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Sample records for cienfuegos bay cuba

  1. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Levels of total arsenic were determined in muscle tissues of species of finnish, crustaceans and molluscs from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The highest values of Total arsenic were found in crustaceans. Averages found for fish, crustaceans and molluscs were 10.2, 26.5 and 22 μg g-1 dry wt, respectively. These results are considered to be characteristic for normal or naturally altered areas. Cienfuegos Bay, situated in the Southern part of Cuba, is a semi-enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the outfall of Cienfuegos city (150,000 inhabitants), industrial pole in the country, and the freshwater input of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subjected to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park, which represents a niche for protected migratory birds and marine species. The bay represents the most important natural resource in the province, due to fishing activities, maritime transport, tourism industry and natural parks. During the last decade it has acquired an important economic and social development, resulting in an increase of industrial and domestic wastes which are discharged into the bay. Direct input of Arsenic to Cienfuegos bay occurs through the Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, which was authorized to release Arsenic residuals up to 1981 and where two accidental As spills took place in 1979 and 2001. Marine organisms represent an important component of the diet of the population of Cienfuegos. In particular, people from the coastal areas of Castillo de Jagua

  2. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Levels of total arsenic were determined in muscle tissues of species of finnish, crustaceans and molluscs from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The highest values of Total arsenic were found in crustaceans. Averages found for fish, crustaceans and molluscs were 10.2, 26.5 and 22 μg g-1 dry wt, respectively. These results are considered to be characteristic for normal or naturally altered areas. Cienfuegos Bay, situated in the Southern part of Cuba, is a semi-enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the outfall of Cienfuegos city (150,000 inhabitants), industrial pole in the country, and the freshwater input of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subjected to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park, which represents a niche for protected migratory birds and marine species. The bay represents the most important natural resource in the province, due to fishing activities, maritime transport, tourism industry and natural parks. During the last decade it has acquired an important economic and social development, resulting in an increase of industrial and domestic wastes which are discharged into the bay. Direct input of Arsenic to Cienfuegos bay occurs through the Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, which was authorized to release Arsenic residuals up to 1981 and where two accidental As spills took place in 1979 and 2001. Marine organisms represent an important component of the diet of the population of Cienfuegos. In particular, people from the coastal areas of Castillo de Jagua

  3. Study of recent changes in sedimentation regime inside Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba using 210Pb and 137Cs as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedimentation dynamics in the Cienfuegos Bay was investigated based on profiles and inventories of 210Pbex and 137Cs in cores collected at two sites. The age of sediment layers was determined using the CRS model. Both cores show changes in sedimentation regime in the last 40 years. Since 1960-1965 sediment accumulation rates have doubled in both cells of the bay, from 0.2 to 0.4 g.cm-2.y-1. This change was probably one of the factors that influenced the important environmental modifications observed in the area. (author)

  4. Historical trend in heavy metal pollution in the sediments of Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba), defined by 210Pb and 137Cs geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bay of Cienfuegos, in the southern central part of Cuba, is an enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1 m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the sewage outlet of the city, from the industrial area and from the fallout of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subject to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution, originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park. The Bay represents the most important natural resource in the Cienfuegos province, and the surrounding land has been intensively exploited, but in the last three decades some deleterious ecological signals have been observed in the area: loss of biodiversity, shift in benthic communities, reduction in size and capture levels of commercial marine species, erosion of the coastline. The objective of this study is to investigate the concentration level of heavy metals in the sediments of the Bay, reconstructing their 'depositional history' by using radionuclide geochronology, in order to highlight the major changes occurred in the last century and to draw hypotheses on their origin. In 1999 and 2000, sampling campaigns have been carried out to collect sediment cores (about 1 m long), for investigating the depositional history, and surface sediment for evaluation of the spatial distribution of heavy metals. The samples have been analysed using high-resolution gamma spectrometry for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for heavy metals. The vertical profiles of 137Cs and 210Pbex show that in the last 40 years significant changes have affected sedimentation processes in the bay. Up to 1963, sediment were regularly accumulated, both in the northern and

  5. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  6. Chronology of sedimentation in Cienfuegos bay, elucidated from 210Pb and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article present the results of the use of radiotracers in geochronology technique for evaluate the anthropogenic impact on Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The excess 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides were measurements on one sediment corer collected in Cienfuegos Bay using a gravity core. Each core was sliced and pre treatment for gamma spectrometric measurements and other complementary analyses. It was applied the Constant Rate Supply model for dating the 210Pb profile and it was used the 137Cs as an alternative method for dating calibration. The results show a good agreement between CRS method's results and 1963's 137Cs peak. Spatial and temporal evaluation of the radiotracers profiles have shown that sedimentation rate have changed in the last fourth years and it is associated to the economical and industrial development. It was demonstrated the significance of radiotracers in environmental impact on estuaries and semi enclosed bays

  7. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  8. Public hospital management in times of crisis: lessons learned from Cienfuegos, Cuba (1996-2008) (Reprinted from Health Policy, 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Pol; Ordúñez-García, Pedro; Santos-Peña, Moisés; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cuba's public health system is well known for its integrated first line services based on family medicine. Less publicized is the country's experience in public hospital management. After a harsh economic crisis in the first half of the 1990s had brought the Cienfuegos hospital near to collapse, from 1996 onwards the hospital management team took advantage of the incipient economic recovery to launch an ambitious recovery process. This article reconstructs this endeavor, based on annual hospi...

  9. Public hospital management in times of crisis: lessons learned from Cienfuegos, Cuba (1996-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; Orduñez-García, Pedro; Santos-Peña, Moisés; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Cuba's public health system is well known for its integrated first line services based on family medicine. Less publicized is the country's experience in public hospital management. After a harsh economic crisis in the first half of the 1990s had brought the Cienfuegos hospital near to collapse, from 1996 onwards the hospital management team took advantage of the incipient economic recovery to launch an ambitious recovery process. This article reconstructs this endeavor, based on annual hospital reports, scientific publications by the hospital staff, and interviews with key decision-makers. First the endless waiting list for elective surgery was tackled through a more efficient use of the surgery department, and an increase of ambulatory surgery. Next, overall hospital efficiency was improved in the aim to drastically reduce the average length of stay, reaching a decrease from an average stay of 12 days to a little more than 6 days in 1999. Also the emergency department was reorganized, setting up a triage system based on a color code, linked to specific emergency protocols. Attention for improving the clinical efficiency for AMI and stroke coincided with a drop in their intrahospital lethality. Clinical guidelines for the most important diagnoses were collectively developed, adapting international evidence to the local setting. An individual and collective performance evaluation system was elaborated in a participatory way, and further evolved into a 'total quality management' process. This experience of Cienfuegos hospital provides an interesting example on how a public hospital--embedded in a well developed national public health system--can be effective and efficient, even in circumstances of limited resources. PMID:20106544

  10. Atmospheric deposition patterns of 210Pb and 7Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03′ N, 80° 29′ W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of 7Be and 210Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb are in the range of 13.2–132 and 1.24–8.29 Bq m−2, and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m−2, respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of 210Pb and 7Be were 47 and 700 Bq m−2 y−1, respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The 210Pb/7Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05–0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days. - Highlights: • We evaluated for first time in Cuba the atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb. • The annual average flux of 210Pb and 7Be were 47 and 700 Bq m−2 y−1, respectively. • The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb are correlated with precipitation. • 7Be and 210Pb present similar removal behaviour from the atmosphere

  11. Atmospheric deposition patterns of (210)Pb and (7)Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M; Morera-Gómez, Yasser; Cartas-Águila, Héctor; Guillén-Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-12-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03' N, 80° 29' W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb are in the range of 13.2-132 and 1.24-8.29 Bq m(-2), and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m(-2), respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of (210)Pb and (7)Be were 47 and 700 Bq m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The (210)Pb/(7)Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05-0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days. PMID:25233214

  12. Associated Factors to Human Papilloma Virus. A study performed in Health Area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam González González del Pino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma Virus has been considered as the precursor of flat lesions in the cervical epithelium which develops Cervix uterine cancer. Objectives: to analyze risk factors associated to infections due to human papilloma virus. Method: An ambispective, descriptive study was carried out from January 2003 to January 2004, taking 60 patients whose Papanicolaou smears were abnormal. All these patients belonged to health area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. A guide for interview with different variables was used. Results: infected predominant ages were from 30 to 39 years old. 55% of the patients are married women or with stable sexual relationships. 6 patients comprised between 40 to 59 years old were observed with association to intra epithelium cervix neoplasias. For a 10 % of them, they have had from 3 to 12 sexual partners. The starting age to have sexual intercourse is from 15 to 19 years old. 75 % of the patients are smokers. Conclusions: results coincide with the medical literature reviewed regarding risk factors and its important relationship with NIC and so the cervicouterine cancer genesis.

  13. Ecology and taxonomy of free-living marine nematodes from Cienfuegos Bay, Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Armenteros Almanza, M.

    2010-01-01

    Present thesis focuses on ecology of assemblages and taxonomy of free-living marine nematodes. Most of the data are from Cienfuegos, a semi-enclosed bay in the Caribbean Sea; but, we also provided data on biodiversity from other areas in Cuban marine waters. Four main topics are included: description of biodiversity patterns, a microcosm experiment about effects of organic enrichment on assemblages, a taxonomic revision of the genus Terschellingia de Man, 1888, and the description of four new...

  14. Associated Factors to Human Papilloma Virus. A study performed in Health Area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. Factores asociados al virus del papiloma humano. Área V. Cienfuegos.

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    Adys Castro Barberena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma Virus has been considered as the precursor of flat lesions in the cervical epithelium which develops Cervix uterine cancer. Objectives: to analyze risk factors associated to infections due to human papilloma virus. Method: An ambispective, descriptive study was carried out from January 2003 to January 2004, taking 60 patients whose Papanicolaou smears were abnormal. All these patients belonged to health area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. A guide for interview with different variables was used. Results: infected predominant ages were from 30 to 39 years old. 55% of the patients are married women or with stable sexual relationships. 6 patients comprised between 40 to 59 years old were observed with association to intra epithelium cervix neoplasias. For a 10 % of them, they have had from 3 to 12 sexual partners. The starting age to have sexual intercourse is from 15 to 19 years old. 75 % of the patients are smokers. Conclusions: results coincide with the medical literature reviewed regarding risk factors and its important relationship with NIC and so the cervicouterine cancer genesis.
    Fundamento: El virus del papiloma humano se ha considerado el precursor de lesiones planas en el epitelio cervical las cuales desarrollan el Cáncer Cervico uterino. Objetivo: Analizar los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por virus del papiloma humano. Método: Se realiza un estudio investigativo, descriptivo, ambiespectivo, a partir de Enero del 2003 a Enero del 2004 comenzando en Enero 2003 estudiando 60 pacientes con citologías anormales, correspondientes al Área V del Municipio de Cienfuegos. Se empleo una guía de entrevistas con diversas variables. Resultados: Las edades predominantes de esta infección es de 30 – 39 años, el 55% son mujeres casadas o con relaciones

  15. Risk Factor to Chronic Disease no Transmitted In Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Preliminaries results of CARMEN II Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades Crónicas en Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Resultados preliminares de CARMEN II

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    Pedro Ovidio Orduñez García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Cuba, the monitoring of them is an important element to alert health care system on its evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of four of the most important risk factors for these diseases during the preliminary data of the second survey of Cienfuegos CARMEN project, with emphasis on the differences with the first survey results. Method: Preliminary results of the second CARMEN survey are presented, corresponding to the first (847 cases measured integrally from a probabilitic and representative sample of the adult population of Cienfuegos City. Studied variables included: hypertension; obesity, measured by the body mass index, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results: 33.7% of interviewed persons were smokers, slightly lower than the first measurement, obesity BMI> = 30 kg/m2 was 18.8%, almost 8% higher than the baseline survey, the arterial hypertension to 35.5% and diabetes mellitus to 6.8%, both well above the measurement of 2001-2002. Conclusions: the risk factors discussed show that the problem after improving over the past 10 years, and generally worsens the values are much higher than those observed during the first measurement CARMEN.Las enfermedades crónicas constituyen la primera causa de morbilidad y también de mortalidad en Cuba, la vigilancia de ellas constituye un elemento importante para alertar al sistema de salud sobre su evolución. El objetivo de esta comunicación breve es describir la prevalencia de cuatro de los más importante factores de riesgo de estas enfermedades durante el primer corte que se hace de la segunda medición del proyecto CARMEN Cienfuegos, mostrándose también las diferencias con los resultados de la primera medición. Método: Se presenta un corte de la segunda medición de la iniciativa CARMEN en Cienfuegos

  16. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    problems are attributable to the overly centralized economy, poor management, and, excessive military spending. Cuba maintains close ties with the USSR, Eastern European countries, North Korea, and Vietnam. Cuba's interventionist activities in Latin America led to the imposition by the Organization of American State of economic sanctions against Cuba between 1964-75. Since 1961, the relationship between the US and Cuba is one of hostility. These hostilities peaked in the 1961 Bay of Pigs episode and the 1962 missile crisis. Between 1975-77 efforts were made to improve relations but these were discontinued in response to Cuba's interventionist activities in Africa and Latin America. PMID:12178121

  17. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    David Javier Castro Rodríguez; Osmay Tejeda Sánchez; Omar Gutiérrez Benítez

    2016-01-01

    El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia met...

  18. Caracterización del consumo de digoxina en la insuficiencia cardíaca en el municipio de Rodas (Cienfuegos, Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Milián Vázquez, Pedro Miguel; Cepero Pérez, Ivette; Espinosa Brito, Alfredo; Padrón Velásquez, Luis; Hernández Fernández, Juana; Linares Borges, Arlette; Reyes Hernández, Dunia; Vázquez Montero, Lidia; Quirós Enríquez, Maira; Mass Sosa, Luis Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en pacientes mayores de 15 años con insuficiencia cardíaca que fueron tratados con digoxina en 15 consultorios médicos del municipio de Rodas, Cienfuegos, Cuba, en el primer semestre del 2003. Se estudiaron 130 pacientes registrados en la Farmacia Municipal. Se realizó una revisión de las historias clínicas individuales, hojas de egresos hospitalarios y entrevistas a los pacientes. La mayor parte de los pacientes que consumían digoxin...

  19. Effect of Fitomas-E on seedling production of papaya var. Maradol Roja in Cienfuegos,Cuba

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    Fernando G. Serbelló Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in nursery in bag conditions was carried out at the Cienfuegos Horticultural Company, in order to evaluate the effect of different alternatives to stimulate the growth and the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. variety Maradol Red, in the period from June to September 2010. The treatments were: applying Fitomas-E, Trichoderma, EcoMic, the combination of Trichoderma + EcoMic and a control without application. We evaluated the height and diameter at four different positions, the number of leaves, green and dry mass of roots as well as for the external part of the plant at the transplantation time. The obtained data were subjected to the given statistical analyzes. Results indicate that the height and diameter of the papaya plants are increased with the application of Fitomas E and EcoMic, while a higher number of leaves is reached with the application of Fitomas E, and the combination of EcoMic with Trichoderma.

  20. Evaluación de indicadores ecológicos en las comunidades de corales hermatípicos de la costa sur-central, provincia de Cienfuegos, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales Caballero, Yenizeys; González Díaz, Silvia Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Los arrecifes de la región sur-central de Cuba han sido muy poco investigados, a la vez que se incrementan y diversifican los usos e impactos a que est{n siendo sometidos. Debido a lo anterior, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el estado actual de las comunidades de corales hermatípicos a través de la evaluación de indicadores ecológicos. La investigación se llevó a cabo en julio del 2011 en dos estaciones de cresta y cuatro de camellones pertenecientes a la costa de Cienfuegos...

  1. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Javier Castro Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia metodológica. Los impactos ambientales fueron evaluados mediante el software GAIA versión 1.0, utilizando los criterios propuestos por la Guía Metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental de Conesa. Se identificaron 97 impactos ambientales negativos, entre severos y moderados integraron el 80.41 % de ellos. El factor ambiental más impactado fue el físico-químico con el 50.52 %. El subproceso no metálico resultó el más impactante, con el 50 % de los impactos severos negativos totales y el 34 % de los moderados. Se identificaron las principales causas asociadas y se diseñó un plan de intervención de 35 medidas con base en los principios de Producción Más Limpia. Los resultados contribuyen a lograr la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos de la entidad y a la sostenibilidad del reciclaje.

  2. Gamma activation analysis of marine sediments at Havana Bay, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty six elements was studied preliminary in the superficial sediments of Havana Bay using gamma activation analysis by the electron accelerator microtron MT-25 at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay including the three coves were analyzed. The obtained results show a close relation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the pollution sources. Some elements (As, Ba, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Mn) have high concentration levels compared to the values for other environmental marine sediments reported in the literature. (author)

  3. DETERMINACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LOS COSTOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE PLASMA EN EL BANCO DE SANGRE DE CIENFUEGOS. CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Falco, Grisel; Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth; Pérez Guevara, David; Becerra Suárez, Keitel; Reyes Hernández, Reynier

    2013-01-01

    La información de costos resulta herramienta indispensable para la planeación, el control y la toma de decisiones oportunas dentro de las organizaciones y constituye un elemento vital para la gestión y análisis interno de las entidades. Conocer con precisión los costos de las producciones o servicios permite valorar y analizar puntualmente los procesos, actividades y rendimientos en la producción. El banco de sangre provincial de Cienfuegos no logra determinar los costos de sus producciones i...

  4. CUBA

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    C. F. de la Fé

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Ferias Locales de Agrobiodiversidad en su sentido más amplio se inician en Cuba a finales de 1999, con la celebración de la Primera Feria de Maíz en áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA enmarcada en el Pro- yecto Cubano de Fitomejoramiento Participativo (PCFP. Como respuesta a la importancia que el desarrollo de las Ferias de Agrobiodiversidad tienen en la diversificación de la base varietal sobre la que se sustenta la seguridad alimentaria y de mercado de los agricultores cubanos y sus perspectivas de generaliza- ción en diferentes cultivos y regiones del país es que se ha tenido a bien la elaboración de la presente guía metodológica, con el objetivo de compartir las experiencias adquiridas por un colectivo de investigadores del INCA, de manera que en algu- na medida pueda con ello contribuirse a la conservación y ampliación de la diversidad de los recursos fitogenéticos de los agricultores cubanos. El documento se halla subdividido en dos secciones principales. En la primera, “Generalidades sobre las ferias de agrobiodiversidad’’, se ofrece una informa- ción resumida sobre tópicos tales como: definición y tipos de ferias, experiencias en el desarrollo de ferias en otros países, las ferias de agrobiodiversidad en otros países, las ferias de agrobiodiversidad en Cuba y términos asociados a estas, mien- tras que en su segunda sección, se presenta lo más detallada- mente posible la guía para su organización y desarrollo en Cuba. A lo largo de la misma, el usuario puede hallar informa- ción precisa sobre los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta. En el orden de presentación de cada aspecto contemplado se ha tratado de mantener un orden lógico de organización de modo que facilite aún más el trabajo de los usuarios.

  5. Assessment of Current Heavy Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Nuevitas Bay (Cuba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediments from six stations located in Nuevitas Bay (Cuba) were collected in order to determine concentrations of chromium; nickel, copper, zinc and lead by external standard method of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The level of contamination were calculated by several parameters like Enrichment factor (EF), Degree of contamination (DC), Modified degree of contamination (mCd) and the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). A 2003 study performed by Engineering Center of Environmental Management of Coast and Bays was used as a baseline in all obtained index in order to corroborate changes after one decade. The Cr content in sediments shows a strong variation across the studied stations (89-513 mg.kg-1, in contrast with the other elements studied. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines and toxicity mean quotients shows that 100% of the Sediments are associated with the occasional presence of possible adverse effects to human health. (Author)

  6. Nutritional assessment of children at the day care center “Marineritos del Sur” in Cienfuegos province, Cuba. Evaluación nutricional de los niños del circulo infantil “Marineritos del Sur”. Cienfuegos.

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    Ernesto Martínez Ferrer

    2003-10-01

    cuenta sus características cambiantes y dinámicas. Objetivos: Realizar evaluación nutricional de niños con edades entre 2 y 6 años de un círculo infantil. Métodos : Estudio descriptivo correlacional de 133 niños con edades entre 2 y 6 años que llevaban más de un año en el circulo infantil ¨Marineritos del Sur¨, de Cienfuegos, entre el 1ero de septiembre de 1999 y el 31 de marzo del 2000.Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, peso, pliegues, circunferencia braquial, antecedentes patológicos personales. Resultados: Según los indicadores peso/talla, talla/edad, peso/edad, pliegue tricipital/edad, circunferencia braquial/edad, predominaron los pacientes entre 10 y 90 percentil. El cálculo del puntaje Z arrojó que 67,66 % eran eutróficos, 27, 06 % tendían a la obesidad y 5,28 % resultaron desnutridos. La giardia fue el parásito aislado con mayor frecuencia.

  7. DETERMINACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LOS COSTOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE PLASMA EN EL BANCO DE SANGRE DE CIENFUEGOS. CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Falco, Grisel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La información de costos resulta herramienta indispensable para la planeación, el control y la toma de decisiones oportunas dentro de las organizaciones y constituye un elemento vital para la gestión y análisis interno de las entidades. Conocer con precisión los costos de las producciones o servicios permite valorar y analizar puntualmente los procesos, actividades y rendimientos en la producción. El banco de sangre provincial de Cienfuegos no logra determinar los costos de sus producciones individualmente, las cuales se derivan de la sangre extraída y requieren de procesos diversos para la obtención del producto final. El objetivo de este trabajo radica en el establecimiento de un procedimiento para la determinación de los costos de las producciones derivadas de la sangre en la entidad objeto de estudio; éste se logra mediante el diseño y aplicación de un costeo por procesos vinculando técnicas de la contabilidad de gestión, en función de aportar elementos precisos para la toma de decisiones. De esta forma se demuestra que el costeo que se aplica en la actualidad en esta entidad es inadecuado pues arroja un costo único para todas sus producciones cuando en realidad cada una implica un costo diferente.

  8. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  9. Health of the coral reefs at the US Navy Base, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba: A preliminary report based on isotopic records from gorgonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla were sampled from several areas along the fringing reefs fronting the United States Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. Sample coverage extended from apparently healthy reefs in oceanic waters to declining reefs located in the plume of the drainage from upper parts of Guantánamo Bay. Tentacle tips were excised, and trunk sections were cut and polished. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon indicate a strong correlation of reef health with proximity to the plume of the river. Of all the worldwide cases in which land-based sources of pollution have impacted reefs, this one may well be the most intractable. The US Navy has jurisdiction over the reefs, with the obligation to protect them, yet the threat comes down the river from Cuba

  10. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  11. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  12. Programa de Monitoreo Ambiental para Cementos Cienfuegos S.A

    OpenAIRE

    Mario A. Curbelo Hernández; José Luis Romero Cabrera; Henrry Ricardo Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en las instalaciones de Cementos Cienfuegos S.A. Cuba, con el objetivo de diseñar e implementar un programa de monitoreo de las variables de concentración de polvo en aire, tasa de deposición y concentración de metales pesados, para la valoración de la calidad del aire a partir de índices establecidos en la norma NC ISO 111:2004. Este programa incluye también el monitoreo de los parámetr...

  13. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  14. Validation of a method to measure plutonium levels in marine sediments in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this research was to develop and to validate a method of radiochemical separation of plutonium, suitable from the economic and practical point of view, in Cuba conditions. This method allowed to determine plutonium activity levels in the marine sediments from Cienfuegos Bay. The selected method of radiochemical separation was that of anionic chromatography and the measure technique was the quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The method was applied to a certified reference material, six repetitions were carried out and a good correspondence between the average measured value and the average certified value of plutonium was achieved, so the trueness of the method was demonstrated. It was also proven the precision of the method, since it was obtained a variation coefficient of 11% at 95% confidence level. The obtained results show that the presence of plutonium in the analyzed marine sediment samples is only due to the global radioactive fallout. (author)

  15. Causes of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in two health areas. Cienfuegos, 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam González González del Pino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervicouterine cancer represents 10 % of all types of cancer, and it is one of the three main death causes in women. Objectives: to determine the factors that may influence in the diagnosis of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in health areas II and III of Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. Method: An ambispective analytic study was carried out in the second semester of the year 2005, in Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. 122 non-useful Papanicolaou smear from health areas II and III were collected and those carrier women of the above mentioned samples were dated to repeat the test. The variables were; requisites and conditions to perform the test, visualization of the cervix and presence of vaginal sepsis. Results: An inadequated sample taking was observed in 93 patients (76,2 %, as well as the bad conditions of the place where the samples were taken. There was also instrumentation deficiency. The interview in more than 50 % of women was not the adequate one. Conclusions: Yet, existing an acceptable index of non useful Papanicolaou smear in Cienfuegos province, the program to detect cervicouterine cancer confront difficulties in its application and results.

  16. Two Twin Judgements of Cienfuegos Dos juicios gemelos sobre Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René ANDIOC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuel eduardo de Gorostiza, in London after the constitutional triennium, signed four articles about Spanish theatre in The New Monthly Magazine using just the letter «G». At the end of that same year, 1824, an author signing with an «M», in all likelihood Prosper Mérimée, published a set of articles in Le Globe in Paris regarding the same topic. these were literal translations of those written by Gorostiza about cienfuegos, but his authorship is not mentioned.Manuel eduardo de Gorostiza, en Londres después del trienio constitucional, firmó «G» cuatro artículos sobre teatro español moderno en The New Monthly Magazine. Al final del mismo año de 1824, un tal «M», con toda probabilidad el joven Próspero Mérimée, publicó en el periódico Le Globe, de París, otros tantos sobre el propio tema, traduciendo literalmente en particular, sin mención de fuente, lo escrito por Gorostiza sobre cienfuegos.

  17. Annual dose equivalents estimation received by Cienfuegos population due medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents the first evaluation of the effective equivalent dose that receives the population of the Cienfuegos province in Cuba because of medical practice. The evaluation is based on the tables of doses depending on several parameters that influence over these ones, and also based on large diagnostic examinations statistics of all medical institutions over a 9 years period. Values of examinations frequency, contribution to total dose from radiography, fluoroscopy, dental radiography and nuclear medicine, and other characteristics of the last ones are offered. A comparative reflection dealing with received doses by radiography and fluoroscopy techniques is also included. (authors). 4 refs

  18. Nuevos registros de clorofitas marinas para Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moreira; Fujii, M.T.; Suárez, A. M.; Wynne, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    A partir de muestras colectadas en la bahía de Cienfuegos y de Santa Lucía (Pinar del Río), se identificaron dos nuevos registros de macroalgas marinas (clorofitas) para Cuba: Cladophora blomquistii C. Hoek y Udotea fibrosa D. S. Littler & M. M. Littler. C. blomquistii se registra por primera vez para la región del Caribe ya que se había consignado solo para lagunas costeras de la Florida, y la parte noreste del golfo de México. Se ofrecen además comentarios sobre la taxonomía, ...

  19. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Asencio, M., E-mail: misael@ceac.cu [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Alvarado, J.A. Corcho [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Alonso-Hernandez, C. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Quejido-Cabezas, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. ICMyL, Mazatlan (Mexico); Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gomez-Mancebo, M.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Froidevaux, P. [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, and Physics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the {sup 210}Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Nino periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  20. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. ► Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. ► Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. ► Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the 210Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Niño periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  1. Proposal evaluation tool of standards and procedures for breast cancer in the province of Cienfuegos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies Although Cuba and be a program with rules and procedures established a high number of women will die from cause. Objectives, design an instrument to assess compliance with the rules and procedures of breast cancer in Cienfuegos Province. Methodological design, a study was conducted descriptive, during the time period from January 2007 to January 2008, whose study group consisted of 55 women diagnosed with breast cancer at the 'Hospital Universitario Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguia' of Cienfuegos, the research was divided into three stages: general characterization, design of an assessment tool, criterion validation by external evaluators. Methods were used theoretical, empirical and mathematical statistics. Results, the stadiums most representative were II and III, there are delays in the performance definitive surgery, radical surgical treatments prevail, delays in the initiation of chemotherapy. Findings, there difficulties in adherence and compliance and therapeutic procedures established in the province of Cienfuegos, by which an instrument was designed for evaluation. (Author)

  2. Diseño de un sistema para el aprovechamiento energético de biogás a partir de los residuos generados por el ganado vacuno en la Vaquería 101 perteneciente a la empresa pecuaria "Camilo Cienfuegos" (Pinar del Río, Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Los objetivos de este proyecto fin de carrera son: • Revisar de las experiencias disponibles acerca de la generación de biogás en biodigestores de bajo costo, y el aprovechamiento del biogás para cubrir las necesidades energéticas que se dan en la Vaquería 101, perteneciente a la empresa pecuaria Camilo Cienfuegos y ubicada en la provincia cubana de Pinar del Río. • Determinar el potencial de biomasa generado por el ganado vacuno de la vaquería. • Diseñar el sistema de gene...

  3. Gynecological endoscopic surgery in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jorge Fernández

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last few years less invasive techniques for patients have been developed and endoscopic surgery is important example. Objective: To determine the advantages of endoscopic surgery and to relate ultrasonographic findings with surgical diagnoses. Method: Case study of 73 surgeries performed by gynaecological endoscopic surgery at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from Cienfuegos province in the period January 1998- May 2002. urgencies and and Salpingoclasias were excluded from this search. The statistical study included tests of percentage, accumulated frequency, Kappla´s index, mean and standard deviation. Results: The most recent gynaecological pathologies were: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, infertility and ovarian cyst. The relationship between ultrasonographic and surgical diagnosis was good for P.I.D and the intrauterine device in the abdominal cavity but not for endometritis. The most frequent laparoscopic procedures were salpingovariolasis and fimbrioplasty , ovarian cystectomy and contrasted laparoscopy. The two complications were bleeding which was controlled and facial subcutaneous emphysema.

  4. Cuba now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Sunshine

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Cuba reader: the making of a revolutionary society. PHILIP BRENNER, WILLIAM M. LEOGRANDE, DONNA RICH, and DANIEL SIEGEL (eds.. New York: Grove Press, 1989. xxxv + 564 pp. (Paper US $14.95. Cuba: the test of time. JEAN STUBBS. London: Latin America Bureau, 1989. xvii + 142 pp. (Paper UK £3.95. Cuba: politics, economics and society. MAX AZICRI. London: Pinter Publishers Ltd., 1988. xxiii + 276 pp. (Cloth US $35.00, Paper US $12.50. Cuba libre: breaking the chains? PETER MARSHALL. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1987. viii + 300 pp. (Cloth US $18.95. The closest of enemies: a personal and diplomatic account of U.S.-Cuban relations since 1957. WAYNE S. SMITH. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Co., 1987. 308 pp. (Paper US $8.95. Imperial state and revolution: the United States and Cuba, 1952-1986. MORRIS H. MORLEY. New Rochelle, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. ix + 571 pp. (Paper US $16.95, Cloth US $59.50. From confrontation to negotiation: U.S. relations with Cuba. PHILIP BRENNER. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1988. x + 118 pp. (Cloth US $30.00, Paper US $9.95. Nineteen eighty-eight marked the completion of the Cuban revolution's third decade. Several events that year suggested that Cubans might finally look forward to a lessening of the island's international isolation, if not its domestic economic woes. The revolution had survived eight years of hostility from the Reagan administration. Washington's attempts to secure international censure of Cuba on human rights grounds had culminated in the visit of a United Nations delegation, at Havana's invitation and with relatively little damage to Cuba's image. Fidel Castro's visits to Ecuador and Mexico to attend the inaugurations of two Latin American presidents underscored Cuba's reinsertion into the hemispheric community. Finally, Cuban military successes against South African troops in Angola and Cuba's role in the subsequent negotiations over Angola and Namibia

  5. Family aggregation study for breast cancer in Cienfuegos province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death in developed countries and it is the second cause of female mortality for malignant tumor in Cuba. We conducted an observational, analytic, transversal study of cases and controls for the purpose of evaluating the clinical, epidemiologic and genealogical behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province, in a period of 6 years. The universe of the study was made up of 304 women distributed in 152 cases and 152 controls; they were surveyed after they gave their informed consent. Collected data were processed by means of methods of inferential statistics. It was observed that most of the cases were diagnosed in patients aged 50 to 59 years, with 24.34%, the most frequent type was infiltrating duct carcinoma, with 43.42%. We found statistical association with the personal history of benign breast pathology and the family history of cancer of any type. Presence of familial aggregation was observed for breast cancer in the first-degree relatives and the non-genetic risk factors; they did not show significant association with the occurrence of the disease in the studied population

  6. Knowledge assessment of Cienfuegos´ health workers on human toxocariasis. Evaluación de los conocimientos sobre la toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Jiménez Suárez

    Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.Fundamento: La toxocariosis humana es una de las zoonosis más extendidas a escala mundial. Afecta principalmente a la población infantil y no siempre es bien conocida por el personal médico. Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos sobre toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de mayo a septiembre del 2005 y se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra total de 51 médicos a través de un muestreo aleatorio y estratificado por los diferentes consejos populares. Además de considerar categoría profesional, años de experiencia de la especialidad y capacitación o no sobre zoonosis, se analizaron varios aspectos que conforman la variable conocimiento general sobre toxocariosis humana. Resultados: Se logró con esta investigación realizar una evaluación del

  7. Comportamiento del cáncer de mama en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Quinquenio 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Torres Ajá

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento: el cáncer de mama representa la primera localización y segunda causa de muerte por tumores malignos en el sexo femenino en Cuba, lo cual ha hecho que sea considerado un problema de salud y una línea priorizada de investigación por parte del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento del cáncer de mama en la provincia de Cienfuegos en el quinquenio 2007-2011. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, del total de pacientes operados de cánce...

  8. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  9. Incidence of neoplastic diseases in infants in Cienfuegos province from January 1988 to December 1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pedro Hernández Sosa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of neoplasias in children gathers of cancer that appear in children less than 15 years of age although some authors have stated that this age should be widened till youngsters less than 20 years. Although neoplasias in this age group only represent around 5 % of all neoplasms, there are important reasons that justify their investigation. Objective: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of neoplasm in children in Cienfuegos province. Method: Descriptive- retrospective study with a universe that gathered all the patients less than 15 years of age who had a diagnosis of neoplasia in Cienfuegos province, Cuba in the period January1988 – December 1998 . The rate of incidence per 100 000 inhabitants aged less than 15 was obtained and the variables under study were identification data: age, sex, race, (classified as whites and no whites , municipality of origin and type of tumour. The difference in incidence at the beginning and at the end of the period under study were calculated too. Results: The Annual means in the province was 12.45 x 10 5 inhabitants. The most affected age group was from 1 to 4 years of age with a rate of incidence of 15,25 x 10 5 inhabitants, with a predominance of white females. Cruces was the most affected municipality with a rate of 22,26 x 10 5 inhabitants. The tendency of infantile cancer in the province has diminished and it is more significant in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  10. Agricultura urbana y periurbana como contribución a la estrategia de conservación de la biodiversidad de Heliconias en la región central de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pérez, Ricardo; Flora M. Sosa Rodríguez; Noa Carrazana, Juan C.; Flores Estévez, Norma; Guillén Sánchez, Dagoberto; Panfet Valdez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    New ways of sustainable production on urban and peri- urbans areas have contributed to the conservation of species diversity, as to ornamentals plants that belong to family: Heliconiaceae. For this reason we recorded nine species of Heliconia as new accessions from Central Region of Cuba, that were prospected in gardens and yards of national reference as well as from three botanical gardens in central provinces of Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara and Santi Spíritus), located in forested mountain...

  11. Caracterización de la mortalidad por cáncer en la provincia de Cienfuegos. 2010-2011 Characterization of Cancer Mortality in the Province of Cienfuegos. 2010 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magdalena Basanta Molina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer ha sido en Cuba, una de las primeras causas de muerte, y es la primera causa de años de vida potencialmente perdida y la de mayor impacto en la esperanza de vida al nacer. Objetivo: caracterizar la mortalidad por cáncer en la provincia Cienfuegos durante el bienio 2010 – 2011. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de serie de casos para caracterizar la mortalidad de la provincia Cienfuegos durante el bienio 2010 – 2011, según datos aportados por los certificados médicos de defunción y la revisión del Programa Estadístico de Mortalidad de la Provincia. La serie estuvo constituida por 1 602 fallecidos por cáncer, de ellos 786 del año 2010 y 816 del año 2011. Las variables utilizadas fueron: edad, sexo, municipio de residencia y principales localizaciones. Resultados: en Cienfuegos el cáncer se ubicó como segunda causa de muerte en el año 2010 y como primera en el 2011, se evidenció una sobremortaliad masculina en ambas etapas. Los hombres mueren por cáncer de pulmón, próstata, colon, laringe y las mujeres por cáncer de pulmón, mama, colon, y útero. Las defunciones prematuras por cáncer en el 2010, representaron el 59,2 % del total de fallecidos por cáncer, de ellas el 47,9 % se produjeron en el grupo de 65 a 74 años de edad. La mortalidad prematura en el año 2011 representó el 54,1 % de las defunciones totales por cáncer, con una discreta disminución. Conclusiones: se evidenció la inclusión del cáncer como primera causa de muerte asociada la progresión del envejecimiento poblacional con localizaciones que muestran brechas en la prevención y detección precoz del cáncer.Background: cancer has been one of the major causes of death in Cuba. In addition, it is the leading cause of years of potential life lost and it has the greatest impact on life expectancy at birth. Objective: to characterize cancer mortality in the province of Cienfuegos from 2010 to 2011. Methods: a descriptive

  12. Oral health status in Cienfuegos population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Gil Ojeda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creation of reliable epidemiological profiles in different populations is a helpful practice that offers a general vision of how community health can be affected and it assess health systems interventions and provides information to guide the policy making process. Objective: To assess the population´s oral health condition of through the determining of the appropriate markers. Methods: Descriptive study in five health areas of Cienfuegos province including people selected by age group and through randomized sampling. The oral health condition of this population was analyzed, and the results were compared with the previous measurement dating from 1998. Results: The percentage of this population between 5-18 years of age without malocclusions or gingival and periodontal affectation was 72,6% and 38,6% respectively; the percentage of children with DMF-index at the age of five was 1,96, while the 88,2% of 18 years-old surveyed people have all their teeth. The mean of lost teeth in the age groups 35-44 and 60-74 was 7,6 and 24,7 respectively. Conclusions: Most of oral health markers improved compared with the previous measurements, except for the age group 5-18 without malocclusions and the percentage of people without gingival or periodontal affectations, which was slightly reduced.

  13. Sobrevida en leucemias en pacientes mayores de 60 años. Cienfuegos 1989-1993.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cabrera

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 50 pacientes entre 60 y 89 años de edad, con el diagnóstico de leucemias agudas y crónicas, atendidos en los entre 1989 y 1993, en el Hospital Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima", de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino, del grupo entre 60 a 69 años y la leucemia linfoide crónica fue la variante más frecuente. El análisis de calidad de vida según el índice de Karnofsky, ubicó a las variantes agudas en escalas de peor rendimiento y las crónicas en escalas de mejor puntuación. La mayor probabilidad de supervivencia fue para el grupo entre 60 y 69 años, sin diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. Los sangramientos e infecciones, la leucopenia y la trombocitopenia, se relacionaron con las más bajas probabilidades de sobrevida. La complicación más común fue la bronconeumonía (70% y el hallazgo necrópsico, la infiltración leucémica visceral (74%. La supervivencia global fue de 11.28 a los 4.5 años.

  14. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

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    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  15. Cienfuegos and the poetic projection of «Nicasio»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroe Z. HAFTER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reading of Cienfuegos’ lyric poetry based on the existence of two levels of discourse, public and private, similar to the ones that can be differentiated in his plays and that the author cultivates with different purposes in mind. it is observed that cienfuegos wrote his poetry from a personal distance which nonetheless reflects his own life experience.

  16. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  17. Cerebrovascular illness in the province of Cienfuegos. Tendency lines. A six years study Enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Líneas de tendencia. Estudio de seis años

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    Juan E. Domínguez Suárez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cerebrovascular diseases constitute the third cause of death and first of handicap in Cuba. They are inside the tasks prioritized by the World Health Organization and they receive special interest in Cienfuegos province, that is one of the populations of more longevity of the country and shows high rates of mortality. Objective: To define the tendency lines, according to the type of cerebrovascular diseases in Cienfuegos province, over the last six years. Methods: There was realized a retrospective, and descriptive study, of a series of cases. The mortality was analyzed for the different types of cerebrovascular diseases. The data were obtained, of the monthly and annual reports of the Commission of cerebrovascular diseases. Results: A half rate of morbidity of 108, 89, was verified by 100 000 habitants; the mortality due to infarct and subarachnoid hemorrhages diminishes. It was not the same in presence of intracerebral hemorrhage, in which was observed an increment. Increased the number of alive patients after the discharge from the hospital, which due to infarct and other cerebrovascular diseases, were handicapped and for their condition generated a load to the society. Conclusions: The intracerebral hemorrhage constitutes the main problem for the mortality and the infarct for the morbidity.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en Cuba. Se encuentran dentro de las tareas priorizadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y reciben especial interés en la provincia de Cienfuegos, por encontrarse en ella una de las poblaciones más longevas del país y mostrar tasas elevadas de mortalidad. Objetivo: Definir las líneas de tendencia según el tipo de enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la provincia de Cienfuegos

  18. Cuba na OEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lessa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A Organização dos Estados Americanos abriu caminho para o possível retorno de Cuba à organização, pondo fim à medida que por 47 anos baniu os países comunistas e era o mais importante sinal do isolamento de Cuba na região. 

  19. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  20. An Island Called Cuba

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    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  1. Fracture fixation of the Odontoid process of the axis through an osseous-axis pin in Cuba. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Tejera del Valle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The fractures of the odontoid process of the Axis has been a polemic topic for many years. The alternative technique of placing a fixation screw directly across the fracture site, reattaching the odontoid to the body of C2 had been gained defensors in the actuality in the world. The topic was reviewed, and the seventh case knowned was been operated in Cuba by this technique was presented. This intervention was realized in the Department of Neurosurgery of Cienfuegos. Current considerations are emitted.

  2. Floraciones algales nocivas en la bahía de Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, L.; Díaz, U.; Fernández, A.; Licea, Y.; Álvarez, I.

    2006-01-01

    Santiago de Cuba bay is an ecosystem eutrophic and vulnerable to FANs events. This work preset the results of monitoring during three year in eight stations located in the less polluted area of the bay, leading to the determination of the possible seasonal distribution and FANs frequency. 117 Phytoplankton species were identifying, which belong to 5 divisions; 28% of these species are reported as potentially toxic and/ or noxious. This zone of the bay classifies as politrophic,...

  3. Incidence of neoplastic diseases in infants in Cienfuegos province from January 1988 to December 1998. Incidencia de las enfermedades neoplásicas de la infancia en Cienfuegos. Enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileny Acosta Fonseca

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of neoplasias in children gathers of cancer that appear in children less than 15 years of age although some authors have stated that this age should be widened till youngsters less than 20 years. Although neoplasias in this age group only represent around 5 % of all neoplasms, there are important reasons that justify their investigation. Objective: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of neoplasm in children in Cienfuegos province. Method: Descriptive- retrospective study with a universe that gathered all the patients less than 15 years of age who had a diagnosis of neoplasia in Cienfuegos province, Cuba in the period January1988 – December 1998 . The rate of incidence per 100 000 inhabitants aged less than 15 was obtained and the variables under study were identification data: age, sex, race, (classified as whites and no whites , municipality of origin and type of tumour. The difference in incidence at the beginning and at the end of the period under study were calculated too. Results: The Annual means in the province was 12.45 x 10 5 inhabitants. The most affected age group was from 1 to 4 years of age with a rate of incidence of 15,25 x 10 5 inhabitants, with a predominance of white females. Cruces was the most affected municipality with a rate of 22,26 x 10 5 inhabitants. The tendency of infantile cancer in the province has diminished and it is more significant in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Fundamento: El estudio de las neoplasias en niños comprende los casos de cáncer que se presentan en el grupo de menores de 15 años, aunque algunos autores han señalado que la edad debería extenderse hasta los menores de 20 años. A pesar de que las neoplasias en estas edades solo representan entre 1 y 5 % del total de las neoplasias, existen razones importantes que justifican su investigación.

  4. Behavior of Overcoming graduate degree in nursing Cienfuegos

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    Vladimir Barco Díaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graduate overcoming represents the continuous process to achieve the updated development of professionals. Objective: To determine the behavior of overcoming graduate degree in nursing from Cienfuegos. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of 72 nursing graduates working in Primary Health Care, selected by random combination, first each of the areas of health was considered a stratum and then the professionals were selected by simple random method. We included the years from 2000 to 2008. A survey that collected the variables: years of graduate, postgraduate courses received, amount of research, publication of research and scientific events that have participated over the eight years studied. Results: More than a third made no postgraduate course or other form of improvement over the eight years studied. Almost half did not conduct scientific research and those who did not perform more than three investigations. Half did not participate in any scientific event. Conclusions: Overcoming graduate nursing graduates working in Primary Health Care in Cienfuegos municipality is insufficient.

  5. Results of rhinoplasties of the nasal tip in Cienfuegos

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    Bernardo Félix Canto Vidal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the rhinoplasty of the nasal tip is one of the most difficult and challenging plastic surgeries the surgeon dedicated to the nasal deformities faces. Objective: exposing the results of the rhinoplasty accomplished to patients with nasal deformities. Methods: a descriptive study of results obtained in 145 patients who had a surgery to correct nasal deformities. They were attended at Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital of Cienfuegos, in a period of 10 years. Results: in 56 patients surgery was headed for embracing the nasal tip; in 45 patients to the rotation of the nasal tip; and in 44 patients to the projection of the nasal tip. The technique of the banner with graft of cartilage of the septum and the ear was used. Conclusion: in the analyzed period, the rhinoplasty accomplished in the province of Cienfuegos had satisfactory results, because the patient’s expectations were satisfied with a reduction of the costs of risks for them due to the use of local anesthesia.

  6. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  7. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a brief summary of the Nuclear Cardiology history in Cuba, mentioning the current main mortality causes, the usefulness and results of nuclear tests among the imaging techniques nowadays used in Cardiology, including gated-SPECT, PET and hybrid imaging combining anatomical and functional information. This paper also reviews our present worldwide performance in Nuclear Cardiology, with emphasis on our development and future trends, and proposes some recommendations. (author)

  8. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  9. Reconstruction of 137Cs signal in cuba using 7be as a Tracer of vertical transport processes in the Atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to estimate the 137Cs signal in Cuba using the relation 137Cs/7Be for Miami and Cienfuegos City's obtained for four year and data base of 137Cs concentration in aerosols for Miami since 1957. The temporal behaviour of 137Cs and 7Be in aerosols in the Central and Southern region of Cuba are shown too. Sampling of aerosols was carried out in the Environmental Study Centre (22 grade 03'N, 80 grade 29'W) facilities during June/1994 - December/1998 in Cienfuegos Province. Aerosols were collected by an integral method using the facility Primus I, with 0.65 m2 collection area, 1200 m3h-1 air flux during 7 days collection time. Petrianov filter FPP-15-1.5 was used (efficiency collection of 99% to aerosols 0.3-1.5 mm diameter). After collection, the filters were ashed at 350 grade for 72 hours, put in appropriate geometry and analysed by gamma spectrometry. 137Cs mean concentration in aerosols was 1.09 mBqm-3 and the range of variations was 0.18-3.24 mBqm-3 ; while the 7Be was 4.10 mBqm-3 with 0.96-10.46 mBqm-3 variation range. These results allow to establish a relationship between 137Cs concentrations in aerosols from Cienfuegos and Miami in the same period, normalising in both cases with 7Be values; this normalisation allows to discriminate the variations due to local meteorological conditions and latitudinal position

  10. Cytogenetic Prenatal Diagnosis in the Province of Cienfuegos between 2007 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Alí Díaz-Véliz Jiménez; Yamelis Garrido Martínez; Aime Guerra Jorge; Belkis Vidal Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Background: cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis is nowadays part of the care provided in developed countries to high-risk pregnant women and is an indispensable component of preventive genetic programs driven by the World Health Organization. Objective: To present the results of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: A chronological series study was developed at the Provincial Center of Medical Genetics of Cienfuegos on all cytogenetic prenatal diagnoses that were p...

  11. Cienfuegos and the poetic projection of «Nicasio» Cienfuegos y la proyección poética de «Nicasio»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroe Z. HAFTER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reading of Cienfuegos’ lyric poetry based on the existence of two levels of discourse, public and private, similar to the ones that can be differentiated in his plays and that the author cultivates with different purposes in mind. it is observed that cienfuegos wrote his poetry from a personal distance which nonetheless reflects his own life experience.El artículo propone la lectura de la poesía lírica de Cienfuegos a partir de la existencia de dos niveles en su discurso, público y privado, similares a los que es posible diferenciar en su obra dramática y que el autor cultiva con diferentes propósitos. Se trata de observar cómo cienfuegos escribe su poesía con un distanciamiento personal que, no obstante, refleja su propia experiencia vital.

  12. Patients deceased in Cienfuegos city. Kind of patients, causes and place where they died.

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    María Gloria Fabregat Rodríguez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The analysis of mortality constitutes an important element for any study about the health situation of any population and for its epidemiological vigilance. Objective: to describe the behaviour of the first seven causes of death in the municipalities from Cienfuegos province according to age group and sex. Method: descriptive study about the behaviour of the first seven causes of death in Cienfuegos province from 1990-2002 according to age group and sex. The variables under study were total of deaths per age group and per municipality in each cause of death calculating the specific rates per inhabitant. Results: The causes of death analized in this paper represent the 77,52 % of the general mortality of the province. For all the studied causes the age group 65 years and more has the hihest mortality rates but particularizing for heart diseases the highest rate belongs to males from Cienfuegos municipality; for malignant tumors to Cumanayagua and Cienfuegos, for Cerebro Vascular Accidents the highest rates are for females from Cienfuegos municipality, influenza and pneumonia has the highest incidence in males from Aguada and suicide attempt in males from Aguada, Cruces and Cienfuegos respectively.

  13. Corporate Visual Identity of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos. Identidad visual corporativa de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehnny Riverón Álvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 218/2009, issued by the Ministry of Economy and Planning on May 15th, 2009 states the transformation of the "Medicine School of Cienfuegos: Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado", into the "University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos", maintaining the same name. Therefore, the need for a new Corporate Visual Identity that allows our institution a new projection towards society has emerged and a corporate branding strategy has been designed for its identification. The present article describes the creative process, its foundations and symbols taken into account as it is described and regulated in the manual. This manual has been adopted by the Direction Board of University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos in the meeting from May 26th, 2011.En la Resolución No 218/2009, emitida por el Ministerio de Economía y Planificación el 15 de mayo del 2009 queda la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos - Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado- denominada Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Surge entonces la necesidad de una nueva identidad visual corporativa que le permita proyectarse como una nueva entidad ante la sociedad. Por ello, se procede a la creación de una marca corporativa para la identificación de esta entidad. En este artículo se expone el proceso creativo, los fundamentos, simbolismos tomados en consideración, descritos y regulados en un manual. Este quedó aprobado por el Consejo Dirección de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, en su reunión de 26 de mayo del 2011.

  14. Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aiglsperger, T.; Proenza, J. A.; Lewis, J. F.; Labrador, M.; Svojtka, Martin; Rojas-Purón, A.; Longo, F.; Ďurišová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, March 01 (2016), s. 127-147. ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Caribbean * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Falcondo mining area * Moa Bay mining area * Ni laterite * Platinum Group Elements * Rare Earth Elements * Scandium Impact factor: 3.558, year: 2014

  15. Comportamiento del diagnóstico precoz del cáncer de mama y cérvicouterino en el municipio Cienfuegos Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de mama y cérvicouterino están entre las más frecuentes causas de muerte en la población femenina. Su diagnóstico está entre los programas priorizados del Sistema de Salud Pública. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del Programa del Cáncer de Mama y de Cuello Uterino en el municipio de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal que se realiza en el marco del proyecto CARMEN y comprende el periodo 2010-2011. Se tomó una muestra aleatoria, estratificada al azar. Se analizaron variables como: edad, estado civil, color de la piel, visita de profesionales de la salud, dominio sobre el autoexamen de mama, examen clínico de las mamas, mamografía, prueba citológica y tiempo transcurrido desde el último chequeo de cada una de las pruebas. Se utilizó el cuestionario del estudio CARMEN. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15,00. El nivel de significación estadístico que se utilizó fue del 95 %. Resultados: un total de 428 mujeres (41,1 % llevaban más de un año sin ser chequeadas y de ellas 49 (4,6 % llevaba más de cinco años. El 71,2 % de la muestra estudiada nunca se ha realizado una mamografía, del 28,6 % que se las ha realizado. El 91,0 % de las mujeres en las edades comprendidas en el Programa alguna vez se ha hecho la prueba citológica. Conclusiones: no se alcanzan los propósitos establecidos por el Programa Integral para el Control del Cáncer en Cuba. Quedan demostradas las áreas de insuficiencias del Programa de Control del Cáncer de Mama y de Cuello Uterino.Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted

  16. Sea level rise threatens Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article surveys the results of studies of climatic changes on Cuba and gives views on temperature rise up to the year 2100. The land studies have reviewed effects and adaptations in six sectors: The water resources, the coastal areas and fisheries, agriculture and forestry, biomass and habitation. Potential adaptations to the effects of the climatic changes are discussed. Some facts about Cuba are presented

  17. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  18. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  19. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  20. Major congenital defects. Relevant risk factors. Cienfuegos. 2000-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Vázquez Martínez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major congenital defects have an impact on perinatal mortality and morbidity with economic and social consequences. Objective: To determine the relevant risk factors linked to the occurrence of congenital defects in Cienfuegos between 2000 and 2005. Methods: A case-control study was carried out. Women with fetus or newborns with major congenital defects formed the case group (255 while the control group consisted of a similar number of healthy children selected each year by a randomized simple sample. The variables gathered by the Cuban Congenital Defects Records were studied. Chi-Square method was used with 95% of accuracy and a reliance rate of 95%; logistic regression was used with the Wald test. Results: There was a predominance of Central Nervous System defects (28, 6%. The most relevant risk factors were a history of congenital defects, smoking habits, and acute infection during the first three months, as well as belong to the third birth on. Conclusion: The most clinical relevant risks factors were the congenital defect history and the acute infection during the firs three months.

  1. Reporte de campo y aislamiento de Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en aves de línea ligera en el centro de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos-Suárez, Omar I.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn una granja avícola del centro de Cuba en aves ligeras en la semana32-33 de vida productiva se observaron síntomas clínicos y lesionesmacroscópicas de una patología en cavidades que permitió la sospecha de un agente bacteriano. Posteriormente se aisló por primera vez en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico de Medicina Veterinaria deCienfuegos la presencia del Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en ovarios y vías respiratorias altas.SummaryIn a poultry farm of central Cuba in light birds during of 32-33 weekproductive life macroscopic lesions and clinical symptoms were observed in cavities a pathology, that allowed thesuspicion of a bacterial agent. Subsequently was isolated for the first time in the Laboratory of Diagnosis of Provincial Veterinary Medicine´ Cienfuegos the presence of Streptococcus spp beta hemolytic in ovaries and upper respiratory tract.

  2. Specific and Optional Curriculum: An Experience in the Undergraduate Program of Chemical Engineering in Cienfuegos University, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yolanda García; Velázquez, Claudia Alvarado; Castillo, Rolando Delgado

    2016-01-01

    This paper pursues to define the pillars for designing the specific (SC) and optional curricula (OC) of Unit Operations and Processes (UOP) Discipline in the Chemical Engineering Program. To achieve this objective a methodology was developed, which was characterized by the participation of every member in the educational process: professors,…

  3. Peat resources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  4. Fracture fixation of the Odontoid process of the axis through an osseous-axis pin in Cuba. A case report. Fijación de la fractura del proceso odontoides del axis mediante tornillo transaxial en Cuba: reporte de un caso.

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    José Ramón Tejera del Valle

    Full Text Available The fractures of the odontoid process of the Axis has been a polemic topic for many years. The alternative technique of placing a fixation screw directly across the fracture site, reattaching the odontoid to the body of C2 had been gained defensors in the actuality in the world. The topic was reviewed, and the seventh case knowned was been operated in Cuba by this technique was presented. This intervention was realized in the Department of Neurosurgery of Cienfuegos. Current considerations are emitted.

    Las fracturas del proceso odontoides del axis han sido un tema polémico durante muchos años. La alternativa técnica de colocar una fijación con tornillo directamente a través del sitio de la fractura, reatando la odontoides y el cuerpo de C2, ha ido ganando defensores en la actualidad mundialmente. Se revisa el tema y se reporta el séptimo caso conocido operado en Cuba mediante esta técnica, realizado en el Servicio de Neurocirugía de Cienfuegos. Se emiten consideraciones al respecto.

  5. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  6. Integral Health Brigades. An Experience in Cienfuegos after Hurricane Denis Brigadas Integrales de Salud: Experiencia en Cienfuegos tras el paso del huracán Dennis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Baños García; Carlos Castro Cabanes; Salvador Tamayo Muñiz; William Alfonso Delgado; Víctor René Navarro Machado

    2007-01-01

    Background: Hurricane Denis (July 2005) affected Cienfuegos province, causing great economic lost, no life was lost though. Health sector put in practice the previewed plans, including the levelled unfolding of 11 Integral Health Brigades up to the most affected places since the beginnings of the recovering phase. Objectives: to analyze the impact of the Integral Health Brigades in the affected areas. Method:

  7. Radiological Surveillance in the Central Region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the results of the radiological surveillance of the environment, carried out by the Center of Environmental Studies from Cienfuegos province, in the central region of Cuba during 1994-2014. the environmental equivalent gamma dose rate was daily measured with a Gamma Tracer GF1588 probe. The activity concentrations of 40K, 137Cs and 226Ra were determined in sugar, milk and bananas, and the activity concentrations and the activity fluxes of 7Be, 40K, 137Cs and 210Pb were determined in aerosols by means of high resolution gamma spectrometry. The environmental equivalent gamma dose rate showed a constant tendency with 89 nSvh-1 standard deviation; the activity concentrations of 40K, 137Cs and 226Ra in sugar, milk and bananas were very below the action level for radionuclides in general consumption foods, dedicated to the international trade; the activity concentrations of 137Cs and 226Ra were below the detection limits. The existence of a fundamental pattern in the annual behavior of the radionuclides in aerosols was demonstrated by means of the multivariate statistical analysis. It was mainly determined by the rains, and it was characterized by a maximum of activity concentration and a minimum of activity flux in January-May; a minimum of activity concentration and a maximum of activity flux in June-October and by a transit period in November-December, with low values in both variables. The general decreasing tendency of the atmospheric 137Cs and the quick decreasing behavior of the 131I, coming from the Fukushima accident in Japan were demonstrated. (Author)

  8. Impact of the Revolution´s Programs in Cienfuegos Dental Services Impacto de los programas de la Revolución en los servicios estomatológicos de la provincia de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Yumaidy Colina Sánchez; Beatriz García Alpízar; Emma Gil Ojeda; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Background: Revolution´s Programs in Stomatology are part of a strategy to improve oral health of the population and the quality of the dental services. Objective: To asses the impact of Revolution´s Programs in the primary dental services in Cienfuegos. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study evaluating the tendencies of dental services markers of municipalities of Cienfuegos before and after the interv...

  9. Implementation assessment of the national program for the prevention and control of cerebro-vascular diseases in Cienfuegos. Period 2000-2004. Evaluacion de la implementación del programa nacional para la prevención y control de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la Provincia Cienfuegos. Quinquenio 2000-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Iraola Ferrer

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The cerebrovascular deseases are the third cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba. Due to the seriousness of this situation it was created the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cerebrovascular Deseases. Objective: to evaluate the main achievements in the execution of this program, specifically in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: the prospective and descriptive study of a series of cases that engulfed all the patients with cerebrovascular deseases in the period of January the 1st,2000, to December 31st,2004 (n=3477. Data were obtained from the monthly and annually reports of the provincial comission; for the analysis of the deceased we counted on the reports of the Provincial Government of Health and of the State Commettee of Statistics. Results: we found a morbility rate of 192,26 per 100 000 inhabitants. The mortality rates decreased in 11,26 (from 82,51 to 71,25 per 100 000 inhabitants. The global lethality decreased in 13,74 (from 26,61 to 12,87 per 100 000 inhabitants: in infarcts, from 24,27 to 6,64; and in subarachnoid hemorrhage, from 39,21 to 24. An increment of favorable evolution in patients with brain attack and subarachnoid hemorrhage was notified, it did not happened with intracerebral hemorrhage. The evident outstanding results in the diminishing of progressive mortality and lethality during this five years support the correct decision of creating such a Program.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en Cuba. Dada la envergadura de este problema en nuestro país se implementó el Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las mismas. Objetivo: Evaluar los principales resultados de la ejecución del

  10. Oral health status in Cienfuegos population Estado de salud bucal de la población de Cienfuegos.

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    Yumaidy Colina Sánchez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creation of reliable epidemiological profiles in different populations is a helpful practice that offers a general vision of how community health can be affected and it assess health systems interventions and provides information to guide the policy making process. Objective: To assess the population´s oral health condition of through the determining of the appropriate markers. Methods: Descriptive study in five health areas of Cienfuegos province including people selected by age group and through randomized sampling. The oral health condition of this population was analyzed, and the results were compared with the previous measurement dating from 1998. Results: The percentage of this population between 5-18 years of age without malocclusions or gingival and periodontal affectation was 72,6% and 38,6% respectively; the percentage of children with DMF-index at the age of five was 1,96, while the 88,2% of 18 years-old surveyed people have all their teeth. The mean of lost teeth in the age groups 35-44 and 60-74 was 7,6 and 24,7 respectively. Conclusions: Most of oral health markers improved compared with the previous measurements, except for the age group 5-18 without malocclusions and the percentage of people without gingival or periodontal affectations, which was slightly reduced. Fundamentación: La

  11. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  12. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  13. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  14. Impact of the Revolution´s Programs in Cienfuegos Dental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpízar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revolution´s Programs in Stomatology are part of a strategy to improve oral health of the population and the quality of the dental services. Objective: To asses the impact of Revolution´s Programs in the primary dental services in Cienfuegos. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study evaluating the tendencies of dental services markers of municipalities of Cienfuegos before and after the intervention between 2000 and 2007. Results: The effectiveness in Stomatology services improved in more than 100% in 2007 compared with 2005; the good use of prosthesis increased in 100%; the assistance covering and resolution index for persons over 60 years and bellow 19 increased lineally, reaching values similar to those of the first years of the studied period. Conclusions: The impact of the Revolution’s Programs was positive since the performance of the studied markers was superior after the intervention.

  15. Average annual dose of radiation received by Cienfuegos population due to practices prescribed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work aims to determine the equivalent dose received by patients in Cienfuegos province in each medical procedure. This evaluation is the first one of its type in the province and constitutes the starting point for further studies. Hence although absorbed doses are calculated by each organ and tissue, it estimates the most effective dose to be able to compare different groups exposed so as to evaluate the detriment on health provoked by these tests

  16. Educational Intervention in 7- to 11-year-old Children with Malocclusions. Area VII, Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez; Maylin Gil Rodríguez; Ivette Álvarez Mora; Marisleidy Cardoso Santiago; Pedro Álvarez Rodríguez; Ceida Oliva Romero

    2014-01-01

    Background: according to the World Health Organization, malocclusions are the third health problem in the world; consequently their detection and proper treatment are a priority. Objective: to evaluate the outcome of an educational intervention in children with malocclusions caused by oral habits. Methods: a quasi-experimental study involving 52 children with malocclusions was conducted in an elementary school in Cienfuegos from September 2010 through June 2011. First, the diagnosis was estab...

  17. Using the EBSCO Database in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz María Fúster Cabrera; Regla Pérez Águila; María Elinor Dulzaides Iglesias

    2011-01-01

    Background: EBSCO is the full text database that provides relevant information related to biomedical sciences. It contains excellent collections, very helpful for professional practice and research. Objective: To revise how professionals and students of the ¨Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate ¨ Polyclinic, in Cienfuegos, use the EBSCO database and to develop informative skills in order to access all these information from the library. Method: An exploratory descriptive research was conducted in order to ...

  18. Gastric cancer. Characterization of Patients Operated on in the Province of Cienfuegos (2009-2011

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    Herson Leonel Otzoy Cún

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: gastric cancer is the most common tumor in the digestive system. It is the second cause of cancer-related death in some countries. Objective: to characterize gastric cancers operated on in the province of Cienfuegos over a three-year period (2009-2011 from a clinical and epidemiological point of view. Methods: case series study of all patients (57 operated on for gastric cancer in the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in the province of Cienfuegos in a three-year period, from January 2009 through December 2011. Variables analyzed included: sex, age, risk factors, associated diseases, anatomic location, histological type, clinical stage at diagnosis, surgical procedures used, surgery complications and patients’ condition at the time of discharge. Results: the majority of patients were males aged 50 to 60 years. Smoking, alcohol consumption and chronic gastritis were the most predominant risk factors. Tumors were mainly located in the gastric antrum, presenting clinical stages III and IV at diagnosis. Predominant histological type was adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy was the surgical procedure performed in most of the cases. Only 5% of patients suffered from complications related to the surgery itself. 96.5% of patients were discharged. Conclusions: gastric cancers in the province of Cienfuegos were more common in male patients older than 50 years. Diagnosis in 65% of cases was established in advanced stages of the disease: stages III and IV. 33% of patients underwent palliative procedures.

  19. Identidad visual corporativa de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehnny Riverón Álvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la Resolución No 218/2009, emitida por el Ministerio de Economía y Planificación el 15 de mayo del 2009 queda la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos - Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado- denominada Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Surge entonces la necesidad de una nueva identidad visual corporativa que le permita proyectarse como una nueva entidad ante la sociedad. Por ello, se procede a la creación de una marca corporativa para la identificación de esta entidad. En este artículo se expone el proceso creativo, los fundamentos, simbolismos tomados en consideración, descritos y regulados en un manual. Este quedó aprobado por el Consejo Dirección de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, en su reunión de 26 de mayo del 2011.

  20. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  1. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez; Blanca R. Tejeda Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada...

  2. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts from three species of lichens in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daymara Idonay Vaillant-Flores

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the three lichens extracts. Extracts from Leptogium cyanescens, Physcia americana and Pyxine aff. cocoes were collected from the lichens thallus in 2009 in areas fromo the Cienfuegos Botanic Garden, Cuba. The fungicide activity was evaluated against phytopathogens fungi of potato: Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica. The study was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The compounds were extracted with acetone, concentrated by rotoevaporation, and evaluated at concentrations of 0,01 and 0,07% in potato dextrose agar (PDA culture medium; stock solution was made of 5% dimethilsufoxide. These extracts were classified by their toxicity as: toxic, slight and moderately toxic and harmless. The extracts from P. americana of 0,07% inhibited P. nicotianae 100%, and it showed values over 50% for R. solani. L. cyanescens only showed fungicide activity in both phytopathogens at the maximum concentration studied; similar results were obtained with the extract from P. aff. cocoes. The lichens extracts were classified as lightly toxic at the maximum concentration, and harmless at the minimum concentration.

  4. Patients deceased in Cienfuegos city. Kind of patients, causes and place where they died. ¿Quiénes, de qué y dónde fallecen en Cienfuegos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gloria Fabregat Rodríguez

    Full Text Available

    Fundament: The analysis of mortality constitutes an important element for any study about the health situation of any population and for its epidemiological vigilance. Objective: to describe the behaviour of the first seven causes of death in the municipalities from Cienfuegos province according to age group and sex. Method: descriptive study about the behaviour of the first seven causes of death in Cienfuegos province from 1990-2002 according to age group and sex. The variables under study were total of deaths per age group and per municipality in each cause of death calculating the specific rates per inhabitant. Results: The causes of death analized in this paper represent the 77,52 % of the general mortality of the province. For all the studied causes the age group 65 years and more has the hihest mortality rates but particularizing for heart diseases the highest rate belongs to males from Cienfuegos municipality; for malignant tumors to Cumanayagua and Cienfuegos, for Cerebro Vascular Accidents the highest rates are for females from Cienfuegos municipality, influenza and pneumonia has the highest incidence in males from Aguada and suicide attempt in males from Aguada, Cruces and Cienfuegos respectively.

    Fundamento: El análisis de la mortalidad constituye un elemento importante para los estudios sobre la situación de salud de cualquier grupo poblacional y para su vigilancia epidemiológica. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de las siete primeras causas de muerte en los municipios de la provincia de Cienfuegos por grupos de edad seleccionados y sexo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo sobre el comportamiento de la mortalidad de las siete primeras causas en los municipios de la provincia de Cienfuegos en el período de 1990 al 2002 por grupos de edad seleccionados y sexo. Se trabaj

  5. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  6. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  7. La agricultura urbana en la ciudad de Cienfuegos: ejes estratégicos en pos de la sostenibilidad agrícola. Urban agriculture in the city of Cienfuegos: strategic areas towards agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Xiomara Asunción Moreno Lorenzo; Reynier Rodríguez Rico; Eduardo San Marful Orbis

    2015-01-01

    El crecimiento progresivo de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, su población y el incremento del número de fuentes de contaminación atmosférica, que afectan cada vez más la salud de la población, revelan la necesidad de perfeccionar el Ordenamiento Territorial y Urbano, así como las políticas de manejo territorial que contribuyan a su sostenibilidad. Por ello, es objetivo de la investigación caracterizar la agricultura urbana que se realiza en la ciudad de Cienfuegos y determinar los ejes estratégicos,...

  8. Perinatal characterization of multiple pregnancy in Cienfuegos city from 2001 to 2002 Caracterización perinatal del embarazo gemelar en Cienfuegos (2001-2002.

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    Alexis Díaz Brito

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancy is the gestation of more than one fetus in the uterine cavity, in this case two of them. This kind of pregnancy is considered a high obstetric risk due to its high rate in perinatal morbimortality. Objectives: to assess the morbimortality rate behavior in multiple pregnancy of two fetuses in Cienfuegos city. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study about multiple pregnancy of two fetuses was carried out in the University Hospital ¨Dr: Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨; in Cienfuegos city from 2001 to 2002. This kind of pregnancy with more than 28 weeks of gestation as well as the deliveries taken place in the above mentioned hospital constituted the sample of this investigation. The influence of this kind of pregnancy in the main perinatal morbimortality indicators was analyzed. Results: out of the total of 9 556 birth, 95 of them were of twins for a 0, 9 per cent of incidence. The increment of the maternal weight was over 12 kg. and was associated with the higher weight of the newborn baby. 61 % of the mothers presented obstetric diseases. The most frequent were preterm labor, hypertension, and premature rupture of the membrane. Cesarean delivery had the 51 % for both deliveries and its main causes were; malposition of one or both fetuses, soft parts dystocia and hypertension in the pregnancy process. The most frequent illnesses in the perinatal morbimortality were low weight at birth, fetal late antepartal death and the umbilical cord procidentia.

    Fundamento : El embarazo gemelar es la gestación simultánea de dos fetos en la cavidad uterina. En el ser humano, tanto el embarazo gemelar como el embarazo múltiple, son considerados embarazos de alto riesgo obstétrico debido a su alta tasa de morbimortalidad perinatal. Objetivo: Evaluar el comportamiento de la

  9. Cáncer de tiroides. Caracterización en la provincia de Cienfuegos (2006-2010 Thyroid Cancer. Characterization in the Province of Cienfuegos (2006-2010

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    Álvaro Enrique Galeano Tenorio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Fundamento: el cáncer de tiroides es el carcinoma endocrino más común, aunque solo represente un 1% del total de tipos cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres, apareciendo fundamentalmente en las edades comprendidas entre los 25 y 65 años.
    Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos.
    Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, ambiespectivo, de corte longitudinal, con un total de 62 pacientes operados en el servicio de Cirugía General del hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, durante el quinquenio 2006-2010. Las variables estudiadas: tasas de incidencia anual, edad, sexo, localización y tipo histológico del tumor, y estado actual de los pacientes. Resultados: el mayor número de pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino, siendo el carcinoma papilar la variante histológica más diagnosticada (85,19 %. La incidencia mayor se registró en el año 2010. El grupo edades de 41 a 50 años fue el más representativo. El mayor número de cánceres (79,03 % se diagnosticaron en el estadio I.
    Conclusiones: la propia incidencia elevada del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos, en los últimos cinco años, ha hecho que la vigilancia sobre esta afección se haya incrementado, lo cual se evidencia por el diagnóstico en etapas tempranas, resultado de este estudio.

    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma, even when it represents only 1% of all cancers. Its incidence appears to increase in a 4% each year, and today is the eighth most common cancer among women, appearing mainly in the ages between 25 and 65 years old. Objective: To characterize the behaviour of thyroid cancer in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: A

  10. Epidemia de virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/sida. Cienfuegos, 1986- 2011

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    Bárbara Vitalia León Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Ha sido importante el impacto que el VIH ha provocado en el mundo. La Atención Primaria de Salud es el marco principal para la atención y cuidado a personas seropositivas, la vigilancia epidemiológica y la planificación de estrategias de intervención. Objetivo: Describir la epidemia del virus de inmunodeficiencia adquirida /sida en el municipio Cienfuegos, desde 1986 hasta el 2011.Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, que tuvo como objeto a los 233 pacientes seropositivos al VIH, en el periodo 1986 hasta 2011, en el municipio Cienfuegos. Se describieron variables como: edad, sexo, orientación sexual, vía de infección, incidencia quinquenal y enfermedades oportunistas menores y mayores. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes diagnosticados en edades de 15 a 44. El sexo masculino representó el 79,8 %. La orientación sexual sobresaliente fue la homosexual (hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, con un 59,2 %. La vía de infección más frecuente fue la sexual. De 2006 a 2011 se diagnosticó la mayor cantidad de casos, con un 47,6 % del total. Las enfermedades oportunistas menores más frecuentes fueron la candidiasis orofaríngea y la leucoplasia vellosa oral, con 52,8 y 15,9 % respectivamente; y las mayores, el Síndrome de desgaste, la neumonía por Pneumocystis jiroveci, la candidiasis esofágica y la neurotoxoplasmosis.Conclusiones: La epidemia en el municipio Cienfuegos se comportó de manera similar al resto del país, con un ascenso en los últimos años.

  11. Efecto de la fertilización orgánica e inorgánica sobre el comportamiento del fitoplancton en la estación acuícola de Boca Ambuila (Cuba - (The effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on phytoplanktonic production in Boca Ambuila aquaculture station (Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Ceballos, Barbarito

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de optimizar el empleo de fertilizantes en la preparación de los estanques de tierra de la Estación de Boca Ambuila, Cienfuegos, Cuba y garantizar un crecimiento adecuado de la productividad natural, se desarrolló un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con 4 tratamientos y tres repeticiones, durante 6 días para evaluar el efecto de diferentes fertilizantes y dosis sobre el desarrollo del fitoplancton. Las mayores concentraciones de células de fitoplancton y los mejores valores de los índices poblacionales evaluados, se alcanzaron cuando se utilizaron Nutrilake (26 mg/L y Vacasa (10 mg/L. Es necesario realizar ensayos en otras épocas y evaluar otros fertilizantes en la Estación de Boca Ambuila.

  12. Inteligencia emocional de los directivos de la Universidad de Matanzas Camilo Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraida Quintana Quevedo; Eddy Martínez Aportela; William Tápanes Galvan

    2012-01-01

    Para la realización de este trabajo se tuvo en cuenta la importancia que reporta la temática inteligencia emocional, la cual ha sido abordada por otros autores tanto en el ámbito nacional como internacional. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-transversal, con el objetivo de determinar el estado de desarrollo de las aptitudes personales y sociales en los cuadros de la Universidad de Matanzas Camilo Cienfuegos, mediante la construcción de un mapa de inteligencia emocional y el cálculo del coefic...

  13. Tendencias y pronósticos de las infecciones nosocomiales en la provincia de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Luján Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo sobre el comportamiento de las infecciones nosocomiales en la provincia de Cienfuegos durante el período de 1989-1998 para analizar las tendencias y elaborar pronósticos para los años 1999, 2000 y 2001. El dato primario se tomó del registro de información de las infecciones intrahospitalarias del Departamento de Estadísticas del Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiología, de donde se extrajeron los siguientes datos: total de egresos por servic...

  14. Digital suction and family functionality in children in Health Area II. Cienfuegos.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Nápoles Quintero; Omaida Borroto Abal; Nora Sexto Delgado; Anay Valladares González; Raúl López Fernández; Lourdes Martínez Casanova

    2007-01-01

    Bakground: Digital suction is a pernicious habit that can produce not only alterations of dental-facial's structures, but also of child's social relationships and its self-esteem. Objective: To evaluate the existent relationship between finger suction habit in children and family functionality. Method: An analytic study of cases and controls was carried out, in girls and boys of 5th and 6th levels in 8 day-care centres belonging to Area II of Cienfuegos municipality during the course 2005-200...

  15. Follow up and behavior of pediatric home admission in San Lazaro´s popular council in Cienfuegos Province. Comportamiento y seguimiento de los ingresos domiciliarios pediátricos en el consejo popular San Lázaro.

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    Teresita Rodriguez Izaguirre.

    Full Text Available Fundaments: The development of Public Health in Cuba, especially in public health assistance has permitted the rescue of old modalities in regards to medical assistance, among of them home admissions, procedure that has its origin in our ancestors but now with the distinctive features of the ways of medical assistance, social system and economic resources among others. Objective: To assess the behaviour and follow up of paediatric home admissions in San Lázaro Popular Council. Method: Retrospective study of all the patients aged 0-14 years with home admissions in San Lázaro Popular Council who belong to the teaching policlinic ¨Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja¨ from Cienfuegos Municipality, from January to December 2002. The variables under study were: age, sex, nutritional assessment , cause of admission, admission by the general comprehensive doctor, hospital discharge, follow up, complications and stay. Results: short age was a determinant factor in home admissions: 78,4 % of the admitted patients were eutrophic; respiratory infections and acute diarrheas were the main reasons for admissions
    Fundamentos: El desarrollo de la Salud Pública en Cuba, y en especial de la Atención Primaria de Salud, ha permitido el rescate de alguna modalidades antiguas de atención médica entre las que se encuentra el ingreso en el hogar, proceder este que tiene sus orígenes desde tiempos inmemoriales, pero con características distintivas dependientes de la forma de actuación médica, sistema social, recursos económicos, entre otros. Objetivo: Valorar el seguimiento y comportamiento del ingreso domiciliario pediátrico en el Consejo Popular San Lázaro de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Investigación retrospectiva de todos los pacientes de 0-14 años con ingresos en el hogar del Consejo Popular San L

  16. Cuba y su Medio Ambiente Marino

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo C., E.; Contreras, J

    1998-01-01

    Cuba y su archipìélago de islas y atolones representan el complejo de islas más grande del Caribe (110,860 km2). Los recursos marinos, que incluyen las tortugas de ese medio, son una fuente importante de alimento y comercio de exportación para la población casi estable de Cuba de 10.96 millones de habitantes (0.21%, tasa anual de incremento en 1994).

  17. Cuba: The Sleeping Caiman of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gámez Garcell, Tamila, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Cuban society has for decades been characterized by its egalitarian policies. In recent years, Cuba has initated a process of privitization which has enabled capitalist initiatives in the country. This master thesis has the objective to analyze the general business environment prevalent in Cuba and find opportunities for possible investors in the Cuban market and ways of entry which are available at the moment. Qualitative research, (specifically a desk research) is the primary method use...

  18. Book review: The economic war against Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Wingrove, Paul

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic War Against Cuba." Salim Lamrani. Monthly Review Press. April 2013. --- Salim Lamrani aims to explains some of the essential background to the U.S. economic sanctions against Cuba: their origins, their provisions, how they contravene international law, and how they affect the lives of Cubans. Although not detailed enough for an academic audience, this book does offer a short chronicle and discussion of some of the key events and consequences of more than fifty years of American ...

  19. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  20. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  1. Implementation of a Surveillance System for Transfusion-Transmitted Infections in Cienfuegos

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    Pedro Sánchez Frenes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: increasing blood transfusion safety requires a health surveillance system for this activity.Objective: to describe the actions carried out in Cienfuegos province to effectively and steadily implement a surveillance system for transfusion-transmitted infections.Methods: a descriptive and documentary study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. It included the actions to implement a surveillance system for transfusion-transmitted infections. Document review, interviews and self-administered surveys to experts were used.Results: new models for data collection were designed. Technologists and nurses from municipal blood collection centers, mobile units and the Provincial Blood Bank were trained. A Newsletter was distributed among the main users of the system, demonstrating its usefulness and quality to analyze and interpret the information related to the events being monitored.Conclusions: the possibility of implementing the surveillance system with some adjustments was shown, since the province has the organizational strength and resources to fully implement the surveillance system for transfusion-transmitted infections in a short time as the subsystems and pending activities are complemented.

  2. Determination of the learning needs of doctors working in the Mountain Plan in Cienfuegos province.

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    Manuel Fernández Urquiza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is of great importance for the country´s educational strategy the constant studying of the staff already formed either technically or professionally . The actions within the Post graduate subsystem have been growing in organisation and maturity. The learning are determined and priorised taking into account the improving principles of the determination of the health personnel needs, the population needs and their level of satisfaction. Objectives: To carry out the diagnosis of the professional´s learning needs who are working at hospitals and consultations offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos province. Method: It is a qualitative research . The universe is formed by the staff working at the 2 hospitals and the 18 consultation offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos. The methods used are: Observation, Interviews to experts, Surveys and Group Dynamics. The techniques were applied taking into consideration David Leyva´s deductive model and Peter Park Investigation in Action. Results: learning needs were identified derived from professional competence . The Infrastructure problems that limit such competence was also defined

  3. Cytogenetic Prenatal Diagnosis in the Province of Cienfuegos between 2007 and 2010

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    Pedro Alí Díaz-Véliz Jiménez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis is nowadays part of the care provided in developed countries to high-risk pregnant women and is an indispensable component of preventive genetic programs driven by the World Health Organization. Objective: To present the results of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: A chronological series study was developed at the Provincial Center of Medical Genetics of Cienfuegos on all cytogenetic prenatal diagnoses that were performed between 2007 and 2010. We analyzed causes of study, number of diagnoses and types of anomalies detected. Results: during the period analyzed, 1172 amniocentesis of pregnant patients were processed and 1076 of them were diagnosed for 91, 81 % efficiency. 85,5 % of the cases studied were women over 37 years old. 32 chromosomal abnormalities were detected. The order of frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among the positive cases was: numerical aberrations (65, 63 %, structural aberrations (18, 75 % and mosaics (15,63 %. The most common chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome with 46,88 % of total aberrations detected. Conclusions: the indicators analyzed behave similarly to those reported in literature both from our country or international.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

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    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  5. Determining the Oral Health Status of Disabled Patients of the Area VII in Cienfuegos

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    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: disability is a social concern; however, there are few studies on the oral health status of disabled patients. Objective: to determine the oral health status of disabled patients of the Area VII in Cienfuegos province. Methods: a case series study was conducted in the Area VII of the municipality of Cienfuegos from January through December 2013. A total of 192 disabled patients who attended the dental clinic or received home visits were included. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, educational level, type of disability, epidemiological classification by oral health status, systemic diseases, risk factors for oral diseases, oral health, periodontal disease (gingivitis, periodontitis, malocclusions, premalignant lesions, need for total or partial denture and need for treatment in primary or secondary care. The information was collected from the medical records and the disability rating sheets. Results are expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: women and patients aged 35-59 years were the most affected. Chronic degenerative diseases predominated, as well as patients in the epidemiological classification by oral health status and hypertension among systemic diseases. Having a history of cavities was the most significant risk factor; chronic edematous gingivitis was the most common, with a higher percentage. Conclusions: the oral health in the study group was poor and it is difficult for the Comprehensive General Dentist to treat these patients despite the existence of care programs for the disabled.

  6. Using the EBSCO Database in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos in 2009

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    Beatriz María Fúster Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: EBSCO is the full text database that provides relevant information related to biomedical sciences. It contains excellent collections, very helpful for professional practice and research. Objective: To revise how professionals and students of the ¨Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate ¨ Polyclinic, in Cienfuegos, use the EBSCO database and to develop informative skills in order to access all these information from the library. Method: An exploratory descriptive research was conducted in order to revise how professionals and students of the ¨Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate¨ Polyclinic, in Cienfuegos, used the EBSCO database in 2009 and to design a course in order to develop information skills to access EBSCO from the library. Results: 11.4% access EBSCO through he library’s bibliographic fund, which demonstrates total ignorance. Only 36.9% use the database for assistance-related questions and 25.5% for academic work, while 48.9% of participants never use the database at all and 63.2% declares to have limited skills. Conclusion: It is obvious that skills required to exploit the possibilities offered by EBSCO have not been developed in students and professionals, even though the Health Ministry pays a high fee to provide this free access.

  7. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  8. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

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    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  9. Infantile and Juvenile Morbidity in Psychiatric Inpatients at Cienfuegos Province Morbilidad de los pacientes hospitalizados en el Servicio de Psiquiatría Infantil y Juvenil de Cienfuegos

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    Daimí Sarmiento García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown the rise in psychiatric disorders worldwide, either in children and youngsters, although these problems are not so evident to society as other health problems are . Objective: to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders according to age and sex in children and adolescents. Methods: Descriptive, transversal cohort study developed to 1181 patients who were admitted with psychiatric disorders at the psychiatric hospital from Cienfuegos province from the year 2004 to 2008, both included. Results: 65,8 % of the patients were females and 79,5 % of them were adolescents. Suicide attempt represented half 50,9 % of all the diagnostic cases. 61,7% of them belonged to the age group 11 to 14 years of age and equal percentage to the age group that included ages 15 – 18, being females 66,6% of these cases . 31,7 % of the preschoolers suffered from hyperkinetic disorders and 34 % of the school children presented with emotional disturbances. There was an annual mean of 236,5 hospital admissions. Conclusions: Suicide attempt as the first cause of psychiatric hospital admission, mainly in female adolescents is the most highlighting mental health problem at the Infantile and Juvenile Psychiatric Service in Cienfuegos province.Fundamento: diversos estudios demuestran que existe un aumento de trastornos psiquiátricos en el mundo, tanto en adultos como en la población infantil y juvenil, lo que no es tan evidente para la sociedad como otros problemas de salud. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de presentación de los trastornos psiquiátricos según edad y género en pacientes de edad infantil y juvenil. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado a 1181 pacientes ingresados con trastornos psiquiátricos, en el Hospital Pediátrico de la provincia de Cienfuegos

  10. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  11. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  12. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

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    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  13. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  14. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  15. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  16. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  17. «Hórrido yermo de inflamada arena». Cienfuegos and Romantic Cosmic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. SEBOLD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was painful to be a journalist and poet with noble aspirations for reform during the reign of Charles IV. in the years immediately preceding, nine well known Spanish poets had already expressed in romantic form their deep anxiety and insecurity regarding the universe in which they dwelt. One of them, Meléndez Valdés, inventor of the Spanish name for romantic cosmic grief, fastidio universal, was Cienfuegos’s poetic mentor and friend. the present article explains how Cienfuegos joined the European and Spanish philosophical and literary traditions that led to the poetic expression of the afflicted romantic mentality, and how he at the same time became an outstanding innovator in this tradition.

  18. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  19. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits. PMID:12292465

  20. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  1. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo; Alain Guerrero Enamorado; Allan Pierra Fuentes; Sergio E. Tamayo Bermúdez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  2. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in 31 CFR part 515. OFAC's Terrorism List Government Sanctions Regulations in 31 CFR part 596... of international terrorism. For anti-terrorism controls, see Supplement 2 to part 742 of the EAR. (d... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act...

  3. Major congenital defects. Relevant risk factors. Cienfuegos. 2000-2005. Malformaciones congénitas mayores. Factores de riesgo relevantes. Cienfuegos. 2000-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Barberis Pérez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Major congenital defects have an impact on perinatal mortality and morbidity with economic and social consequences. Objective: To determine the relevant risk factors linked to the occurrence of congenital defects in Cienfuegos between 2000 and 2005. Methods: A case-control study was carried out. Women with fetus or newborns with major congenital defects formed the case group (255 while the control group consisted of a similar number of healthy children selected each year by a randomized simple sample. The variables gathered by the Cuban Congenital Defects Records were studied. Chi-Square method was used with 95% of accuracy and a reliance rate of 95%; logistic regression was used with the Wald test. Results: There was a predominance of Central Nervous System defects (28, 6%. The most relevant risk factors were a history of congenital defects, smoking habits, and acute infection during the first three months, as well as belong to the third birth on. Conclusion: The most clinical relevant risks factors were the congenital defect history and the acute infection during the firs three months.

    Fundamento: Las malformaciones congénitas mayores influyen en la morbimortalidad perinatal, lo que tiene implicaciones sociales y económicas. Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo relevantes, asociados a la aparición de malformaciones congénitas mayores, en la provincia Cienfuegos en el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles no pareados. Las mujeres registradas con fetos o recién nacidos con malformaciones congénitas mayores, constituyeron el grupo de casos (255, mientras que el grupo control estuvo conformado por un número similar de niños sanos, seleccionados en cada año, por un muestreo aleatorio simple. Se estudiaron las variables recogidas en el modelo

  4. Integral Health Brigades. An Experience in Cienfuegos after Hurricane Denis Brigadas Integrales de Salud: Experiencia en Cienfuegos tras el paso del huracán Dennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Baños García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hurricane Denis (July 2005 affected Cienfuegos province, causing great economic lost, no life was lost though. Health sector put in practice the previewed plans, including the levelled unfolding of 11 Integral Health Brigades up to the most affected places since the beginnings of the recovering phase. Objectives: to analyze the impact of the Integral Health Brigades in the affected areas. Method: For the article it were revised the statistics, enquiries to the population and workers of the health sector carried out by each Brigade, as well as the conclusions of the experience, analyzed in a provincial meeting for this purpose. Results: There was no disease outbreak, not even changes in morbidity. The psychological affection was very little. Population expressed its satisfaction for the immediate attention offered by health system. It allowed the direct work with people of greatest vulnerability and the stratification of their management in a more integral way. The labour bettered communitarian education and health promotion. Conclusions: in the most affected areas it was a necessary and positive element to elevate integral health attention to the community as part of the support to the civil defence sector.
    Fundamento: El huracán Dennis (julio 2005 afectó la provincia de Cienfuegos, causando grandes pérdidas a la economía, aunque no de vidas humanas. El sector Salud implementó los planes previstos, incluido el despliegue escalonado de 11 Brigadas Integrales de Salud a los sitios más afectados, desde el inicio de la fase recuperativa. Objetivos: Analizar el impacto de las Brigadas Integrales de Salud en el cuadro de salud de las áreas afectadas. Método: Para el artículo se revisaron los informes, estadísticas, encuestas a la población y a trabajadores del sector

  5. The Contribution of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital to Medical Education in Cienfuegos, 1979-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a historical review of the contribution of the Dr. Gustavo Alderguía Lima Hospital to the emergence and development of higher medical education in Cienfuegos, emphasizing on the early stages. It highlights the fact that, true to the provincial tradition, everything was organized, implemented and developed with our own professionals. It includes some events that demonstrate the role played by this institution, its faculty, workers in general, and undergraduate and graduate ...

  6. The normalization of sexual diversity in revolutionary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Cuba, once understood to be a highly homophobic country, has been lauded internationally for its attention to sexual diversity rights since 2008. This Thesis examines and analyzes the development of the normalization of attitudes towards sexual diversity in revolutionary Cuba. This includes the evolution of homophobia in Cuba, the Federation of Cuban Women’s development of sexual education, the establishment of the Nation Centre for Sexual Education (CENESEX), and how these elements engage wi...

  7. Cuba and Russia trips enhance geography courses

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    No sooner is geography professor Joseph L. Scarpaci back on campus after leading the largest faculty-led study abroad course in the history of Virginia Tech last month than he is already planning another class tour. He took a record-breaking 112 students to Cuba for his urban design and planning class (Geography 4984) and will offer the class again from May 23 to June 7.

  8. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart Diseases represent the first cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2011); 80% of these deaths in developing countries (WHO, 2011); Coronary Heart Disease is responsible of 69% of all cardiovascular deaths. In Cuba, National programs have been developed to control the most important associated coronary risk factors; Research projects have been also carried out as part of the Ministry of Public Health’s program on non-transmissible chronic diseases; Strengthening of Nuclear Cardiology in Cuba, as well as its adequate integration in a diagnosis algorithm, focusing on improving the quality of medical care, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recommendations: Extend Nuclear Cardiology throughout the country; Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology; Develop coronary flow and metabolic studies with PET; Introducing studying adrenergic innervation; Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology; Set up committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in cardiology in accordance with the possibilities and resources of Cuba, aimed at the implementation of a medicine individualized for patients. (author)

  9. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  10. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  11. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  12. Characterization of Health Status of Diabetic Population in the Area 2, Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister Garriga González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: the most common site of infection among individuals hospitalized for diabetes is the foot; it is also a frequent cause of morbidity, mortality and disability. Objective: to characterize foot health of the diabetic population attending the podiatry consultation at the Health Area # 2 in Cienfuegos, from February to June 2013. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study on the diabetic foot was conducted from February to June 2013. The study population consisted of 243 diabetic patients treated at the podiatry consultation and the sample matched the study population. The main variables used of the study were: age, sex, at-risk diabetic foot and complicated diabetic foot, level of risk and podiatric disorders diagnosed. Results: female patients attend consultation more frequently than males, accounting for 68.32 % and the ≥ 51 age group is most affected, with 138 patients. Among the 243 patients treated, 10 have a complicated diabetic foot, representing the 4.11 %. The rest of the patients (233 were identified as having at-risk foot (95.89 %; most of the patients are grouped in the third level of risk that includes lack of sensation or neuropathy. Conclusions: the most frequent podiatric disorders in the study population are: uncomplicated hyperkeratosis (195 cases, onychomycosis (159 cases, complicated hyperkeratosis (69 cases, onychogryphosis (34 cases, onicocriptosis and subungual hematoma, with a lower frequency, accounting for 9 and 7 cases respectively.

  13. Dental health state in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Gil Ojeda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The absence of consice data of some indicators in the stomatological subsystem of our province difficults the knowledge of the real situation of the dental health in our province population. Objetive: to determine some epidemiological indicators related to dental health in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province. Method: a descriptive epidemiologcal study. Methods: 253 621 patients in a range of 20 years old and more. All health areas including municipalities were taken into consideration from May to June 2004. Results: The kind of denture more demanded for its rehabilitation by the population was the upper and the lower one. The highest indicators of cavities and exodonties were found in the 35 to 59 year-old group of patient as well as in the rural areas. The anatomic localization of cavity lesions were predominant in the posterior dental sector with a relation between sectors of 1:1,7. The lowest percetange in the covering range of stomatological attention was found in the 35 to 59 year-old group with 5 and 18 % in the majority of the municipalities. Conclusions: Through this investigation the behaviour of proposed indicators were evaluated as well as the necesities of treatment to establish future strategies of work in order to improve the dental health in the population.

  14. Digital suction and family functionality in children in Health Area II. Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Nápoles Quintero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakground: Digital suction is a pernicious habit that can produce not only alterations of dental-facial's structures, but also of child's social relationships and its self-esteem. Objective: To evaluate the existent relationship between finger suction habit in children and family functionality. Method: An analytic study of cases and controls was carried out, in girls and boys of 5th and 6th levels in 8 day-care centres belonging to Area II of Cienfuegos municipality during the course 2005-2006. The studied variables were: finger suction habit, age, level, sex, and family functionality. Family functionality was perceived through the test FF-SIL. Chi square test was used to determine the relationship among the studied variables. Results: The finger suction habit prevailed in girls; functional families prevailed in the study. Most of the children with this habit come from dysfunctional families. Conclusion: Dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families are proportionally major in the group of girls and boys with this habit, being shown the dependence between the variables finger suction and family function.

  15. Prevalence of Hypertension in Area I Cienfuegos Municipality. Second Measurement of CARMEN Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: the prevalence of hypertension has increased, associated to inadequate alimentary patterns, decrease of physical activity, and other behaviour patterns related to toxic habits. Objective: characterizing the prevalence of hypertension in the Area I Cienfuegos in 2010 - 2011. Methods: a descriptive and cross-section study was conducted. The sampling units were: districts, areas and sections that contained the houses, were the individuals were selected; the sample consisted on 373 people, their blood pressure was taken and an opinion poll was applied, the variables were: age, sex, personal record of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, tobacco addiction, type of physical activity, weight, size, abdominal circumference. Results: prevalence of hypertension was a 33.8 %, with predominance of the masculine sex, the 65.0 % of the hypertensive knew their condition and a 35.0 % was hypertensive and did not know it. Only the 23.8 % of the total of them were controlled, and the 44.1 % of them were under treatment. The prevalence of hypertension among smokers was 32.7 %. The 55% were diabetics, the 46.5 % were obese and the 50 % had an altered measurement of the abdominal waist. Conclusions: it was detected a hidden prevalence of hypertension and lack of control in patients under treatment with predominance of the masculine sex, among the studied risk factors, the diabetics and the obese presented a prevalence of hypertension two times bigger than the ones that did not have these risk factors.

  16. Thoracic Trauma in the Province of Cienfuegos. A Three-year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Paola Orozco Aguirre

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: thoracic traumas have a high incidence in today's society and they are very important due to the nature of the organs located inside the chest. Objective: to characterize thoracic trauma. Methods: a case series study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos. All 184 patients treated for thoracic trauma and admitted to the department in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 were studied. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, skin color, occupation, place where the accident occurred, cause of trauma, affected anatomical site, clinical presentation, treatment, patient’s condition at discharge and compliance with good clinical practice guidelines. Results: most patients were males aged 41 to 31 years. Stab wounds predominated. Pleura and lung were the most affected anatomical sites while closed pneumothorax was the most frequent clinical presentation. Adherence to good clinical practice guidelines was appropriate in 92% of the cases. Conclusions: thoracic trauma differs in some aspects when compared to other countries because of social and economic differences.

  17. Educational Intervention in 7- to 11-year-old Children with Malocclusions. Area VII, Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: according to the World Health Organization, malocclusions are the third health problem in the world; consequently their detection and proper treatment are a priority. Objective: to evaluate the outcome of an educational intervention in children with malocclusions caused by oral habits. Methods: a quasi-experimental study involving 52 children with malocclusions was conducted in an elementary school in Cienfuegos from September 2010 through June 2011. First, the diagnosis was established; subsequently the Nice Smile Program was implemented on a weekly basis and finally, the results of the educational, preventive and therapeutic actions targeted at children, parents and educators were evaluated in order to reduce malocclusions and their clinical manifestations. Results: the level of awareness in children, parents and educators increased significantly, and 64.6 % of dentomaxillofacial deformities (abnormal bilabial closure, increased overjet and open bite, was eradicated; hence, there was a reduction of children with malocclusions. Conclusion: the intervention was effective since it led to increased awareness about dentomaxillofacial deformities in children, parents and educators. In addition, it contributed to the eradication of this problem in children, and in general, to the improvement of the components of the stomatognathic system.

  18. Periodontal Disease Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008 Comportamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en niños y adolescentes diabéticos de Cienfuegos en el año 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arasay Calzada Bandomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases are a set of entities of multifactorial etiology. Diabetes mellitus is one of the conditions with a great impact on the periodontium and its interaction with microorganisms. Objective: to characterize the behaviour of periodontal disease in children and adolescents with diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008. Method: an epidemiological, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included diabetic children and adolescents under 19 years old who attended the endocrinology clinic of the Pediatric Teaching Hospital ‘’Paquito González Cueto" in the province of Cienfuegos, from January to November 2008. The Russell’s Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were applied. The following clinical variables were considered: metabolic control, duration of diabetes mellitus and nutritional assessment. A data-collecting form was used for data analysis. For the statistical processing SPSS (15.0 and Chi square statistical tests were used. Results: a highly significant dependence between oral hygiene and the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease was found as well as a strong association between the lack of metabolic decontrol and periodontal disease. Conclusion: there is a high prevalence of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents with diabetes in the province of Cienfuegos.Fundamento: las enfermedades periodontales inflamatorias crónicas son un conjunto de entidades de etiología multifactorial, entre las afecciones con mayor repercusión sobre el periodonto en su interactuar con los microorganismos se encuentra la diabetes mellitus. Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en niños y adolescentes diabéticos en Cienfuegos en el año 2008. Método: se realizó un estudio epidemiol

  19. «Hórrido yermo de inflamada arena». Cienfuegos and Romantic Cosmic Pain «Hórrido yermo de inflamada arena». Cienfuegos y el dolor cósmico romántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. SEBOLD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was painful to be a journalist and poet with noble aspirations for reform during the reign of Charles IV. in the years immediately preceding, nine well known Spanish poets had already expressed in romantic form their deep anxiety and insecurity regarding the universe in which they dwelt. One of them, Meléndez Valdés, inventor of the Spanish name for romantic cosmic grief, fastidio universal, was Cienfuegos’s poetic mentor and friend. the present article explains how Cienfuegos joined the European and Spanish philosophical and literary traditions that led to the poetic expression of the afflicted romantic mentality, and how he at the same time became an outstanding innovator in this tradition.Era doloroso ser periodista y poeta de nobles aspiraciones reformativas durante el reinado de Carlos IV. Ya en años inmediatamente anteriores, nueve conocidos poetas españoles habían expresado en forma romántica su honda angustia e inseguridad ante el universo en que moraban. Uno de éstos, Meléndez Valdés, inventor del nombre español del dolor cósmico romántico, fastidio universal, fue el mentor poético y amigo de Cienfuegos. En el presente artículo se explica cómo Cienfuegos reunió las tradiciones filosóficas y literarias europeas y españolas que llevaron a la expresión poética de la afligida mentalidad romántica, y cómo llegó al mismo tiempo a ser un destacado innovador en esta tradición.

  20. Repercussion of the University of the older in Cienfuegos. Course 2005-2006. Repercusión de la Universidad del adulto mayor en Cienfuegos. Curso 2005-2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Goicochea Borrell

    2006-01-01

    The University of the older is a great opportunity in life for the retired. The need of achieving a preparation of our aged citizens and to try to make them feel useful in the society, has made possible the existence of classrooms in different places, which offer a determined program that allows the extension of knowledge of these students. In the present work, a brief exposition is made about the results of this program in the province of Cienfuegos.
    L...

  1. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  2. Seguridad del paciente con trastorno mental en el Sistema de Salud Mental de la provincia de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Rafael Cordero Jiménez; Rolando Delgado Figueredo; Flora Jiménez Guzmán; Sergio García Cordero; José N. Toledo Torres

    2012-01-01

    El tema de la seguridad del paciente en el Sistema de Salud Mental constituye una necesidad impostergable de estudio, análisis, investigación e implementación. El objetivo de este trabajo es enfocar dicho tema como la integración de tres grandes sistemas: seguridad asistencial, seguridad tecnológica y seguridad logística. El sistema de salud mental en la provincia Cienfuegos, es abordado en algunos de los tópicos tratados, pero la mayoría de los contenidos es aplicable a nivel nacional, pues ...

  3. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  4. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  5. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry for superficial sediments at Guantanamo bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve surface samples of the Guantanamo Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays Spectrometry. Twenty one elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, P, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, Ti, Mn, C, O, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, V and Zn) have been determined. The distribution of the metals is associated with the wastewater from anthropogenic origin that receives the bay, mainly by fluvial currents. Multivariate statistical were used for the analysis of the results. Finally the results analysed were compared with the analysis performed by Engineering Centre for Environmental Management of Bays and Coasts (Cimab) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission (ICP) for some elements such as: Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn. The results show the Guantanamo Bay is less polluted than others Cuban Bays. (Author)

  6. The Contribution of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital to Medical Education in Cienfuegos, 1979-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical review of the contribution of the Dr. Gustavo Alderguía Lima Hospital to the emergence and development of higher medical education in Cienfuegos, emphasizing on the early stages. It highlights the fact that, true to the provincial tradition, everything was organized, implemented and developed with our own professionals. It includes some events that demonstrate the role played by this institution, its faculty, workers in general, and undergraduate and graduate students in achieving better health and education in the province, as well as the integration with other institutions. A group of difficulties and challenges in the field of teaching faced by the hospital for almost four decades is also discussed. It is argued that the university hospital of the future in Cienfuegos must be based on the general policies of our health system, but adapting them to the local context to be consistent with Marti's dream "with all and for the good of all", bearing in mind that we have to fulfill the mandate that the hospital must be “a symbol of the health, life, and happiness of the people of Cienfuegos” and that “it is impossible to close the doors”.

  7. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare. PMID:23934326

  8. Oil and gas exploration in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria-Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez-Perez, G.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, R.; Sanchez-Arango, J.R.; Socorro-Trujillo, R.; Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Yparraguirre-Pena, J.L. (Union Del Petroleo, Havana (Cuba))

    1991-07-01

    Oil and gas exploration in Cuba began with the discovery of the Motembo oilfield in 1881, and some 25 oilfields have subsequently been discovered, the largest of which are Boca de Jaruco and Varadero. Two oil-bearing provinces are known: the Northern Cuban Province, which includes the overthrust belt; and the Southern Cuban Province, to the south of the overthrust belt, which includes a number of Cretaceous-Tertiary basins. Rocks in the overthrust belt are intensely faulted and folded, with folds trending NE in western Cuba and NW elsewhere on the island. The Northern Cuban Province is about 1,000-kms long and 80- to 100-kms wide; sediments here are generally 10- to 12-kms thick. Seven overthrust surfaces have been identified by drilling, and correspond to different oil zones; thus, oilfields are characteristically located within different tectonic-stratigraphic units. The Southern Cuban Province covers an area of about 60,000 sq. kms, and is composed of several basins, whose development was different from those to the north. Oil has been located in the Central Basin, where oilfields are present in positive structures, but not so far in any other basins here, although surface and subsurface oil steeps are common in this area. (author)

  9. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-01-01

    On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements th...

  10. Biothechnology conferences held in Cuba. Cuba no biotechnology gakkai ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Three biotechnology conferences including Cuba International Interferon Conference were held at Havana in April 1989, and the author participated in them. The number of participants was about 3,000. Most of them were from the Middle and the Central America, but there were also those from Europe, the USSR and the USA. The three conferences were composed of 16 symposiums and they covered a wide range of field such as medical science, agriculture and industry. High leveled reports were read in the conferences: on the application of interferons to medical treatments, curing effects of infections caused by herpes virus and B type hepatitis virus, anti-tumor effects, and anti-virus effects against AIDS virus; on the production of protein and vaccini by gene engineering, large quantity production of interleukin and epithelium cell multiplication genes. Especially impressing were the efforts the whole nation of Cuba makes to promote biotechnology and its modern facilities. 3 figs.

  11. A study of environmental analysis of Havana Bay sediments using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediments from the Havana Bay (Cuba) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Concentrations of 23 heavy and trace elements in the sediments were reported, including for the first time, an important group of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). The normalization of the results for a reference metal shows that an anthropogenic Sb, Ba, As, Cr and Zn inputs are due to discharges of sewage and industrial effluent. (author)

  12. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implementation for spatial landslide risk assessment in Cuba, using a multi-scale approach at national, provincial, municipal and local level. At the national level a landslide risk index was generated, ...

  13. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C. J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in nature and focus on description of phenomena or on landslide susceptibility assessment. Moreover, most of the quantitative landslides risk assessment methodologies that have been developed elsewhere...

  14. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygna, L.

    2005-10-01

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed.

  15. Santiago de Cuba : la modernización postergada

    OpenAIRE

    Fleitas Monnar, María Teresa

    1995-01-01

    La autora expone las limitaciones que ocasiona la guerra de independencia de 1868-1878 en el progreso cubano de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba. El paso creciente de mediados del siglo XIX hacia la modernización fue paralizado y, por el contrario, Santiago de Cuba mostraría una imagen decadente. La voluntad civilizadora quedó latiente, pero sería postergada a décadas interbélicas.

  16. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly forgotten by many disaster experts. This paper presents a pragmatic analysis of the evolution of the civil defense system in Cuba and the key factors for their success. The analysis of the system sta...

  17. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed

  18. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  19. Cuba [Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISED framework methodology is an appropriate tool for analysing different energy policies, with respect to their social, economic, environmental and institutional dimensions. The lack of certain data prevented a complete analysis of all the implemented energy policies in Cuba at the necessary level of detail. Nevertheless, with collected data, analyses were performed with acceptable results. The use of the ISED framework methodology contributed significantly to enhancing Cuba's statistical capabilities. It was possible to introduce appropriate changes into the national statistical system within a short period of time. Three new surveys were introduced into the system, and capabilities were enhanced to make the national statistics system compatible with international standards for the first time. Fuel import dependence decreased by rising domestic crude oil and associated gas production, but this dependence could be further lowered if the sugarcane sector recovered from its depressing trend. Nevertheless, the use of associated gas for electricity generation eliminated contamination by sulphur emissions in a major tourism area, and contributed to the enhanced efficiency of electricity generation with the introduction of new technology (i.e., combined cycle units). Increased domestic crude oil and associated gas production provided fuel for the generation of 93% of the electricity produced in the country in 2003. The potential for renewable energy has not been fully realized, since the principal sources from which it is obtained (i.e., biomass, and especially sugarcane biomass) faced considerable constraints - low prices in the international market, lack of funds and fertilizers required for better performance in production, etc. Nevertheless, electrification with PV systems, hydro and wind power have had an important social impact for major social entities (e.g., schools, hospital, etc.). A new programme for the exploitation of reservoirs and 'run of river

  20. La agricultura urbana en la ciudad de Cienfuegos: ejes estratégicos en pos de la sostenibilidad agrícola. Urban agriculture in the city of Cienfuegos: strategic areas towards agricultural sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Asunción Moreno Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento progresivo de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, su población y el incremento del número de fuentes de contaminación atmosférica, que afectan cada vez más la salud de la población, revelan la necesidad de perfeccionar el Ordenamiento Territorial y Urbano, así como las políticas de manejo territorial que contribuyan a su sostenibilidad. Por ello, es objetivo de la investigación caracterizar la agricultura urbana que se realiza en la ciudad de Cienfuegos y determinar los ejes estratégicos, para la realización ulterior de su plan de ordenamiento territorial y urbano. La transformación de la agricultura urbana demanda de un proceso de ordenamiento territorial y urbano del sector que permita el mejor aprovechamiento de los recursos y el manejo sostenible. Para la determinación de los ejes estratégicos se procedió con métodos participativos a elaborar la visión de futuro deseada para la agricultura urbana, con la elaboración de la matriz DAFO, que representa una técnica pertinente para el análisis estratégico y la formulación del problema y la solución. La identificación y caracterización de variables y análisis espacial mediante un Sistema de Información Geográfica, permitieron determinar los impactos positivos y negativos en su entorno urbanístico, ambiental, económico y social, enunciando los ejes estratégicos para el ordenamiento urbano. El artículo presente da cuenta de esa experiencia. The progressive growth of the city of Cienfuegos, its population and increase of the number of sources of air pollution, affecting increasingly health of the population, reveal the need for improve the land use and urban and policies land management that contribute to sustainability. Therefore, it is research objective to characterize urban agriculture that held in the city of Cienfuegos and determine the strategic axes, for the further implementation of its plan of land use and urban. The transformation of urban agriculture

  1. Determination of the learning needs of doctors working in the Mountain Plan in Cienfuegos province. Determinación de las necesidades de aprendizaje de los médicos del Plan Turquino en la provincia de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández Urquiza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is of great importance for the country´s educational strategy the constant studying of the staff already formed either technically or professionally . The actions within the Post graduate subsystem have been growing in organisation and maturity. The learning are determined and priorised taking into account the improving principles of the determination of the health personnel needs, the population needs and their level of satisfaction. Objectives: To carry out the diagnosis of the professional´s learning needs who are working at hospitals and consultations offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos province. Method: It is a qualitative research . The universe is formed by the staff working at the 2 hospitals and the 18 consultation offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos. The methods used are: Observation, Interviews to experts, Surveys and Group Dynamics. The techniques were applied taking into consideration David Leyva´s deductive model and Peter Park Investigation in Action. Results: learning needs were identified derived from professional competence . The Infrastructure problems that limit such competence was also defined

    Fundamento : Es de sumo interés para la estrategia educacional del país la constante superación de los recursos humanos ya formados técnica y profesionalmente. Las acciones dentro del subsistema de posgrado han ido ganando en organización y madurez. Entre los principios del perfeccionamiento está la determinación de las necesidades del personal de salud, a partir de las necesidades que se detectan y el nivel de satisfacción de la población; se determinan de esta forma las necesidades de aprendizaje y sus prioridades. Objetivos: Realizar diagnóstico de las necesidades de aprendizaje de los profesionales (médicos que se encuentran laborando en los hospitales y los consultorios

  2. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Patients with Herpes Simplex in Cienfuegos Caracterización clínico-epidemiológica de pacientes con herpes simple en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Curbelo Alonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herpes simplex is a common condition, considered to be a sexually transmitted infection. Nevertheless, it is not commonly noticed. Objective: To characterize clinically and epidemiologically patients with herpes simplex virus in Cienfuegos. Methods: Prospective case series study that included 66 patients diagnosed with herpes simplex, who attended Dermatology Consultation at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos from January to June 2007. The variables analyzed included: age, sex, skin color, family medical history, age at onset of the first injury, type of infection, location and injuries triggering factors. Results: The infection was more common in ages from 35 to 44 years old and in white skinned females. Most of them denied family medical history. The age of disease onset was after 15 years; recurrence prevailed over incidence. The mouth was the most common presentation location; stress, sun exposure and digestive disorders were found to be possible triggering factors of the disease. Conclusions: The disease appears mainly in female patients with average age of 34 years old and white skin color. Its main location was around the mouth.Fundamento: el herpes simple es una afección frecuente, considerada como una infección de transmisión sexual, sin embargo no es habitual notificarla. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a pacientes con virus del herpes simple en Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, que incluyó 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de herpes simple, que acudieron a las consultas de Dermatología en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, en el periodo de enero a junio de 2007. Se analizaron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes patológicos familiares, edad de comienzo de las primeras lesiones, tipo de

  3. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry in superficial sediments at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havana Bay is a typical bag-type located in the Western-North Coast of the Republic of Cuba. Since 1980 it has been the object of a study for sea bottom rehabilitation and improvement of quality of the waters, where the final objective will be the recovery of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Thirteen surface samples of the Havana Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays spectrometry. Some majority elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, C and O) were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with microanalysis to perform geomorphologic analysis. Nine elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr and Pb) have been measured using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) with a Si(Li) detector. Multivariate statistical was used for the analysis. The concentration levels showed this bay as the most polluted in Cuba. The highest contents of Cu, Zn and Pb were obtained in Atares and Marimelena Cove; these elements are indicators of urban as well as industrial pollution. (author)

  4. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry in superficial sediments at Havana Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelen, Alina; Izquierdo, Walter; Lopez, Neivy; Corrales, Yasser; Casanova, Amaya O.; Diaz, Oscar; Manso, Maria V.; D' Alessandro, Katia [Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: alina@instec.cu; Reyes, Enma; Toledo, Carlos [Central Laboratory Criminology, Havana (Cuba); Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marlen; Ramirez, Marta [Engineering Centre for Environmental Management of Bays and Coasts, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: beltran@cimab.transnet.cu; Soto, Jesus [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)], E-mail: sotoj@unican.es

    2007-07-01

    Havana Bay is a typical bag-type located in the Western-North Coast of the Republic of Cuba. Since 1980 it has been the object of a study for sea bottom rehabilitation and improvement of quality of the waters, where the final objective will be the recovery of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Thirteen surface samples of the Havana Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays spectrometry. Some majority elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, C and O) were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with microanalysis to perform geomorphologic analysis. Nine elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr and Pb) have been measured using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) with a Si(Li) detector. Multivariate statistical was used for the analysis. The concentration levels showed this bay as the most polluted in Cuba. The highest contents of Cu, Zn and Pb were obtained in Atares and Marimelena Cove; these elements are indicators of urban as well as industrial pollution. (author)

  5. Assessment of heavy and trace element pollution in surface sediments from Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental Neutron Activation analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis were employed to analyze the surface sediments from several sites at the Havana Bay, Cuba. Concentrations of 29 heavy and trace elements in the sediments are at first time reported including an important group of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). The normalization of the results shows that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Author)

  6. Multielemental Analysis of Sediments from Havana Bay by Nuclear Analytical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Gamma Activation Analysis (GAA) were employed to analyze the surface sediments and in 210Pb-dated profiles sediments from several sites on the Havana Bay, Cuba. INAA was performed in the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN, Sao, Brazil. GAA was performed in the MT-25 Microtron at Nuclear Reaction Laboratory at JINR, Dubna, Russia. Measurements of 34 heavy and Rare Earth Elements in the sediments are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Author)

  7. Seguridad del paciente con trastorno mental en el Sistema de Salud Mental de la provincia de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Cordero Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El tema de la seguridad del paciente en el Sistema de Salud Mental constituye una necesidad impostergable de estudio, análisis, investigación e implementación. El objetivo de este trabajo es enfocar dicho tema como la integración de tres grandes sistemas: seguridad asistencial, seguridad tecnológica y seguridad logística. El sistema de salud mental en la provincia Cienfuegos, es abordado en algunos de los tópicos tratados, pero la mayoría de los contenidos es aplicable a nivel nacional, pues van desde la práctica asistencial propiamente dicha hasta cuestiones legales y éticas.

  8. Update on Comprehensive Management of Cholera. Recommendations of the Expert Workshop. Cienfuegos 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lina Valdés Gómez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a reemerging disease that was reintroduced into Cuba in late 2012. A provincial workshop attended by 83 professionals from the health institutions in the territory was developed on August 27, 2014 in order to analyse the technical elements for prevention and management of cholera outbreaks and to improve the provincial prevention and control plan for this disease. Group techniques including brainstorming and focus group were applied. Finally, the groups met to present their recommendations and approve the document. Main areas for improvement are related to: keeping an intensive training program, particularly for new professionals and technicians; having safe means for disinfecting and washing contaminated clothes; developing a health promotion and prevention strategy related to “clean hands” and “safe drinking water”; improving the information flow and intra- and inter-sectoral collaboration. It is concluded that the cholera prevention and control plan comprises the technical elements for an appropriate response; however, it can be improved by means of new training and control actions, increased risk perception among health professionals and in the communities, effective control of events and improved networking and inter-sectoral work.

  9. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  10. Cáncer de tiroides. Caracterización en la provincia de Cienfuegos (2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Enrique Galeano Tenorio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de tiroides es el carcinoma endocrino más común, aunque solo represente un 1% del total de tipos cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres, apareciendo fundamentalmente en las edades comprendidas entre los 25 y 65 años.Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, ambiespectivo, de corte longitudinal, con un total de 62 pacientes operados en el servicio de Cirugía General del hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, durante el quinquenio 2006-2010. Las variables estudiadas: tasas de incidencia anual, edad, sexo, localización y tipo histológico del tumor, y estado actual de los pacientes. Resultados: el mayor número de pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino, siendo el carcinoma papilar la variante histológica más diagnosticada (85,19 %. La incidencia mayor se registró en el año 2010. El grupo edades de 41 a 50 años fue el más representativo. El mayor número de cánceres (79,03 % se diagnosticaron en el estadio I. Conclusiones: la propia incidencia elevada del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos, en los últimos cinco años, ha hecho que la vigilancia sobre esta afección se haya incrementado, lo cual se evidencia por el diagnóstico en etapas tempranas, resultado de este estudio.

  11. Sistema de vigilancia de las infecciones intrahospitalarias en Cuba Intrahospital infection surveillance system in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Manuel Izquierdo-Cubas; Andrés Zambrano Cárdenas; Ileana Frómeta Suárez

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: destacar la importancia de la vigilancia y control de las infecciones intrahospitalarias. DESARROLLO: se expuso los antecedentes de los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica en el mundo, las características de los principales diseños y se describió el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica en Cuba que comenzando en 1983, recogía datos de todos los hospitales de más de 100 camas. Se expusieron otros aspectos como actualizaciones, metodología, definiciones, objetivos, premisas y propues...

  12. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M. G.; Valdés, L.; Carbonel, I.; del Rosario, D.; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J.; Delgado, J.; Cabrera, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully...

  13. La batalla contra el racismo en la Cuba de hoy

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Robaina, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    En el artículo se reflexiona en torno a la problemática del racismo en Cuba en las últimas décadas y se presenta cuestiones capitales en el debate sobre la integración de las identidades raciales en Cuba. Desde un punto de vista antropológico, Fernández Robaina repasa las cuestiones sociales que ejemplifican la compleja integración racial en la historia de la Isla para relacionarla con las actuaciones políticas que se llevan a término en los últimos años, no solo en Cuba, sino también en otro...

  14. Victoria Brú Sánchez and the epidemic of influenza in Cienfuegos, 1918 Victoria Brú Sánchez y la epidemia de Influenza de 1918 en Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Dario Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brief biographical data are exposed about the nurse Victoria Brú Sánchez, such as her birth, childhood and adolescent years. Some factors are mentioned that influenced in their vocational orientation toward the Infirmary, such as her family antecedents and personal experiences when witnessing other epidemics that whipped our population in those years. We refer too her life as student of the School of Nurses in the Hospital Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de La Habana. It is mentioned as well all the places where she worked after graduation and the different positions that she occupied during its brief, but brilliant, professional life. The most characteristic features in her personality and her self-denying and heroic behavior, are analyzed, principally during the epidemic of Influenza that affected Cienfuegos in the year 1918, moment in which she lost the life trying to help other people.Se exponen breves datos biográficos de la enfermera Victoria Brú Sánchez, en cuanto a su nacimiento, infancia y juventud. Se mencionan algunos factores que influyeron en su orientación vocacional hacia la enfermería, tales como sus antecedentes familiares y vivencias personales al presenciar otras epidemias que azotaban a nuestra población en aquellos años. Se describe suscintamente su etapa de alumna de la Escuela de Enfermeras del Hospital Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de La Habana y, una vez graduada, se mencionan todos los lugares donde trabajó y los distintos cargos que ocupó durante su breve, pero brillante, vida profesional. Se analizan los rasgos más característicos de su personalidad y su comportamiento abnegado y heroico durante la epidemia de Influenza que afectó a Cienfuegos en el año 1918, donde perdió la vida en el cumplimiento de su deber y por lo cual se convirtió en mártir de la enfermería cubana.

  15. Controlling AIDS in Cuba. The logic of quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, R; Healton, C

    1989-04-13

    Cuba has initiated a program to control Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that is designed to limit the spread of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by implementing compulsory elements of the public health tradition. Widespread screening for HIV infection began 3 years ago, and persons identified as infected have been sent to a sanatorium located in a Havana suburb. The program also reflects concern over the marked increase in prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Educational effects in Cuba stress that AIDS is not a disease exclusively of homosexuals and can affect any individual. Condoms are recommended for protection. In contrast to virtually every other nation, Cuba has not made education the key focus of its anti-AIDS strategy. Education is relegated to a marginal role. Key to the policy is identifying infected individuals and bringing them under medical control. Cuba's HIV surveillance program has been carried out with use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot assay, and antigen tests that have been developed domestically. The director of the Cuban AIDS Investigations Laboratory reports that nearly 3 million Cubans have been tested. It is estimated that among the 7 low-infection groups tested in Cuba, between 21 and 53 persons may have been inaccurately considered positive as a result of testing. Cuban authorities have expressed much interest in obtaining commercially available HIV screening kits -- both ELISA and Western blot assays -- as a standard against which to measure their own test. Despite the inevitability of continued viral transmission, Cuba's policy of a modified quarantine certainly will limit the toll of HIV infection markedly yet comes at a great price. For other nations, the imperatives of prevention, however important, are not the only values to be considered in the battle against AIDS. PMID:2927477

  16. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  17. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. PMID:26684551

  18. Nueva especie de Loxostethus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Diaperini) para Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Orlando H.; Gutierrez, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    El género Loxostethus fue descrito por Triplehorn (1962), describiendo las especies fasciatus y opacifrons para Cuba, jamaicensis para Jamaica, y unicolor para Puerto Rico. Todas fueron halladas en hongos, y si bien no han sido reportadas de la Isla de Santo Domingo no es de extrañar que eventualmente aparezcan. Zayas (1989) describió L. quadrimaculata para Trinidad, Cuba-sin embargo, esta última especie cae dentro de la variación individual de L. fasciatus de acuerdo a la descripción de Trip...

  19. A new species of isopod (Isopoda: Flabellifera: Sphaeromatidae) from Cuba, with an identification key for the species of Paraimene Una especie nueva de isópodo (Isopoda: Flabellifera: Sphaeromatidae) de Cuba, con una clave de identificación para las especies de Paraimene

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ortiz; Ignacio Winfield; Sergio Cházaro-Olvera

    2012-01-01

    A new species of isopod crustacean belonging to the genus Paraimene (Flabellifera, Sphaeromatidae) is described. The new species was collected from Cojimar Bay, La Habana Province, Cuba. Paraimene danieli new species differs from all other known species of the genus by the following characters: pereonites 2-3 smooth, pereonites 5-6 carínate, pereonite 7 and pleonite 1 raised at middle point, lacinia mobilis with 3 cusps. An identification key to species of Paraimene is provided.Se describe un...

  20. Energy exploitation of biogas from the waste of oil refiner Santiago de Cuba 'Erasol'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastewater is usually discharged into water bodies without receiving adequate treatment at present these bodies of water, especially rivers and seas have significantly reduced dilution capacity due to many factors, mainly related to the lack of water resources' water'. Under high operating costs and intrinsic operation of conventional treatments, implementation of systems wastewater treatment is a significant problem in countries like Cuba. Oil Refinery Company Santiago de Cuba 'ERASOL' is one of the most polluting entities Santiago Bay as their liquid waste is discharged directly into this without receiving prior treatment. This paper is determined practically by a process of anaerobic digestion, biogas potential of these residues giving a daily production of 370,24 m3, this volume of biogas would have contributed a total of 166.60 MWh of electricity in the year 2013, saving the company 764.69 CUC, to use biogas as fuel saving Fuel - Oil would be 131.38 tons, representing 103 964.27 CUC monetarily, significantly reduces the emission of polluting gases into the atmosphere as CO2 and SO2, emitting 2 729.99 tonnes and 203.73 tonnes in 2013 respectively, at a cost of 54 599.8 CUC and 860.57 CUC 411 and the pollution load discharged into the Bay of Santiago by the company would decrease considerably concentration in the effluent of 8.68 kg COD / m3’ of an initial charge of 12.4 kg COD / m3 (full text)

  1. San Diego Bay Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Brueggeman, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The San Diego Bay Bibliography references the scientific & gray literature on the Bay up through 1994 and it is NOT current. Compiled from numerous resources (including Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, Regional Water Quality Control Board, & local library catalogs), it is not comprehensive since so the Bay literature is elusive. In addition, there can be duplicate references varying in completeness. The San Diego Bay Bibliography is the outcome of discussion and networking within ...

  2. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  3. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years. PMID:21506308

  4. Economic evaluation of seawater desalination in Cuba using DEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: DEEP is a Desalination Economic Evaluation Programme developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The version 3 of DEEP (DEEP-3.0) was acquired and implemented in the country as a result of the cooperation between the IAEA and Cuba. The above-mentioned programme has been used in the national project 'Feasibility of seawater desalination in Cuba', which will be implemented in the 2005 - 2007 triennium. This project is aimed at analyzing different technologies of seawater desalination so as to determine the most feasible technology for Cuba from the technical and economic viewpoints. DEEP was used in the economic evaluation of different desalination plants with reverse osmosis (RO) technology. Real data obtained from the RO plant performance such as required capacity, modular unit size, seawater pump efficiency, feed salinity, and design flux as well as data of the RO plant costs was used. The selected energy source was grid electricity (stand-alone RO). The results obtained from the modeling of the desalination plant located at the Cayo Largo Island (at the Southern portion of Cuba) are shown. The RO plant, which uses Italian technology, has a capacity of 1000 m3/day. The paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses by changing the interest rate, total capacity of the desalination plant, feed salinity, feed temperature and purchased electricity cost. (author)

  5. Ciencia y coleccionismo en Cuba en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero González, Mercedes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a panoramic is exposed about museums and cabinets which existed in Cuba during the nineteenth century, describing functions and characteristics as well as the causes that made some of them disappear. It is also shown the continuity, asumed by the scientific collection over since major nationalized-institute in the nineteenth century. It is likewise intended to give a general and complete chronology about the development of museum in Cuba, taking into account the lasting-long or not of such institute. The authors regret the work shortege that considers the subject and total absence from the comparative standpoint.

    En este artículo se brinda una panorámica de los museos y gabinetes que existieron en Cuba durante el siglo XIX, describiéndose las características y funciones, así como las causas que hicieron desaparecer a algunos de ellos. También se destaca la continuidad asumida por el coleccionismo científico desde el siglo XVIII y su mayor institucionalización en el XIX. Asimismo se intenta dar una cronología muy general sobre el desarrollo de los museos en Cuba, teniéndose en cuenta la perdurabilidad o no de dicha institucionalización. Los autores lamentan la escasez de trabajos que traten el tema y la ausencia total desde el punto de vista comparativo.

  6. A New Look at the Literacy Campaign in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews in Cuba and publications generally unavailable in the U.S., author examines history and success of Cuban literacy campaign. Outlines logistical/pedagogical challenges; describes recruitment and training of volunteer teachers and development of instructional methods. Concludes with case studies illustrating application of Paulo…

  7. From the Outreach Front! IAC Conference in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Zafra M.

    2003-04-01

    This articles summarizes the 17th Conference of Chemistry, held in Santiago de Cuba, December 4-6, 2002, which was attended by a group of 13 chemical educators. The trip was organized by the International Activities Committee of the Division of Chemical Education.

  8. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  9. Characterization of Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Area I in Cienfuegos from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Caridad Cabrera Acea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: over 60 million people worldwide have been affected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Globally, it is the fourth leading cause of death; therefore it is considered a global emergency. Objective: to characterize patients with the human immunodeficiency virus.Methods: a retrospective, descriptive study was conducted involving 21 patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in the Area I in Cienfuegos from 1988 to 2011. The variables analyzed included: age, sex, year of diagnosis, People’s Council they belong to, sexual orientation, educational level, occupation, presence of opportunistic diseases and antiretroviral treatment. Results: groups aged 25 to 34 and 35 to 44 years (33, 33 % predominated; 90, 48 % of the patients were males with a ratio of 9,5:1; 38,10 % was diagnosed from 2009 to 2011, 71, 4 % of the cases belonged to the Historic Center; 57, 14 % were men who had sex with men; those who completed high school and university studies accounted for 66,66 % of the cases. Workers prevailed (57, 14 %; only 14, 29 % suffered from opportunistic diseases and 52, 4 % was undergoing antiretroviral treatment.Conclusions: infection increased in the last five years, particularly in most sexually active age groups; it was more common in men who have sex with men. More than half of the patients receive antiretroviral treatment.

  10. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Cuba. Activities in Centre for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development (CEADEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    limits. The development of a compact design holder for secondary target excitation (X-PRISM) and its combination with a digital signal processing spectrometer (DSP) allowed achieving a significant improvement in the instrumental sensitivity. This configuration has been successfully implemented in three laboratories of the IAEA Member States: CNEA Paraguay, OBIMAR (Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala) and CEAC (Cienfuegos, Cuba) in frame of various IAEA technical co-operation projects

  11. [Some general considerations concerning Cuba's population policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Martinez, L

    1978-01-01

    The policies developed in Cuba after the revolution that influenced population were primarily intended to alter basic structures hindering social and economic development rather than to affect population growth. Fertility has declined rapidly from 35.1/1000 in 1963 to a preliminary figure of 19.8/1000 in 1977, and interprovincial differences have significantly lessened. Factors influencing the decline include the increased participation of women in economic activities, improved access to contraception, the higher cultural level of couples and especially women made possible through adult education, and increased urbanization following the agrarian reform. Infant mortality declined from about 80/1000 live births in the late 1950s to 24.6/1000 live births in 1977, while mortality for 1-4 year olds is now 1.1/1000. Maternal mortality declined from 10.7/10,000 live births in 1965 to 4.6 in 1976. Expectation of life at birth was 70 years for both sexes in 1976. The most significant factors in the mortality decline appear to have been general improvements in material standards and the disappearance of nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers, creation of the National Health System which offers free health care nationwide, and improved educational levels. By the beginning of the century 40% of the urban population resided in places with over 2000 inhabitants. In 1953 the proportion was 51.4% and Havana contained 23% of the national population. The policy of the Revolution has been to exploit the natural resources of the entire country and to reform agriculture and livestock raising. The growth rate of the urban population between 1953 and 1970 of 3.1% was only slightly higher than the growth rate of 2.19% of the entire country. Havana grew by only 2.2% during the same time, and by only 1.3% between 1971-74. Intermediate cities increased their share of the total population from 10.6% in 1958 to 17.3% in 1970. Government programs to orient migration toward

  12. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  13. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects. PMID:6715092

  14. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  15. Diagnosing Learning Needs of Medicine Doctors in Relation to Imaging in Cienfuegos Diagnóstico de las necesidades de aprendizaje en imagenología pediátrica del Médico General Integral Básico en Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Aleida García Hernández; Bárbara Cabeza Poblet; Alejandro Díaz González

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite being so important for diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting pediatric patients, there are still gaps in general practitioners as for the interpretation and / or radiological diagnosis of the diseases that most frequently affect these patients. Objective: To diagnose the learning needs of Medicine Doctors in relation to imaging in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was cond...

  16. Using the EBSCO Database in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos in 2009 Utilización de la base de datos EBSCO en el policlínico área III de Cienfuegos en el año 2009

    OpenAIRE

    María Elinor Dulzaides Iglesias; Beatriz María Fúster Cabrera; Regla Pérez Águila

    2011-01-01

    Background: EBSCO is the full text database that provides relevant information related to biomedical sciences. It contains excellent collections, very helpful for professional practice and research. Objective: To revise how professionals and students of the ¨Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate ¨ Polyclinic, in Cienfuegos, use the EBSCO database and to develop informative skills in order to access all these information from the library. Method: An exploratory descriptive research was conducted in order to ...

  17. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  18. Digital suction and family functionality in children in Health Area II. Cienfuegos. Succión digital y funcionamiento familiar en niños. Área II. Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl López Fernández

    Full Text Available

    Bakground: Digital suction is a pernicious habit that can produce not only alterations of dental-facial's structures, but also of child's social relationships and its self-esteem. Objective: To evaluate the existent relationship between finger suction habit in children and family functionality. Method: An analytic study of cases and controls was carried out, in girls and boys of 5th and 6th levels in 8 day-care centres belonging to Area II of Cienfuegos municipality during the course 2005-2006. The studied variables were: finger suction habit, age, level, sex, and family functionality. Family functionality was perceived through the test FF-SIL. Chi square test was used to determine the relationship among the studied variables. Results: The finger suction habit prevailed in girls; functional families prevailed in the study. Most of the children with this habit come from dysfunctional families. Conclusion: Dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families are proportionally major in the group of girls and boys with this habit, being shown the dependence between the variables finger suction and family function.

    Fundamento: La succión digital es un hábito pernicioso que puede producir no sólo alteraciones de las estructuras dentofaciales, sino también de las relaciones sociales del niño y su autoestima. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación existente entre el hábito de succión del dedo en el niño con el funcionamiento familiar. Método: Se realizó un estudio analítico, de casos y controles, en niñas y niños de 5to y 6to año de vida de 8 círculos infantiles pertenecientes al Área II del municipio de Cienfuegos durante el curso escolar 2005-2006. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron: hábito de succión del dedo, edad, año de vida, sexo, y funcionamiento familiar. Mediante la prueba FF-SIL se

  19. Deforming buccal habits in children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos. 2005. Hábitos bucales deformantes en niños de 5 a 11 años. Cienfuegos, 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie María Padilla Gómez

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are very complex neuromuscular patterns. Deforming buccal habits can obstruct the normal growth and development of stomatognathic system. Objective: To characterize subjects with deforming habits. Method: An observational, descriptive and correlacional study was developed in 341 children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos from December 2004 to September 2005. In addition to the clinical examination, an interview was performed to parents/tutors and teachers. Data was collected in a data formulary and variables as age, sex, deforming buccal habits and dentomaxillofacial anomalies were analyzed. Findings: Deforming buccal habits frequency was 79%. The most common habits were lingual protraction (47, 2%, baby bottle suction (32, 6% and onychophagia (23, 5%, all of them predominant in girls. 75% of the children with these habits developed anomalies; being vestibule-version (21, 1%, increased over bite (20,2% and bilabial incompetence (17,9% the most frequent. Conclusions: It was confirmed that deforming Buccal habits are a health problem that affects the stomatognathic system. This should be treated by the General Integral Dentist in a systematic and direct way.
    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza muy compleja. La práctica de los hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático. Objetivo: Caracterizar los portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional, en 341 niños de 5 a 11 años, del municipio Cienfuegos, en el período de diciembre 2004 a septiembre 2005. Además del examen clínico, se realizó entrevista a padres/tutores y maestros de cada niño. La información fue almacenada en un formulario de datos

  20. Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007 Caracterización de las quemaduras faciales desde la cirugía máxilo facial. Cienfuegos 2005 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with facial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears, Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo con 87 pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. Objetivo: caracterizar la atención al paciente con quemaduras faciales para contribuir al desarrollo de conocimientos, actitudes y aptitudes médico – quirúrgicas en el cirujano m

  1. Análisis de los procesos de renovación de las aguas de la Bahía de Cienfuegos

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    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cómo intercambia sus aguas la Bahía de Cienfuegos con el Mar Caribe y cuáles factores determinan la velocidad de este proceso es un tema pobremente abordado. Determinar la distribución del tiempo de residencia de las aguas de la Bahía de Cienfuegos, considerando a este sistema natural como un reactor de mezcla continua, mediante la aplicación del modelo ideal de mezcla perfecta, fue el objetivo fundamental de este trabajo. Con la aplicación de métodos numéricos tridimensionales que simulan las características hidrodinámicas de la bahía, se evalúa la influencia del viento y los aportes fluviales sobre su capacidad de intercambio con el Mar Caribe. Se determinan tres características del proceso de renovación de las aguas: los tiempos de residencia de retardo y de residencia local. Las distribuciones espaciales de los tiempos de retardo y de residencia local, revelaron diferencias en la capacidad de autodepuración de los lóbulos norte y sur de la bahía, la existencia de zonas de lento movimiento, el carácter estacional de estas características y fuertes gradientes verticales del tiempo de residencia que en algunas zonas de la bahía superan los 10 d entre el fondo y la superficie. Se concluye que la Bahía de Cienfuegos es un sistema de lento intercambio con un tiempo de residencia que puede alcanzar hasta 60 d, por lo que resulta necesario y vital fortalecer acciones de gestión ambiental que reduzcan las cargas contaminantes que afectan este ecosistema.

  2. Hundimiento de las aguas al sur de Cuba Downwelling wa ters in the south of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Hernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizan 23 estaciones oceanográficas a bordo del Buque de Investigaciones Científicas BIC "Ulises" en marzo de 1994 y abril de 1996 en el polígono de estudio situado en los 21°00'-21°30'N y 81°50'-83°00'W al sureste de la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, con el objetivo de estudiar algunas de las relaciones hidrofísicas que controlan la dinámica de las larvas de langosta espinosa Panulirus argus en la interfase del talud con el océano. Se analizan el viento, transporte Ekman, turbulencia, profundidad de inicio de la termoclina, temperatura superficial del mar y estabilidad vertical en el hundimiento de las aguas cercanas al talud en los dos cruceros de primavera. El índice de transporte (IT mostró un movimiento neto hacia la costa, provocando un hundimiento en la zona cercana al talud. El hundimiento produce un efecto de mezcla o falso afloramiento llamado "efecto cascada" que mantiene los nutrientes resuspendidos por un período que varía según la intensidad del viento y las corrientes imperantes en la zona. Este efecto, al parecer, es responsable de la retención larvaria en esta regiónTake account 23 oceanographic stations on Oceanographic Research Vessel BIC "Ulises" in March 1994 and April 1996 in the study polygon located in the 21°00'-21°30'N and 81°50'-83°00'W in southwest of Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, with the main objective to study hydrophysical relationships that control the dynamics of the Panulirus argus spiny lobster larvae in the boundary shelf. Importance of the wind, Ekman transport, turbulence, depth of the top of the thermocline, sea surface temperature, vertical stability in the convergence or downwelling nearshore waters in this important area of spawns, was demonstrated. Transport Index (IT showed a net movement toward the coast causing nearshore downwelling. The downwelling produces a mixture effect or false upwelling called also "cascade effect" that maintains nutrients suspended for one period that

  3. Gestión para el desarrollo local sostenible en Granjas Agroindustriales y Empresas Azucareras del MINAZ de la provincia de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Julio López Bastida; Mileisy Balbis Morejón

    2008-01-01

    La investigación se realizó en las entidades del MINAZ, teniendo como título: “Gestión para el desarrollo local sostenible en Granjas Agroindustriales y Empresas Azucareras del MINAZ en la provincia de Cienfuegos”. Tiene como objetivo general proponer un sistema de gestión ambiental integral que permita valorar e implantar las políticas de desarrollo local sostenible de las granjas agroindustriales y empresas azucareras del MINAZ en la provincia de Cienfuegos.

  4. Síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de Cienfuegos. Segunda medición de CARMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Emiliano Nicolás Díez y Martínez de la Cotera; Dayamí Garcia Torres; Verónica Salas Rodríguez; Pedro Ovidio Ordúñez García

    2011-01-01

    Fundamento: El conocimiento de las prevalencias de los principales factores de riesgos cardiovasculares y del síndrome metabólico en una comunidad, es determinante para establecer programas preventivos de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, así como su relación con los principales factores de riesgo.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal del tipo descriptivo correlacional. La muestra se obtuvo mediante ...

  5. Epidemiological study on Buccal Health in the 12 years old population of Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumaidi Colina Sánchez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 12 years-old children population is worldwide taken as a reference age to compare the buccal health condition of different countries, by means of various indicators that measure the presence of the main buccal diseases. The knowledge of these epidemiological profiles generates information to guide the services planning policies of the Primary Health Care. Objective: To characterize 12 years-old population's buccal health condition. Methods: Cross- sectional descriptive correlative study with a stratified probabilistic sample of 90 children starting from a universe conformed by the 269 adolescents that constitute the total of the 12 years old population of the Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos municipality. Pearson’s chi-square and Mantel-Haenszel lineal tendency tests were used with the determination of the relative risk and reliance intervals of 95%. Results: The decay prevalence reached 54, 4%. The COP-D index was 2, 45 being the decayed component the major percentage with 4.6%. The periodontal disease was more frequent in boys than in girls, with 54, 9% and 30, 8% respectively. 80,9% of the segments is healthy. In those affected, the calculation prevailed in 11,7%. It was determined that faulty obturations, inheritance and faulty buccal hygiene were the most affecting risk factors for children with decays, while in the periodontal disease it was faulty buccal hygiene. Malocclusions presented a prevalence rate of 40%. Out of which, 55,6% required secondary level attention. Those with habits present a risk 2 times superior of making sick. The sick epidemiological category was present in 77,8% of the total. Conclusions: We emphasize the prevention need as core issue of the primary medical care in the world today; being the General-Integral Dentist a transforming agent that according to his/her formation is capable to assume the existent health problem and to modify it positively, acting from the earliest ages.

  6. TUMOR PHYLLODES DE LA MAMA.CARACTERIZACIÓN EN LA PROVINCIA CIENFUEGOS.ESTUDIO DE 20 AÑOS

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    Lidia Torres Aja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El tumor Phyllodes de la mama es poco frecuente. Tiene un origen fibroepitelial con potencial agresivo y representa el 0.3% a 0.4% de todos los tumores mamarios y el 2.5% a 3% de los tumores epiteliales de dicho órgano.Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fundamental es caracterizar desde el punto de vista clínico patológico los tumores Phyllodes operados en la provincia de Cienfuegos durante 20 años.Tipo de estudio: descriptivo prospectivo observacional. Periodo evaluado: 20 años desde 1 de enero de 1987 hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2006. Universo: 57 pacientes.Métodos: para realizar nuestra investigación hemos seguido anualmente durante estos 20 años los casos operados en nuestra provincia, examinando personalmente los casos en consulta de Mastología antes de operarlos y siguiéndolo por consulta de operados durante más de 5 añosResultados fundamentales: como resultados fundamentales de nuestra investigación obtuvimos que se operaron en esos 20 años un total de 57 tumores Phyllodes, los cuales representaron el 2.9% del total de tumores fibroepiteliales de mama operados.Aunque el mayor número de casos se detectó en pacientes de más de 40 años, queremos resaltar que en este periodo se operaron los únicos tumores Phyllodes en niña y en adolescente reportados en nuestra provincia

  7. CÁLCULO DE LOS COSTOS DE CALIDAD EN LA UNIDAD EMPRESARIAL DE BASE PRODUCCIONES VARIAS, CIENFUEGOS

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    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente informativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011.

  8. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  10. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  11. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

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    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  12. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

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    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  13. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  14. Nuclear instrumentation in Cuba and for osseous densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present job describes the technical characteristics and operation of two clinical equipment designed in Cuba, for the determination in vivo of the osseous mineral content in forearm, based on the of gamma absorption technique of a single photon. The development of these equipment and the measurements done with one of them are the first intents carried out in the country to diagnose osseous illnesses by means of this method. (author)

  15. An annotated checklist of the cladocera of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, M.E.; Varela, C.

    2008-01-01

    Although Cuba is the most studied Caribbean island with regard to freshwater Cladocera, our knowledge of their species composition and distribution is still limited. In this study, all available published and unpublished, reliable sources were reviewed for all records of this group of crustaceans. Thus, a revised and updated list of 70 species of the orders Ctenopoda and Anomopoda recorded for the island is here presented, including all sources of information. From the total numbe...

  16. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

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    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  17. Catholic Church and State in Cuba: past and present relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Delia CONTRERAS GARCÍA

    2013-01-01

    After centuries of a deep presence in Cuba, the Catholic Church has always been part of a complex relationship with the political establishment. The break between Church and State that occurred after the Revolution, would soon show the institution’s ability to survive in unfavorable conditions. Now, after more than fifty years of revolutionary experience, the Catholic Church has become the sole internal interlocutor with the regime. The aim of this article is to analyze the process by which t...

  18. Modelling urban bus transport emissions in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Avila, Jordi Mirabent

    2010-01-01

    This study described and focuses on the public transport bus system in Santiago de Cuba. Specifically we explore the fuel consumption of the various diesel buses over a three year period from 2007 to 2009 and with a forecast for the forthcoming years. The study considers the potential for fuel savings through a variety of methods which are each described and then modelled. Pollution is also calculated for a variety of scenarios and some suggestions are made in order to lower the overall...

  19. The Bayamo Earthquake (Cuba) of the 18 October 1551

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Córdoba-Barba; Mario O. Cotilla-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Using contemporary and original documents from the Archivo General de Indias it has been possible to complete the data for the 18 October 1551 earthquake in Cuba. The seism took place at midday, approximately. It had foreshocks and aftershocks. In Bayamo, 7 inhabitants were injured, and the town was severely affected. Maximum seismic intensity was IX degrees on the MSK scale, and the area of perceptibility is estimated at 40,000 km2. Liquefaction processes and soil type in Bayamo contributed ...

  20. Experience in the Management of Disused Radioactive Sources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disused radioactive sources in Cuba, when they cannot be returned to the provider, are managed as radioactive waste by the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene. They are collected and transported to waste management facilities, where they are characterized, conditioned and stored. The paper describes the different approached followed for conditioning the different types of disused radioactive sources and devices containing radioactive sources, such as lightning rods, smoke detectors and different kind of nuclear gauges. (author)

  1. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’...

  2. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

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    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  3. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  4. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  5. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

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    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  6. Radioactive waste management national policy and strategy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the use of sources of ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes are generated which require an adequate management in conditions of radiological safety and protection during all phases; from their generation to their final disposal, for protecting human health and the environment, both currently and in the future, without imposing undue burden upon the next generations. Therefore there was a need for the establishment of a National Policy and Strategy with regard to the management of the radioactive wastes generated, in a way such that allows long term considerations in conception and vision, having as a reference; the legal framework in force in Cuba, the IAEA's recommendations, as well as the diagnosis and assessment of the current and future situation in Cuba. This work deals with key issues for the safe management of the radioactive wastes such as; objectives and goals, responsibilities and role of the organizations involved in the management, possible management options for each type of radioactive waste generated in the country, manpower and funding for an adequate management, control over the generation of the radioactive wastes, and the need for availability of a facility for their final disposal, among other issues. The Policy and Strategy for the management of radioactive wastes will serve as a basis for the users/facilities, that generate and manage radioactive wastes, to draft their own strategies, and for the achievement of a harmonized level of radioactive wastes in the country. Furthermore, they would contribute to enhance the National Environmental Strategy implemented in Cuba. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste management in Cuba results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and other fields in the Republic of Cuba in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply a national policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of radioactive wastes. The ruling principles for the application of the established radioactive waste management policy in Cuba are summarized. The elements of the infrastructure existing in the country, the legislative framework and the technical resources for attachment of important tasks related to the radioactive waste including spent sealed source management are further brought. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes, are also given. The main characteristics of the facility are described. The main ideas which govern the improvement of the safety and effectiveness of the radioactive waste management in Cuba in the coming years are finally discussed. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Fire protection system at the Juragua nuclear power plant, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the general fire protection system at the Juragua nuclear power plant in Cuba. The factors which led to the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Cuba and the planning of others in the near future are outlined. Reference is made to existing Cuban legislation on fire protection, particularly with regard to the protection of facilities which constitute a radiation hazard. Attention is drawn to the fact that, although Cuba does not have much experience in this area, considerable work has been done in a brief span of time on legislation, standardization and monitoring in nuclear facilities in order to guarantee safe operating conditions. The potential risk of fires at the Juragua plant under normal and accident conditions is analysed, and the technical and organizational measures required to minimize existing risks are discussed in the light of this analysis. The basis for determining the manpower and equipment needed by the plant's fire protection service is also defined. Finally, certain criteria concerning the special psychological and technical qualities required of personnel, as well as the necessary qualifications and training, are presented. The point is made that very little has been published at the international level on this subject and that it is a research area which deserves more attention. The serious, responsible attitude adopted in designing the plant's fire protection system, with a view to achieving optimum safety conditions during operation, is also highlighted. (author)

  9. Towards active community participation in dengue vector control: results from action research in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, M E; Vanlerberghe, V.; Baly, A.; Ceballos, E.; Valdes, L.; Searret, M.; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2007-01-01

    Community participation is advocated as essential for attaining effective dengue prevention, but knowledge of how to foster this is limited. In Santiago de Cuba, multiple small task forces were created at the neighbourhood level that included all stakeholders in the control of Aedes aegypti. The task forces assessed the perceived needs and elaborated action plans to promote specific behavioural change and to reduce environmental risks through social communication strategies and intersectoral ...

  10. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  11. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurys B. Armas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. OBJECTIVE Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. METHODS A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged >25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room and location (jurisdiction of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. RESULTS A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008. In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged >75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies

  12. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  13. Importancia de los datos somatol??gicos en el proceso de selecci??n de j??venes deportistas en la especialidad de levantamiento de pesas. El caso de la E.S.P.A de Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguila Tejeda, Gerardo; Capote Francesena, Maira; Zurita Molina, F??lix

    2003-01-01

    Hoy podemos hablar de falso el viejo dilema de si el deportista nace o se hace, puesto que cada d??a tenemos un mejor conocimiento de la importancia que para el ??xito deportivo tienen tanto los factores ambientales o extr??nsecos, entre los que sin duda el entrenamiento, la mejora de la t??cnica y los materiales as?? como la capacidad de motivaci??n juegan un papel destacado, como los gen??ticos o intr??nsecos del individuo. Especialmente relacionado con estos ??ltimos, el ...

  14. Calidad de la atención médica a pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio. Cienfuegos 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la evaluación constituye una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la atención a los pacientes. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la atención médica a pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio admitidos en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos en junio de 2011. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de sistemas y servicios de salud en la que se analizaron como variables: las relacionadas con estructura (recursos humanos y materiales, procesos (cumplimiento de los protocolos establecidos para la atención y resultados (impacto en la mortalidad. Se aplicó un formulario a los 22 pacientes estudiados, se utilizó una guía de observación que evaluó la existencia de recursos humanos y materiales necesarios para la atención en el hospital. Los datos se procesaron en el programa SPSS 15,0 y se expresaron en números absolutos y porcientos. Resultados: en la dimensión estructura no se encontraron carencias de recursos materiales esenciales para la atención, hubo dificultades con la cobertura de enfermería en el Servicio de Cardiología. En la atención prehospitalaria hubo demora en acudir a consulta, dificultades en la prescripción de aspirina y la no realización de trombólisis. En la posthospitalaria se centraron en la rehabilitación y trabajo en la modificación de los factores de riesgo asociados. En el hospital hubo dificultades en la realización de las pruebas ergométricas al alta y en la remisión para la rehabilitación en el Área de Salud. Conclusiones: existen dificultades en la calidad de atención a los pacientes, dificultades que se hacen más evidentes en la Atención Primaria de Salud.

  15. Characteristics of the obstetric patient in critical stage in Cienfuegos province. Caracterización de la paciente obstétrica en estado crítico en la provincia de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando T. Espín González

    Full Text Available

    Fundaments: The critically ill patient has an important place in the assessment of the quality of the medical assistance since around 5 % of all females who reach a full term pregnancy without potential risk factors, become this kind of patients due to different causes. Objective: To characterize the obstetric patient in a critical state in the period that covers January 1 st 1991- December 31 st 2001 in Cienfuegos province. Method: Correlational Descriptive-retrospective study carried out at the ICU of the Clinico-Surgical University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in a 10 year period and includes the 323 critically ill obstetric patients who were admitted at that ward. The variables under study were: mother´s age parity, type of labor, past history, surgical procedures, cause of admission at the ICU, patients state at discharge and cause of death. Results: 59,1 % of the patients were aged 20-29 years . The patient´s past history was related to hypertension and bronchial asthma. The procedure most widely used was the cesarean section followed by hysterectomy as emergency. The principal cause of admission at the ICU was hypovolemic shock, pre eclampsia - eclampsia and sepsis. The major amounts of patients were discharged alive. Only 8 % died. There was a predominance of direct maternal death, highlighting among them haemorrhage and hypertension in pregnancy.

    Fundamento : La paciente obstétrica en estado crítico ha adquirido un importante valor puesto que constituye un punto de mira para evaluar la calidad de la atención médica, ya que un 5 % de todas de todas las féminas que llegan al término de la gestación sin factores de riesgo potenciales, se convierten por diferentes causas en este tipo de paciente. Objetivo

  16. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exportation”) and items not eligible for Department of Commerce GFT or BAG License Exceptions, 15 CFR 740.12..., academic nature; (ii) The research comprises a full work schedule in Cuba; (iii) The research has a.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to...

  17. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  18. Scientific investigations on Integral General Medicine during the historic evolution of this specialty. Cienfuegos, 1988-2005. Las investigaciones científicas en Medicina General Integral durante la evolución histórica de la especialidad. Cienfuegos, 1988-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lara Calderín

    Full Text Available Background: The program of the doctor and nurse of the family has undergone several structural, organizational, methodological, of socioeconomic context and of political priority changes and it is unknown the influence of such evolution on the works of conclusion of the Integral General Medicine specialty in Cienfuegos. Objective: To compare the works of conclusion of the Integral General Medicine specialty in three different stages of the program of the doctor and nurse of the family in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study for which a sample of the act of the pertaining to the estate exams, archived in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos, was revised, corresponding to the years 88-92, 99-00, 04-05, and tribunal members of the exams were enquired to know about the work situation of the authors, tutors, grades, investigation themes. Results: It was found that the authors work situation varies according to the municipalitie´s expansion. The present stage is characterized by the location in Venezuela and Haiti. Specialists of the Health Primary Attention have tutored most of the investigations. The excellent grade was given to more than 50% of the investigations in the first and last stage. Conclusions: The majority of the investigations topics correspond to the main Health programs, but new ones are being adopted while others are abandoned. Methodological deficiencies continue.
    Fundamento: El Programa del Médico y Enfermera de la Familia ha pasado por varias etapas de cambios estructurales, organizacionales, metodológicos, del contexto socioeconómico y de priorización política y no se conoce qué influencias ha tenido esa evolución histórica sobre los trabajos de terminación de la especialidad de Medicina General Integral en Cienfuegos. Objetivo: Comparar los trabajos de terminación de

  19. Present status and trends of petroleum exploration/production in Cuba; Estado actual y perspectivas de la exploracion/produccion de petroleo en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Manuel [Ministerio de la Industria Basica, La Habana (Cuba)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents the present status and trends of the petroleum exploration and production in Cuba, and demonstrates how the necessity of fast increase in the oil production level (15000 mbp in 1990) became a national high priority. That necessity came up from the abrupt cut in the oil supply due to the breakup of USSR which reached 13 million of tons in 1989. Cuba is presently forecasting new large deposits in the next years 4 figs.

  20. Environmental radioecological study of beaches of Las Tunas and Holguin provinces, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of radioactivity levels in beaches of Las Tunas and Holguin was undertaken as a programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in Cuba. Concentrations of radionuclides were determined by In Situ gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of Ra226 , Th 232 and K40 in the surveyed soils of Las Tunas beaches (Covarrubia, Real de Covarrubia and Corella) were 3, < 1 and 14.3 Bq.Kg 1 - , respectively. In surveyed soils of Holguin beaches (Guardalavaca, Pesquero and Don Lino) were 6.0, < 1 and 25.0 Bq.Kg 1 - , respectively. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable scintillometer revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air of 34.2 n Gy.h 1 - for Las Tunas beaches and 37.3 n Gy.h 1 - for Holguin one. For assessing the ionizing component of cosmic rays, measurements were performed on board a wood and plastic boat in the middle of two deep artificial basins and in two bays. The readings averaged 33.5 n Gy.h 1 - . Measurements of gross beta activity in outdoor air revealed 0.3 and 0.5 Bq.m 3 - for Las Tunas and Holguin beaches, respectively, and indoor values averaged 3.5 and 4.3 Bq.m 3 - , respectively. Taking into account the results of measurements was possible to assess effective doses due to external and internal exposure. For the first one were estimated 230 Sv.year 1 - for Las Tunas beaches and 250 Sv.year 1 - for Holguin beaches. The assessing of internal component of exposure revealed 236 and 292 Sv.year 1 - for Las Tunas and Holguin beaches, respectively, due to exposure to radon daughter. The results of our survey show that studied beaches are characterized by low environmental radioactive background

  1. Cáncer gástrico. Caracterización de los casos operados en la provincia de Cienfuegos (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Leonel Otzoy Cún

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer gástrico es el tumor digestivo más frecuente, en algunos países ocupa la segunda causa de muerte por tumores malignos. Objetivo: caracterizar desde el punto de vista clínico-epidemiológico los cánceres gástricos operados en la provincia de Cienfuegos en el trienio 2009-2011. Métodos: estudio de serie de casos del total de pacientes operados (57 de cáncer gástrico en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de la provincia de Cienfuegos, de enero del 2009 a diciembre de 2011. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, factores de riesgo, enfermedades asociadas, localización anatómica, variante histológica, etapa clínica en el momento del diagnóstico, técnicas quirúrgicas aplicadas, complicaciones de la cirugía y estado de los pacientes al momento del egreso. Resultados: el mayor número de pacientes pertenecía al sexo masculino, comprendido entre 50 a 60 años. Los factores de riesgo que más predominaron fueron el tabaquismo, alcoholismo y gastritis crónica. El mayor porciento de los tumores se localizó en el antro gástrico en las etapas clínicas III y IV en el momento del diagnóstico. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el adenocarcinoma. La técnica quirúrgica más utilizada fue la gastrectomía subtotal ampliada, solamente un 5 % de los casos presentaron complicaciones de la cirugía propiamente dicha. El 96,5 % de los pacientes egresó vivo. Conclusiones: En Cienfuegos los hombres mayores de 50 años son más propensos a padecer de cáncer gástrico; en el mayor número de casos el diagnóstico es tardío y más del 30 % se trata con técnicas paliativas.

  2. Present situation of regulatory control of radiation sources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report explains the basis for an effective regulatory control and in particular refers to the system established in Cuba for such purposes. Reference is made to the new Decree-Law No. 207 'On the Use of Nuclear Energy' and the main topics it covers and to the 'Rules for Authorization of Practices Involving the use of Radiation Sources' which have been in force since 1998. Following it, the report illustrates the existing Cuban system of notification, registration and licensing, and of inspection and enforcement, including information of the established classification of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  3. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El...

  4. Environmental gamma radiation measurements on providence of Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population exposure to those living on the Camaguey Province of Cuba, was estimated by measuring the natural gamma background. Gamma spectra of soils and measurements of absorbed dose rate in air were taken. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 63.6 n Gy.h 1 - due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 5-136 n Gy.h 1 - , with a mean value of 39.2 n Gy.h 1 - , due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation

  5. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  6. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  7. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable (18O and 2H) and radioactive (3H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  8. Notes on the presence of Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pavel García-Lahera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed and illustrated characterization of the botanical species denominated Justicia secunda, exotic plant cultivated as medicinal and ornamental in Cuba, probably of recent introduction, is presented, in order to facilitate its identification and differentiation from the plants with it is usually confused: Justicia spicigera and Justicia candicans. The work trait to get the attention of the Cuban scientific community about the promissory ethnobotany of the plant, because of the interesting medicinal properties that people attributed, as well as on its possible naturalization in the country and potentialities as an invasive plant.

  9. El edificio Bacardí en Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza Jarquín, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Encontrar los criterios que delinearon el proceso de diseño para el proyecto de oficinas de Bacardí y Compañía en Santiago de Cuba de Mies van der Rohe, poniéndolo en relación con trabajos anteriores y estableciendo criterios que se reconocen como propios de su arquitectura, y como las condicionantes que presenta esta ubicación hacen replantear a Mies otras maneras de establecer re-laciones formales, espaciales y estructurales.

  10. Turismo y cambio social en Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Idris M.; Beaton, Hector O.; López, Ernesto A.; Ferrer, Javier M.

    1996-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una aproximación a la influencia del turismo internacional en los cambios en la sociedad cubana. Se centra en el análisis de un espacio público representativo de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, el Parque Céspedes, en el que se profundiza sobre la aparición de un nuevo grupo social, «los jineteros», y su influencia sobre el resto de los grupos sociales que conviven en el parque. Por último, se plantean unos interrogantes para la reflexión sobre el fen...

  11. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  12. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to...

  13. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  14. Logy Bay Fishing Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    S H Parsons and Sons

    2003-01-01

    202 x 151 mm. Showing the small inlet with moored rowing boats and rough wooden shacks built on the cliffside. Lying about seven miles from St. John's, Logy Bay was used as a summertime fishing station.

  15. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started...

  16. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  17. Metodología para la Implantación de un Sistema de Gestión por el Conocimiento en Empresas de Diseño y Servicios Ingenieros para el sector de la construcción en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfredo García Caraballo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la ponencia se presenta la "Metodología para la Implantación de un Sistema de Gestión por el Conocimiento en Empresas de Diseño y Servicios Ingenieros para el sector de la construcción en Cuba " resultado de una investigación científica ejecutada por la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas con la colaboración de la Universidad de Matanzas "Camilo Cienfuegos" y que aplicada y validada en la primera permitió la creación de los cimientos de una cultura gerencial que reconoce el valor que tienen para una organización, el uso adecuado de la información y la insustituible importancia de utilizar y preservar los conocimientos adquiridos por los trabajadores en el transcurso del tiempo, que son a su vez parte estratégica de su patrimonio. Dicha metodología facilita extender esta cultura a todos los niveles de dirección de la organización y entre sus trabajadores, como vía para alcanzar la eficacia y eficiencia necesarias en nuestra economía.

  18. Síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de Cienfuegos. Segunda medición de CARMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El conocimiento de las prevalencias de los principales factores de riesgos cardiovasculares y del síndrome metabólico en una comunidad, es determinante para establecer programas preventivos de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, así como su relación con los principales factores de riesgo.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal del tipo descriptivo correlacional. La muestra se obtuvo mediante un método probabilístico y es representativa de la población mayor de 17 años del área de salud IV del municipio de Cienfuegos; se estudiaron 209 personas extraídas de un universo de 16577 individuos, se utilizó un porcentaje de prevalencia esperada del 18 %, un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95 %, una precisión de ± 5 % y una tasa de no respuesta del 35 %.Resultados: La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico se determinó en 21,7 %, la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial fue de 39,2 %, la obesidad en 24,8 % y la diabetes mellitus en 10,7 %. La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en mayores de 40 años fue de 43,7 % con una razón de prevalencia de 2,40 para el sexo masculino.Conclusiones: Existe una alta prevalencia de los principales factores de riesgo en la comunidad, la principal triada de asociación para el síndrome metabólico esta formada por la hipertensión, hipertrigliceridemia e hipocolesterolemia de HDL.

  19. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  20. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  1. Biological indicators in Cuba. Current trends and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction and development of biological indicators of radiation damage began in Cuba in 1986 with the creation of the department of Radiobiology at the Centre for Hygiene and Radiation Protection. The first experiences however began in Cuba in the sixties. The initial task of the work started in the 80 was to introduce the cytogenetic dosimetry. This task finalised with the consolidation of a regular cytogenetic service, currently analyses the cases of presumed overexposures in the country. Additionally a group of research projects are carried out using cytogenetic indicators among them a project with children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. The biochemical indicators of radiation damage were developed in a parallel way, at the moment a group of them are available.The nucleic acid concentration and oxidative stress indicators in patients selected for bone marrow transplants are in use in research projects. In the near future a comet assay and the p53 expression will be include in the list of laboratory indicators. In the paper are presented the main results obtained until the moment in the regular services, in the ongoing projects and the works planing for the future. (author)

  2. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  3. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  4. Characterization of medicine students regarding Research Methodology in Cienfuegos Medical School. Caracterización de los alumnos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos en temas de Metodología de la Investigación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica González Brito

    Full Text Available Introduction: University excellence is linked to excellence in the educative process and research field. Objective: To determine the knowledge level about Research Methodology of Medicine students, including those in Mario Muñoz Monroy group. Methods: This study was developed in the Medicine School in Cienfuegos with a stratified sample using measurable instruments. Results: Students do not know the different kinds research, the variables and the most frequent statistic techniques.

    Introducción: El camino de la excelencia universitaria pasa, fundamentalmente, por la excelencia del proceso docente-educativo y del proceso de investigación científica. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre Metodología de la Investigación que poseen los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina, incluyendo a los que pertenecen al movimiento Mario Muñoz Monroy. Métodos: Estudio realizado en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, par el cual se empleó un muestreo estratificado para tener representatividad de todos los años de Medicina, se aplicaron instrumentos medibles a tales efectos. Resultados: Los estudiantes desconocen los tipos de estudio, las variables de investigación y las técnicas estadísticas más utilizadas.

  5. Análisis de las causas y efectos de la avería de compresor de amoniaco en Frigorífico de la ciudad de Cienfuegos. Parte II. // Analysis of causes and effects of failure at ammonia compressor in Cienfuegos City Frigorific. Part II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Goytisolo Espinosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se continua la investigación de la avería producida en un compresor de amoniaco de un frigoríficode la ciudad de Cienfuegos. En el trabajo se aplican los conceptos de la Fractura Mecánica Lineal Elástica y de la FracturaMecánica Subcrítica para analizar las causas que provocaron el estallido de la válvula inferior de la tubería de admisión dedicho compresor.Palabras claves: Compresor de refrigeración, fractura mecánica lineal elástica, fractura mecánica subcrítica._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper we continue working on the failure taken place in an ammonia refrigerating compressor of the CienfuegosCity Frigorific. In this work, concepts of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics and Subcritical Fracture Mechanics are appliedto analyze the causes of valve exploding at the compressor.Key words: Refrigerating compressor, linear elastic fracture mechanics, subcritical fracture mechanics.

  6. Impact of the 1970 Reforms to Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION To reach the goal of eliminating tuberculosis as a public health problem in Cuba, the epidemiological evolution of the disease and of strategies designed to prevent and manage it to date must be well understood. In this context, in 1970, changes were introduced in Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program. OBJECTIVE Review background and evolution of Cuba's strategy for tuberculosis control, the changes implemented in the 1970 revision of the Program, and their impact on the subsequent evolution of the disease in Cuba. METHODS Published articles on the history of tuberculosis control in Cuba were reviewed, along with archival documents and medical records. Documents concerning the situation of pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba, including measures adopted to address the disease and its extent, were selected for study, with an emphasis on the period of the Program. Interviews with key informants were conducted. RESULTS Cuba's fight against tuberculosis began in Santiago de Cuba, with the creation of a local Anti-Tuberculosis League in 1890. Strategic changes introduced by Cuba's public health sector, stressing health promotion and disease prevention, led to the 1959 creation of the Tuberculosis Department, which implemented Cuba's first National Tuberculosis Control Program in 1963. This Program was completely reorganized in 1970. The National Tuberculosis Control Program (1963) covered a network of 27 tuberculosis dispensaries, 8 sanatoriums and 24 bacteriology laboratories. Diagnosis was based on radiographic imaging criteria. Incidence was 52.6/100,000 in 1964 and reached 31.2 in 1970. The Program was updated in 1970 to include two major changes: the requirement for bacteriological confirmation of diagnosis and directly-observed outpatient treatment fully integrated into health services. By 1971, incidence was down to 17.8/100,000, and further reduced to 11.6 in 1979. The decrease is interpreted as the result of the greater specificity of

  7. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  8. A new species of isopod (Isopoda: Flabellifera: Sphaeromatidae from Cuba, with an identification key for the species of Paraimene Una especie nueva de isópodo (Isopoda: Flabellifera: Sphaeromatidae de Cuba, con una clave de identificación para las especies de Paraimene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of isopod crustacean belonging to the genus Paraimene (Flabellifera, Sphaeromatidae is described. The new species was collected from Cojimar Bay, La Habana Province, Cuba. Paraimene danieli new species differs from all other known species of the genus by the following characters: pereonites 2-3 smooth, pereonites 5-6 carínate, pereonite 7 and pleonite 1 raised at middle point, lacinia mobilis with 3 cusps. An identification key to species of Paraimene is provided.Se describe una especie nueva de isópodo perteneciente al género Paraimene (Isopoda, Flabellifera, Sphaeromatidae. La especie nueva fue colectada de la Bahía de Cojimar, Provincia La Habana, Cuba. Paraimene danieli especie nueva difiere de las especies conocidas del género por los siguientes caracteres: lacinia mobilis con 3 cúspides; pereonites 2-3 lisos, pereonites 5-6 carinados, pereonite 7 y pleonite 1 elevados medialmente. Se presenta una clave de identificación para las especies de Paraimene.

  9. Cuba: los entornos cambiantes de la partcipación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo DILLA ALFONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La participación popular ha sido una permanente invocación del discurso político revolucionario cubano, particularmente en las instancias comunitarias. Este ensayo trata de analizar la evolución de los diseños, instituciones y realidades participativas a partir de su relación con las situaciones políticas y los modelos de reproducción económicos. Por su relevancia, se presta especial atención al sistema municipal cubano. Este fue creado en 1976 y ha experimentado diversas modificaciones, las más importantes de las cuales tuvieron lugar en 1992. Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en Cuba en los últimos diez años imponen a la participación nuevos retos, entre ellos la necesidad de una concepción más autónoma y pluralista del accionar popular en la esfera pública, lo que de alguna manera ya se expresa en algunos esfuerzos oficiales por adecuar los patrones de participación existentes (esencialmente una participación paternalista-clientelista y en la emergencia de movimientos comunitarios que intentan controlar y transformar las vidas cotidianas en los vecindarios.ABSTRACT: Popular participation has been a permanent slogan in the political discourse of revolutionary Cuba, particularly at the community level. This article deals with the design and evolution of institutions and participatory realities starting with its relation with the political situation and economic models of reproduction. Special attention is given to the municipal system created in 1976 and modified severa! times from which the most important modification was the one in 1992. The social and economic changes of Cuba during the last ten years have posed new challenges to participation such as the need for a more autonomous and pluralistic conception of "popular praxis" in the public sphere. This is present in the official efforts to adequate existing participatory norms (particularly the paternalistic-clientelistic participation and

  10. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  11. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  12. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  13. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Deler-Hernandez; Martin Fikácek; Franklyn Cala-Riquelme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati , remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously ...

  14. Heritage Modern: Cityscape of the Late Socialist Political Economy in Trinidad, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The overall theme of this dissertation is to understand, through the heritage cityscape of Trinidad, aspects of the processes of the reconfiguration of political economy in today's Cuba. In late socialist Cuba, tourism is a key sector sustaining the revolution, and heritage cityscape constitutes one of the main tourist attractions. In this regard, the city of Trinidad provides a vantage point to analyze heritage practices and the tourism economy. I argue that the heritage cityscape of Trinida...

  15. Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Grete Viddal

    2012-01-01

    During the first three decades of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba seeking employment in the expanding sugar industry. Historically, Haitian cane cutters were marginal and occupied the lowest socio-economic status in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian spiritual beliefs, music, dance, and language in Cuba were associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian cus...

  16. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally...

  17. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba. PMID:25947808

  18. Studies on NORMs in Cuba: Results and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following scenarios of exposures to NORM have been studied in Cuba: processing and use of phosphates; extraction, processing and use of oil and gas; production of refractory bricks for industrial ovens; civilian aviation; spas and health resorts and scrap metal recycling. Some of these activities have been characterized exhaustively, and others only partially. Some scenarios of exposure to NORM have associated doses comparable with typical doses received by workers of several practices (in the order of units of mSv/year). In this connection some recommendations were issued to the Regulatory Authority in order to establish a regulatory approach to the problem of exposures to NORM. Some problems associated with NORM in the recycling industry remain unsolved, waiting for a more detailed characterization of the by-products involved. (author)

  19. The regulatory framework for similar biotherapeutic products in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechavarría Núñez, Yanet; Pérez Massipe, Rodrigo Omar; Orta Hernández, Santa Deybis; Muñoz, Lázara Martínez; Jacobo Casanueva, Olga Lidia; Pérez Rodríguez, Violeta; Domínguez Morales, Rolando Bárbaro; Pérez Cristiá, Rafael B

    2011-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals make up a significant proportion of medicinal products used for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiac dysfunctions and AIDS. Access to therapies based on the use of these products has been limited as a result of the high marketing costs. Cuba has a biopharmaceutical industry with great potential for innovation, capable of developing new products and to produce others, like the biosimilars destined to fulfill the needs of its National Health System. The Center for State Control on the Quality of Drugs (CECMED) the Cuban NRA, is facing the challenge of regulating the approval of biosimilar products manufactured locally. Consequently, CECMED has issued a position paper establishing the basic principles for regulation of these products and a specific guideline on this was elaborated. PMID:21930393

  20. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  1. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  2. Catholic Church and State in Cuba: past and present relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia CONTRERAS GARCÍA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After centuries of a deep presence in Cuba, the Catholic Church has always been part of a complex relationship with the political establishment. The break between Church and State that occurred after the Revolution, would soon show the institution’s ability to survive in unfavorable conditions. Now, after more than fifty years of revolutionary experience, the Catholic Church has become the sole internal interlocutor with the regime. The aim of this article is to analyze the process by which the Cuban Catholic Church has managed its relations with the Castro regime, balancing its pastoral mission with its social responsibilities, that has been increasing as new factors emerged, on both the national stage and on the International Relations front.

  3. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  4. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-01-01

    The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA) extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation produc...

  5. Humic substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C, H, N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA) extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09-0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and C/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids. (Author)

  6. Monterey Bay geoid

    OpenAIRE

    Boener, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution local geoid was calculated for the Monterey Bay, CA using local gravimetry data, digital elevation data and The Ohio State University OSU91A global geopotential model. The theoretical accuracy of the calculated local geoid is 3.5 cm or better over 5 km. Local gravity data came from three sources: 1,549 land observations from the Defense Mapping Agency, 179 bottom gravity observations from two Naval Postgraduate School gravity surveys of Monterey Bay and 17,098 National Geode...

  7. Los intereses sectoriales de la vivienda social en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rabinovich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans les premières années qui ont suivi la révolution cubaine, l’Etat embrassa la responsabilité totale dans le domaine du logement social. Cette contribution analyse les modalités de prise en compte des tensions entre critères technocratiques et ceux du « design » ainsi que le rôle attribué à la population dans les politiques et programmes d’habitations collectives depuis 1959. Elle met en lumière le modèle étatique sectoriel lequel a progressivement priorisé la quantité et défini la qualité par des critères de productivité à bas coûts. L’exemple de l’ONG Habitat-Cuba illustre également la fragilité des expériences innovantes des années 1990 qui ont tenté de réconcilier les aspects technocratiques avec les attributs esthétiques, spatiaux et fonctionnels de l’habitat par des approches dites participatives.In the first few years following the Cuban revolution, the State assumed full responsibility for public housing. The present contribution analyzes modalities for dealing with the tensions between technological and design-related criteria, as well as the role set aside for the public in collective housing policies and programmes since 1949. It sheds light on the statist model that has gradually given priority to quantity while defining quality via criteria for low-cost productivity. The example of the NGO Habitat-Cuba also illustrates the fragile nature of the innovative experiments of the 1990s, which attempted to reconcile technocratic aspects with the aesthetic, spatial and functional attributes of housing by means of so-called participatory approaches.

  8. Avocado breeding in Cuba. State of the art biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic diversity studies of avocado germplasm: Genetic diversity among avocado varieties cultivated in Cuba was undertaken considering 22 agronomic and morphological traits, 12 AFLP and 16 SSR primer combinations. Using agromorphological traits, cultivars clustered within racial groups confirming the ecological classification and a catalogue was prepared. AFLP and SSR markers were useful for providing a more accurate estimate of genetic distances between the cultivars. Identification and characterization of soil-borne isolates: A collection of Phytopohthora spp. and Phytium spp. strains isolated from commercial avocado orchards was constructed. Identification and characterization of these isolates was done based on morphological, physiological and molecular markers (ITS and Lpv 3 primers pairs) differentiating both genus and confirming the usefulness of using a combined approach for an accurate identification. A first description about P. palmivora affecting avocado trees in Cuba was reported based on morphological traits, maximum temperature of growing, amplification pattern using ITS primer combinations and sequencing information of the amplified product obtained with Lpv 3 primer pairs. Radiosensitivity curves useful for breeding purposes: Radiosensitivity curves to Gamma rays were determined in 'Duke-7' and 'Hass' cultivars commonly used as rootstocks. LD50 values were calculated to be 28 and 27 Gy for each cultivar, respectively. Selection for salinity conditions using zygotic embryos: Survival curves (LD50) were calculated for 'Duke-7' (56 mM of NaCl), 'Jose Antonio' (66 mM) and 'Catalina' (148 mM). LD20 and LD10 values, useful for breeding purposes, were also determined. Breeding avocado rootstocks using biotechnologies: An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized using zygotic embryos, combined with the LD50 values for Gamma rays and LD50 values for NaCl to obtain mutant lines from rootstock 'Duke-7' with improved salt

  9. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  10. Isolation and identification of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from sugarcane varieties in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops in Cuba and other countries in the world. The worldwide occurrence of G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane and other plants suggest a beneficial association between this species and grass species. The potentialities of endophytes in the agricultural biotechnology are very high, that is why the detec-tion of this bacterium inside of sugarcane is so important. The aim of this work was to detect the occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in 18 varieties of sugarcane growing in Cuba. This species was isolated in 13 varieties on the basis of micromorphological and colonies characteristics. For the first time it was isolated G. diazotrophi-cusfrom varieties Cuba 1616-75, Cuba 751-75, Campos Brasil 44-52 and SP701143 cultivated in Cuba. The 46 isolates from the varieties Jaronú 60-5, Cuba 323-68 and Media Luna 318 were identified as G. diazotrophicusby morphological and biochemical test.

  11. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva; Blanca Blanco Camping; Juan R. Conde Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. English abstract. In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main...

  12. Prevalencia de anemia infecciosa equina en el municipio de Santa Clara, Cuba - Prevalence of equine infectious anemia in the municipality of Santa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca, Julio C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDada la naturaleza de contagiosidad y fatalidad de la anemia infecciosa equina nos propusimos realizar un estudio serológico con el objetivo de conocer la tasa de prevalencia de la enfermedad en el municipio de Santa Clara, provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba.SummaryGiven the nature of infectiousness and fatality of the equine infectious anemia we intended to carry out a serological study with the objective of knowing the prevalence rate of the disease in the municipality of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, Cuba.

  13. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  14. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  15. Exploración de conocimientos bioéticos en el personal de enfermería del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelín Reyes López

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta anónima para conocer el nivel de conocimientos elementales de Bioética existente entre el personal de enfermería, así como la efectividad en ese sentido de un curso de posgrado de esa disciplina a 110 enfermeras del Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico de Cienfuegos; 84 de ellas no habían recibido ninguna preparación al respecto y 26 habían realizado el curso de posgrado. Se comprobó que el primer grupo sólo contestó correctamente para una calificación general del 39,5 %, mientras que el segundo grupo lo hizo para el 86,9 %. Esto evidencia que existe un bajo nivel de conocimientos bioéticos entre el personal de enfermería, así como reafirma la necesidad de impartir cursos sistemáticos de Bioética a este personal de la salud, pues su demostrada efectividad puede redundar en una mejor y más humana atención a los pacientes y sus familiares.An anonimous survey was done to know the level of Bioethics elementary knowledge existing among the nursing personnel, as well as the effectiveness in that sense of a postgraduate course on this topic imparted to 110 nurses from the Provincial Clinical and Surgical Hospital in Cienfuegos. 84 of them had no previous training on this regard, and the other 26 had attended postgraduate courses. It was demonstrated that the first group only answered correctly for a general mark of 39.5 %, whereas the second group obtained 86.9 %. This shows that there is a low level of Bioethics knowledge among the nursing personnel, and reaffirms the need to conduct systematic Bioethics courses for this health personnel, taking into account that its efficacy may lead to a better and more human attention to the patients and their relatives.

  16. Diagnosing Learning Needs of Medicine Doctors in Relation to Imaging in Cienfuegos Diagnóstico de las necesidades de aprendizaje en imagenología pediátrica del Médico General Integral Básico en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Aleida García Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite being so important for diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting pediatric patients, there are still gaps in general practitioners as for the interpretation and / or radiological diagnosis of the diseases that most frequently affect these patients. Objective: To diagnose the learning needs of Medicine Doctors in relation to imaging in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at the Paquito González Cueto University Pediatric Hospital and the Cecilio Ruiz de Zárate Polyclinic in Cienfuegos during the years 2008 and 2009. The study included 20 general practitioners. Survey and participant observation were used to determine the knowledge level on interpreting and / or diagnose of respiratory disorders, radiological diagnosis in acute abdominal pain, diagnostic ultrasound advantages in cases of abdominal tumor, imaging test to be performed for diagnosing the most common cause of urinary tract infection and indication and interpretation of diagnostic ultrasound of soft tissue. Results: Practitioners included in the study were scored as average as follows: 70.0% of when interpreting and / or diagnosing respiratory conditions, 50% in the radiological diagnosis of acute abdominal cases and 45% in the indication of soft tissue ultrasound. They were scored as poor in a 70% for the knowledge level on diagnostic benefits of ultrasound with intra-abdominal tumor masses. Conclusions: The main learning needs were detected in: interpreting and / or diagnosing respiratory diseases, radiological diagnosis of acute abdominal cases, indicating soft tissue ultrasound and diagnostic benefits of ultrasound for intra-abdominal tumor masses.Fundamento: a pesar de la importancia que entraña el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades que afectan al paciente pediátrico, existen carencias por parte de los médicos generales

  17. Análisis de las causas y efectos de la avería de compresor de amoniaco en Frigorífico de la ciudad de Cienfuegos. Parte II. // Analysis of causes and effects of failure at ammonia compressor in Cienfuegos City Frigorific. Part II.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Goytisolo Espinosa; N. Arzola de la Peña; L. Martínez Díaz; L. Bruno Wason; T. Frómeta Castillo; J. J. Cabello Eras

    2003-01-01

    En el presente artículo se continua la investigación de la avería producida en un compresor de amoniaco de un frigoríficode la ciudad de Cienfuegos. En el trabajo se aplican los conceptos de la Fractura Mecánica Lineal Elástica y de la FracturaMecánica Subcrítica para analizar las causas que provocaron el estallido de la válvula inferior de la tubería de admisión dedicho compresor.Palabras claves: Compresor de refrigeración, fractura mecánica lineal elástica, fractura mecánica subcrítica.____...

  18. Using the EBSCO Database in the Area III Polyclinic of Cienfuegos in 2009 Utilización de la base de datos EBSCO en el policlínico área III de Cienfuegos en el año 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elinor Dulzaides Iglesias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: EBSCO is the full text database that provides relevant information related to biomedical sciences. It contains excellent collections, very helpful for professional practice and research. Objective: To revise how professionals and students of the ¨Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate ¨ Polyclinic, in Cienfuegos, use the EBSCO database and to develop informative skills in order to access all these information from the library. Method: An exploratory descriptive research was conducted in order to revise how professionals and students of the ¨Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate¨ Polyclinic, in Cienfuegos, used the EBSCO database in 2009 and to design a course in order to develop information skills to access EBSCO from the library. Results: 11.4% access EBSCO through he library’s bibliographic fund, which demonstrates total ignorance. Only 36.9% use the database for assistance-related questions and 25.5% for academic work, while 48.9% of participants never use the database at all and 63.2% declares to have limited skills. Conclusion: It is obvious that skills required to exploit the possibilities offered by EBSCO have not been developed in students and professionals, even though the Health Ministry pays a high fee to provide this free access.Fundamento: EBSCO, es la base de datos, a texto completo, que propicia información relevante vinculada a las ciencias biomédicas. Contiene excelentes colecciones de gran ayuda para la práctica profesional e investigaciones. Objetivo: comprobar el uso y manejo que de la base de datos EBSCO, hacían profesionales y estudiantes del policlínico “Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate” de Cienfuegos. Método: investigación de corte exploratorio y descriptivo que buscaba comprobar el uso y manejo que de la base de datos EBSCO, hacían profesionales y estudiantes del policlínico “Cecilio Ruíz de Zárate” de Cienfuegos en el año 2009. Resultados: El 11,4 % decía acceder a EBSCO a través del fondo bibliográfico de la

  19. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  20. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  1. Análisis de alternativas de mejora para la producción de azúcar en la provincia de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlan Rodríguez-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo analizar la producción de azúcar en las tres empresas azucareras de Cienfuegos, para cuantificar los impactos ambientales con un enfoque holístico. Se utili- zaron técnicas de recopilación de información tales como: la entrevista personal, la revisión bibliográfica, la tormenta de ideas y el trabajo en equipo, que sirven de apoyo para la utilización de mapas de proce- so, diagrama de flujo, Análisis del Ciclo de Vida y análisis económico. Se tomó como referencia la meto- dología de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV que aparece en la serie de normas NC ISO 14040, y se com- plementó con métodos de evaluación del impacto ambiental. A partir del desarrollo de las fases del pro- cedimiento aplicado: definición de alcances y objetivos, análisis de inventario, evaluación de impacto ambiental y análisis de mejora; se lograron identificar y cuantificar los principales impactos que genera el ciclo de vida del azúcar, y analizar como variante de mejora la implementación del riego por goteo, indi- cando su factibilidad ambiental y económica.

  2. Uso de plantas acuáticas en el tratamiento de agua y aguas residuales en la Universidad de Matanzas "Camilo Cienfuegos"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarys Santana Diaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo  se analiza el uso de las plantas acuáticas para purificar el agua que se utiliza con fines ornamentales en el Parque de La Juventud de la Universidad de Matanzas "Camilo Cienfuegos", así como para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de dicha instalación. El estudio se realiza a escala de laboratorio y en ambos casos la efectividad del tratamiento se valora a partir de la determinación de parámetros como: demanda química de oxígeno, conductividad, pH, dureza total, dureza de calcio, dureza de magnesio, sólidos totales, fijos y volátiles y coliformes totales y fecales. Se comprobó que las plantas acuáticas pueden disminuir los valores de parámetros indicadores de la calidad del agua a niveles que permitan disminuir la frecuencia con que se cambia el agua de los espejos. Los resultados evidencian que el uso de la planta acuática Nymphaea ampla constituye una alternativa para tratar las aguas y mejorar su calidad con un efecto económico considerable por concepto de ahorro de agua potable.

  3. Características de los usuarios del Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje y la Investigación de la Universidad de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylén Pérez Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar a los usuarios del Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje y la Investigación (CRAI de la Universidad de Cienfuegos “Carlos Rafael Rodríguez”. Método: Se realizó un análisis bibliográfico de los términos relacionados con el estudio, un análisis de la metodología AMIGA, así como de las estadísticas que brinda el sistema automatizado de préstamos de esta biblioteca universitaria sobre los usuarios que más visitan el centro. Resultados: Se identificaron diversos grupos de usuarios a nivel de estudiantes, profesores, facultades, centros universitarios municipales, y centros de estudios; a la vez que dos grupos centrales: usuarios reales y potenciales. Conclusiones: Se conocieron algunas de las características de los usuarios del CRAI, partiendo de los grupos identificados por el centro, teniendo en cuenta aspectos como sus niveles educacionales e intereses. Se considera que un estudio más detallado puede quedar abierto para cumplimentar este objetivo a un nivel mayormente exhaustivo.

  4. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  5. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens. PMID:25909251

  6. Nuclear energy in Cuba: its perspectives and the realities of today's world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of Cuba's plan for assimilating nuclear energy. It explains that over a period of approximately 15 years, more than 25% of the country's electricity production will be transferred to nuclear power plants and explains the need for and importance of this task. The paper makes a comparative analysis between the Third World countries that are carrying out nuclear programs and Cuba, highlighting Cuba's creation of important bases for infrastructure, education and scientific and technical potential, and points out the fact that as a socialist country Cuba is able to use its resources rationally to promote development and maintain broad, beneficial international cooperation. Cuba's general conditions for facing this task are referred to and the various steps that have been taken since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution are explained, with emphasis on the basic directions in which the country's efforts have been concentrated since 1980, including, concretely: nuclear energy, fundamental and applied research; the application of nuclear technology to medicine, the economy and other branches; the creation of radiological protection measures and systems; the education and training of personnel; international relations and the encouragement of cooperation plans. The crisis of the capitalist energy scheme is raised as well as the Third World's inability to assimilate nuclear energy. The new strategy of the industrialized countries is analyzed. It also raises the struggle and perspectives for the new technologies, as well as the ideological struggle with regard to the Cuban nuclear program. (B.R.D.)

  7. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  8. Upper Newport Bay Restoration Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Halsch, Chris; Wessling, Jaenna; Lister, Anne; Beck, Emily; Zembel, Richard; Yurko, Matt; Kimball, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this restoration plan is to assist stakeholders in matching restoration projects with funding opportunities in order to increase the overall health of the Upper Newport Bay. Specifically, this document aims to assess current health and quality of native habitats in and around the bay, and to identify areas needing restoration. We have compiled data on the ecology of the bay, including extent of non-native plant invasion, restoration history and progress, site accessibility...

  9. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 ± 5 mBq.l-1 to 39 ±12 mBq.l-1. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 ± 8 mBq.l-1. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 ± 7 mBq.l-1 and 31 ± 9 mBq.l-1 , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 μSv.y-1, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 μSv.y-1. (author)

  10. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Níquel (Ni en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas realizadas reflejanun contenido medio de 122,3 mg kg-1de Ni total, muysuperior al señalado por la literatura internacional y valoresextremos de hasta 2850,0 mg kg-1en suelos desarrolladossobre rocas ultrabásicas (serpentinita. Sin embargo, noexisten reportes de valores elevados (tóxicos del elementoen los cultivos. En el trabajo se discute el origen y formasen que se encuentra el Ni en los suelos cubanos; así comosu posible efecto tóxico para las plantas y animales que sealimentan de ellas. Finalmente, se concluyó planteando lanecesidad de establecer Límites Permisibles de Ni en elsuelo, diferenciados de acuerdo al tipo de suelo y su uso.

  11. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  12. Population effective collective dose from nuclear medicine examination in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to estimate the effective collective dose imparted to the population of Camagueey-Ciego de Avila territory (Cuba)), we have made use of the statistics from nuclear medicine examinations given to a population of 1.1 million inhabitants for the years 1995-1999. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.82 per 1000 population. The results show that nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid imaging with 43.73% and thyroid uptake with 43.36% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose, which averaged 54.43 man Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagueey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 16.33 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 3.54 as a result of 21,073 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding to a total detriment of one case per thousand examinations. (authors)

  13. Seven years of individual monitoring service in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) has been carrying out from 1987 the individual monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to the ionizing radiations in the Republic of Cuba, excepting those that employ X-rays in diagnostic radiology. In this paper the results of the individual monitoring services during the period 1987-1993 are discussed. For all occupational practices the current system of dose limitation established in the country with 50 mSv as limit of annual dose is satisfied. The distribution in all occupational practices other than nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy is characterized by having more than 95% of the controlled personnel with an effective dose lower than 5 mSv. In the case of nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy more than 80% of the workers were below that dose value. For the practices evaluated in this paper the possibility of assuming the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP is evident. The evaluations carried out for the introduction of operational quantities Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) in dose assessment procedure are presented. The expressions obtained during the characterization of the film badge dosemeter, in terms of operational quantities guarantees a deviation of response of the dosemeter with depending upon energies, lower than 20 %. (author)

  14. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC... Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the States of...

  15. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  16. Characterization of cerebro-vascular disease in the Intermediate Care Unit. Multicentre study in the central part of Cuba. Caracterización de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en Servicios de Cuidados Intermedios. Estudio multicentro en la región central de Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Hernández Lara

    Full Text Available Fundament: Cerebrovascular diseasets constitute the third cause of death and the first cause of disability worldwide and in Cuba, hence it has been included among the prioritised programs of the World Health Organisation and by our Ministry of Public Health. Objective: To characterize cerebrovascular diseasets in the Polivalent Therapy Service of the central region of the country. Method: multicenter descriptive study of a series of cases carried out at the Clinical Surgical Hospitals ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from Cienfuegos province, and ¨Arnaldo Milián Castro¨ from Villa Clara with a revision of 1218 clinical records of patients who were interviewed and whose data was processed afterwards. Results: There was a predominance of the white race ( 75,3 %, male sex (56,7 % and hypertension was the risk marker ( 71,3 % . The isquemic cerebrovascular desease was the most frequent reported with 86,7 % and anti-aggregate platelets was the medication most frequently used (77,5 % In regards to the location of the lesion 51,1 % were reported in the parietal region and the predominant diagnosis was the atherothrombotic infarct ( 59,9 %. The most common complication was cerebral oedema ( 45,2% . On discharge the state was ¨alive with disability¨ ( 62,2%. Conclusions: Cerebrovascular diseases is a health problem in our environment. Hypertension is the most frequent risk marker observed and there is a predominance of ischemic ictus . Once established the disease is established, it evolves to disabilities or death in most of the cases.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en el mundo y en Cuba; se encuentran dentro de los programas priorizados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y por nuestro Ministerio de Salud

  17. Cuba: the strategic choice of advanced scientific development, 1959-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Baracca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is continuing attracting the attention of the international scientific community for some important and unexpected achievements in applied science such as health biotechnology. They represent outcomes of the 1959 decision of Cuba to develop an advanced scientific system in order to address the most urgent problems for the development of the country and to overcome the condition of subalternity. This ambitious objective was tackled in a very original way, making a broad and wide-ranging recourse to every effective support and collaboration, with Soviet but also Western scientists and institutions, in addition to a peculiar Cuban inventiveness. Indeed, immediately after the revolution, Cuba developed an advanced and articulated scientific system, and achieved a level of excellence in leading scientific fields, like biotechnology, quite independently from the Soviet Union, which was behind in this field. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, that could have put the achievements of the Re...

  18. Quality control to the service of diagnostic radiology in policlinics and hospitals of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results obtained in the Quality Control in diagnostic X-ray equipment accomplished in 33 clinics of Santiago de Cuba city. The performed test were, to the X-ray generator, X-ray tube, devices collimation and alignment, as well as to the light boxes, dark rooms, and radiographic screen-film combinations. Moreover the work presents the results of the Entrance Doses for a reference patient in radiographic projections of frequent use in clinics of Santiago de Cuba city (chest, lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis). For the evaluation of the verified technical parameters were used the tolerance criterions recommended by the Technical Guide elaborated by the State Control Centre of Medical of Cuba. In the case of the Entrance Dose were used the dose levels that recommended by the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources

  19. Cuba’s Academic Advantage: Why Student’s in Cuba Do Better in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba’s Academic Advantage, Martin Carnoy analyses the success of the Cuban school system as measured by the results achieved by Cuban students in international math, science, and language tests. The study includes data from Chile and Brazil whose students consistently test less well than Cuban students on these same tests despite the fact that these two countries enjoy better socio-economic indicators than does Cuba and educational reform efforts have been undertaken by their respective governments. He references studies, the results of which are well known by researchers, which demonstrate that academic success among socially disadvantaged students is far less likely than for students from better-off families (p. 45. Why does this co-relation not hold true for Cuba? Carnoy argues that an important component of student success in Cuba, including students from lower socio-economic circumstances, is the result of what he terms state-generated social capital.

  20. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba (1846-1931).

    OpenAIRE

    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo forma parte de una investigación mayor que estudia la actividad laboral de la población cubana en el periodo de 1846-1931, mediante el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos correspondientes a los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. El trabajo está compuesto por cuatro partes: «Método para el estudio de la estructura ocupacional de Cuba»; «La población de Cuba entre 1846 y 1931»; «La evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931» y «Fuerza de trabajo calif...

  1. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  2. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  3. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  4. Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Renowned doctor of Cienfuegos medical history in the twentieth century Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Gloria de la medicina cienfueguera en el siglo XX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre was an outstanding medical and social personality in Cienfuegos during the first third of the xx century. The most significant aspects about his life and studies of Medicine are highlighted, as well as the postgraduate courses that he received later in France. Analyzed through different scenarios where he acted as an eminent surgeon, we refer to his contribution to the spreading of abdominal, prostatic and gynecological surgery in Cienfuegos, besides other innovations of high importance for the Cuban Medicine at that time. It is described his brilliant performance as director of the Hospital Civil and the Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, enhancing all the transformations, improvements, amplifications and openings of new services carried out in both centers under his guidance and supervision. all the recognitions received for different institutions and people in general were mentioned too, for his fruitful work and, particularly, for their performance during the epidemic of Influenza of 1918, that deserved him the title of exemplary citizen.El Dr. Alfredo Méndez Aguirre representó una destacada personalidad médica y social en Cienfuegos en el primer tercio del siglo XX. Se señalan los aspectos más significativos de sus estudios de Medicina en la Universidad de La Habana, así como los cursos de perfeccionamiento que recibió en Francia posteriormente a su graduación. Se analiza su vida profesional a través de los distintos escenarios en donde se desempeñó como cirujano eminente, siendo el que inició en Cienfuegos la Cirugía abdominal, prostática y ginecológica, entre otros aportes e innovaciones de suma importancia para la medicina cienfueguera de aquellos años. Se describe su brillante actuación como Director del Hospital Civil y del Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, resaltando todas las transformaciones, mejoras, ampliaciones y aperturas de nuevos

  5. Peripheral Reading on Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos’s Poetry Lectura periférica de la poesía de Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel LAMA

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to complete from different sides some aspects already dealt with by the critics about the poetry of Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos. Such as the formation of its limited corpus, its verse lines not collected among his works and which were published in Gonzalo de Córdoba, López Peñalver’s version of the French novel or the powerful feeling of death which can be noticed in his most spirited and famous compositions.Este trabajo intenta completar desde diferentes lados algunos aspe...

  6. Análisis de las causas y efectos de la avería de compresor de amoniaco en Frigorífico de la ciudad de Cienfuegos. // Analysis of causes and effects for failure in ammonia compressor.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Goytisolo Espinosa; N. Arzola de la Peña; L. Martínez Díaz; L. Bruno Wason; T. Frómeta Castillo; J. J. Cabello Eras

    2002-01-01

    En el artículo se analizan las causas de una avería producida en un compresor de amoniaco del Frigorífico de la ciudad deCienfuegos. En el trabajo se aplican los conceptos de la Fractura Mecánica Lineal Elástica y de la Fractura MecánicaSubcrítica para analizar las condiciones de surgimiento y desarrollo de las grietas que provocaron el desprendimiento de unpedazo de la pared de la cámara de agua de enfriamiento del compresor.Palabras claves: Compresor de refrigeración, fractura mecánica line...

  7. Justo de Lara y la evolución del periodismo en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garrell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Justo de Lara es probablemente un gran desconocido de la historia de Cuba, aunque se le reconocen ciertos méritos literarios y periodísticos que deberían ser suficientes para rescatarlo del baúl de la historia y recordarlo como a uno de los protagonistas con una importancia relativa pero con una validez notable a la hora de sumergirnos tanto en la historia del periodismo como en la historia misma de Cuba. Justo de Lara nos ofrece una ventana, un mirador excepcional desde el cual reseguir los ...

  8. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  9. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  10. Metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba: current state and development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At work the current state of metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba is presented. the main achievements in the implementation of measurement standards and issues affecting the uncertainty of measurements at different levels of hierarchy of the existing chain of traceability for determinations of the activity of F-18 and Ga-68 is described, the main radionuclides expected to be used in the short term in PET and PET / CT applications in the country. Immediate prospects development of measurement standards positronic emitters for use in nuclear medicine in Cuba, in particular the possibilities of establishing equivalence between Cuban standards and national and international standards are also set. (author)

  11. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  12. Control Programs of tuberculosis from 1963 to 1970 in Cuba. Historic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Ramón Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-01-01

    The fight against tuberculosis began in Cuba at the end of the XIX century, in Santiago de Cuba. At the beginning of the XX century the League Against Tuberculosis was created with a limited action for the lack of funds and an adequated strategy. In 1936 The National Board of tuberculosis was created, that accomplished few activities and they did not cause impact neither in morbidity nor in mortality produced by the disease in the population. In 1959, with the change of strategy introduced by...

  13. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto ...

  14. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2014-01-01

    En «Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931» se estudia el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos que, acerca de la actividad laboral de la población, presentaron los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. Debido a su extensión, la obra ha sido dividida en tres partes para ser publicada en Novedades en Población. El presente artículo examina la evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931, a través de diversas clasificaciones internacionales empleadas en estos ...

  15. Mortalidad por tuberculosis en Cuba, 1902-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto González Ochoa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describió el comportamiento de la mortalidad por tuberculosis en Cuba desde 1902 hasta 1997. Durante el siglo xx se ha estudiado esta en varias etapas, pero no se han publicado trabajos que reflejen de forma integrada su comportamiento. Se tomaron las notificaciones de tuberculosis y las poblaciones por sexo, edad y provincias disponibles desde 1902 en los archivos de la Dirección Nacional de Estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se analizaron la tendencia y los porcentajes de variación de las tasas crudas y específicas. La tendencia de la mortalidad por tuberculosis resultó descendente, con tasas desde 230,9 × 105 en 1902 hasta 0,7 en 1997. Descendió 71,7 % en el período 1902-1940, 74 % de 1943 a 1959, 85 % de 1960 a 1978 y 0,16 % de 1985 a 1991. De 1991 a 1994 aumentó 40 % y de 1994 a 1997 volvió a descender 30 %. Tanto las pulmonares como extrapulmonares descendieron por igual. En el sexo femenino fueron mayores hasta 1940 y a partir de 1943 predominaron en el masculino. Las tasas más altas estuvieron en el grupo de edad de 65 años y más. En menores de 15 años fue insignificante en los últimos 30 años. La capital del país presentó las tasas más altas. Se concluyó que las tasas de mortalidad por tuberculosis han tenido un gran descenso durante el presente siglo, y deberá desaparecer como problema de salud en los próximos 10 años.The behavior of mortality from tuberculosis in Cuba from 1902 to 1997 was described. During the xx century, tuberculosis has been studied in various stages, but no papers reflecting its behavior in a comprehensive way have been published so far. To this end, the notifications of tuberculosis and the populations by sex, age and provinces available since 1902 in the archives of the National Statistics Division of the Ministry of Public Health were taken into consideration. The trend and the percentages of variation of the gross and specific rates were analyzed. A descending trend of

  16. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among theses actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program.Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to the them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  17. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  18. ¿Dominio público en Cuba?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción doctrinal del Dominio Público como categoría jurídica nació con la finalidad de articular un sistema de protección de las necesidades colectivas que satisfacían determinados bienes. Esta función de protección se le atribuyó al Estado, su titular. La titularidad de éste sobre los bienes de Dominio Público no podía ir acompañada de las facultades de disposición propias del derecho de propiedad. Sin embargo, la existencia dentro del Dominio Público de bienes creados por el hombre y bienes provenientes de la naturaleza dio lugar a la distinción entre el “Dominio público natural”, integrado por los recursos naturales destinados al uso común de todos, y el “Dominio público artificial”, formado por bienes de uso público construidos para dar respuesta a las necesidades del hombre. Por ello se cuestiona si constituye el Dominio Público un mecanismo de gestión ambiental en Cuba. Pudiendo determinarse que no existe una nominación de dominio público en el país y por consiguiente no se utiliza esta institución como mecanismo de protección ambiental, recomendando prestar una especial atención a este novedoso mecanismo de protección con la finalidad de su aplicación en el territorio nacional.

  19. Biogas potential in the meat installation of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meat Processing Center of Santiago is located 13 kilometers from the city of the same name in the National Freeway. There, 61 heads of bovine livestock are sacrificed daily approximately around 325 Kg. of weight average and 197 pigs of 80 kg. of weight average, which has a demurrage average between 2 and 3 days in the corrals of the Meat Processing Center which generates a significant amount of excretes, rumen (food not digested by the bowels), bleed fluff, slops, meat residuals and fatty, as well as tripes, all that which constitutes a waste of a discharge at the present time loads pollutant that besides not taking advantage, for the maintenance of some appropriate norms of hygiene, the Meat Processing Center of meat by products is under the obligation of using big quantities of water, which constitutes an important factor of the elaboration cost. After that, the treatment in the plant and its final discharge in acceptable drains increase the general expenses. The big slaughterhouses can produce waste waters with a biochemical demand of oxygen of five days of 1300 ppm. The treatment of the waste and elimination of the waste waters coming from slaughterhouses and meat processing plants are an economic necessity and of public health. The main objectives of this work were: 1) To calculate the energy potentialities of the residuals of the productions pig, bovine and other residuals to transform them into energy and their effluents like organic fertilizer cleans of pathogen elements, by means of the process of anaerobic fermentation. 2) To Transform the Biomass into energy given by the different economic activities of the entity, taking advantage of the same one in the process. To achieve these results we have used the literature in this respect and the experience that exists in the province of Santiago from Cuba in this direction, as for the use of the residuals for the biogas production and to dedicate it to the cooking of food and the production of electric

  20. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among these actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program. Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  1. Dental health state in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province. Estado de salud bucal de la población de 20 años y más de la provincia de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Los Angeles Sexto

    Full Text Available Background: The absence of consice data of some indicators in the stomatological subsystem of our province difficults the knowledge of the real situation of the dental health in our province population. Objetive: to determine some epidemiological indicators related to dental health in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province. Method: a descriptive epidemiologcal study. Methods: 253 621 patients in a range of 20 years old and more. All health areas including municipalities were taken into consideration from May to June 2004. Results: The kind of denture more demanded for its rehabilitation by the population was the upper and the lower one. The highest indicators of cavities and exodonties were found in the 35 to 59 year-old group of patient as well as in the rural areas. The anatomic localization of cavity lesions were predominant in the posterior dental sector with a relation between sectors of 1:1,7. The lowest percetange in the covering range of stomatological attention was found in the 35 to 59 year-old group with 5 and 18 % in the majority of the municipalities. Conclusions: Through this investigation the behaviour of proposed indicators were evaluated as well as the necesities of treatment to establish future strategies of work in order to improve the dental health in the population.
    Fundamento: La ausencia de datos precisos de algunos indicadores en el subsistema de estomatología de nuestra provincia, dificultan el conocimiento de la situación concreta del estado de salud bucal de la población. Objetivo: Determinar algunos indicadores epidemiológicos relacionados con la salud bucal en la población de 20 años y más de la provincia de Cienfuegos. Método: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo, de una muestra de 253621 personas de 20 años y más. Abarcó todas las

  2. Características neuropsicológicas del niño preescolar con Hipotiroidismo Congénito en la Provincia de Cienfuegos.

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    Yaser Ramírez B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El hipotiroidismo congénito es la causa más frecuente de retraso mental previsible. El diagnóstico clínico en las primeras etapas de la vida es muy impreciso, de ahí que se hayan puesto en marcha programas de diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz cuyo objetivo fundamental es un desarrollo neurocognitivo y su nivel optimización. Método y objetivos: Con el objetivo de evaluar el perfil neurocognitivo en niños hipotiroideos en edad preescolar se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo que incluyó a los pacientes en edades entre 4 a 6 años con seguimiento en consulta de hipotiroidismo congénito del Hospital Pediátrico “Paquito González Cueto” de Cienfuegos. Solo existían 6 niños a los cuales se les aplicó la batería neuropsicológica Luria Inicial, rendimiento intelectual, escala de comportamiento y potenciales evocados. Resultados: Se constató que estos pacientes presentan limitaciones en el sistema óptico- espacial y en el sistema de control inhibitorio. El primero afecta el desarrollo de la orientación espacial del acto motor y la percepción visual con detalles y el otro sistema afecta el control atencional en la edad y conlleva a dificultades para seguir instrucciones verbales. Recomendación: El seguimiento y la vigilancia del neurodesarrollo permiten ir explicando las alteraciones sistemáticas que se presentan en estos niños y hace posible una intervención temprana a favor del posterior proceso de escolarización.

  3. Resultados de la implementación de las reglas de Ottawa en el servicio de urgencia del Hospital Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos.2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Noel García Rodríguez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Las reglas de Ottawa para el tobillo fueron desarrolladas para ofrecer un organigrama de decisión a la hora de indicar una radiografía a pacientes con lesiones del tobillo y el mediopie. Las mismas son muy sencillas de aplicar por el examinador, el objetivo fue validar su aplicación en el servicio de urgencia del hospital provincial Camilo Cienfuegos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para la validación de las reglas de Ottawa que se compuso de su análisis en relación con la confirmación radiológica (radiología anteroposterior y lateral de tobillo. En una tabla de 2x2. La muestra estuvo autolimitada a 100 pacientes. La mayor incidencia estuvo en el sexo masculino con 34 casos (64% y la edad media fue de 32,6 años, con un rango de 16/ 72 años. El mecanismo principal que originó la lesión fue la rotación interna, aducción o inversión con 39 casos (78%. La sensibilidad fue del 100%, La especificidad del 78.72%, el Porciento de falsos positivos y negativos fue de 21 % y 0%, con una prevalencia del 6%. La Probabilidad posprueba (a posteriori del valor predictivo positivo fue de 24 % y el valor predictivo negativo de 100%. La regularización en el uso de las reglas de Ottawa en los departamentos de urgencias disminuiría el uso de radiografías innecesarias, además de contribuir a darle un uso racional de los recursos de salud.

  4. Biología reproductiva de Polioptila lembeyei (Aves: Polioptilidae) en la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Losada, Margarita; Reyes Vázquez, Ángel Eduardo; Rodríguez Santana, Freddy; Viña Dávila, Nicasio; López Iborra, Germán Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió la biología reproductiva de Polioptila lembeyei en la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba durante los años 2006 y 2007 en seis formaciones vegetales. Se describieron aspectos de su reproducción en términos de cronología reproductiva, tamaño de puesta, duración del período de incubación, permanencia de los polluelos en el nido, morfometría de nidos y huevos, y caracterización del sitio de nidificación en cuanto a la altura de los nidos y especie y altura de las ...

  5. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  6. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  7. CUBA Y LA TRANSICIÓN POLÍTICA: TAN CERCA Y... TAN LEJOS. REFLEXIONES 2009 SOBRE EL FUTURO POLÍTICO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  8. Comparación de 2 poblaciones de mosquitos Aedes aegypti de Santiago de Cuba con diferente conducta de reposo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Bisset

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron 2 poblaciones de Aedes aegypti que se colectaron en Santiago de Cuba durante la epidemia de 1997, por manifestar diferentes hábitos de reposo, unos mosquitos reposaban de forma natural en las paredes hasta 1 m de altura (Cepa Santiago de Cuba y otros se encontraron reposando en los techos de las viviendas (Cepa Santiago de Cuba Techo. Ambas cepas no mostraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a sus características morfológicas. Los mosquitos pertenecientes a Santiago de Cuba Techo presentaronn los mismos parches que los de Santiago de Cuba. La resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados es muy similar en ambas poblaciones, sin embargo, difieren en la alta resistencia al piretroide deltametrina en Santiago de Cuba Techo en comparación con Santiago de Cuba. Desde el punto de vista bioquímico y mediante el uso del sinergista DEF se demostró que las esterasas están asociadas con la alta resistencia a clorpirifos en ambas cepas, no resultando así las MFO, lo cual se demostró con el sinergista piperonil butóxido. Sin embargo, la enzima GST parece ser la responsable de la alta resistencia detectada a deltametrina en Santiago de Cuba Techo por el valor elevado de frecuencia de ese gen en esta cepa. Se utilizó la técnica del ADN polimórfico amplificado a la azar para observar la variabilidad genética entre las 2 poblaciones; los resultados revelaron que existió polimorfismo genético entre las poblaciones en estudio, lo cual pudiera tener una implicación en la ecología y epidemiología del vector.Comparison of 2 populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago de Cuba with different rest conduct

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Cuba: Relationship and mutual benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper states the characteristic of the IAEA and Cuba cooperation. This collaboration is a complement and support of the Nuclear Strategy in the IAEA members states. This collaboration guarantees the financial and material resources and manpower training. The benefit balance and the impacts of the IAEA collaboration are exposed

  10. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  11. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of female

  12. Emerging Interaction of Political Processes: The Effect on a Study Abroad Program in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The emerging interaction of political processes sets the stage for the level of macro uncertainty and specific risk events that may occur in an international relationship. Strongly defined social control in Cuba, formal and informal, dominates the dynamics of the relationship, while simultaneously government, formal, action in the U.S. dominates…

  13. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education, discuss the…

  14. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

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    D. Quinones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other ß-lactams, a ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29, a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories.

  15. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  16. An option for the disposal system of low and intermediate radioactive waste in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search and selection of an area for the disposal of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Cuba is presented. The preliminary evaluation shows that there are favourable technical conditions for the safe disposal of this type of wastes. 13 refs., 3 figs

  17. Extreme non-regular sea level variations in Cuba under the influence of intense tropical cyclones.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández González, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed at analyzing non-regular sea level variations of meteorological origin under the influence of six major tropical cyclones that affected Cuba, from sea level hourly height series in twelve coastal localities. As a result, it was obtained a characterization of the magnitude and timing of extreme sea level variations under the influence of intense tropical cyclones.

  18. Political Essay on the Island of Cuba: A Critical Edition - by Von Humboldt, Alexander [Ressenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Cobos, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Review of the book: Political Essay on the Island of Cuba: A Critical Edition / Alexander von Humboldt; edited by Vera M. Kutzinski and Ottmar Ette.- Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. xxvi+519 p. - ISBN 9780226465678. - (Alexander von Humboldt in English)

  19. ¿Qué estamos haciendo en Cuba en evaluación educativa?

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo explica las acciones que hemos venido realizando en Cuba en materia de Evaluación Educativa. Primeramente, describimos los resultados de los Operativos Nacionales para la evaluación del rendimiento de los estudiantes. Posteriormente, revelamos los pasos que hemos venido dando para la implementación de un Sistema Evaluativo Nacional.

  20. ER-E3 regulation. Minimal instrumentation that must operate nuclear medicine in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this regulation is to define the instrumentation that must exist in any institution conducting the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba. This regulation emphasizes two aspects: The minimum equipment necessary to operate a nuclear medicine laboratory for use 'in vitro' and the minimum equipment required to operate a Nuclear Medicine use 'in vivo'

  1. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many topogr

  2. Peripheral Reading on Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos’s Poetry Lectura periférica de la poesía de Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel LAMA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to complete from different sides some aspects already dealt with by the critics about the poetry of Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos. Such as the formation of its limited corpus, its verse lines not collected among his works and which were published in Gonzalo de Córdoba, López Peñalver’s version of the French novel or the powerful feeling of death which can be noticed in his most spirited and famous compositions.Este trabajo intenta completar desde diferentes lados algunos aspectos ya abordados por la crítica de la obra poética de Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos. Así, la formación de su reducido corpus, sus versos no recogidos entre sus obras y que se publicaron en Gonzalo de Córdoba, la versión de López de Peñalver de la novela francesa o el poderoso sentimiento de la muerte que se aprecia en sus composiciones de mayor aliento y más renombradas.

  3. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  4. San José de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanely Mulet del Pozo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha trabajado en demostrar la importancia e incidencia de los abonos orgánicos en el desarrollo de los cultivos, en la obtención de producciones más sanas a partir del mejoramiento de los nutrientes del suelo. Por lo anterior resulta necesario el conocimiento de los factores que determinan su interacción y comportamiento con las plantas, suelos y los procesos mecanizados en que dichos abonos se encuentran presentes. Actualmente el humus de lombriz representa un abono orgánico de mucho interés, dadas las ventajas que posee para la nutrición de las plantas, por eso, resulta interesante y valioso conocer sus propiedades y así facilitar los procesos tecnológicos relacionados con la manipulación, transportación y distribución en el campo, así como su interacción con el suelo y las plantas. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es la determinación de algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas, químicas y biológicas del humus de lombriz obtenido en condiciones de la vaquería de la finca Guayabal, San José de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba. Se precisaron las metodologías correspondientes para la separación de muestras y efectuar los análisis físico mecánicos, químicos y biológicos. Las propiedades obtenidas son: peso volumétrico libre, peso volumétrico compactado, coeficiente de compactación, ángulo de caída libre, ángulo de derrumbamiento y humedad del humus, pertenecientes a las llamadas propiedades físico- mecánicas. Las propiedades químicas: contenidos de: N, P, K, Mg, Ca, acidez (pH y cantidad de materia orgánica. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el humus de lombriz estudiado posee condiciones y propiedades que le permiten mejorar la estructura del suelo, su interacción con los plantas y definir parámetros de conjuntos mecanizados para su tratamiento y distribución

  5. de producción popular de arroz en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Orlando Arrastia Acosta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de poscosecha influyen directamente sobre la calidad del arroz molinado, tanto en términos de composición como de apariencia. Dentro de estas se destacan las operaciones de secado y molinado. En Cuba las tecnologías empleadas, actualmente, por el sector de producción popular de arroz en estas etapas del proceso productivo no siempre son las más adecuadas. Generalmente se utiliza el secado solar y el molinado en molinos del tipo Engleberg (o criollos construidos de forma artesanal y con medios propios. A través de este trabajo se evalúa la influencia del equipamiento de molinado sobre la calidad del arroz producido por productores del sector popular de arroz. Para ello se utilizó arroz con cáscara (variedad IACuba-31 producido en el municipio Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus. El mismo fue sometido a métodos de secado empleados por estos productores y posteriormente se realizó el proceso de molinado por medio de dos tecnologías: a en un molino criollo y b en una descascaradora de rodillos de goma acoplada a un molino criollo. Como resultado de la comparación del producto final obtenido en estas tecnologías de molinado se pudo determinar que no existen diferencias significativas en cuanto a los porcentajes de granos enteros y partidos obtenidos con respecto a las diferentes formas de secado empleadas. La introducción de la descascaradora de rodillos de goma acoplada al molino criollo mejoró la calidad del arroz molinado, dando lugar a un incremento del porcentaje de granos enteros del 7 %. Además, garantiza la producción de arroz molinado con porcentajes de granos partidos inferiores al 25 %, lo que hace al arroz producido por este sector más competitivo y mejora sus posibilidades de comercialización. El uso de este sistema de molinado también mejora los ingresos de los productores y contribuye al establecimiento de precios de acuerdo con la calidad del producto en los mercados agropecuarios.

  6. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  7. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  8. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  9. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  10. The Roles of Women, Children and Men in Household Food Planning, Purchasing, Preparation and Consumption in Santiago, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garth, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    This work explores the roles of Women, Children and Men in Household food planning, purchasing, preparation and consumption in Santiago de Cuba. The data for this investigation were collected over a 10-week period during the Summer of 2008. This work focuses on Cuba’s second largest city, Santiago, located in the southeastern part of the island, Santiago provides an urban setting through which to view urban food cultivation and food symbolism in Cuba. Little scholarly work has been published ...

  11. First report of larval stages of Fasciola hepatica in a wild population of Pseudosuccinea columella from Cuba and the Caribbean.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, A.; Vázquez, A. A.; Hevia, Y.; Sánchez, J; Correa, A. C.; Hurtrez-Boussès, S.; Pointier, J.-P.; Théron, A.

    2011-01-01

    A wild population of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella infected by larval stages of Fasciola hepatica was discovered in the Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba. One of 100 snails was infected in a rice culture field. This is the first time this species has been found acting as intermediate host of F. hepatica under natural conditions, not only for Cuba but also for the Caribbean area.

  12. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela; Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira; Caridad Sedeño Argilagos; Kisvel Oliveros Castro; Elisveidis Mosqueda Pérez; Yelina Hidalgo Clavel; Nelly Sánchez Bisset

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses) from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. T...

  13. Cuba: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the product of an international project led by the IAEA to develop and test a suitable approach for the comprehensive assessment of national energy systems within a sustainable development context. This country profile on Cuba is the result of an intensive effort conducted by Cuban experts, primarily from the Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA) with the collaboration of experts from energy related institutions in the country, jointly with the IAEA and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The framework, approach and guidelines set forth in this study comprise one set of effective mechanisms for incorporating the concepts of sustainable development into practical implementation strategies. The assessment is specifically directed at one of the most important sectors affecting economic and social development - energy. It is part of an initiative, officially registered as a Partnership with the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, that contributes to Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the goals and objectives of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The study is, to a certain extent, a continuation and implementation at the national level of two worldwide studies exploring the ties between energy and sustainable development: the World Energy Assessment undertaken by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UNDESA and the World Energy Council; and the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development undertaken by the IAEA, the International Energy Agency, UNDESA, Eurostat and the European Environment Agency. No study of a national energy system within the context of sustainable development can be final and definitive. To be useful, the assessment process must be adaptable over time to fit ever-changing conditions, priorities and national sustainable energy development criteria. This publication proposes one such approach for

  14. CUBA竞争平衡研究%The Resarch of Competitive Balance in CUBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢科

    2015-01-01

    运用测度联赛竞争性平衡的基尼指数(GINI )、胜率标准差(SDWP )、赫芬达尔指数(HHI )等方法对CUBA竞争性平衡进行统计分析,结果表明:(1)CUBA 男子与女子联赛都存在不同程度的竞争不平衡.随着联赛的发展,男女联赛之间的竞争性平衡差距反而越大,呈现轻度负相关(-0.135);(2)高校高水平运动员的招生、学业管理、经费投入是影响CUBA 竞争平衡的主要因素.根据研究结果与分析,提出以下建议:确保高校构建高水平篮球队的经费;注重运动员训练和学业两方面的表现,借鉴NCAA 关于运动员学业的管理制度(Academic Progress Rate )等.%By testing the methods of measuring competitive balance of league matches, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Gini Coefficient, the Standard Deviation of Winning Percentages, the article analyzes the competitive balance of CUBA statistically. The result shows that:(1) it exists a competitive unbalance problem in men′s and women′s CUBA to some extent. With the development of the league matches, more gaps is growing between men′s and women′s CUBA, and they show a negative correlation(-0.135).(2) High level student sports athlete′s admission, academic management and financial outlay devotion are the key factors of high standard sport teams′ construction which affects the competitive balance of CUBA. According to the research findings, there are several suggestions as follows:(1) Ensure enough budget of establishing high standard basketball team among high schools. (2) Pay attention to athlete′s performance of discipline and study, referring to Academic Progress Rate of NCAA.

  15. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    We assess the tsunami hazard to four communities in Raukumara Peninsula (Northeastern region of North Island of New Zealand): Tokomaru Bay, Tolaga Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa. Representative severe but realistic scenarios that could affect the Raukumara peninsula are earthquakes that rupture the interface between the Australian and Pacific plates, earthquakes that rupture faults within the overlying Australian plate or the subducting Pacific plate (location is not always well constrained). Earthquakes that rupture both the plate interface and simultaneously faults within the crust of the Australian plate are also a possibility. Tsunamis may also be caused by submarine landslides that occur near the edge of the continental shelf, but these are not considered here. For this study four scenario events were constructed, including a distant event from South America (offshore Peru), outer rise events and a thrust event in the Hikurangi region off the east coast of New Zealand. The sources are not exhaustive but representative of the types of significant events that could occur in the region and were either improved from earlier sources or derived from recent studies. Available high resolution LiDAR and RTK data were combined with topographic and LINZ data for the development of bathymetric/topographic grids. Our modelling results show that Tolaga Bay appears most vulnerable to tsunami inundation although Hicks Bay and Te Araroa are also significantly inundated in several of the scenarios. Tokomaru Bay is naturally well protected because the rapid change in elevation limits the range of inundation. The worst scenario for Tokomaru Bay was an earthquake in the Hikurangi subduction zone resulting in large flow depths, whereas for Tolaga Bay inundation is severe from most scenarios. Hicks Bay and Te Araroa get the most severe flooding from earthquakes in South America and on the Hikurangi subduction zone. Inundation extent is similar for Tolaga Bay during the Outer Rise and

  16. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a p...

  17. Cáncer del páncreas: un acercamiento a la mortalidad en Cuba Pancreas cancer: an approach to mortality in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    José Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Carlos Fábregas Rodríguez; Teresita Montero González; Alexis Fuentes Peláez; Reynaldo Alvarez Santana; Reina A. Coello Salazar; Adoración Duarte Vilariño

    2008-01-01

    Se estudiaron 906 autopsias de casos con cáncer de páncreas, como causa básica de muerte, extraídas de la Base de Datos de Autopsias del Centro Nacional del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica, Registro Nacional de Autopsias en Cuba, con el objetivo de demostrar sus características generales, causas directas de muerte, evaluación de los diagnósticos premortem y aspectos evolutivos. Se representaron 40 hospitales de las distintas provincias del país, entre los que...

  18. Calidad de vida e indicadores de salud: Cuba, 2001-2002 Quality of life and health indicators. Cuba, 2001-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Marina García Pérez; Raúl Pérez González; Orlando Landrove Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    En Cuba se han desarrollado instrumentos de medición con el objetivo de evaluar el estado de salud y su relación con la calidad de vida. El 30 de octubre del año 2000 se aprobó el acuerdo 3790 del Comité Ejecutivo del Consejo de Ministros, que crea el programa nacional de salud y calidad de vida y la comisión nacional de salud y calidad de vida. El presente trabajo, con un diseño descriptivo, expone los indicadores de evaluación que se construyeron a partir de un enfoque intersectorial y por ...

  19. Function Cards for Engineering in Cases of Disaster at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General University Hospital in Cienfuegos Tarjetas de funciones del área de ingeniería del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos ante situaciones de desastre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor René Navarro Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The preparation of engineering systems in a health facility is essential for the behavior to be followed when facing a disaster. Objectives: To redesign the response plan for hospital engineering when facing a disaster. Methods: A research was conducted at the General Hospital of Cienfuegos in the second half of 2011. From this research, the plan to respond disaster situations in engineering was redesigned through function cards for nine major engineering systems defined as the main ones. A literature review was conducted as well as interviews to key informants and focus group technique. In order to implement the new plan, the entire staff was trained. The function cards, printed on signalization paper, were placed in specific working settings. Results: There were defined as major engineering systems: electrical, water supply, steam, medical gases, climate, medical imaging, building maintenance, non medical equipment and weak currents networks. For each manager and operator main actions were defined. The engineers (8 and technicians (14 approached the redesign of the plan with responses from good to excellent for: usefulness (100%, applicability (90.1%, system’s structure (86.4%, consistency (90.1% and better response (100%. Conclusions: Actions designed for major engineering systems through function cards are useful, feasible, facilitate the implementation of the strategy designed for the institution's response to disasters and they contribute to the improvement of the plan to reduce these phenomena.

    Fundamento: la preparación de los sistemas ingenieros en una institución de salud es clave para el nivel de respuesta ante un desastre. Objetivos: rediseñar el plan de respuesta del área de ingeniería hospitalaria ante situaciones de desastre. Métodos: investigación realizada en

  20. Lesions of the buccal mucosa in elderly. A study performed in five family doctor´s office of health area III in Cienfuegos city. Lesiones de la mucosa bucal del adulto mayor. Un estudio en cinco consultorios del área III de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    Full Text Available

    Fundament: Bucal lesions in aged persons are very frequent and are not the same in many countries and regions. To know about them is of great importance for we can plan preventive activities and medical services for their attention Objective: To describe the more frequent intraoral mucous lesions in individuals with 60 years old and more. Methods: Descriptive study with a sample of 270 aged persons (both sexes, obtained through simple random sample out of a universe of 1014 individuals with 60 years old and more, from Area III in Cienfuegos. Detailed physical examination was applied to all the studied patients as well as a questionnaire where data of interest were engulfed. Results: From all studied cases, the 26.7% presented some type of bucal lesion, predominantly in women (17.8%. The more frequent lesions were: sub prosthesis stomatitis (10%, leukoplasia (6.2%, and fissuratum epulis (4.4%. The more frequent anatomic localizations of these lesions were: the palatum durum with 27 cases of sub prosthesis stomatitis, the alveolar sulcus with 11 fissuratum epulis, and the jugal mucosa with 4 cases of candidiasis and 7 leukoplasias. Conclusions: A high percentage of this geriatric population presented some type of bucal mucosa lesions, women were the most affected, lesions of prosthetic origin were predominant, as well as pre malignant lesions. The predominant localizations of the lesions were the palatum durum, the alveolar sulcus, and the jugal mucosa.

    Fundamento: Las lesiones bucales en los ancianos son muy frecuentes y difieren en diferentes países y regiones, conocer sobre estas es de gran importancia pues permite planificar actividades preventivas y servicios médicos para su atención. Objetivo: Describir las lesiones mucosas intraorales más frecuentes en los individuos de 60 años y más.

  1. Enhancement of the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock in a ferralsol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ferralsols from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality and very low exchangeable acidity, thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional methods. The phosphate rocks (PRs) came from different deposits (Higuanojo, La Pimienta and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito, Baja California and North Carolina from other countries). Partial acidulation (PA) of some of these rocks was also evaluated. Trinidad de Guedes PAPRs were found to be highly effective compared to their natural PR when evaluated through dry matter production, P uptake and isotopic parameters. Further field experiments are needed to validate the greenhouse results to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the local Trinidad de Guedes PR through partial acidulation. (author)

  2. Quality control of X-ray equipment in some hospitals of Las Tunas province in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the quality controls executed in 33 X-ray rooms of Las Tunas Province in Cuba. Specific tests for the X-ray generators, X-ray Tube, as well as the visualization systems and darkrooms were included. The results also include the estimation of patient doses for some standard radiographic projections (thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, skull, and pelvis). The results of the evaluation of X-ray equipment was made following the procedures and tolerance included on the technical guidelines elaborated by the National Control Center of Medical Devices, which is the center for regulation of medical devices in the Republic of Cuba. Patient doses obtained were compared with the references levels reported in The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). (author)

  3. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:26917060

  4. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  5. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  6. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  7. Science, Sentiment and the State; community genetics and the pursuit of public health in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbon, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Contributing to an emerging field of social science literature by examining the translation of genomic medicine across global and transnational fields of research and medicine, this article examines how genetics is allied to public health in Cuba. It examines the sociopolitical and cultural discourses and practices that constitute community genetics or challenge or impede the translation and expansion of genomics as public health. Focusing on the experience of health practitioners, the articl...

  8. Public health services, an essential determinant of health during crisis. Lessons from Cuba, 1989-2000

    OpenAIRE

    de Vos, P.; García-Fariñas, A.; Alvarez-Pérez, A.; Rodríguez-Salvá, A.; Bonet-Gorbea, M.; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was able to overcome a severe crisis, almost without negative health impacts. This national retrospective study covering the years 1989-2000 analyses the country's strategy through essential social, demographic, health process and health outcome indicators. Gross domestic product (GDP) diminished by 34.76% between 1989 and 1993. In 1994 slow recuperation started. During the crisis, public health expenses increased. The number of family doctors rose from 9.22 to 27.03 pe...

  9. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on external inputs and centralized decision-making in the Cuban agricultural model. Low autonomy in farmers’ decision-making (centrally-planned collective farms), scarcity of production inputs and extensiv...

  10. CardioVilla 2011: congratulations to the health of cardiovascular medicine in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Dueñas Fernández; Alberto Morales Salinas; Rubén Tomás Moro Rodríguez; Jesús A. Satorre Ygualada

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial, some of the most relevant issues dealt with in CardioVilla IV Cardiac Congress 2011 are presented. This congress was held in Santa Clara, Cuba, from October 13th to 15th, 2011. It was sponsored by several scientific societies, including the American Society of Cardiology. A video conference was organized with the representatives of this society. At the conference, the 25th anniversaries of Cardiology Centers Saturmino Lora, William Soler and Ernesto Che Guevara were...

  11. Wastewater Treatment Project for Palma Soriano, Cuba: Assessment of Cultural and Ecological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Corvillon, Daniela Peña

    2014-01-01

    The Palma Project is an experiment in the use of cultural identity as a social trigger to address ecological degradation. The research methodology draws from environmental, social and urban analyses to unveil the best strategy to address the ecological, river restoration and water treatment challenges in Berkeley, California’s “Sister City” in southeast Cuba, Palma Soriano. The objective is to provide a better quality of life and to create new opportunities for the local community to reconne...

  12. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Castañeda; Juan José Howland; Francisco Corvo; Tezozomoc Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are...

  13. Imposing Capitalism: Japanese and American Colonialism in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Cuba, 1890s-1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation project focuses on the emergence of capitalism in sugar-producing colonies during the early 20th century and seeks to answer two specific questions: how did American and Japanese empires export capitalist modes of production to their respective colonies and how did these new modes of production transform local social class relations. Whereas Japan acquired Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria after defeating China in 1895, the United States acquired the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico...

  14. Agriculture in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Caridad Cruz, M.; Sánchez Medina, R.

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the results of a 3-year research project on the history and state of urban agriculture in Havana, Cuba. A multidisciplinary team of 15 professionals, coordinated by the authors, assess the long-term potential for including urban agriculture in the social economies of two areas of Havana, as well as in city-wide environmental management programs. The results will be of particular interest to municipal, local, and community authorities considering how to convert emergency foo...

  15. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  16. Perspectivas de la Infotecnología para la Editorial Universitaria (Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Torricella Morales, Raul G.; Hernández Monzón, Aldo; Huerta Espinosa, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The word "Infotecnología" defines the key discipline for reaching the training and the development of the technical-social relationships and the communications infrastructure of the Cuban Higher Education. The use of Information Technology for producing and publishing the graduation theses is highly important for the best use of TICs in Higher Education in Cuba, so, since the 2008-2009 course the decision was make that all the Cuban students should produce their graduation theses in digital f...

  17. Perspectivas de la Infotecnología para la Editorial Universitaria en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Torricella Morales, Raul G.; Hernández Monzón, Aldo; Huerta Espinosa, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The word "Infotecnología" defines the key discipline for reaching the training and the development of the technical-social relationships and the communications infrastructure of the Cuban Higher Education. The use of Information Technology for producing and publishing the graduation theses is highly important for the best use of TICs in Higher Education in Cuba, so, since the 2008-2009 course the decision was make that all the Cuban students should produce their graduation theses in digital f...

  18. TEJEDORAS DE SONIDOS DE LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Hernández Ramírez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the role of women in the geo-cultural region of Villa Clara, Cuba, in the development of music in the above area, it emphasizes the different roles of a group of women who served or do today as a musician, composers and pedagogues. It uses a metaphor that moves through time stamp of women in the music of Villa Clara

  19. España y Cuba. Cien años de relaciones financieras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés ROLDÁN DE MONTAUD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la pérdida del imperio continental americano, Cuba se convierte en el territorio colonial de mayor importancia para la metrópoli. Mercado preferencial para la producción española y fuente de capitales que ayudó a paliar el déficit del Tesoro peninsular, las páginas siguientes se dedican a estudiar las diferentes etapas por las que atravesaron las relaciones financieras entre metrópoli y colonia a lo largo del siglo XIX. Estudio centrado en el aspecto institucional, es decir, en las relaciones entre los Tesoros y por tanto en la especial configuración de la Hacienda colonial y la concepción y estructura del sistema presupuestario. Palabras Clave: España, Cuba, Siglo XIX, Relaciones financieras, Hacienda colonial, Presupuestos. ABSTRACT: After metropolis lost its empire on the American continent, Cuba became its most important colonial territory and a preferential market for Spanish production as well as a source of capital which helped to mitigate the deficit in the Spanish Treasury. The pages that follow study the different stages through which the financial relations between the metropolis and the colony passed during the 19th century. This study focuses on the institutional aspect, i.e., on the relations between the treasuries and therefore on the special configuration of the colonial Treasuty and the conception and structure of the budgetary system. Key words: Spain, Cuba 19th Century, Financial Relation, Colonial Treasury, Budgets.

  20. Is the 'New Man' dead? Tourism, self-perception and relative deprivation in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Halsør, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This study is about the relationship between the growth of tourism in Cuba and the sense of relative deprivation experienced by many Cubans, and about the results of this relationship in the society at large. I argue that by comparing themselves to their compatriots who have better access to CUC (Cuban convertible peso, one of the two official currencies in use in the country), and who thus enjoy a higher standard of living, many Cubans perceive themselves as relatively deprived. This thesis ...

  1. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    D. Quinones; Hart, M.; F. Espinosa; Garcia, S.; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S.; N. Urushibara; M. Kawaguchiya; Kobayashi, N.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured bla KPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-la...

  2. "Toward Being a Complete Woman": Reflections on Mothering in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Garth, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief look at how state policy and programming may have achieved the intended consequence of getting more women into the workforce in Santiago de Cuba. It also shows that by accomplishing this, household work was shifted onto grandmothers leaving a generation of women with the notion that womanhood is conflated with motherhood but without the space and skills for their own mothering.

  3. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876), a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as ...

  4. Control biológico en el cultivo del arroz en Cuba. (Resultados 1970 – 2005).

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Meneses

    2007-01-01

    El cultivo del arroz en Cuba está afectado por diversas plagas, fundamentalmente: Tagosodes orizicolus, Lissorhoptrus brevirostris, Oebalus insularis y Spodoptera frugiperda. A partir de 1970 se iniciaron los estudios sobre los principales controles biológicos de estas plagas. Para T. orizicolus se ha determinado que Paranagrus perforator y Tytthus parviceps son los principales enemigos naturales de esta plaga. El porcentaje de huevos de T. orizicolus parasitados por P. perforator ha lleg...

  5. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphome...

  6. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876, a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as her personal and professional dignity, facing attacks which aimed to discredit her. Henceforth, her accusers (her husband and the Board of Public Instruction in Cuba would turn her attributes as inappropriate for the female gender situation, as a wife and schoolteacher, being thus Baldomera an impossible exception.

    Este trabajo aborda un tema complejo: la construcción de la identidad genérica femenina y lo hace al hilo de una paradigmática mujer. Ella es Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba, 1807-1876, culta, ilustrada, maestra, casada y divorciada, caminos vitales e intelectuales que supo andar desde la excepcionalidad posible que marcaban los discursos genéricos, salvo cuando usó su ingenio e inteligencia, a través de la palabra y la escritura, para defender su autonomía y dignidad personal y profesional, frente a ataques que pretendían desprestigiarla. A partir de ese momento, sus acusadores (marido y Junta de Instrucción Pública de Cuba convertirán esos atributos en impropios del espacio genérico femenino, de esposa y maestra, pasando a ser Baldomera una excepción imposible.

  7. Geology, age and tectonic evolution of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, southeastern Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bojar, A.V.; García-Delgado, D.E.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Hejl, E.; Handler, R.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the available geological information on the Sierra Maestra Mountains in southeastern Cuba and report new zircon fission track and biotite Ar-Ar ages for this region. Two different and genetically unrelated volcanic arc sequences occur in the Sierra Maestra, one Cretaceous in age (pre-Maastrichtian) and restricted to a few outcrops on the southern coast, and the other Palaeogene in age, forming the main expression of the mountain range. These two sequences are overlain by middle t...

  8. Anemia in children under five years old in Eastern Cuba, 2005-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela M. Pita; Santa Jiménez; Beatriz Basabe; René G. García; Consuelo Macías; Lisette Selva; Clarisa Hernández; Margarita Cruz; Roxana Herrera; Regla O'Farrill; Isabel Calderius; Karelia Paulí; Moraima Leyva; Caridad Arocha; Dania Herrera

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anemia is the main nutritional problem in Cuban preschool children, prompting several interventions to prevent and control it. An enhanced national strategy was established in 2008, and particular attention paid to the eastern provinces, the region with greatest challenges in social determinants of health. OBJECTIVE Determine anemia prevalence in children aged 6-59 months in Cuba's five eastern provinces in three separate years within a decade, as well as association of anemia wi...

  9. A History of the Ballet Nacional de Cuba: gendered labor and its representations

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Andrew Michael

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the ways that the Ballet Nacional de Cuba (BNC) was enfranchised into the 1959 Cuban Revolution. By foregrounding the national projects of the Revolution and examining representations of the homosexual Cuban male experience, I explore how the internationally distinct Cuban ballet technique emerged in dialogue and in response to the new man (el hombre nuevo) and the new nation that was being forged. Part I explores the Cuban ballet technique as a repository of the socio-po...

  10. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  11. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  12. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  13. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones

  14. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMBUSIA PUNCTATA (POECILIDAE FOR ITS SELECTION AS BIOMONITOR IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural organisms in their capacity as biomonitors allows the evaluation of the environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 (Poeciliidae for selection as a biomonitor in aquatic ecotoxicology. The species was selected to be representative and monitored from 2004 to 2012 on a quarterly basis, with two of them corresponding to periods of rain and little rain outside the Almendares -Vento Basin in San Juan Havana and Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, respectively. The description of the characteristics of the referred species considered whether they met seven criteria for biomonitoring: 1 cosmopolitan distribution, 2 easy taxonomic identification, 3 appropriate size, 4 limited mobility and relatively long life cycle, 5 tolerant to contamination, 6 easy handling in laboratory studies, and 7 correlation between the contaminant of interest and other environmental matrices. The characteristics were met for each of the seven criteria, and thus have conditional use as biomonitors in ecotoxicology studies and for the ecosystem at San Juan Almendares, Cuba.

  16. Adolescent fertility in Cuba: some reflections on its behavior by provinces and areas of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylin Rodríguez Javiqué

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the adolescent fertility in Cuba during the period 2010-2014 and analyze its proximate determinants both nationally and by territory. Based on the data published in Demographic Yearbook, Studies and Data of the Population and birth databases of the National Bureau of Statistics and Information (ONEI, adolescent fertility rates in Cuba are calculated according to the groups 10-14 and 15-19, by province and area of residence. In addition, data on family formation, contraception and abortion of Cuban adolescents are shown. These elements could allow hypothesizing about the behavior of adolescent fertility in Cuba. The first important result is that fertility among 15-19 years group had a slight decrease in the period; however, the 10-14 years group has increased its level. On the other hand, the analysis by area of residence shows that urban fertility has gained prominence in the Cuban provinces, with an increase between 2010 and 2012 in more than half of them. Similarly, about a third of the provinces analyzed show higher levels of adolescent fertility in urban areas than in rural areas. High rates of abortion in adolescence, which exceeds fertility rates in ten provinces of the country; early onset of sexual intercourse and first marriage, and improper use of contraceptive methods, are elements worth looking into in order to find explanations to the reproductive behavior of Cuban adolescents.

  17. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba (1846-1931.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una investigación mayor que estudia la actividad laboral de la población cubana en el periodo de 1846-1931, mediante el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos correspondientes a los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. El trabajo está compuesto por cuatro partes: «Método para el estudio de la estructura ocupacional de Cuba»; «La población de Cuba entre 1846 y 1931»; «La evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931» y «Fuerza de trabajo calificada». En el presente artículo se incluyen las dos primeras partes, donde se explica el método empleado, las dificultades que se vencieron para desarrollarlo, así como sus posibilidades de análisis. Además, se examina el comportamiento de la población, en general, entre 1846 y 1931, se analizan variables de gran importancia, como los recursos laborales y los habitantes según edad, sexo y raza; y se hace hincapié en los aportes de la inmigración y la población ocupada, lo que es imprescindible, como fase introductoria al estudio del tema.

  18. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  19. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  20. Demanda de asistencia médica en el Subsistema de Urgencias del Policlínico Área V de Cienfuegos durante el trienio 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Daisy Hernández Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los sistemas de urgencia prehospitalaria han sido un método histórico de atención precoz para disminuir mortalidad; la información sobre actividades asistenciales en el área de urgencias a escala mundial demuestra un crecimiento de la demanda en dicho servicio. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la demanda de asistencia médica en un Subsistema de Urgencias. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, longitudinal realizado en el Subsistema de Urgencias del Policlínico Área V de la provincia de Cienfuegos. Se utilizaron los informes estadísticos de los años 2007 a 2009 para obtener el total de pacientes que solicitaron asistencia médica por supuestas urgencias o emergencias médicas, se analizó la demanda de asistencia médica anual y por meses, horarios de consulta, clasificación según riesgo vital y diagnósticos. Resultados: aumentó la demanda de asistencia médica de forma ascendente en los años estudiados, el horario de mayor demanda fue el nocturno, el grupo de edades más atendido fue el de 15 a 59 años, las infecciones respiratorias agudas fueron las más consultadas y la conducta tomada que predominó fue el tratamiento médico ambulatorio del paciente; en los años estudiados aumentaron gradualmente las remisiones y se utilizó con menos frecuencia la sala de observación. Conclusiones: el perfeccionamiento del Subsistema de Urgencias de la Atención Primaria de Salud ha provocado un aumento de la demanda de atención de urgencias en el Policlínico Área V de Cienfuegos.

  1. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Teruyuki [Musashi Inst. of Technology, Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kimura, Ken-ichiro [Musashi Inst. of Technology, Graduate School, Research Division in Engineering, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the {sup 210}Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8{approx}10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940{approx}50, which agreed with the time, 1943{approx}45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  2. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation

  3. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  4. Acting of the radiological surveillance of food in Cuba before anomalous situations; Actuacion de la vigilancia radiologica de alimentos en Cuba ante situaciones anomalas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Rodriguez C, G.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300 (Cuba)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Keeping in mind the real possibility of that would be imported to Cuba polluted foods with radionuclides, product of a nuclear or radiological accident happens one contamination of foods inside the national territory, it was designed and was into effect in January, 2000, a Program of Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water, in the marks of the National Program of Surveillance of Pollutants in Foods and Water. This surveillance is executed in group among the National Unit of Health Environmental of the Ministry of Health and the Center of Protection and Hygiene of those Radiations of the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment. In this work the design in the way of acting of the Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water in Cuba, in the event of detection of anomalous situations is presented. The same one includes, the establishment of investigation levels for radionuclides in foods, the ways of performance of the System, of to be overcome or to be equaled the performance levels or established investigation, the flow of the information, as well as the work routine to continue by the essay laboratories, in the event of an anomalous situation. (Author)

  5. „Era un llamado de la Revolución“ – Colaboración cultural y científica entre Checoslovaquia y Cuba en los años 60, 70 y 80 del s. XX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bortlová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), 23-39. ISSN 2222-4181 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Cold War foreign relations * Soviet bloc and Cuba * Cuba and Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History http://wordsandsilences.org

  6. Actitudes lingüísticas en Cuba. Cambios positivos hacia la variante nacional de lengua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sobrino Triana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de La Habana, frente al español de Cuba y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes, estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. El análisis está centrado en las denominaciones dadas a la lengua española, las percepciones cognitivo-lingüísticas y las actitudes, tanto positivas como negativas, que manifiestan los informantes hacia su variedad nacional y el resto de los países hispanohablantes, así como las opiniones sobre corrección y unidad lingüísticas. Entre los resultados obtenidos destaca la valoración positiva hacia la variante cubana, en relación con investigaciones anteriores. El estudio contribuye a actualizar el panorama sobre actitudes en Cuba y se suma a la serie de trabajos, que con una metodología común, se han realizado en el mundo hispánico dentro del proyecto LIAS. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Havana, towards Spanish spoken in Cuba and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The analysis addresses several issues, such as the various names given to the Spanish language in Cuba, the cognitive linguistic perceptions and the positive and negative attitudes of Cuban speakers towards Spanish, as well as their opinions

  7. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  8. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... utilization of charge cards, including but not limited to debit or credit cards, for expenditures in Cuba. (2... as charge card issuers or intermediary banks, of charge card instruments (e.g., vouchers, drafts, or sales receipts) for expenditures in Cuba. The issuer of a charge card, or a foreign charge card...

  9. El lugar de la inteligencia empresarial en el entorno conceptual de la gestión del conocimiento. Evolución en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Silva, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between business intelligence and knowledge management is analyzed, as well as their links to information management. Also explored are their relationships with technology foresighting, together with the compared characteristics of both business intelligence and knowledge management. Included in the article is a brief report on business intelligence activities in Cuba Keywords: Business intelligence, Knowledge management,Information management, Technology foresight, Cuba

  10. Las antinomias de la nación Cubana: la agenda de Cuba en la perspectiva de Iberoamerica y frente a los EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo, el autor analiza las relaciones entre EEUU. y Cuba en la actualidad y sus perspectivas. Para ésto, pasa revista a algunas de las facturas que son presentadas para explicar la política de bloqueo de EEUU. a Cuba, concretamente la alianza de Cuba con la Unión Soviética y la ayuda de aquélla a regímenes antiamericanos. El autor sostiene que esas facturas no son las causas principales de la política americana ya que ésta tiene una lógica propia en función de controlar una Cuba que, desde siempre, ha sido un objetivo geopolítico de EE.UU. Por último, el autor analiza las perpectivas de transformaciones internas del régimen cubano como respuesta a la crisis actual.ABSTRACT: The current relations between United States and Cuba are analyzed in this work. It shows some factors that explain the USA blockade to Cuba; specifically the Soviet Union - Cuba alliance and the help of the Soviets to the anti- American political regimes. The author believes that such factors are not the main causes of the American foreing policy because this policy has its own logic: to control Cuba which has always been a USA geopolitics objective. Finally, he analizes the perspectives of the international transformations of Cuban political system. as response to the present crisis.

  11. Communication of 27 March 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter of 27 March 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba informing the Agency that the Government of the Republic of Cuba signed the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty) on 25 March 1995

  12. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis RONIGER

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condiciones que posibilitaron la proyección del compromiso revolucionario, las medidas económicas y los mecanismos políticos adoptados en la última década a fin de adaptarse a la cambiante situación global al tiempo que mantuvieron la estabilidad interna, pese a los serios desafíos internacionales y las presiones internas. Se sugiere que un factor clave en la persistencia del modelo deriva de su conexión con las identidades colectivas y el ethos social de la nación cubana en el período postrevolucionario. Este factor instrumental en asegurar la continuidad de! modelo cubano, ha limitado empero su proyección actual en las otras naciones latinoamericanas, a pesar de los alcances destacados en ámbitos de desarrollo humano, como son la salud y la educación.The resilience of the Cuban political model appears paradoxical against the backdrop of extreme economic hardship, loss o foreign support and increasing pressure by the United States and the anti-Castro opposition. Notwithstanding adverse global circumstances following the demise of the Soviet Union -its main source of economic support- the Cuban revolutionary government has managed to hold onto power. In this paper the authors analyze the conditions under which Cuba has remained committee to its revolutionary path and the economic measures and political mechanisms it has adopted to maintain internal stability, despite serious international challenges and internal pressures. They suggest that

  13. Situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba/Situation of Stock Management in Cuba

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    Igor Lopes-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante más de 10 años en entidades de los sectores de servicios, comerciales y producción. En nuestro país existen problemas como: la falta de disponibilidad, la inestabilidad de suministros, la baja rotación de inventarios, los deficientes estudios realizados sobre demanda y productos obsoletos; todos los cuales están relacionados directamente con los inventarios. Es por ello que se propone analizar estos problemas desde la perspectiva de la empresa y tratarlos a nivel de cadena de suministro, integración débilmente estructurada en nuestras entidades. Se realiza un análisis de la relación entre la legislación vigente en Cuba y la gestión del inventario, por lo que se recomienda la utilización, en próximos estudios, de un modelo de referencia para evaluar la situación de la gestión de los inventarios en las empresas y cadenas de forma más integral./The main objective of this article is to analyze the stock management situation in Cuba, taking into account the experiences obtained for more than 10 years in several enterprises which develop their activities in connection with the service, commercial and production fields. Cuban companies are facing problems such as: lack of availability, supply instability, low rotation of the stock, poor studies of demand, and obsolete productions; which have in common their relation with the stock management. That is why this research proposes to make an assessment of these problems from the point of view of the enterprise in connection with their supply chains. Such a comprehensive analysis is poorly developed in Cuban enterprises so far. It is also proposed an analysis of the laws and their connection with stock management. Finally, it is suggested the introduction of a reference model in order to assess, with more integrality, the status of the stock

  14. The Media’s Construction of Cuba. An Analysis of the Journalistic Discourse of The Washington Post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mg. Miguel Ernesto Gómez Masjuán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the main findings of a qualitative piece of research based on a unique, inclusive, descriptive case aimed at critically analysing the journalistic discourse of American newspaper The Washington Post about Cuba in two significant moments of the island´s recent history: Fidel Castro´s Proclamation in July 31, 2006, and Raúl Castro’s Presidential election in February, 2008. The main topics, discursive strategies and linguistic resources prioritised by the newspaper to portray Cuba during that period are examined and several converging points between the newspaper´s discourse and Bush Administration´s political discourse about Cuba are revealed.

  15. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  16. Los caminos hacia una Sociología en Cuba: avatares históricos, teóricos y profesionales The pathways towards a Sociology in Cuba: historical, theoretical and professional changes

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Muñoz Gutiérrez

    2005-01-01

    La ponencia realiza un panorama de la Historia de la Sociología en Cuba, a partir de la combinación de los enfoques de la Historia de las Ideas y de la Historia de la Ciencia. Brinda una caracterización de las etapas fundamentales por las que ha atravesado la ciencia sociológica en el país, combinando una mirada de lo universal, lo regional y lo nacional, destacando las especificidades de los procesos en Cuba, así como sus correlatos en Europa y en América Latina. Se atiende a los procesos de...

  17. Desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras de Cuba (Metabolic imbalances and minerals deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Díaz, Juan R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue diagnosticar los principales desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a los problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras mestizas Holstein x Cebú en un sistema de producción con amamantamiento restringido en la región central de Cuba.SummaryThe objective of this study was to diagnose the principal metabolic imbalances and deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders especially due to mineral deficiency in crossbreed (Holstein × Cebu dairy cows under restrained system of production in the central region of Cuba.

  18. Apuntes para la historia de las malformaciones congénitas en terneros de la región central de Cuba - Notes for the history of congenital malformations in calves of the central region of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Lleonart, Isaías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio retrospectivo sobre los hallazgos de malformaciones congénitas en terneros en la región central de Cuba a partir de los primeros años de la década del 70 hasta nuestros días.SummaryIt was carried out a retrospective study on the discoveries of congenital malformations in calves in the central region of Cuba starting from the first years of the decade of the 70’s until our days.

  19. Niveles de eficiencia de las policlínicas de Matanzas, Cuba, según el método de análisis envolvente de datos Efficiency of outpatient clinics in Matanzas, Cuba, using data envelopment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anai García Fariñas; Zoe Sánchez Delgado; Magalys Chaviano Moreno; Miriam Muñiz Cepero

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar el índice de eficiencia de todas las policlínicas de la provincia de Matanzas, Cuba, identificar las unidades de mejor práctica y estimar las reservas de eficiencia de cada unidad. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva durante el primer trimestre de 2006 en las 40 policlínicas de la provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. Las policlínicas se agruparon según su nivel de complejidad y el nivel socioeconómico del municipio en el que se ubican. Se consideraron cinco ind...

  20. Apuntes sobre la evolución histórica de las bibliotecas para personas con discapacidad visual en Cuba Some notes on historical course of libraries for visual impaired persons in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Portales Tamayo

    2004-01-01

    Se trata el origen, evolución histórica y estado actual de los servicios bibliotecarios para personas con discapacidad visual en Cuba y otras regiones del mundo. Se destaca el lugar de IFLA, como organización líder en el desarrollo de las bibliotecas para ciegos; así como la labor realizada por Cuba en el desarrollo de los servicios de información para los discapacitados, especialmente en el Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas Públicas. En muchos países del tercer mundo, los discapacitados visual...

  1. Los contactos lingüísticos y el español no estándar de Santiago de Cuba (Linguistic contacts and non standard Spanish from Santiago, Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Jesús Figueroa Arencibia

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo entrega los resultados obtenidos en un trabajo de camporealizado en Santiago de Cuba y se propone mostrar el papel desempeñado principalmente por las lenguas bantúes y el criollo haitiano en la aceleración de determinadas tendencias lingüísticas provenientes del mediodía peninsular en el español no estándar santiaguero. (This article shows the results obtained in a field study carried out in Santiago, Cuba. Its objective is to show the role represented by Bantu languages and Hai...

  2. Una década de trabajo del Registro Sanitario de Juguetes en Cuba Ten years of work related to the health registry of toys in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza T. Suárez Pita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Los juguetes son un instrumento vital para el desarrollo de los niños y las niñas, por lo que es una prioridad el cumplimiento de los requisitos de su seguridad para evitar así riesgos de daño a la salud. Una herramienta eficaz para verificar y controlar la seguridad de los juguetes, es su certificación sanitaria. En Cuba, previo a su comercialización, los juguetes se someten al proceso de registro sanitario, el cual culmina con el otorgamiento del certificado sanitario que avala su inocuidad. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar una síntesis del trabajo realizado por el Registro Sanitario de Juguetes en Cuba en el período 1999-2009 y brindar algunas consideraciones para mejorar esta actividad. En una década de trabajo se aprobaron 1993 certificados, se rechazaron 79 referencias de juguetes por diferentes causas, entre ellas, deficiencias en la terminación del producto, etiquetado inexistente o incorrecto y problemas en el diseño. Se ha brindado asesoría técnica a las empresas que forman parte de la cadena de distribución, impartido conferencias y cursos y participado en talleres que permitieron el intercambio entre los especialistas. En la actualidad se trabaja en el fortalecimiento de los requisitos de seguridad para los juguetes en concordancia con los progresos científicos, la evolución del mercado y el mayor conocimiento acerca de cuestiones de salud y seguridad.Toys are a vital tool for the development of children, thus, it is a priority the fulfillment of requirement of its safe to avoid the risks of health damage. An effective tool to verify and to control the toys' safe is its safe. In Cuba, prior to its marketing, the toys underwent a health registry process, which end with the granting of a health certification endorsing its safe. The objective of present paper is to offer a synthesis of the work performed by the Toy's Health Registry in Cuba from 1999 to 2009 and also some considerations to improve this activity

  3. Fuentes de infeccion de histoplasmosis en la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba Sources of infection of histoplasmosis in the Island of Youth, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Fernandez Andreu

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo es reportar el aislamiento de Histoplasma capsulation, agente etiológico de la histoplasmosis, a partir del suelo de lugares habitados por murciélagos y gallinas en la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. El hongo fue cultivado también a partir de los órganos de cuatro especies de murciélagos capturados en cuevas. La identificación de H. capsulatum se realizó mediante la conversión de la fase miceliana a levadura y por el test de exoantígenos. Se señala el valor epidemiológico de estos hallazgos en cuevas de gran importancia arqueológica, espeleológica y turística, así como el riesgo potencial que representan para la salud humana. Los autores concluyen con recomendaciones para evitar la infección por H. capsulatum en aquellas personas que por determinadas razones tengan que estar en contacto con estos ambientes contaminados.The purpose of this work is to report the isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum, etiologic agent of histoplasmosis, from soil in sites inhabited by bats and chicken in the Island of Youth, Cuba. The fungus was cultured from four species of cavedwelling bats too. The identification of H. capsulatum was done by mycelial to yeast conversion and exoantigen test. It is pointed out the epidemiological value of some of these isolations in caves of great importance from the archeologic, speleologic or touristic point of view; and the potential risk that they represent to human health. The authors conclude with some recommendation to prevent the infection with H. capsultatum in people who have to keep in contact with those environments.

  4. Building Partnerships for Sustainable Land Management and Food Security in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Soil erosion and the associated land degradation have long been recognized as major environmental concerns and a constraint to food security and sustainable development. The United Nations has highlighted soil degradation as one of the most significant challenges for sustainable food production in the 21st century (World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002 Johannesburg, South Africa). The ARCAL (Regional Cooperative Agreement for the Advancement of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) Regional Strategy Profile identified the inefficient use of soil resources and the resulting permanent loss of productive agricultural land as major limitations to achieving food security in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Currently, about 300 million hectares of land have been affected by degradation. Indicators of the present soil conservation status and probable environmental consequences are essential for an assessment of national economic potential and evaluation of political and social consequences. Large-scale soil erosion assessments, for example in a watershed, cannot be based on direct conventional measurements because of methodological restrictions and excessively high temporal and spatial variability. This can be addressed through the use of fallout radionuclides (caesium-137, lead-210 and beryllium-7), which are widely distributed in the environment, adsorbed by soil particles and hence transported in the landscape in a similar way to soil particles. Therefore the monitoring of their redistribution provides an excellent fingerprint for soil redistribution by erosion or sedimentation. These radionuclide techniques also offer an advantage over the conventional methods, by being much less laborious and pinpointing the sources of soil loss. In 2009, a regional technical cooperation project (RLA/5/051 - ARCAL) was initiated for Latin America, with 15 countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Haiti

  5. Cuba y el despertar de los nacionalismos en la España peninsular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric UCELAY DA CAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo analiza el papel nuclear que el nacionalismo cubano tuvo en la aparición y crecimiento de los nacionalismos contemporáneos en España. Tanto el nacionalismo español como los nacionalismos periféricos, especialmente el catalán y el vasco, estuvieron determinados por el modelo y las formas nacionalistas que surgieron de manera pionera en la Gran Antilla. Por otro lado, el enfrentamiento entre nacionalismo cubano y respuesta españolista establecería las pautas ideológicas de radicalización que posteriormente serían repetidas en contextos metropolitanos. Desentrañar esas determinaciones y esas pautas en el marco de la dimensión cubana de la política española es, pues, el tema central de este trabajo. Palabras Clave: Cuba, España, Imperio, Nacionalismo cubano, Nacionalismos peninsulares. ABSTRACT: The article analyzed the central role that Cuban nationalism played in the appearance and growth of contemporary nationalism in Spain. Both Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalism, especially in Catalonia and the Basque Country, were determined by the nationalist model and forms that were pioneered in Cuba. Moreover, the confrontation between Cuban nationalism and the Spanish response was to establish the ideological lines of radicalization that would subsequently be repeated in metropolitan contexts. The deciphering of these determinations and these lines in the framework of the Cuban dimension of Spanish politics is thus the central theme of this study. Key words: Cuba, Spain, Empire, Cuban Nationalism, Peninsular Nationalism.

  6. Metrological support for radiation protection activities in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is engaged with the maintenance of traceability to International Measurement System (SI) of dosimetric measurements at radiation protection levels in Cuba. In this way, it maintain the Cuban reference standards and provides the calibration, irradiation and legal verification service to gamma dosimeters in the country. These services are worked under performance of a Quality Assurance System which meet the requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025 and it is accredited by the National Accreditation Office of the Republic of Cuba (ONARC) that at the same time is a full member of the ILAC. One essential element to reach the accreditation it was the participation of the SSDL in the IAEA/WHO network which give the possibility to be included in the intercomparison programme and postal audits regularly organized in the network to calibration services. These programmes help on the maintenance of the reference standards and verify the correct application of the dosimetry protocols and calibration procedures. The stability of the reference standard was confirmed by the results of the quality controls. The 0.49% of standard deviation is observed in 6 years of study using a 90Sr check source. The paper presents how is conformed the metrological base for radiation protection measurements in Cuba and show the progress of the SSDL in the service management. In addition, it is presented the satisfactory results of the on the intercomparison exercises and postal audits at radiation protection levels since 1997. (orig.)

  7. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Fuentes Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times.

  8. Meseta de Boniato y Graben de Santiago de Cuba: un enfoque geomorfológico de su desarrollo morfoestructural

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Zamorano Orozco; Mario Arturo Ortiz Pérez; Maria Teresa Ramírez Herrera; José Ramón Hernández Santana

    2000-01-01

    La aplicación de os métodos de análisis morfoestructura a territorio de la meseta de Bon aro-graoen oe Santiago de Cuba permitió revelar la influencia teutónica del mecanismo de transformación izqueroa imperante oesae e O goceno-M oceno a lo largo de de Carioe septentriona. Las manifestaciones transcurrentes determinaron la formación de la cuenca de tracción de la bahía de Santiago de Cuba y sus componentes de desplazamiento vertical, una marcada diferenciación en bloques de la escama ...

  9. LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE ENSEÑANZA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA HISTORIA DE CUBA EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA MULTIGRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Ada Iris Nápoles Cruz; José Ignacio Reyes González

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo contiene ideas que reflexionan sobre la necesidad de desarrollar en las escuelas primarias multigrados estrategias didácticas para el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba en este contexto educativo, que potencie las relaciones entre los componentes de dicho proceso y promueva las estrategias, tanto para el maestro como para los escolares primarios, que favorezcan la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba con el objetivo de materializar las aspirac...

  10. Characterization of red rice in the province of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. I. Biotypes of straw-colored glumes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge García de la Osa; Manuel Delgado Rigo

    2013-01-01

    Trials were made in The Research Local Station of Grains areas, Sur del Jíbaro from 2005 through 2011. 27 morpho-agronomic characters were evaluated regarding the main red rice biotypes of straw-colored glumes in the province of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, and in three commercial varieties of witness rice (IACuba-31, Perla de Cuba y Jucarito-104). It also was determined a broad diversity and variations in these features that permitted to differenciate the biotypes between them and with other rice ...

  11. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81.

    OpenAIRE

    Shai, D

    1991-01-01

    The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States. Two forms of cancer have been of particular concern in...

  12. Epidemiological study on Buccal Health in the 12 years old population of Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos. Estudio epidemiológico de salud bucal en la población de 12 años del área VIII de salud de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl López Fernández

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The 12 years-old children population is worldwide taken as a reference age to compare the buccal health condition of different countries, by means of various indicators that measure the presence of the main buccal diseases. The knowledge of these epidemiological profiles generates information to guide the services planning policies of the Primary Health Care. Objective: To characterize 12 years-old population's buccal health condition. Methods: Cross- sectional descriptive correlative study with a stratified probabilistic sample of 90 children starting from a universe conformed by the 269 adolescents that constitute the total of the 12 years old population of the Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos municipality. Pearson’s chi-square and Mantel-Haenszel lineal tendency tests were used with the determination of the relative risk and reliance intervals of 95%. Results: The decay prevalence reached 54, 4%. The COP-D index was 2, 45 being the decayed component the major percentage with 4.6%. The periodontal disease was more frequent in boys than in girls, with 54, 9% and 30, 8% respectively. 80,9% of the segments is healthy. In those affected, the calculation prevailed in 11,7%. It was determined that faulty obturations, inheritance and faulty buccal hygiene were the most affecting risk factors for children with decays, while in the periodontal disease it was faulty buccal hygiene. Malocclusions presented a prevalence rate of 40%. Out of which, 55,6% required secondary level attention. Those with habits present a risk 2 times superior of making sick. The sick epidemiological category was present in 77,8% of the total. Conclusions: We emphasize the prevention need as core issue of the primary medical care in the world today; being the General-Integral Dentist a transforming agent that according to his/her formation is capable to assume the existent

  13. Consideraciones sobre la organización de los servicios hospitalarios ante una epidemia de Influenza A (H1N1. Experiencia en Cienfuegos 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grupo operativo provincial de atención médica a los enfermos adultos hospitalizados

    2011-04-01

    hospitalarios para el enfrentamiento de una epidemia de Influenza A (H1N1, afección de transmisión respiratoria constituye un reto y el éxito logrado dependerá, en gran medida, de los cambios organizativos desplegados desde la etapa de planificación y constituyen parte indispensable de la estrategia de trabajo. Objetivo: Describir las principales experiencias organizativas que fueron desarrolladas en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos, durante la etapa de pandemia de influenza A (H1N1 el año 2009. Método: Estudio prospectivo. Investigación en sistemas y servicios de salud, donde se hizo una amplia revisión bibliográfica, que se combina con técnicas de grupo (para la definición progresiva de la estrategia organizativa y se enmarcan las experiencias contenidas en la “carpeta de decisiones” creada al efecto. Resultados: Se reconocen los diferentes cambios realizados, modificación a los flujos habituales y conceptos en la atención médica, incluida la extensión y expansión de los servicios y sus camas de dotación. Se consideró oportuno la reducción de la actividad quirúrgica electiva, el trabajar por brigadas, la materialización de consultas diferenciadas en los servicios de urgencia, la definición de un área para atención a pacientes graves, el manejo diferenciado de las pacientes embarazadas, puérperas y neonatos, la capacitación continuada y el aseguramiento médico a la protección del personal, el aislamiento de los casos, la alimentación y esterilización. Conclusiones: La reorganización de la asistencia médica, los recursos humanos, la capacitaron continuada, el apoyo logístico, la optimización de los recursos, dirección y el trabajo colectivo son puntos claves en la organización para el enfrentamiento exitoso ante una epidemia.

  14. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: Resultados preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Martínez, D.; Álvarez-Alemán, A.; Bonde, R.K; Powell, J A; García-Machado, E.

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener información preliminar acerca de la composición de haplotipos del ADN mitocóndrico (ADNmt) del manatí (Trichechus manatus) que habita en el archipiélago cubano. Se analizó un total de 13 individuos, 12 de Cuba y uno procedente de la Florida, EU. Las secuencias de un fragmento de 410 pb de la región de control del ADNmt (D-loop) permitieron identificar dos haplotipos. El haplotipo A1, único encontrado en la Florida (incluida la mues...

  15. Vila de Cuba. Evolução urbana e estudo de um ensanche

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Raquel Pires Vitória Moedas

    2012-01-01

    Em pleno coração da planície do Baixo Alentejo, encontra-se a vila da Cuba, como é reconhecida pela população, de carácter concentrado e fechada sobre si mesma, contrastando com os vastos campos agrícolas, salpicados por montes e herdades ao seu redor. A um núcleo urbano consolidado, integra-se um plano de expansão de matriz ortogonal e racionalidade geométrica, denunciando um crescimento urbano acentuado, que se verifica sobretudo a partir de inícios de oitocentos, morfologicamente semelhant...

  16. LA SALUD PÚBLICA EN CUBA DURANTE EL PERIODO COLONIAL ESPAÑOL

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Tejera Concepción

    2008-01-01

    En las tres conferencias impartidas hasta el momento les hemos brindado una somera explicación del papel que jugaron en la administración de salud pública en Cuba durante los siglos XVI, XVII y primer tercio del XVIII los cabildos o ayuntamientos, integrantes del gobierno municipal y la Iglesia Católica; pasamos después a estudiar las instituciones propias de la organización de la salud pública durante la etapa colonial casi en su totalidad: el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana con...

  17. Atunero congelador al cerco de 1000 m3 de capacidad en cubas

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Vázquez, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto que aquí se presenta consiste el diseño y calculo de un buque atunero congelador de pesca al cerco, el cual tiene como requerimientos de partida la siguiente especificación. Especificación Capacidad en cubas para el atún congelado 1000 m3 Velocidad en pruebas a 90% MCR 16 nudos Capacidad de combustible 500 m3 Capacidad de congelación 50 t/día Alojamiento 16 tripulantes Equipo propulsor Motor diesel con reductor Sociedad de clasificación American Bureau of S...

  18. Il quarto governo Fanfani e la crisi di Cuba del 1962

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Il presente saggio è incentrato sull’analisi del ruolo giocato dall’Italia durante uno dei momenti di maggiore attrito della guerra fredda: la crisi dei missili di Cuba. La scelta di questo tema deriva dalla volontà di esaminare un frangente della storia contemporanea particolarmente battuto, quale la tensione dell’ottobre 1962, alla luce dell’azione italiana nella crisi, quest’ultimo aspetto, invece, relativamente poco studiato. Obiettivo del lavoro è dimostrare da un lato l’impegno profuso ...

  19. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are related to changes in chloride penetration and chloride atmospheric deposition. The influence of sulphur compound deposition could also be a parameter to consider in atmospheric corrosion of steel reinforced concrete.

  20. Solution in Cuba to ensuring the radiological protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the middle of the 80's in Cuba takes place a widespread use of nuclear techniques in the national economy, particularly in nuclear medicine practice. In order to harmonize the constructive projects of the nuclear medical facilities, the National Regulatory Authority for Radiation Protection assessed the requirements to be adopted for the purpose of ensuring the optimum fulfillment of the radiation protection regulations in force in the country. As a result of this work a functional solution was developed for the distribution of the sites for the storage, dosage and handling of radioactive substances and the temporary deposit of the radioactive wastes produced. (authors). 4 refs., 1 tab

  1. Ilustrated guide for identification of comercial shrimps (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata, Penaeoidea of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key for the identification of all the shrimps and prawns of economic importance recorded on the Cuban Archipelago is herein presented. It includes the dicothomic keys for the two Suborders, one Infraorder, one Superfamily, three Families, ten Genera and twenty two Species. The most important figures, in order to help in the classification of each species, as well as the common names, are also included. The restricted synonymy of more interest for users, the distribution of each species in Cuba, and in the Western North Atlantic, as well as a glossary, are also pointed out.

  2. La palabra es de ustedes, me callo por pudor: Antiintelectualismo y emergencia del testimonio en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El artículo señala y analiza la presencia del testimonio como función no conceptualizada en los debates sobre el papel del intelectual revolucionario en la Cuba de los años sesenta. Algunas canciones de la Nueva Trova Cubana aludían explícitamente a la enunciación testimonial como una forma de superar el descrédito que la voz intelectual había sufrido en esos debates, ligando la emergencia del testimonio al auge del antiintelectualismo. Esa relación se hallaba ya presente, como demuestra el a...

  3. DESARROLLO DEL CULTIVO DE LA VID EN EL SECTOR CAMPESINO-COOPERATIVO DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    C. de la Fé; Hernández, O.; Palacios, J.; Palacios, J. A.; González, E.

    2001-01-01

    Contrario a la exclusividad atribuida al cultivo de la vid en zonas frías de Asia, Europa y América, sin dudas, este ha encontrado en Cuba condiciones favorables para su desarrollo, hecho atribuible a la obtención de nuevos cultivares con adaptación a diferentes condiciones ambientales. Los cri- terios antes expuestos encuentran su confirmación en los re- sultados obtenidos por destacados viticultores cubanos du- rante más de 10 años de cosechas consecutivas con rendi- mientos competitivos,...

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and racial groups in the population of Pinar del Rio province (Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Narváez, Víctor P.; Hidalgo Calcines, Pedro; Castellanos Pérez, Tomás; González González, Olga; Calzadilla Núñez, Aracelis; Valenzuela Yuraidimi, Carlos; Rodríguez Pérez, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió el polimorfismo genético de 13 marcadores genéticos en tres grupos raciales (blancos, mulatos y negros) en la provincia de Pinar del Río (Cuba). Se encontraron diferencias fenotípicas en 8 de los 13 marcadores estudiados. Las diferencias de las frecuencias alélicas encontradas en los marcadores fueron altamente significativas entre los grupos raciales examinados. Los loci estudiados permitieron mostrar claras diferencias de un grupo racial respecto de los otros. Los hallazgos obten...

  5. President Obama should pursue measures aimed at ending the Cuba embargo

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    President Obama’s handshake with Cuban President Raúl Castro at Nelson Mandela’s funeral last December prompted speculation that after more than 50 years of its embargo against the country, the U.S. may be becoming open to a more normal relationship. Natalie Allen takes a close look at the history and effects of the U.S. embargo against Cuba, and argues that it has largely failed as a policy. She writes that while there is currently little likelihood of Congress overturning the embargo in the...

  6. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  7. Las finanzas públicas y el papel del estado en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Yoania Castillo Padrón; Obanis Miguel Camejo Monasterio

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo titulado ”Las Finanzas Públicas y el Papel del Estado en Cuba ” tiene como objetivo presentar una recopilación de diferentes puntos de vistas acerca del papel de las finanzas y relación con las administración financiera del Estado. Como resultados del trabajo se puede apreciar como ha sido la evolución cronológica de las finanzas y los principales momentos que han marcado cada etapa hasta nuestros días. Teniendo en cuenta que en la actualidad la ciencia se convierte en una...

  8. Relaciones en disputa: nación, género, raza y turismo en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alcázar Campos

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la manera en que la introducción del turismo de masas en Cuba, en los años noventa, produce una serie de contradicciones en la ideología nacional cubana, la cual parte del mito fundacional latinoamericano del mestizaje y se refuerza, a partir del triunfo revolucionario de 1959, con la defensa de una supuesta lógica igualitaria. En un contexto caracterizado como aislado —algo vigorizado por el bloqueo estadounidense y las restricciones migratorias cubanas—, las “zon...

  9. La Guerra de Cuba y la Memoria Colectiva. La crisis del 98 en la prensa sevillana

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Soler, Rosario

    1996-01-01

    Pocos hechos de la historia de España han permanecido tan arraigados en la memoria colectiva como la guerra de Cuba. Pero si de todos es conocido el impacto que el fin de España como potencia tuvo entre las clases dirigentes e intelectuales, no ocurre lo mismo con el que tuvo en el resto de la población. Este libro pretende examinar esa guerra tal y como llegaba a España a través de la prensa, que prácticamente informaba sobre el asunto cada día, y las reacciones de la población tanto ante...

  10. Preliminary comparative estimate of the environmental externalities of the electrical generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the externalises associated with the electrical generation and fundamentally its atmospherically environmental impact, win greater importance nowadays, with the objective that to medium term these could be incorporated into the economy of electricity production as the surest way to reduce this impact. In the work is accomplished a comparative preliminary estimate of the externalises of the electrical generation in Cuba based in the results obtained in the External Project (Externalises of Energy) and the emissions of the domestic Power Plant. Different processes to reduce these emissions are proposed. The economic feasibility of installing Abatement Emissions Technologies based on the calculated externalises is analyzed

  11. Soporte alimentario, nutrimental y metabólico de los fenilcetonúricos en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Plasencia, Ligia María

    2011-01-01

    La Fenilcetonuria es un error congénito del metabolismo del aminoácido esencial fenilalanina, de herencia autosómica recesiva. En Cuba existe un programa para su pesquisaje y seguimiento desde 1986. En este trabajo se integran resultados de investigaciones realizadas por la autora desde el año 2000, relacionados con esta temática, los cuales aportan aspectos metodológicos-teóricos-prácticos sustentados científicamente y relacionados con el tratamiento alimentario-nutrimental y metabólico de l...

  12. CardioVilla 2011: congratulations to the health of cardiovascular medicine in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Dueñas Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial, some of the most relevant issues dealt with in CardioVilla IV Cardiac Congress 2011 are presented. This congress was held in Santa Clara, Cuba, from October 13th to 15th, 2011. It was sponsored by several scientific societies, including the American Society of Cardiology. A video conference was organized with the representatives of this society. At the conference, the 25th anniversaries of Cardiology Centers Saturmino Lora, William Soler and Ernesto Che Guevara were commemorated. In addition, the new Board of Directors of the Cuban Society of Cardiology was elected.  

  13. Methodology for the application of the probabilistic safety analysis to the cobalto therapy units in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently work the main elements are discussed kept in mind for the use of the Analyses Probabilistas of Security in the evaluation of the security of the units of cobalto therapy of Cuba and it is presented, like part of the results of the first stage of the Study, the Methodological Guide that is being used in a Contract of Investigation of the OIEA that at the moment carries out the community of authors of the CNSN, of group with other specialists of the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP)

  14. Cuba : medio físico e infraestructura económica

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Vásquez, Julio A.

    1997-01-01

    El trabajo compendia lo más relevante del medio geográfico de Cuba. Ofrece, en apretada síntesis, una caracterización de los recursos naturales, así como las formas que asume la explotación de la tierra y el desempeño del sector agropecuario de la Isla. Describe el potencial y comportamiento de los sectores económicos incluyendo las principales ramas industriales del país. Relaciona el nivel alcanzado en el desarrollo de las actividades industriales, transporte y comunicaciones que apoyan el ...

  15. Two Islands, One Commodity: Cuba, Java, and the Global Sugar Trade (1790-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Curry-Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar had become, by the eighteenth century, a global commodity. Originating in East Asia, plantations in the Americas fed the growing taste for its use in Europe, with its consumption increasingly popularised. The 1791 Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti and the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade prompted shifts in the epicentres of sugar, the most important of these being arguably to Cuba and Java. These two fertile islands saw the burgeoning development of sugar-plantation systems with major inputs of foreign capital and forced labour. In the process the two islands each, respectively, became central to the very much truncated Spanish and Dutch colonial empires left after the Napoleonic wars and the Latin American wars of liberation; and by the mid-nineteenth century in the case of Cuba, and by the late nineteenth century in the case of Java, they had been catapulted to global sugar pre-eminence. There has been an abundance of study on the two islands each in their own right, but none systematically examines their parallel trajectories. Yet the question arises as to how sugar came to dominate the agriculture, industry and trade of these two islands; and how these two islands in particular, in two different colonial systems and parts of the world, should rise to sugar pre-eminence in the way they did and when they did. Are there connections and similarities between the two that help explain this phenomenon? This article analyses the conditions that led Java and Cuba to become the prime cane-sugar exporters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initiative for this came from the linkages between their dominant elites and the transnational, transimperial networks of trade and capital. This furthered the stimulation of technological and scientific innovation in both, enabled not only through the introduction of the latest advances in machinery and method, but also the immigration of technical skilled workers from Europe and North

  16. The Microtron MT-25 facility in Cuba. A contribution to the regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main difficulties to develop nuclear application research is the lack of nuclear facilities. Different approaches and initiatives have been raised looking for more comprehensive exchanges. However, it is still necessary to strengthen regional cooperation in nuclear applications, in particular in the common use of accelerators and other nuclear facilities, based on a cooperative scheme in which each country contributes with its own facilities. The Microtron MT-25 Project in Cuba is proposed to deal with this kind of scheme. The construction of an electron accelerator up to 25 MeV, called Microtron MT-25, was finished in 1990 for Cuba, as a result of the collaboration of Cuban and Russian physicists in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The Microtron MT-25 is an electron cycle-accelerator which allows electrons, gamma rays and neutrons to be obtained. The principal characteristics of the accelerator and radiation are described in the paper. The Microtron-Havana facility is conceived for fundamental and applied research. The fundamental research topics of interest are photonuclear reaction studies, Nuclear Astrophysics reactions and photofission reactions. The applied research program involved in the Microtron Project consists of Gamma and Neutron Activation Analysis applied in Environment, Agriculture, Geology, Minerals, as well as materials science. Production of radioactive sources and radioisotopes. Medical and biological applications.To develop the research program, interested institutions need to form a User's Club. It will be formed, among others, by Brazil (Institute of Physics, Univ. Sao Paulo, Linear Accelerator Lab.), Argentina (Tandem Accelerator, called Tandar), Mexico (Institute of Physic, UNAM, Experimental Physics Department), Cuba (ISCTN, CEADEN, Isotopes Center, and IMRE from Havana University.) The participation of the members in the program exploitation will be based on projects in which the financial matters and

  17. Procedure for the record, calculation and analysis of costs at the Post Company of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Lara Zayas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Company is immersed in important changes, which lead to a new economic model that requires to increase the productivity of work and to enlarge the economic efficiency by means of rational use of material resources, financial and humans. In the present work it is proposed a procedure based on the application of cost techniques, for the record, calculation and costs analysis of activities in the Post Company of Cuba in Sancti Spiritus with the objective to obtain a major efficiency from the rational use of resources.

  18. Evidencias de infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez González, Islay

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de un conjunto de investigaciones realizadas con el propósito de aportar evidencias científicas sobre la presencia de la infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en Cuba, que incluyó la evaluación de métodos microbiológicos para la detección de esta espiroqueta, la confirmación de la infección en muestras clínicas de pacientes con sospechas clínico-epidemiológicas de enfermedad de Lyme, la estimación de la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra este agent...

  19. transferencia de tecnología: análisis en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Morán Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el análisis de la gestión de la propiedad industrial en el marco de la transferencia de tecnología en Cuba. Se exponen los diferentes supuestos que pueden concurrir en el caso de las empresas mixtas sobre la materia de propiedad industrial. Los diferentes escenarios abordados se valoran desde las perspectivas doctrinales, legislativas y enriquecidas con los criterios valorativos de la autora a partir de su experiencia práctica.

  20. Leptospirosis humana:un abordaje de su epidemiología en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Verdasquera Corcho, Denis

    2011-01-01

    La leptospirosis humana constituye la zoonosis de mayor impacto en salud pública. En Cuba, durante los últimos diez años se notifican brotes en varias provincias. Este trabajo abarcó un ciclo de investigaciones operacionales insertadas en el funcionamiento del Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de la Leptospirosis.. El universo temporal de los estudios transcurrió entre 1998 y 2009. Se analizó la variación, la tendencia y el pronóstico de la morbilidad y la mortalidad por leptospirosis...