-Water Balance Groundwater Recharge Model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5...

  13. Backwater manipulations for endangered fishes: Management implications of selenium on National Wildlife Refuges of the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many studies have evaluated selenium in the lower Colorado River, but none have reviewed selenium levels after river water has been directed into previously...

  14. Available Water Capacity for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (awc_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — awc_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing the available water capacity (AWC) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. AWC (available water...

  15. Land Cover Information for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (nlcd_UCRB_daymet_resolution.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — nlcd_UCRB_daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing land cover information for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The 2011 National Land Cover Database...

  16. Colorado Plateaus Ecoregion: Chapter 21 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The Colorado Plateaus Ecoregion covers approximately 129,617 km2 (50,045 mi2) within southern and eastern Utah, western Colorado, and the extreme northern part of Arizona (fig. 1). The terrain of this ecoregion is characterized by broad plateaus, ancient volcanoes, and deeply dissected canyons (Booth and others, 1999; fig. 2). The ecoregion is bounded on the east by the Wyoming Basin and Southern Rockies Ecoregions in Colorado and on the northwest by the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion in northern and central Utah. To the south, the ecoregion borders the Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion, which has a higher elevation and more grasslands than the Colorado Plateaus Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997).

  17. Hydrologic Soil Group for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (hsg_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — hsg_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing the hydrologic soil group (HSG) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The HSG for an area is...

  18. Results of the Aquatic Monitoring Program in streams at the Rocky Flats Site : Golden, Colorado 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aquatic monitoring program was initiated in the summer 200 I at the Rocky Flats EnvironmentalTechnology Site (Rocky Flats) in Golden, Colorado, and was conducted...

  19. Coal-mine production history from 1984 through 1995 in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpmphg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage containing 12 years (1984 through 1995) of coal mining history in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. This layer was derived...

  20. Coal fields and outlines of coal-bearing strata in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpcf*g)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages of coal fields and coal-bearing formations in the Colorado Plateau. These GIS layers were created by combining numerous...

  1. Characterization of selected biological, chemical, and physical conditions at fixed sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1995-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Mize, Scott V.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1999-01-01

    Biological community samples were collected at 15 sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) in Colorado as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Sites sampled in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, represented agriculture, mining, urban and recreation, and mixed land uses and background conditions. Nine measures of water quality, which include information on nutrients, specific conductance (a surrogate for salinity), trace elements in streambed sediment, pesticides in fish tissue, fish communities, and macroinvertebrate richness and composition and stream habitat were used for comparisons among sites within the two physiographic provinces. Sampling sites from three other NAWQA study units?the Rio Grande Valley, the South Platte River Basin, and the Upper Snake River Basin study units?were categorized on the basis of land use and stream size in order to develop a larger data set for comparison to sites in the UCOL. Three categories of land use?forested (includes mining, urban and recreation, and background), agriculture, and mixed?were used for comparison to the UCOL fixed sites. Results indicated that all sites other than the Colorado River below Baker Gulch (a background site) showed some water-quality characteristics to be significantly affected. Results indicated that the concentrations of cadmium and zinc in streambed sediment at mining land-use sites in the Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic province generally were orders of magnitude higher than streambed-sediment concentrations at the background site. Streambed-sediment concentrations at mining land-use sites in the UCOL were greater than the 75th percentile of concentrations from sites in the three other NAWQA study units. Fish communities and habitat conditions were degraded at mining land-use sites compared to the background site. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness and the percentage of EPT were lower

  2. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation

  3. The Colorado river delta (Mexico: ecological importance and management = O delta do rio Colorado (Mexico: importância ecológica e gerenciamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fermán Almada

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado river delta is a unique coastal system in the world, as it combines two important systems: the Colorado river and the Gulf of California. Consequently, the delta is dominated by bilateral interests, and influenced by administrative, political and natural processes, which involve the countries of the United States and Mexico. Located in the northern part of the Gulf of California, under a condition of natural isolation, a series of environmental attributeshave been developed (biotic and abiotic that are only observed in is region. In this work, the development of the bilateral political relations and the most important ecological characteristicsare presented, as well as the management instruments that have been developed for over 80 years. From these issues, the possible scenario for the region is defined, and the development of methodologies for monitoring the effects of these possible tendencies on the natural components of the delta is proposed.O delta do rio Colorado é uma zona costeira única em todo o mundo, porassociar dois importantes sistemas: o próprio rio Colorado e o Golfo da Califórnia. Conseqüentemente, o delta é dominado por interesses bi-nacionais e influenciado por processos administrativos, políticos e naturais, envolvendo os Estados Unidos e o México. Localizado no norte do Golfo da Califórnia, sob uma condição de isolamento natural,desenvolveu-se uma série de atributos ambientais (bióticos e abióticos que só podem ser vistos nessa região. Neste trabalho, são apresentados o desenvolvimento das relações políticas bilaterais e as características ecológicas mais importantes, bem como osmecanismos de gerenciamento que vêm sido desenvolvidos por mais de 80 anos. A partir dessas questões, é definido um cenário tendencial possível para a região, e o desenvolvimento de metodologias para o acompanhamento dos efeitos dessas possíveis tendências sobre os componentes naturais do delta é proposto.

  4. Analysis of Curative Effect of Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide Injection in Treatment of Elderly Rheumatoid Arthritis Secondary Osteoporosis%鹿瓜多肽注射液治疗老年类风湿关节炎继发骨质疏松症的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦洁; 杨慧君; 王晓宇

    2014-01-01

    目的:对应用鹿瓜多肽注射液对继发出现骨质疏松症的老年类风湿关节炎患者实施治疗的临床效果进行研究。方法抽取72例继发出现骨质疏松症的老年类风湿关节炎患者,随机分为对照组和治疗组,平均每组36例。采用常规西药对对照组患者实施治疗;在常规西药基础上加用鹿瓜多肽注射液对治疗组患者实施治疗。结果治疗组患者类风湿关节炎继发骨质疏松症病情治疗效果明显优于对照组;骨质疏松症症状消失时间和用药方案实施总时间明显短于对照组;治疗前后IL-18水平的改善幅度明显大于对照组;治疗后病情复发率明显低于对照组;两组治疗期间均未出现任何药物不良反应。结论应用鹿瓜多肽注射液对继发出现骨质疏松症的老年类风湿关节炎患者实施治疗的临床效果非常明显。%Objective To study the clinical effect of cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection for the treatment of secondary osteoporosis in elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Clinical study was collected from these hospital elderly rheumatoid arthritis secondary osteoporosis patients. Results The patients in the treatment group curative effect, symptoms disappeared time, medication scheme, improve the level of total time IL-18, the recurrence rate was signiifcantly better than the control group. Conclusion The application of cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection appears osteoporosis of elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis secondary to the implementation of the clinical treatment effect is very obvious.

  5. Effect of cervus and cucumis polypeptide for injection combined with Jiangu granules in the treatment of primary osteoporosis in the elderly and the bone density observation%注射用骨瓜提取物联合健骨颗粒治疗老年原发性骨质疏松的效果及骨密度观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦夏冰; 周苗苗

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of cervus and cucumis polypeptide for injection combined with Jiangu granules in the treatment of primary osteoporosis in the elderly and observe the bone density change.Methods:100 patients with primary osteoporosis in the elderly were selected.They were divided into two groups,50 cases in each group.The observation group with intravenous injection of bone melon extract combined with oral health bone granule in the treatment,while the control group only received oral Jiangu granule in treating.Clinical symptoms, bone metabolism biochemical index and changes in bone mineral density were compared between groups.Results:The effective remission rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The effect of cervus and cucumis polypeptide for injection combined with Jiangu granules in the treatment of senile primary osteoporosis was curative.It can significantly improve the bone density of patients.%目的:探讨注射用骨瓜提取物联合健骨颗粒治疗老年原发性骨质疏松的效果及观察骨密度的变化。方法:收治老年原发性骨质疏松患者100例,分两组,各50例,观察组采用静脉注射骨瓜提取物联合口服健骨颗粒治疗,对照组仅采用口服健骨颗粒治疗,比较两组患者临床症状、骨代谢生化指标及骨密度变化等。结果:治疗后观察组临床症状有效缓解率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:注射用骨瓜提取物联合健骨颗粒治疗老年原发性骨质疏松疗效肯定,能明显提高患者骨密度。

  6. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present in valley-fill deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the bird?s-nest aquifer in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area. The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute. Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used to

  7. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950-2015) through future (2016-2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  8. Changes in groundwater recharge under projected climate in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Understanding groundwater-budget components, particularly groundwater recharge, is important to sustainably manage both groundwater and surface water supplies in the Colorado River basin now and in the future. This study quantifies projected changes in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) groundwater recharge from recent historical (1950–2015) through future (2016–2099) time periods, using a distributed-parameter groundwater recharge model with downscaled climate data from 97 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections. Simulated future groundwater recharge in the UCRB is generally expected to be greater than the historical average in most decades. Increases in groundwater recharge in the UCRB are a consequence of projected increases in precipitation, offsetting reductions in recharge that would result from projected increased temperatures.

  9. High flow and riparian vegetation along the San Miguel River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J.M.; Auble, G.T.

    2000-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are characterized by abundance of water and frequent flow related disturbance. River regulation typically decreases peak flows, reducing the amount of disturbance and altering the vegetation. The San Miguel River is one of the last relatively unregulated rivers remaining in the Colorado River Watershed. One goal of major landowners along the San Miguel including the Bureau of Land Management and The Nature Conservancy is to maintain their lands in a natural condition. Conservation of an entire river corridor requires an integrated understanding of the variability in ecosystems and external influences along the river. Therefore, the Bureau of Land Management and others have fostered a series of studies designed to catalogue that variability, and to characterize the processes that maintain the river as a whole. In addition to providing information useful to managers, these studies present a rare opportunity to investigate how a Colorado river operates in the absence of regulation.

  10. Results from utility wind resource assessment programs in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapeau, C.L. [Global Energy Concepts, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.

  11. Students' epistemologies about experimental physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and elsewhere, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Previous work with this assessment has included establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Several years of data collection at multiple institutions has resulted in a growing national data set of student responses. Here, we report on results of the analysis of these data to investigate the statistical validity and reliability of the E-CLASS as a measure of students' epistemologies for a broad student population. We find that the E-CLASS demonstrates an acceptable level of both validi...

  12. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  13. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  14. Pigs on the plains: Institutional analysis of a Colorado water quality initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D.; Burkardt, N.; Lee, Lamb B.

    2006-01-01

    We used the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) and Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to analyze the campaign over passage of the Colorado Hogs Rule, an initiative passed by the voters in 1998 to require regulation of swine production facilities in Colorado. Used in tandem, LIAM and ACF provided an opportunity to develop a robust understanding of the obstacles and opportunities that face water quality managers in a state-centered multi-organizational decision process. We found that combining the LIAM with the ACF enhanced the understanding that could be achieved by using either model in isolation. The predictive capacity of the LIAM would have been reduced without information from the ACF, and the ACF by itself would have missed the importance of a single-case study.

  15. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north.

  16. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north

  17. Studio Physics at the Colorado School of Mines: A model for iterative development and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick; Kuo, Vincent

    2009-05-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester introductory physics course using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format for several years. Based on this previous success, over the past 18 months we have converted the second semester of our traditional calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a Studio Physics format. In this talk, we describe the recent history of the Physics II course and of Studio at Mines, discuss the PER-based improvements that we are implementing, and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), failure rates, and exam scores. We also report on recent attempts to involve students in the department's Senior Design program with our course. Our ultimate goal is to construct one possible model for a practical and successful transition from a lecture course to a Studio (or Studio-like) course.

  18. Revealing Differences Between Curricula Using the Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Zwolak, Justyna P

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics (CUE) Diagnostic is an exam developed as part of the curriculum reform at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). It was designed to assess conceptual learning within upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M). Using the CUE, we have been documenting students' understanding of E&M at Oregon State University (OSU) over a period of 5 years. Our analysis indicates that the CUE identifies concepts that are generally difficult for students, regardless of the curriculum. The overall pattern of OSU students' scores reproduces the pattern reported by Chasteen et al. at CU. There are, however, some important differences that we will address. In particular, our students struggle with the CUE problems involving separation of variables and boundary conditions. We will discuss the possible causes for this, as well as steps that may rectify the situation.

  19. Central Colorado Assessment Project - Application of integrated geologic, geochemical, biologic, and mineral resource studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.; Church, S.E.; Caine, J.S.; Schmidt, T.S.; deWitt, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Central Colorado is one of the fastest-growing regions in the Western United States. Population along the Front Range increased more than 30 percent between 1990 and 2000 (http://www.demographia.com/db-metro3newworld.htm) with some counties within the study area, such as Park County, experiencing greater than 100-percent growth (http://www.censusscope.org/us/s8/rank_popl_growth.html). This growth has caused tremendous demand for natural resources and has created challenging land-management issues related to the interface between wilderness and urban expansion. Management of this wilderness/urban interface will benefit from current digital geoscience information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Colorado Assessment Project that began in 2003. Approximately 20,800 square miles (53,800 km2) of land divided almost equally between the public and private sectors were part of the assessment.

  20. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for Use in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Semsar, Katharine; Knight, Jennifer K.; Birol, Gülnur; Michelle K. Smith

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a newly adapted instrument for measuring novice-to-expert-like perceptions about biology: the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology (CLASS-Bio). Consisting of 31 Likert-scale statements, CLASS-Bio probes a range of perceptions that vary between experts and novices, including enjoyment of the discipline, propensity to make connections to the real world, recognition of conceptual connections underlying knowledge, and problem-solving strategies. CLASS-...

  1. Colorado potato beetle manipulates plant defenses in local and systemic leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore microbial associates can affect diverse interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Some insect symbionts enable herbivores to expand host plant range or to facilitate host plant use by modifying plant physiology. However, little attention has been paid to the role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses. We have recently shown that Colorado potato beetle secrete the symbiotic bacteria to suppress plant defenses. The bacteria in oral secretions from th...

  2. Efficacy of biological insecticides to control the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotasara decemlineata) in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Stefan; Reelfs, Torben; Ellmer, Frank; Moll, Eckard; Kleinhenz, Benno; Gemmer, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotasara decemlineata Say) is one of the most important pests on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). In the present study, we compared the efficacy of three biological insecticides – Neem (NeemAzal-T/S), pyrethrum/rapeseed oil (Spruzit Neu) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis (Novodor FC) – against this pest in field trials conducted from 2005 to 2007. The combined and temporarily shifted application of neem and B.t.t. reduced significantly the number of bee...

  3. The importance of base flow in sustaining surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Buto, Susan G.; Susong, David D.; Rumsey, Christine A.

    2016-05-01

    The Colorado River has been identified as the most overallocated river in the world. Considering predicted future imbalances between water supply and demand and the growing recognition that base flow (a proxy for groundwater discharge to streams) is critical for sustaining flow in streams and rivers, there is a need to develop methods to better quantify present-day base flow across large regions. We adapted and applied the spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) water quality model to assess the spatial distribution of base flow, the fraction of streamflow supported by base flow, and estimates of and potential processes contributing to the amount of base flow that is lost during in-stream transport in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). On average, 56% of the streamflow in the UCRB originated as base flow, and precipitation was identified as the dominant driver of spatial variability in base flow at the scale of the UCRB, with the majority of base flow discharge to streams occurring in upper elevation watersheds. The model estimates an average of 1.8 × 1010 m3/yr of base flow in the UCRB; greater than 80% of which is lost during in-stream transport to the Lower Colorado River Basin via processes including evapotranspiration and water diversion for irrigation. Our results indicate that surface waters in the Colorado River Basin are dependent on base flow, and that management approaches that consider groundwater and surface water as a joint resource will be needed to effectively manage current and future water resources in the Basin.

  4. The importance of base flow in sustaining surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Buto, Susan G.; Susong, David D.; Rumsey, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River has been identified as the most overallocated river in the world. Considering predicted future imbalances between water supply and demand and the growing recognition that base flow (a proxy for groundwater discharge to streams) is critical for sustaining flow in streams and rivers, there is a need to develop methods to better quantify present-day base flow across large regions. We adapted and applied the spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) water quality model to assess the spatial distribution of base flow, the fraction of streamflow supported by base flow, and estimates of and potential processes contributing to the amount of base flow that is lost during in-stream transport in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). On average, 56% of the streamflow in the UCRB originated as base flow, and precipitation was identified as the dominant driver of spatial variability in base flow at the scale of the UCRB, with the majority of base flow discharge to streams occurring in upper elevation watersheds. The model estimates an average of 1.8 × 1010 m3/yr of base flow in the UCRB; greater than 80% of which is lost during in-stream transport to the Lower Colorado River Basin via processes including evapotranspiration and water diversion for irrigation. Our results indicate that surface waters in the Colorado River Basin are dependent on base flow, and that management approaches that consider groundwater and surface water as a joint resource will be needed to effectively manage current and future water resources in the Basin.

  5. Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey: Completion report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil’s Canyon.

  6. Results of Test Drilling for Ground Water in the Southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1980-01-01

    During 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey began a comprehensive hydrologic study of the oil-shale area in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado. From 1976 to 1978, six deep test holes were drilled principally to obtain information about aquifers in the Green River Formation of Tertiary age. Information obtained from the drilling project includes description of lithologic samples from core and drill cuttings, temperature and geophysical logs, drilling logs, packer tests, aquifer (p...

  7. Multimodal Stimulation of Colorado Potato Beetle Reveals Modulation of Pheromone Response by Yellow Light

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Otálora-Luna; Joseph C. Dickens

    2011-01-01

    Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order multimodal processing and behavioral output. Here we report experiments to determine decisions made by Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in response to isolated stimuli and multimodal combinations of signals on a...

  8. Joint state of Colorado-US Department of Energy WIPP Shipment Exercise Program: TRANSAX '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, the United States Secretary of Energy requested the DOE conduct a transportation emergency exercise before the end of CY 1990. The tasking was subsequently directed to the Director of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to plan and conduct an exercise, based on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipment scenario. The state of Colorado was asked to participate. Colorado, in turn, invited the DOE to integrate the exercise into its own series of WIPP-related tabletop and field exercises for which the state had already begun planning. The result was a joint USDOE/Colorado full-scale (orientation) exercise called Transportation Accident Exercise 1990 (TRANSAX '90). The state of Colorado's exercise program was a follow-on to previously conducted classroom training. The program would serve to identify and resolve outstanding issues concerning inspections of the WIPP shipment transporter as it entered and passed through the state on the designated Interstate 25 transportation corridor; criteria for movement under various adverse weather and road conditions; and emergency response to accidents occurring in an urban or rural environment. The USDOE designed its participation in the exercise program to test selected aspects of the DOE Emergency Management System relating to response to and management of DOE off-site transportation emergencies involving assistance to state and local emergency response personnel. While a number of issues remain under study for ultimate resolution, others have been resolved and will become the basis for emergency operations plans, SOPs, mutual aid agreements, and checklist upgrades. Concurrently, the concentrated efforts at local, state, and federal levels in dealing with WIPP- related activities during this exercise program development have given renewed impetus to all parties as the beginning of actual shipments draws nearer. Three tabletop scenarios are discussed in this report

  9. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Reynolds, D L

    1999-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for the detection of avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain) (APV-Col). The specific primers were designed from the published sequence of the matrix protein gene of APV-Col. The primers amplified a product of 631 nucleotides from APV-Col. The assay identified only APV-Col and did not react with Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Five Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors Against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    OpenAIRE

    Karimzadeh, R.; Hejazi, M. J.; Rahimzadeh Khoei, F.; Moghaddam, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of laboratory experiments are reported that tested the effects of five chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron. on second instars of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae), originally collected from potato fields of Bostanabaad, a town 66 km southeast of Tabriz, Iran. In bioassays, the larvae were fed potato leaves dipped in aqueous solutions containing chitin synthesis inhibitors. ...

  11. A Review of Aeromagnetic Anomalies in the Sawatch Range, Central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankey, Viki

    2010-01-01

    This report contains digital data and image files of aeromagnetic anomalies in the Sawatch Range of central Colorado. The primary product is a data layer of polygons with linked data records that summarize previous interpretations of aeromagnetic anomalies in this region. None of these data files and images are new; rather, they are presented in updated formats that are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map-plotting packages.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)

  13. Forecasting the Colorado River Discharge Using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrkesh, Amirhossein; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model is a computational approach commonly used for modeling the complex relationships between input and output parameters. Prediction of the flow rate of a river is a requisite for any successful water resource management and river basin planning. In the current survey, the effectiveness of an Artificial Neural Network was examined to predict the Colorado River discharge. In this modeling process, an ANN model was used to relate the discharge of the Colo...

  14. An ecosystem services framework for multidisciplinary research in the Colorado River headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, D.J.; Briggs, J.S.; Martin, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    A rapidly spreading Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic is killing lodgepole pine forest in the Rocky Mountains, causing landscape change on a massive scale. Approximately 1.5 million acres of lodgepoledominated forest is already dead or dying in Colorado, the infestation is still spreading rapidly, and it is expected that in excess of 90 percent of all lodgepole forest will ultimately be killed. Drought conditions combined with dramatically reduced foliar moisture content due to stress or mortality from Mountain Pine Beetle have combined to elevate the probability of large fires throughout the Colorado River headwaters. Large numbers of homes in the wildland-urban interface, an extensive water supply infrastructure, and a local economy driven largely by recreational tourism make the potential costs associated with such a fire very large. Any assessment of fire risk for strategic planning of pre-fire management actions must consider these and a host of other important socioeconomic benefits derived from the Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine Forest ecosystem. This paper presents a plan to focus U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multidisciplinary fire/beetle-related research in the Colorado River headwaters within a framework that integrates a wide variety of discipline-specific research to assess and value the full range of ecosystem services provided by the Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine Forest ecosystem. Baseline, unburned conditions will be compared with a hypothetical, fully burned scenario to (a) identify where services would be most severely impacted, and (b) quantify potential economic losses. Collaboration with the U.S. Forest Service will further yield a distributed model of fire probability that can be used in combination with the ecosystem service valuation to develop comprehensive, distributed maps of fire risk in the Upper Colorado River Basin. These maps will be intended for use by stakeholders as a strategic planning tool for pre-fire management activities and can

  15. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Colorado River near Cisco, Utah, 1930-82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Colorado River upstream of gaging station 09180500 near Cisco, Utah, drains about 24,100 square miles in Utah and Colorado. Altitudes in the basin range from 12,480 feet near the headwaters to 4,090 feet at station 09180500. The average annual precipitation for 1894-1982 near the station was 7.94 inches. The average annual precipitation near the headwaters often exceeds 50 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the drainage basin upstream from station 09180500. Shale, limestone, siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute large quantities of sediment to the Colorado River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 09180500. Based on these records, the mean annual suspended-sediment load was 11,390,000 tone, ranging from 2,038,000 tons in water year 1981 to 35,700,000 tons in water year 1938. The minimum daily load of 14 tons was on August 22, 1960, and the maximum daily load of 2,790,000 tons was on October 14, 1941. (USGS)

  16. Transport of pollutants from cow feedlots in eastern Colorado into Rocky Mountain alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Denning, S.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), also called factory farms, are known for raising tens of millions head of livestock including cows (beef and dairy), swine, and poultry. With as many as 250 head of cattle per acre, a United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) report showed beef cattle from CAFOs in the United States produce as much as 24.1 million tons of manure annually. Gases released from cow manure include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and ammonia (NH3). During boreal summers Colorado experiences fewer synoptic weather systems, allowing the diurnal cycle to exert greater control of meteorological events along the mountain-plains interface. Anabatic, or upslope winds induced by the diurnal cycle, contribute largely to the transport of gases and particulates from feedlots in eastern Colorado into the Rocky Mountains, presenting a potential harm to natural alpine ecosystems. This study focuses on locating the source of transport of gases from feedlots along the eastern Front Range of Colorado into alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains. Source regions are approximated using backward time simulation of a Lagrangian Transport model.

  17. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  18. Effects of climate change and land use on water resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The health of the Colorado River watershed is critical to the socioeconomic and ecosystem well-being of the Southwestern United States. Water in springs, streams, and rivers supports a range of aquatic and riparian ecosystems that contain many endangered species. Terrestrial habitats support a wide array of plants and wildlife. In addition, this region is enjoyed by millions of people annually for its recreational and esthetic opportunities. The Colorado River provides water for about 25 million people and is used to irrigate 2.5 million acres of farmland. However, competition for this water is expected to increase as human populations dependent on this water are projected to increase to 38 million by 2020. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate water issues in this region. Drought in the Southwest during 2000-04, caused by both reduced precipitation and a series of the hottest years on record, resulted in streamflows lower than during the 1930s Dust Bowl or the 1950s. Increased temperatures alone are a major factor in reducing surface-water flows in this region. For instance, precipitation received during the winter of 2005 was at the 100-year average. However, low soil moisture and high January-July temperatures resulted in flows that were only 75 percent of average. Climate models predict future warmer temperatures and reduced precipitation in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), which would reduce water available to humans and ecosystems.

  19. Colorado Lightning Mapping Array Collaborations through the GOES-R Visiting Scientist Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Szoke, Edward; Rydell, Nezette; Cox, Robert; Mazur, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    For the past two years, the GOES-R Proving Ground has solicited proposals for its Visiting Scientist Program. NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has used this opportunity to support the GOES-R Proving Ground by expanding SPoRT's total lightning collaborations. In 2012, this expanded the evaluation of SPoRT's pseudo-geostationary lightning mapper product to the Aviation Weather Center and Storm Prediction Center. This year, SPoRT has collaborated with the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA) and potential end users. In particular, SPoRT is collaborating with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) and Colorado State University (CSU) to obtain these data in real-time. From there, SPoRT is supporting the transition of these data to the local forecast offices in Boulder, Colorado and Cheyenne, Wyoming as well as to Proving Ground projects (e.g., the Hazardous Weather Testbed's Spring Program and Aviation Weather Center's Summer Experiment). This presentation will focus on the results of this particular Visiting Scientist Program trip. In particular, the COLMA data are being provided to both forecast offices for initial familiarization. Additionally, several forecast issues have been highlighted as important uses for COLMA data in the operational environment. These include the utility of these data for fire weather situations, situational awareness for both severe weather and lightning safety, and formal evaluations to take place in the spring of 2014.

  20. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorum, M.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Information on the geothermal resources of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, has been gathered and reviewed and a preliminary, quantitative assessment of the magnitude and quality of resources present was carried out. Complete process designs were developed for the processes of producing crystal sugar from beets and for malting barley for use in the brewing industry, in each case adapting the processes to use a 302/sup 0/F geothermal water supply as the main process energy source. A parametric design analysis was performed for a major pipeline to be used to ship geothermal water, and thus deliver its heat, out of the San Luis Valley to three major Colorado cities along the eastern threshold of the Rocky Mountains. Cost estimates for capital equipment and energy utilization are presented. The analyses of the two process applications indicate favorable economics for conversion and operation as geothermally-heated plants. A major geothermal water pipeline for this region is seriously limited on achievement of the economy of scale by the physical absence of significant demand for heat energy. Finally, the development and utilization of Colorado's San Luis Valley geothermal groundwaters hold the potential to contribute to the prudent and beneficial management of that area's natural water resources systems.

  1. The Three Colorado Rivers: Comparing the Physical, Legal, and Economic Allocation of a Shared River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    : For many rivers, the legal allocation of surface water was settled decades ago. The process of apportioning surface water between multiple stakeholders is an arduous process with opposing interests competing for scarce resources. The political capital spent initially allocating a river often cannot be regained, stymieing future attempts for re-allocation. The Colorado River Compact (Compact), signed in 1922, has been "the law of the river" for over 90 years. Since its signing, the Colorado River Basin (CRB) population has increased tenfold, while average river flows have decreased due to threats unforeseeable to Compact signers, such as global climate change. Water sharing agreements, like the Compact, legally re-allocate physical river flows; however, water is increasingly shared through trade rather than aqueducts. Virtual water, or the water embodied by a good or service, is a trade adaption to resource scarcity, namely water and land. This study presents findings of a virtual water complement to the Compact. The goal of this study is to determine how the legal allocation of physical water resources are re-allocated as virtual water via economic trade in a shared river basin. Results are presented by at the sub-basin, state, and county-level, showing the geographic origin and destination of virtual water from CRB states and the Upper and Lower basins. A water stress index is calculated to show the indirect water stress of Colorado River water resources and network statistics are employed to rank the importance of virtual water sources in the CRB.

  2. Climatology of extreme daily precipitation in Colorado and its diverse spatial and seasonal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kelly M.; Ralph, F. Martin; Walter, Klaus; Doesken, Nolan; Dettinger, Michael; Gottas, Daniel; Coleman, Timothy; White, Allen

    2015-01-01

    The climatology of Colorado’s historical extreme precipitation events shows a remarkable degree of seasonal and regional variability. Analysis of the largest historical daily precipitation totals at COOP stations across Colorado by season indicates that the largest recorded daily precipitation totals have ranged from less than 60 mm day−1 in some areas to more than 250 mm day−1 in others. East of the Continental Divide, winter events are rarely among the top 10 events at a given site, but spring events dominate in and near the foothills; summer events are most common across the lower-elevation eastern plains, while fall events are most typical for the lower elevations west of the Divide. The seasonal signal in Colorado’s central mountains is complex; high-elevation intense precipitation events have occurred in all months of the year, including summer, when precipitation is more likely to be liquid (as opposed to snow), which poses more of an instantaneous flood risk. Notably, the historic Colorado Front Range daily rainfall totals that contributed to the damaging floods in September 2013 occurred outside of that region’s typical season for most extreme precipitation (spring–summer). That event and many others highlight the fact that extreme precipitation in Colorado has occurred historically during all seasons and at all elevations, emphasizing a year-round statewide risk.

  3. The Colorado Plateau V: research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Carena J.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This volume, the fifth from the University of Arizona Press and the tenth overall, focuses on adaptation of resource management and conservation to climate change and water scarcity, protecting biodiversity through restructured energy policies, ensuring wildlife habitat connectivity across barriers, building effective conservation networks, and exploring new opportunities for education and leadership in conservation science. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  4. Geologic report on the Sand Wash Drilling Project, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.E.; Wayland, T.E.

    1981-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Drilling Project comprises twenty-seven (27) drill holes located in Moffat and Routt Counties, northwest Colorado, having an aggregate depth of 26,107.5 feet (7957.6 m). The holes penetrate the Browns Park Formation of Miocene age, which is a tuffaceous continental sandstone deposited in fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments. Partly based on project drilling results, uranium potential resource estimates for this formation in the $50/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ forward-cost category have been increased by 34,476 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (35,036 metric tons). Three areas between Maybell and Craig, Colorado, considered favorable for uranium occurrences were verified as favorable by project drilling, and a fourth favorable area northwest of Maybell has been expanded. In addition, project drilling results indicate two new favorable areas, one north and northwest and one south of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Anomalous radioactivity was detected in drill holes in all six study areas of the project. The most important factor in concentrating significant amounts of uranium in the target formation appears to be the availability of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons and/or hydrogen sulfide gas as reductants. Where subjacent formations supply these reductants to the Browns Park Formation, project drilling encountered 0.05 percent to 0.01 percent uranium concentrations. Potential, though unproven, sources of these reductants are believed to underlie parts of all six project study areas.

  5. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  6. University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. Report NPL-845. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1978 to October 31, 1979, under contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A003 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. Experimental studies of light ion-induced reactions were performed with the AVF cyclotron, which continues each year to produce beams of yet higher quality. Charged-particle studies continued to emphasize use of the high-resolution spectrometer system, but some return to broad-range spectroscopic studies using solid state detectors also occurred. Neutron time-of-flight experiments used 9-meter and 30-meter flight paths. Neutron-gamma ray coincidence studies developed into a new and promising field. The new PDP 11/34 data acquisition system was of great value in allowing such multiparameter experiments. Smaller programs in nuclear astrophysics, plasma diagnostic development, and medical physics were also undertaken. Research activities based at other accelerators grew. Studies of future directions for light-ion accelerators, including work on intense pulsed ion sources, orbit dynamics, and storage rings, were greatly enlarged. 19 of the articles in this report were abstracted and indexed individually. Lists of publications and personnel conclude this report. (RWR)

  7. Airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping of snow depth and albedo in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA by the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, and is paired with a hyperspectral imager to provide an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping. During the snowmelt seasons of 2013 and 2014, the ASO mapped snow depth and albedo in the Uncompahgre River Basin in Colorado's Upper Colorado River Basin on a nominally monthly basis. These products enable an assessment and comparison of spatial snow accumulation and melt processes in two years with very different snowmelt hydrographs.

  8. Distribution of trace elements in streambed sediment associated with mining activities in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA, 1995-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, J.R.; Driver, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Streambed-sediment samples were collected in the Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic province in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado to characterize the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in mined and nonmined areas of the basin. During October 1995 and September 1996, streambed sediment was collected at 37 sites, and the samples were analyzed for trace elements. The ranges in concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn at mining sites generally were orders of magnitude higher than the ranges of concentrations at nonmining sites. Sampling sites located in two predominant rock types in mining areas were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn. Cu was significantly different (p 0.05) between main-stem sites and tributary sites. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded established guidelines for adverse effects on aquatic biota at some sites in the study area. The patterns in concentrations of Cd and Zn, Cd and Pb, and Pb and Zn were highly correlated to one another in this study. Concentrations of trace elements in the mine source indicated that trace- element concentrations initially increased downstream of the source and then gradually decreased in concentration with distance from the source.

  9. A decadal satellite analysis of the origins and impacts of smoke in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Val Martin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the impact of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20–50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m−3 and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m−3 over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (> 1500 km distance occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2–0.9, indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r22.5 levels. Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire origin and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the

  10. A decadal satellite analysis of the origins and impacts of smoke in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Val Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the impact of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20–50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m−3 and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m−3 over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (>1500 km distance occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2–0.9, indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r22.5 levels. Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire origin and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the

  11. Rock formations in the Colorado Plateau of Southeastern Utah and Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwell, C.R.; Miser, H.D.; Moore, R.C.; Bryan, Kirk; Paige, Sidney

    1925-01-01

    The field work of which this report is a record was done in the summer and fall of 1921 by members of the United States Geological Survey. A project to build a large storage dam at Lees Ferry, on Colorado River in northern Arizona, called for a detailed topographic survey of the area covered by the project, for the purpose of determining the capacity of the reservoir. This work was undertaken by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southern California Edison Co. Three surveying parties were sent to the field, each accompanied by a geologist, whose specific duty was to study and report on the rock formations within the area to be flooded. One topographic party, under A. T. Fowler, which started at Lees Ferry and worked up stream in Arizona, was accompanied by Kirk Bryan. Another party, under K. W. Trimble, which started near Bluff and worked down the San Juan and thence down the Colorado, was accompanied by H. D. Miser. The third party, under W. R. Chenoweth, worked from Fremont River to the Waterpocket Fold and then returned to Green River, Utah, and traversed Cataract Canyon during the period of low water. C. R. Longwell was with this party until September, when his place was taken by Sidney Paige. Mr. Paige, in company with the Kolb brothers, E. C. La Rue, and Henry Ranch, left the Chenoweth party after Cataract Canyon had been surveyed and rowed down the Colorado to the mouth of the San Juan, where they were joined by Mr. Miser. Then they took a hurried trip by boat down the Colorado to Lees Ferry, making a few short stops and visiting the famous Rainbow Bridge. Thus the geology of the canyons of Colorado and San Juan rivers and of the lower parts of tributary canyons was examined continuously, and reconnaissance work was done in the country back from the rivers. At the same time a fourth party, under R. C. Moore, was mapping parts of Kane, Garfield, and Wayne counties, Utah, to determine whether oil might be found there. The present paper

  12. Streamflow gains and losses in the Colorado River in northwestern Burnet and southeastern San Saba Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Grzyb, Scott D.

    2015-08-12

    In October 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Central Texas Groundwater Conservation District, began an assessment to better understand if and where groundwater from the Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer is discharging to the Colorado River, and if and where Colorado River streamflow is recharging the Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer in the study area. Discharge measurements were made to determine if different reaches of the Colorado River in northwestern Burnet and southeastern San Saba Counties are gaining or losing streamflow, the locations and quantities of gains and losses, and whether the gains and losses can be attributed to interaction between the river and the Ellenbuger-San Saba aquifer. To assess streamflow gains and losses, two sets of synoptic gain-loss discharge measurements representing different streamflow conditions were completed. In the first gain-loss streamflow survey during December 3–6, 2012 (hereinafter the fall 2012 gain-loss survey), discharge measurements were made at low-flow conditions ranging from about 30 to 60 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) at seven locations along the Colorado River. In the second gain-loss streamflow survey during May 31–June 1, 2014 (hereinafter the spring 2014 gain-loss survey), discharge measurements were made at high-flow conditions ranging from about 660 to 900 ft3/s at 12 locations along the Colorado River.

  13. Assessment of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in selected surface water of the National Park Service Northern Colorado Plateau Network, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, from 1972 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Juliane B.; Thoma, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrients are a nationally recognized concern for water quality of streams, rivers, groundwater, and water bodies. Nutrient impairment is documented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a primary cause of degradation in lakes and reservoirs, and nutrients are related to organic enrichment and oxygen depletion, which is an important cause of degradation in streams. Recently (2011), an effort to develop State-based numeric nutrient criteria has resulted in renewed emphasis on nutrients in surface water throughout the Nation. In response to this renewed emphasis and to investigate nutrient water quality for Northern Colorado Plateau Network streams, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, assessed total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration data for 93 sites in or near 14 National Park units for the time period 1972 through 2007.

  14. Diversidade da Arborização Urbana no Município de Colorado (RS) / Importance and diversity of urban tree planting in Colorado city (RS)

    OpenAIRE

    Evanisa Fátima Reginato Quevedo Melo; Carla Adelina Mello Piacentin

    2011-01-01

    A arborização é um elemento indispensável no ambiente urbano visto os benefícios das árvores e os problemas que podem ocorrer pela falta de planejamento. A pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar, catalogar, conservar e divulgar o material florestal disponível nas ruas, avenidas e praças do município de Colorado, bem como avaliar a importância da arborização no contexto da comunidade. Foi realizado o levantamento botânico de todas as espécies que se encontram nas áreas públicas e aplicação de...

  15. Significativa descompensación isostática en la Cuenca del Colorado (República Argentina Significative isostatic uncompensation in the Colorado Basin (Argentine Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Introcaso

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha analizado el balance isostático en la zona más profunda de la cuenca sedimentaria del Colorado, utilizando anomalías de gravedad. Las anomalías isostáticas (AI alcanzan un máximo de + 90 mGal señalando: (1 una ostensible sobrecompensación actual y (2 que en lo futuro la cuenca debería subsidir significativamente para recuperar el equilibrio de masas. La magnitud de la descompensación isostática fue obtenida a partir de un modelo de inversión (desde las anomalías de Bouguer (ABc corregidas por efectos sedimentarios que fue comparado con un modelo de estiramiento perfectamente compensado, asumido a partir de datos sísmicos profundos (antirraíz y de fallamiento directo (expresado por líneas sísmicas en el basamento que soporta al desarrollo sedimentario.Isostatic balance on the deepest zone of the Colorado sedimentary basin was analysed using gravity anomalies. Isostatic anomalies (AI reach + 90 mGal, pointing out: (1 notable overcompensation today and (2 a tendency of the basin of significantly subsiding in the future to recover masses equilibrium. A value for characterising no isostatic compensation was obtained by an inversion model from Bouguer anomalies (ABc corrected for sedimentary effects. This model was compared with a perfectly compensated stretching model, that was assumed from deep seismic data (antiroot and from direct faulting (obtained from seismic lines on the basement supporting the sedimentary filling.

  16. Sedimentos arcillosos en un suelo del valle inferior del río Colorado (Argentina Clay sediments in a soil of the lower Colorado river valley (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Peinemann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la presencia de capas sedimentarias ricas en minerales de arcilla en un subsuelo del valle inferior del río Colorado por su importancia para el régimen hídrico de suelos bajo riego. Difractogramas de rayos X efectuados sobre la fracción arcilla fina de estos sedimentos revelaron que está compuesta por smectitas con muy buena cristalización. La caracterización fisicoquímica del perfil de suelo mostró que el fuerte incremento de minerales de arcilla en el subsuelo estuvo vinculado con un aumento de pH y PSI y en consecuencia una marcada disminución en la conductividad hidráulica, motivo por el cual la eventual presencia de estas capas sedimentarias debe ser muy tenida en cuenta en la programación de las prácticas de riego para evitar el posible deterioro de los suelos.The presence of sedimentary clay layers in subsoils of the lower Colorado river valley are described due to their impact on the water balance of soils under irrigation. X-ray difractograms of the fine clay fraction of these sediments show that they are composed of smectites with a very good crystallization. The physicochemical characterization of the soil profile indicates that the abrupt increase of clay minerals was associated with high pH and ESP values as well as a sharp decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, the presence of sedimentary clay layers in soils has to be considered when planning irrigation practices to avoid soil degradation.

  17. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  18. Outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Associated with Attencdance at a Large Livestock Exhibition - Denver, Colorado, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with attendance at a large livestock exhibition – Denver, Colorado, January-February 2009 Nicole Comstock1, Hugh Maguire1, Abby Bronken2, Carol McDonald3, Donna Hite-Bynum4, Mary Kate Cichon1, Lisa Durso5 1 Colorado Department of Public Health and En...

  19. Survival, growth, and movement of subadult humpback chub, Gila cypha, in the Little Colorado River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecologists estimate vital rates, such as growth and survival, to better understand population dynamics and identify sensitive life history parameters for species or populations of concern. Here, we assess spatiotemporal variation in growth, movement, density, and survival of subadult humpback chub living in the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ from 2001–2002 and 2009–2013. We divided the Little Colorado River into three reaches and used a multistate mark-recapture model to determine rates of movement and differences in survival and density between sites for different cohorts. Additionally, site-specific and year-specific effects on growth were evaluated using a linear model. Results indicate that summer growth was higher for upstream sites compared with downstream sites. In contrast, there was not a consistent spatial pattern across years in winter growth; however, river-wide winter growth was negatively related to the duration of floods from 1 October to 15 May. Apparent survival was estimated to be lower at the most downstream site compared with the upstream sites; however, this could be because in part of increased emigration into the Colorado River at downstream sites. Furthermore, the 2010 cohort (i.e. fish that are age 1 in 2010) exhibited high apparent survival relative to other years. Movement between reaches varied with year, and some years exhibited preferential upstream displacement. Improving understanding of spatiotemporal effects on age 1 humpback chub survival can help inform current management efforts to translocate humpback chub into new locations and give us a better understanding of the factors that may limit this tributary's carrying capacity for humpback chub.

  20. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.