Sample records for cierny vah precerpavacia

  1. Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Group VA-H3 (United States)

    Armanda, Carlos A.


    During the eight weeks working at NASA, I was fortunate enough to work with the Expendable Launch Vehicle's (ELV) Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Team, who is responsible for the evaluation and analysis of any EMI risk an ELV mission might face. This group of people concern themselves with practically any form of electromagnetic interference that may risk the safety of a rocket, a mission, or even people. Taking this into consideration, the group investigates natural forms of interference, such as lightning, to manmade interferences, such as antennas.

  2. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge (United States)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  3. Wall Imaging for Unilateral Intracranial Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia with Three-dimensional High-isotropic Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Jin Zhu; Wu Wang; Bin Du; Lei Liu; Xin-Xin He; Li-Bin Hu; Xue-Bin Zhang


    Background:There are few studies for evaluating wall characteristics of intracranial vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH).The aim of this study was to determine wall characteristics of VAH with three-dimensional volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (3D VISTA) images and differentiate between acquired atherosclerotic stenosis and VAH.Methods:Thirty patients with suspicious VAH by luminograms were retrospectively enrolled between January 2014 and February 2015.The patients were classified as "acquired atherosclerotic stenosis" or "VAH" based on 3D VISTA images.The wall characteristics of VAH were assessed to determine the presence of atherosclerotic lesions,and the patients were classified into two subgroups (VAH with atherosclerosis and VAH with normal wall).Wall characteristics of basilar arteries and vertebral arteries were also assessed.The clinical and wall characteristics were compared between the two groups.Results:Five of 30 patients with suspicious VAH were finally diagnosed as acquired atherosclerotic stenosis by 3D VISTA images.25 patients were finally diagnosed as VAH including 16 (64.00%) patients with atherosclerosis and 9 (36.00%) patients with normal wall.In the 16 patients with atherosclerosis,plaque was found in 9 patients,slight wall thickening in 6 patients,and thrombus and wall thickening in 1 patient.Compared with VAH patients with normal wall,VAH patients with atherosclerosis showed atherosclerotic basilar arteries and dominant vertebral arteries more frequently (P =0.000).Conclusions:Three-dimensional VISTA images enable differentiation between the acquired atherosclerotic stenosis and VAH.VAH was also prone to atherosclerotic processes.

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSJ446 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pi*i*nilalacgsgkpiyilfs krlriakskphgifvaantnipseslptpfi*mrnsvfirladsds*SLRDEHKEST...clk*vah*tart gciiasftnepisepe*psvksanfl*sa*tnvfgvepi*i*nilalacgsgkpiyilfs krlriakskphgifvaantnipseslptpfi*mr

  5. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (United States)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  6. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  7. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish (United States)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  8. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3, isolated from catfish and antagonistic against hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (United States)

    Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabo...

  9. Kunst linnaruumi, kunst vaatajani! : Madalmaad / Kirke Kangro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangro, Kirke, 1975-


    Skulptuurinäitusest "Den Haag Sculptuur 2004" Haagi kesklinnas. Sümpoosioni peateemaks "Giants: European Conversation Pieces / Hiiglased: Euroopa vestluskillud". Kuraator Marie Jeanne de Rooij. Balint Havasi ja Andras Galiku (Little Warsaw, Ungari) võidutööst, Damien Hirsti (Inglismaa), Esther Brugginki ja Tom Claasseni (Holland), Anton Cierny (Slovakkia), Monika Sosnowska (Poola) ning Eesti esindanud Kirke Kangro tööst

  10. Antifouling property of the fruits of Randia brandisii (Rubiaceae) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Sapindaceae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Methanol extracts of fruits of Randia brandisii (Gamble) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Vah) were assessed for marine antifouling properties. The coatings of these crude extracts on aluminium coupons were found to inhibit settlement of macrofoulers...

  11. The risk analysis and regularity of posterior circulation infarction in vertigo patients with vertebral artery dysplasia%眩晕并椎动脉发育不良患者后循环梗死的规律及危险性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿桂凤; 张道培; 张杰文; 张淑玲; 马乾坤; 尹所


    Objective To explore the prevalence of vertebral artery dysplasia (VAH)and its risk and regularity of poste-rior circulation infarction (PCI)in vertigo patients with VAH.Method We sequentially enrolled 245 patients suspected of vas-cular vertigo,detected by Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)to judge if merged with VAH,who were divided into cere-bral infarction group and non-infarction group according to whether VAH formed fresh infarction or not measured by Diffu-sion-weighted Imaging (DWI).Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant risk factors for PCI stroke.Finally,we analyzed the characteristics and regularity of PCI with VAH.Result The prevalence of VAH was 26.1% in vertigo patients.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that VAH (OR=2.59,95%CI:1.07-6. 27,P=0.035),stenosis of the posterior circulation (OR=6.04,95%CI:1.94-1 7.07,P=0.002)and diabetes mellitus (OR=3.21,95%CI:1.36-7.57,P=0.008)were independent risk factors for PCI.The TOAST subtypes of PCI with VAH were mainly attributed to small arteries occlusions (10/18).8 patients with cerebral infarctions which were located at pons,thala-mus and temporal occipital lobe infarction occurred on the opposite VAH,4 patients with cerebellar and medullary infarction occurred in the ipsilateral VAH (4/6).Conclusion VAH is common in vertigo patients,which may be an independent risk factor for PCI with certain regularity of its infarction distribution.%目的:探讨椎动脉发育不良(vertebralartery dysplasia,VAH)在眩晕患者中的发生率及其相关后循环梗死的规律和危险性。方法连续入组245例眩晕患者(可疑为血管性),采用磁共振血管成像检查合并 VAH 情况,根据磁共振弥散加权成像是否出现后循环新鲜梗死灶分为梗死组和非梗死组,对相关血管危险因素进行单因素和多因素分析;并分析 VAH合并后循环梗死的特点和规律。结果VAH 发生率26.1%(64/245)

  12. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Zhang, Minhua


    On the basis of a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  13. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Robert Rasmussen-Ivey


    Full Text Available Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, in the People’s Republic of China and in the United States, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that US catfish and Asian carp isolates of A. hydrophila affiliated with sequence type 251 (ST251 share a recent common ancestor. To address the genomic context for the putative intercontinental transfer and subsequent geographic spread of this pathogen, we conducted a core genome phylogenetic analysis on 61 Aeromonas spp. genomes, of which 40 were affiliated with A. hydrophila and 26 were epidemic strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that all ST251 strains form a coherent lineage affiliated with A. hydrophila. Within this lineage, conserved genetic loci were identified that are unique within A. hydrophila as well as genes that are present in consistently higher copy numbers than in non-epidemic A. hydrophila isolates. In addition, results from analyses of representative ST251 isolates supports that multiple lineages are present within US vAh isolated from Mississippi, whereas vAh isolated from Alabama appear clonal. This is the first report of genomic heterogeneity within US vAh isolates, with some Mississippi isolates showing closer affiliation with the Asian grass carp isolate ZC1 than with other vAh isolated in the US. To evaluate the biological significance of the identified heterogeneity, comparative disease challenges were conducted with representatives of different vAh genotypes revealing that isolate ZC1 yielded significantly lower mortality in channel catfish, relative to Alabama and Mississippi vAh isolates. Like other Asian vAh isolates, the ZC1 lineage contains all core genes for a complete type VI secretion system (T6SS. In contrast, more

  14. Classification of a Hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila Pathotype Responsible for Epidemic Outbreaks in Warm-Water Fishes (United States)

    Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R.; Hossain, Mohammad J.; Odom, Sara E.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Hemstreet, William G.; Shoemaker, Craig A.; Zhang, Dunhua; Xu, De-Hai; Griffin, Matt J.; Liu, Yong-Jie; Figueras, Maria J.; Santos, Scott R.; Newton, Joseph C.; Liles, Mark R.


    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the People's Republic of China and the United States (US). Multiple lines of evidence indicate US catfish and Asian carp isolates of A. hydrophila affiliated with sequence type 251 (ST251) share a recent common ancestor. To address the genomic context for the putative intercontinental transfer and subsequent geographic spread of this pathogen, we conducted a core genome phylogenetic analysis on 61 Aeromonas spp. genomes, of which 40 were affiliated with A. hydrophila, with 26 identified as epidemic strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicate all ST251 strains form a coherent lineage affiliated with A. hydrophila. Within this lineage, conserved genetic loci unique to A. hydrophila were identified, with some genes present in consistently higher copy numbers than in non-epidemic A. hydrophila isolates. In addition, results from analyses of representative ST251 isolates support the conclusion that multiple lineages are present within US vAh isolated from Mississippi, whereas vAh isolated from Alabama appear clonal. This is the first report of genomic heterogeneity within US vAh isolates, with some Mississippi isolates showing closer affiliation with the Asian grass carp isolate ZC1 than other vAh isolated in the US. To evaluate the biological significance of the identified heterogeneity, comparative disease challenges were conducted with representatives of different vAh genotypes. These studies revealed that isolate ZC1 yielded significantly lower mortality in channel catfish, relative to Alabama and Mississippi vAh isolates. Like other Asian vAh isolates, the ZC1 lineage contains all core genes for a complete type VI secretion system (T6SS). In contrast, more virulent US isolates

  15. Advanced Sensor and Packaging Technologies for Intelligent Adaptive Engine Controls (Preprint) (United States)


    novel Si-B-C-N ceramic precursors”, Chemistry of Materials, Vol 12 (3), 623-632 (2000) [22] G Pouskouleli, “Metallorganic Compounds as Preceramic...Materials, I. Non-Oxide Ceramics,” Ceram. Int., 15, 1989. [23] M Peuckert, T Vahs and M Brueck, “Ceramic From Organometallic Polymers,” Advanced

  16. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  17. Chitin degradation and utilization by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strain ML10-51K (United States)

    Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens that causes persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in warm-water fishes. Among factors associated with MAS outbreaks, the survivability of this pathogen in aquatic environments is of great concern...

  18. Õhksoojuspumbad vastavad lubadustele / Markku Lindell, Juho Huttula ; tõlge Ingrid Maasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindell, Markku


    Võrdluses on 6 soojuspumpa: Gree Artful 12, IVT Nordic Inverter 12 GR-N, Mitsubishi Electric Kirigamine+ MSZ-FD35VAH, Panasonic Flagship HE12GKE, Technibel Techno GRF128R51, Toshiba RAS-13S-ND. Vt. samas: Pekka Rantti. Kuidas mõõdeti

  19. Classification of a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila pathotype responsible for epidemic outbreaks in warm-water fishes (United States)

    Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the P...

  20. Chitin degradation and metabolism by virulent Aeromonas hydropila (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causal agent of motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish and other warm-water fishes. Severe outbreak of MAS caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) was reported in 2009 in the Southeastern United States; the disease has since resulted in loss of millions of pounds of ...

  1. Effect of vertebral artery hypoplasia on the territory-related perfusion of posterior inferior cerebellar artery%椎动脉发育不全对小脑后下动脉供血区脑灌注的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马乾坤; 张道培; 张杰文; 张淑玲; 鹿桂凤; 尹所


    目的:探讨椎动脉发育不全(vertebral artery hypoplasia,VAH )对小脑后下动脉供血区脑灌注的影响。方法选择2014-12—2015-07年龄≥30岁并行头颅磁共振灌注成像和头颈部三维对比增强磁共振血管造影检查的头晕或眩晕患者244例。获脑血流量(CBF)、脑血容量(CBV)、平均通过时间(MTT)和达峰时间(TTP)灌注图,测量一侧小脑后下动脉供血区及对侧镜像区的灌注参数值(CBF、CBV、MTT、TTP),计算椎动脉直径较小侧/对侧镜像区的灌注参数相对比值(rCBF、rCBV、rMTT、rTTP)。定义 VAH 为椎动脉直径≤2 mm,或双侧椎动脉不对称比≥1.7:1,分为 VAH 组和 non-VAH(Non-hypoplasitic vertebral artey)组,对临床资料和小脑、延髓灌参数相对比值进行比较。结果共纳入114例患者,男女各57例;VAH 组31例(27.2%),左侧5例(16%),右侧26例(84%);Non-VAH 组83例。2组间 VA 直径较小侧与对侧的 rTTP和 rCBF≤0.85的例数存在显著统计学差异(P 值分别为0.005,0.031);rCBF 倾向于有统计学差异(P =0.098);rCBV、rMTT 及 rCBV≤0.85例数无显著统计学差异。结论VAH 可以造成小脑后下动脉供血区域低灌注改变,且以 TTP 延长或 CBF 降低为主。%Objective To investigate the effect of vertebral artery hypoplasia on the territory perfusion of posterior inferi-or cerebellar artery (PICA).Methods 244 patients with vertigo or dizziness (age≥30 years old)from December 2014 to July 201 5 were selected as subjects who underwent brain perfusion-weighted imaging (pWI)and three-dimensional dynamic con-trast-enhanced MRA (3D DCE-MRA).The perfusion figures of cerebral blood flow(CBF),cerebral blood volume(CBV),mean transit time(MTT)and time to peak(TTP)were obtained.The perfusion parameters including CBF,CBV,MTT and TTP val-ues were measured at PICA areas and at the opposite mirror-imaging areas.Relative perfusion parameter values (rCBF,rCBV, rMTT and rTTP)defined as the ratio of the

  2. The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade. (United States)

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A; Powell, Frank L


    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839-1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7-9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a "cocktail" of the GluR antagonists MK-801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15-min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF, significantly decreased ventilation and breathing frequency in acute hypoxia but not normoxia (P NTS significantly decreased ventilation in normoxia and breathing frequency in hypoxia. A persistent HVR after combined GluR blockade in the NTS contrasts with the effect of individual GluR blockade and also with results in anesthetized rats. Our findings support the hypotheses that GluRs in the NTS contribute to, but cannot completely explain, VAH in awake rats.

  3. "I'm Coming Home, Tell the World I'm Coming Home". The Long Homecoming and Mental Health Treatment of Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans. (United States)

    Rozanova, Julia; Noulas, Paraskevi; Smart, Kathleen; Roy, Alicia; Southwick, Steven M; Davidson, Larry; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan


    This study explored the journey of American armed forces personnel from their decision to join the service, through their service in an active military conflict and how these factors may be associated with potential resistance for mental healthcare. The data came from qualitative interviews with 46 OIF/OEF/OND active-duty military, reservists, and discharged veterans of the average age of 25 years, who presented for a new episode of mental health treatment to a large Veterans Affairs Hospital (VAH) in Northeastern United States in 2011-2012. Qualitative analysis of veterans' perceptions revealed several major themes describing how a mental health diagnosis would negatively impact both their sense of identity and pragmatic career-building goals: enlisting as a career-building avenue, 'noble superhero' identity, escaping from hardship, and mental illness as a career-killer. Findings suggest that factors making young veterans resist mental healthcare may be reduced by partnering VAH psychiatrists with career counselors, and by enhancing military leadership's awareness and understanding about how to support soldiers with emotional and mental health needs, with a goal to eliminating stigma.

  4. Clinical analysis of cerebellar infarction with vertebral artery hypoplasia%伴椎动脉发育不良的小脑梗死临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐澍; 马志刚; 廖琴; 孙玉衡; 胡洪涛


    Objective To summarize the clinical features and vascular lesions in patients who suffered from cerebellar infarction with vertebral artery hypoplasia(VAH). Methods Retrospective analysis was used in the research. The selected patients suffered from cerebellar infarction with VAH or stenosis (stenosis rate≥50%). Seventy-one patients with cerebellar infarction were enrolled. There were 34 patients in VAH group and 37 patients in vertebral artery stenosis group. The age, sex, risk factors, clinical manifestations and characteristics of vascular examination were compared. Results The age, sex, risk factors between two groups had no significant differences (P>0.05). The scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) between two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). The proportion of early neurological deterioration in VAH group (41.2%, 14/34) was higher than that in vertebral artery stenosis group (18.9%, 7/37), χ2=4.21, P<0.05. There were more patients with anterior circulation artery stenosis in the VAH group (35.3%, 12/34), compared with that in artery stenosis group (13.5%, 5/37),χ2=4.62, P<0.05. Except the ipsilateral vertebral artery, other arteries stenosis in VAH group (44.1%, 15/34) was significantly higher than that in vertebral artery stenosis group (13.5%, 5/37),χ2=8.20, P<0.05. Conclusions Cerebellar infarction with vertebral artery hypoplasia is more likely to have multiple cerebral arterial stenosis (stenosis rate ≥50%). The patients who suffered from cerebellar infarction with vertebral artery hypoplasia might be prone to early neurological deterioration.%目的:总结伴有椎动脉发育不良(VAH)的小脑梗死患者的临床特征和血管病变情况。方法采用回顾性分析方法,选择伴VAH和椎动脉粥样硬化狭窄率≥50%的初发小脑梗死患者,按照椎动脉病变分为VAH组(34例)和椎动脉狭窄组(椎动脉狭窄≥50%,37例),比较两组年龄、性别构成、危险

  5. Transfer factor (diffusing capacity) standardized for alveolar volume: validation, reference values and applications of a new linear model to replace KCO (TL/VA) (United States)

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W


    Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon

  6. Clinical Research Status of Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia%椎动脉发育不良的临床现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 郭阳


    椎动脉发育不良与椎动脉先天闭塞,特别是在椎动脉的解剖变异中,是一种并不常见的后循环胚胎变异。大量数据表明在伴或不伴有基底动脉形态变异的情况下,尤其在合并了其他脑血管危险因素时,后循环缺血的发生与椎动脉发育不良有关。尽管在椎动脉发育不良的定义与评估方法上仍存在争议,既往的研究通过彩色多普勒超声发现同侧的发育不良的椎动脉净流速降低,而发育正常的椎动脉净流速代偿性的增加,导致局部血流低灌注,甚至出现临床症状,说明椎动脉发育不良具有更易于闭塞的特点,并增加了远端血栓形成的概率[1]。此外,椎动脉发育不良可能引发其他复杂的神经血管疾病如偏头痛、前庭神经元炎、发作性眩晕以及椎动脉夹层等。%As uncommon embryonic variations of posterior circulation, especially the anatomic variations of vertebral artery (VA), vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) and vertebral artery aplasia (VAA), with or without basilar artery morphological abnormalities, have been suggested by substantial data of having relationship with posterior circulation ischemic events, particularly in conjunction with other cerebral vascular risk factors. Inspite of disagreement existing in deifnition and evaluation methods of VAH, color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) of previous studies have found lower net VA lfow volume of ipilateral hypoplasic artery and an increased compensatory lfow volume of non-hypoplasic artery, resulting local hypoperfusion, even clinical symptoms, illustrating the characteristics of VAH’s more vulnerable to occlusion and distal thrombosis[1]. Besides, VAH may result in other complex neurovascular consequences such as migraine, vestibular neuronitis (VN), episodic dizziness and vertebral artery dissection (VAD), etc.

  7. 基底动脉发育不良影像学特征%Imaging characteristics of basilar artery hypoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾华; 钱晓军; 王双坤; 闵小红; 鲁万红; 胡文立


    目的 研究基底动脉发育不良(BAH)的影像学特征.方法 回顾2009年10月至2013年8月在首都医科大学附属北京朝阳医院进行MRA和MRI检查的连续病例.根据BAH诊断标准共检出210例BAH,测量(椎)基底动脉直径.根据诊断标准急性脑梗死分成前循环和后循环梗死.结果 10 193例MRA中检出210例BAH,女性多于男性.BAH伴有双侧胚胎型大脑后动脉175例(83.3%),单侧35例(16.7%).99.5% BAH患者伴有V4段椎动脉发育不良;颈段(V1 ~V3)椎动脉发育不良占56.0%(28/50).210例中74例合并急性脑梗死,男性多于女性(59.5%比40.5%,P=0.021).急性脑梗死中BAH的发病率是2.2%(74/3 294).结论 BAH是较少见的脑血管发育异常,伴有胚胎型大脑后动脉和V4段椎动脉发育不良.%Objective To determine the imaging characteristics of basilar artery hypoplasia (BAH).Methods From October 2009 to August 2013,10 193 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) and 31 716 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) consecutive cases were retrospectively retrieved from our institutional Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) database.BAH was defined as a continuous diameter reduction all over artery and a basilar artery diameter ≤2 mm.The same cut-off value was applied for vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH).We measured the diameters of basilar and vertebral arteries with PACS in all patients according to source imaging and IMP construction of MRA.The carotid arterial computed tomography angiogram (CTA) profiles were reviewed in 50 patients.The fetal-type posterior circle of Willis (FTP) was assessed.The diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction was based on clinical symptoms,signs and a high signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).Acute cerebral infarction was divided into anterior circulation stroke (ACS) and posterior circulation stroke (PCS).Results A total of 210 BAH were identified among 10 193 consecutive patients.BAH was more common in females (56.7%) than males

  8. Resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Amad, Ali; Poulet, Emmanuel; Bordet, Régis; Vignaud, Alexandre; Bation, Rémy; Delmaire, Christine; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Jardri, Renaud


    Both auditory hallucinations (AH) and visual hallucinations may occur in schizophrenia. One of the main hypotheses underlying their occurrence involves the increased activity of the mesolimbic pathway, which links the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the precise contribution of the mesolimbic pathway in hallucinations across various sensory modalities has not yet been explored. We compared the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the NAcc among 16 schizophrenia patients with pure AH, 15 with both visuoauditory hallucinations (VAH), and 14 without hallucinations (NoH). A between-group comparison was performed using random-effects ANCOVA (rs-FC of the bilateral NAcc as the dependent variable, groups as the between-subjects factor, age and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores as covariates; q(false discovery rate [FDR]) hallucinations, but the NAcc FC patterns changed with the complexity of these experiences (ie, 0, 1, or 2 sensory modalities), rather than with severity. This might support the aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, these findings suggest that future clinical and neurobiological studies of hallucinations should evaluate not only the global severity of symptoms but also their sensorial features.

  9. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model. (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P


    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.

  10. Magnetized Accretion-Ejection Structures 2.5D MHD simulations of continuous Ideal Jet launching from resistive accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, R


    We present numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a magnetized accretion disk launching trans-Alfvenic jets. These simulations, performed in a 2.5 dimensional time-dependent polytropic resistive MHD framework, model a resistive accretion disk threaded by an initial vertical magnetic field. The resistivity is only important inside the disk, and is prescribed as eta = alpha_m V_AH exp(-2Z^2/H^2), where V_A stands for Alfven speed, H is the disk scale height and the coefficient alpha_m is smaller than unity. By performing the simulations over several tens of dynamical disk timescales, we show that the launching of a collimated outflow occurs self-consistently and the ejection of matter is continuous and quasi-stationary. These are the first ever simulations of resistive accretion disks launching non-transient ideal MHD jets. Roughly 15% of accreted mass is persistently ejected. This outflow is safely characterized as a jet since the flow becomes super-fastmagnetosonic, well-collimated and reaches a q...

  11. Herbs containing L- Dopa: An update. (United States)

    Ramya, Kuber B; Thaakur, Santhrani


    L-Dopa is the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease but it has dose related adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, orthostatic hypotension, end of dose deterioration, on off phenomena and on chronic therapy motor complications synonymous to parkinsonism. Mucuna pruriens (M.P) commonly known as velvet beans or cowitch are used in case of spasms associated with Parkins onism. Clinical efficacy of seeds of this plant was confirmed and the efficacy was contributed to its L-Dopa content. M.P extract showed twice the antiparkinsonism activity compared with synthetic L-Dopa. There is sufficient L-Dopa in broad bean (Vicia faba) pods. One study proved its efficacy in Parkinsonism. Ginkgo biloba extract showed protective effect in vivo and invitro. 50% ethanolic extract of Plumbago zeylanica was effective in rats. The following plants were reported to have L-Dopa but their protective effect is yet to be established in animal models. Vigna aconitifolia, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna vexillata, Prosopis chilensis, Pileostigma malabarica, Phanera vahlis, Parkinsonia acculeata, Macuna urens, Canvavalia glandiata, Cassia floribanda, Casia hirsute and Dalbergia retusa etc.

  12. Impact of Western Colonial Powers on 1994 Rwandan Genocide


    SENCERMAN, Öncel


    1994 Ruanda Soykırımı, Nazi Almanyası'nda gerçekleştirilen Yahudi Soykırımından sonra dünya tarihinde en büyük ikinci soykırımdır. 1994 yılında 100 gün gibi çok kısa bir süre içinde yaklaşık bir milyon Tutsi ile muhalif ve ılımlı Hutu vahşice katledilmiştir. Tutsileri hedef alan Ruanda Soykırımı planlı ve sistematik bir soykırım olmakla beraber etnik ayrışma ve kine dayanmaktadır. Soykırımın ardında etnik, siyasi, sosyolojik, ekonomik ve psikolojik nedenler gibi pek çok sebep yatmaktadır. B...

  13. नैनो टेक्नोलॉजी - मत्स्य क्षेत्र मे रामबाण

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abidi, S.A; Ansari, Z.A; Bhagat, D.; Gupta, N.

    Ì ‘| am‘~mU 1 E Eg.E.EM. A{~{X 2 E Om{H$a E. A§gmar , 3 E Xrnm ^JV 4 E {ZË`m Jwám gmam§e Z¡Zmo àm¡Úmo{JH$s Am‘ Vm¡a na {dkmZ Am¡a àm¡Úmo{JH$s Ho$ ê$n ‘| d{U©V h¡ Omo {H$ Z¡Zmo n¡‘mZo na gm‘J«r H$o {Z‘m©U Hw...$ebVmnyd©H$ Cn`moJ H$aVm h¡ & Bg n¡‘mZo na gm‘J«r H$m ì`dhma Am¡a g§aMZm ‘| àH$Q> Z`o Vah H$mo JwU A{YH$m§e ‘m‘bm| go AbJ h¡ & nXmW© H$mo Vab `m R>mog AdñWm ‘| Z¡ZmoH$Um| ‘| em{‘b {H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡& Z¡ZmoH$Um| H$mo dar`Vm Bg{b¶o Xr OmVr h¡ Š`m|{H$ `o g{H«$` gm...

  14. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela


    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  15. प्राचीन सभ्यता के विकास एवं विनाश मे जलवायु का योगदान: पुरातात्विक अवशेषो पर आधारित एक अध्ययन

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    ‘| ‘Zwî` ^r em{‘b h¡ ghOVm go AnZm {b`m h¡ Am¡a BgHo$ {b`o nyar Vah go V¡`ma ahVm h¡¡& naÝVw {dH$Q> g‘ñ`m h¡ XrK©H$m{bH$ Obdm`w n[adV©Zm| H$s, CXmhaU Ho$ {b`o `{X {H$gr joÌ ‘| EH$ `m A{YH$ dfm] VH$ gyIm n‹So ¶m ~m‹T> AmVr aho Vmo dhm§ H$m OrdZ Añ...V-ì`ñV hmo OmVm h¡ Am¡a ~‹S>o n¡‘mZo na ñWmZmÝVaU hmoZm àmaå^ hmo OmVm h¡& BgH$m n[aUm‘ `h hmoVm h¡ {H$ Cn`wŠV ñWb na ^r A{YH$ bmoJm| Ho$ {b`o ^moOZ-nmZr H$m X~md ~‹T>Vm h¡ Am¡a dhm§ ^r Aì`dñWm ’¡$bZm à«maå^ hmo OmVr h¡& h‘ O~ ^r nwamVmpËdH$ ñWbm| H$m AÜ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱睿; 魏永明; 陈董根; 许振良; 陈光


    以聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)为膜材料,测定了不同温度下PVDF/DMAc、PVDF/DMF和PVDF/NMP溶液的混合参数,得出非溶剂沉淀能力大小为:甘油>DEG>PEG200>PEG400,并与Hansen溶解度的理论计算值进行了比较.此外,讨论了不同PEG400在混合溶剂中的比例以及不同添加剂对膜性能的影响;PEG400的加入,使膜的纯水通量、机械性能均有所提高,截留率保持不变;VAH、Tween80、PEG20000和成核剂使膜的纯水通量提高到100 L/(m2·h)以上,LiCl的加入对通量影响不大.%Usingpoly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as membrane material,the mixability parameters of PVDF/DMAc, PVDF/DMF and PVDF/NMP solutions were determined at different temperatures.The non-solvents precipitation ability was found in the following order: Glycerol>DEG>PEG200> PEG400.The results are compared with calculated values of Hansen solubility parameters.In addition, the effects of different contents of PEG400 and additives on flux, rejection and mechanical strength of the membranes are discussed.With the increasing of PEG400, the flux and mechanical strength are improved and the rejection is stable.VAH, Tw80, PEG20000 and nucleating agent can improve the flux over 100 L/(m2·h), but LiCl almost has no effect on flux.

  17. निमो: क्लाउन फ़िश

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, H.B.; Sanaye, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A

    I ŠbmCZ {µ’$e gå~pÝYV OmZH$mar àmá H$aZo ‘| AmnH$s ghm`Vm H$aoJm & ŠbmCZ {µ’$e g‘wÐ ‘|o nmB© OmVr h¡ Am¡a BgH$s bJ^J 30 {d{^Þ àOm{V`m± kmV h¢ & `h ‘N>br {XIZo ‘| nrbo VWm bmb a§J go boH$a Zma§Jr a§J H$s hmoVr h¢ {Og na gµ’$oX Ym[a`m± hmoVr h¢ & `h... {deof Vah H$s MÅ>mZr` ‘N>br h¡ Omo {H$ g‘wÐr E{Z‘moZ Ho$ ^rVa ahVr h¡, Bg{b`o ^r Bgo ŠbmCZ {µ’$e H$hVo h¢ & BZH$m {dñV¥V {dVaU àemÝV ‘hmgmJa Ho$ Ja‘ nmZr ‘|, {hÝX ‘hmgmJa ‘|o, gwXya CÎmar-n{ü‘ Am°ñQ´o{b`m, X{jUr-nydu E{e`m Am¡a OmnmZ ‘| h¢ & ŠbmCZ {µ...

  18. 铅蓄电池项目环境影响评价中的清洁生产分析%Cleaner Production Analysis of Environmental Impact Assessment in Lead-acid Battery Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹迪; 杨光; 蒋海飞; 吴犇; 张寿生


      指出了清洁生产分析是环境影响评价工作的重要内容,依据国家环保部发布的《清洁生产标准铅蓄电池工业》,从生产工艺与设备水平、资源能源利用指标、产品指标、污染物产生指标、环境管理5个方面对某生产规模为34.56万kVAh/年的密闭免维护铅蓄电池项目的清洁生产水平进行了分析评价,得出了清洁生产分析结论,并提出了进一步提高项目清洁生产水平的建议。%  Cleaner production analysis is an important part of environmental impact assessment (EIA) .In accordance with Cleaner Production Standard - -Lead acid Battery Industry issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection , this article analyzes and assesses the cleaner production level of a 34 .56 * 104 KVAh/year totally - enclosed maintenance - free lead acid battery production project from five aspects :production process and equipments , resources and energy consumption indicators ,product indicators ,pollutants generation indicators ,and environmental management .And it obtains the conclusions of cleaner production analysis and puts forward further suggestions for improving the cleaner production level of this project .

  19. Estimation of volume-area-depth relationship for shallow wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Jun-Kwon; Jeong, Sang-Man [Kongju National University, Kongju(Korea); Kim, Hung-Soo [Sunmoon University, Asan(Korea)


    The wetland has very important functions in hydrologic and ecological aspects and the research of wetland functions requires the basic hydrological properties such as water quantity. However, we do not have research work on the hydrological for a wetland study in Korea. Therefore, this study is to estimate the relations between the volume(V), the area(A), and the depth(h) of water in the wetland which might be the basis for the wetland research in Korea. To estimate the relations, we derive the basic equations, obtain the surveyed data and do modelling, and estimate the relations of A-h and V-h using the Surfer program. The estimated and observed volumes for 5-wetland are compared and the errors are in the range of 2% to 11% for 4-wetland and 34% for the rest. The wetlands in small errors showed the similar ones with the profile of the wetted perimeter which is assumed for the derivation of the equation but the wetland of large error has much different profile with the assumed one. We re-estimate the volumes for 3-wetland(W3, W4, W5) which showed the large errors due to the bended profiles of the wetland slope. Say, after the slopes was divided into two parts of upper and lower ones, the volumes were estimated. From our re-estimation, we obtained very good results ranged from 1% to 8% in their errors. We conjecture that the procedure suggested in this study might be useful as a reference for the future research on the relations of V-A-h in Korea. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 18 figs.

  20. Wallenberg综合征患者椎动脉发育不良现象相关临床研究%Clinical research of Wallenberg syndrome in patients with vertebral artery hypoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 段丹; 王庆松; 郑波; 郁可; 王志强


    目的 利用全脑数字减影血管造影术(DSA)探讨Wallenberg综合征发病与椎动脉优势及发育不良现象之间的相关性.方法 将37例Wallenberg综合征患者设为观察组,148例前循环脑梗死患者设为对照组,有所患者都进行DSA检查,对比检测两组患者中出现椎动脉优势(vertebral artery dominance,VAD)及椎动脉发育不良(vertebral artery hypoplasia,VAH)现象的分布差异,分析其血管变异与Wallenberg综合征的相互关联及优势比(Odds ratio,OR).结果 观察组中有VAD现象19例(包含4例右侧发育不良,2例左侧发育不良);对照组中有VAD现象45例(包含3例右侧发育不良,3例左侧发育不良).观察组中VAD、椎动脉发育不良的出现率均高于对照组(分别为x2=5.739,P=0.017;x2=5.352,P =0.021),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);其中VAD、VAH的几率较对照组明显增高(OR=2.416,95% CI 1.160 ~5.032,OR=4.581,95% CI1.385 ~ 15.154).结论 VAD、VAH现象与Wallenberg综合征间存在一定的关联,在其发病中可能有较为重要的意义.

  1. Transfer of free myocutaneous flap in treatment of refractory post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower leg and foot%游离肌皮瓣移植治疗难治性小腿和足部创伤后骨髓炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩久卉; 张英泽; 田德虎; 韩金豹; 郭尔斐; 查君璞


    目的 探讨游离肌皮瓣移植治疗难治性小腿和足部创伤后慢性骨髓炎的有效性.方法 2004年2月至2007年12月,应用游离肌皮瓣治疗小腿和足部创伤后慢性骨髓炎11例,男9例,女2例;年龄18~75岁,平均35岁;胫骨骨髓炎8例,跖骨骨髓炎3例.患者均接受过4~5次手术和长期抗生素治疗而骨髓炎仍然不愈.骨髓炎病程12~47个月,平均26个月.根据Cierny-Mader慢性骨髓炎分型:ⅢA型3例,ⅢBL型2例,ⅥA型4例,ⅥBL型2例.手术去除内固定,严格彻底清创后,即刻行游离肌皮瓣移植,9例行游离背阔肌肌皮瓣移植,2例行游离腹直肌肌皮瓣移植;6例清创后形成胫骨骨缺损造成局部不稳定者采用单边外固定架固定.结果 术后随访1.5~5年,平均3.5年.2例患者的游离肌皮瓣发生部分坏死,经清创、游离植皮后愈合,余9例未出现严重手术并发症.4例胫骨缺损范围较大的患者行二期植骨,其中1例松质骨植骨者,骨愈合时间5个月;2例为骨块嵌入植骨,骨愈合时间8个月和10个月;1例骨缺损长度为10cm者,行游离腓骨瓣移植,骨愈合时间4个月.余7例未植骨,骨愈合良好.结论 治疗难治性慢性骨髓炎的关键是严格地清除感染的骨质、死骨、炎性及瘢痕组织;游离肌皮瓣移植能以血运丰富的组织消灭死腔、覆盖创面,是治疗小腿和足部慢性骨髓炎的有效方法.%Objective To evaluate the efficiency of free myocutaneous flap transfer for the treatment of refractory post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower leg and foot. Methods Eleven patients with refractory post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the lower legs and feet were treated between February 2004 and December 2007. There were 9 males and 2 females. The average age was 3.5 years. All patients had at least four to five unsuccessful surgical procedures and prolonged antibiotic treatment prior to presentation. The mean duration of osteomyelitis was 26 months (12-47 months

  2. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe (United States)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika


    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  3. 基底动脉发育不良与后循环梗死的相关性%Association between basilar artery hypoplasia and posterior circulation infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 刘尊敬; 田朝晖; 唐文雄; 刘玮; 薛爽; 焦劲松


    其卒中防治工作。%Objective To explore the relationship between basal artery hypoplasia ( BAH ) and posterior circulation ischemic stroke and its clinical characteristics to improve the understanding of BAH. Methods A total of 328 hospitalized patients from April 2012 to April 2014 were enrolled retrospectively. With normal course and regular shape of basilar artery on brain magnetic resonance angiography ( MRA) , other causes of posterior circulation ischemic stroke were excluded.They were divided into BAH ( n=48 ) and non-BAH (n=280) groups according to the morphology and diameter of basilar artery on head MRA. We compared the general information and intracranial vascular variations between two groups, especially the incidence rate of posterior circulation infarction and mean blood flow velocity ( Vm ) of basal artery by analyzing clinical information and MRI findings.Meantime, their clinical outcomes were observed through follow-ups.And detailed clinical features were discussed for the patients with posterior circulation infarction in the BAH group.Results ( 1 ) The concurrent lesions included vertebral artery intracranial segment hypoplasia (n=24, VAH), fetal type posterior artery (n=18, FTPA), persistent trigeminal artery (n=1) and giant fenestration variation on vertebral artery ( n=1 ) in the BAH group.In comparison, it was more liable to cranial vascular variations in the BAH group ( P BAH group ( P<0.05).(3) these cases with stroke in two groups had no mortality during a follow-up period of 4-28 months.There were 3 cases with recurrent posterior circulation stroke in the non-BAH group.The number of cases with mRS scoring 2 points or less in the BAH group was more than that in the non-BAH group at discharge, 30 or 90 days after discharge ( P<0.05 ) .( 4 ) these cases with posterior circulation stroke in the BAH group often presented as lacunar syndrome (9/17), paramedian infarction in pons (9/17) and bilateral VAH plus unilateral FTPA (8/17).Conclusion As a relatively rare disease, BAH


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    Mehmet ÖZDEMİR


    have caused damage to the social structure. Ahmet Mithat Efendi often compared the Ottomansocial life and the European one, and criticised it. This approach may be defined as the trial to let the reader appraise the right and the wrong simultaneously. Though they are fiction, Ahmet Mithat Efendi's novels are of great importance as they show the reflections of conceptions belonging to the Western civilization on Ottoman society and how the values of the Turkish society changed with the perception of the Western civilization. In this respect, particularly novels “Karnaval, Vah” and “Henüz 17 Yaşında” (Carnival, Vah and At the Age of Seventeen, where Ahmet Mithat Efendi discussed this issue were analysed in terms of the criticisms towards the Western civilization. Thereby, Ahmet Mithat Efendi's way of perception of the Western civilization and his criticisms were tried to be detected via his chosen works.

  5. Political criticism in Turgay Nar’s play titled Gizler ÇarşısıTurgay Nar’ın Gizler Çarşısı oyununda politik eleştiri

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    Nurullah Ulutaş


    ştirel yaklaşımlar, edebî eserlerde sıkça işlenmiştir.  İnsanın etik algısının da sorgulandığı bu tür eserlerde iktidar-birey arasındaki ilişki, sisteme dâhil olma veya sisteme karşı çıkma tercihlerini de beraberinde getirmektedir. Weber’in “bürokratik demir kafes” olarak tanımladığı ve insanın bir otomat haline dönüştürüldüğü “kaçınılmaz son”a karşı çıkan Marx; insanın sistemden uzaklaşabileceği konusunda daha iyimser bir tavır sergiler. Turgay Nar, Gizler Çarşısı adlı tiyatro metninde insanın dünyada hiyerarşik ilişkiler sarmalında iktidarın şiddet ve kontrol yöntemleriyle nasıl çürümeye uğratıldığını anlatır. Yazarın, okuyucuya/seyirciye vermek istediği mesajlar, hemen her sahnede değişse de ana tema iktidar karşısında nesneleşen insanın trajedisi olarak okunabilir. İktidar ve paranın gücü, kalabalıklar üzerinde şiddet, unutkanlık, hafıza kaybı gibi vasıtalarla denetim sağlar. Yazar, insanın iktidara geldikten sonra hemcinsi üzerinde sistematik bir baskı kurarak onu kimliksizleştirip sisteme dâhil ettiğini ironik bir tarzda bu eserinde işler. Buna göre, uygarlık, insanoğlunun cinnetini durduramamıştır; bu vahşi düzeni emziren ve kendini ona tutsak/kurban eden de insanın kendisidir. Eserde, dünyayla ilgili sorgulamanın kesildiği an insanın “körleşme ve çürüme”yle karşı karşıya kalacağı tehlikesi de dile getirilir.

  6. Batman’da Yeni Bir Keşif: Deraser (Arık Mağara Resimleri A New Discovery In Batman Province: Prehistoric Cave Paintings Of Deraser (Arik

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    Ersoy SOYDAN


    kurulmuştur.Tarihi yerleşim birimlerinden biri de bugün Batman ilinin Gercüşilçesine bağlı Deraser (Arık mezrasıdır. Burada çok sayıda tarihi kalıntıbulunmaktadır. Gercüş ilçesine yaklaşık 20 kilometre uzaklıktabulunan ve Dicle nehrine hakim bir noktada kurulan Deraser (Arıkmezrasında çeşitli yapı kalıntıları, kayalara oyulmuş mezarlar vemağara duvarlarına çizilmiş tarihöncesi olduğu tahmin edilen resimlerbulunmaktadır. Anadolu’da kayalara çizilmiş tarihöncesi resimlerebirçok yerde rastlanmaktadır ancak kırmızı ve siyah boyayla freskotekniğiyle yapılmış resimler nadir olarak görülmektedir. Bu nedenleDeraser’deki (Arık Berha Nivisandi (Yazılı Mağara olarak adlandırılantoprak ya da kök boyayla yapılmış kırmızı ve siyah renkli resimlerinbulunması önemli bir gelişmedir. Buradaki mağara resimlerindegenellikle evcil hayvan tasvirleri, vahşi hayvan mücadeleleri ve kadınlıerkeklişenlik sahneleri bulunmaktadır. Dünyanın pek çok yerindebulunan tarihöncesi mağara resimleri ile tematik olarak benzeşmeklebirlikte çizim tekniği bakımından özgün bir biçime sahiptir.Çalışmamızda daha önce bölgede çalışan araştırmacılar tarafındançeşitli nedenlerle farkına varılamayan Deraser (Arık mağaralardanderlenmiş resimlere ve bu resimlerle ilgili olarak yapılan araştırmasonuçlarına yer verilecektir.

  7. Comparación de dos estrategias de vacunación frente a la hepatitis A y B en individuos con hepatitis crónica C Comparison of two vaccination strategies against hepatitis A and B in patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    M. P. Díez Redondo


    Full Text Available Objetivo: aunque se recomienda vacunar frente al virus de la hepatitis A (VHA y al virus de la hepatitis B (VHB a los pacientes con infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC, la estrategia de vacunación más costo-efectiva aún no está establecida. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar la vacunación universal (de todos los individuos con la selectiva (únicamente de los individuos no inmunizados frente al VHA y al VHB de los pacientes con infección crónica por VHC en nuestro medio. Pacientes y métodos: comparamos los costes directos de las dos estrategias de vacunación frente a ambos virus en 313 individuos con infección crónica por VHC. Determinamos los marcadores serológicos del VHA (anti-VHA y del VHB (HBsAg, anti-HBs y anti-HBc y tuvimos en cuenta los costes de vacunas y reactivos en nuestro ámbito. Resultados: la prevalencia de anti-VHA fue del 81,2% y la de anti-HBc del 24,6%. La prevalencia de anti-VHA aumentaba progresivamente con la edad. La inmunización frente al VHA suponía 19.806,64 € con la estrategia universal y 9.899,62 € con la selectiva. La vacunación frente al VHB ascendía a 18.780 € con la inmunización universal y a 20.385,57 € con la selectiva (mediante el anti-HBc. Se analizaron los costes considerando distintos grupos etarios y diversos factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: en nuestros individuos con infección crónica por VHC la vacunación selectiva frente al VHA es la más costoefectiva. Pero cuando el porcentaje de inmunización frente al VHA desciende por debajo del 20% la mejor opción es la universal. La diferencia en la costoefectividad de ambas estrategias de vacunación frente al VHB es pequeña, a favor de la universal, por lo que en subgrupos con elevada prevalencia de anti-HBc, como adictos a drogas y tatuados, la selectiva podría ser la mejor alternativa.Objective: although the vaccination against hepatitis A (VAH and hepatitis B (VBH is recommended in patients with HCV, the most