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Sample records for cienfuegos bay cuba

  1. Steroid markers to assess sewage and other sources of organic contaminants in surface sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, I; Mesa, M; Alonso-Hernandez, C M

    2014-09-15

    Analyses of faecal steroids in coastal sediments from Cienfuegos Bay Cuba indicate chronic sewage contamination at the main outfalls from the city, where concentrations of coprostanol up to 5400ngg(-)(1) (dry wt) were measured. In contrast, steroid concentrations and compositions from sites from the south part of the Bay are characteristic of uncontaminated sewage environments. The levels of coprostanol in the Cienfuegos sediments compares to the lower to mid-range of concentrations reported for coastal sediments on a world-wide basis, with sedimentary levels markedly below those previously reported for heavily impacted sites. This study delivers baseline data for further investigation of the effectiveness of the proposed sewerage plan promoted by the GEF project in Cienfuegos. Investigations on the correlations between faecal steroids and other organic contaminants confirmed that the major source of petroleum hydrocarbons within the bay was associated with the sewage effluents from the Cienfuegos city.

  2. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Po dose assessment from marine food in Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C. E-mail: carlos@ceac.perla.inf.cu; Diaz-Asencio, M.; Munos-Caravaca, A.; Suarez-Morell, E.; Avila-Moreno, R

    2002-07-01

    One part of Radiological Monitoring Programme in central Cuba (1991-1995) was dedicated to study the background levels of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in Cienfuegos Bay in the vicinity of the first Cuban nuclear power station under construction. {sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in fish, molluscs and crustaceans collected in Cienfuegos Bay were determined and the committed effective doses (CED) were calculated for two population groups inhabiting this region. The highest values of {sup 210}Po concentrations were found in crustaceans, but significant accumulation was also observed in fish and molluscs. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in organisms are several times lower with respect to {sup 210}Po, a situation that characterises the regions affected by the global fallout only. Values of CED from the consumption of crustaceans and molluscs are very low both from{sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs. The mean individual dose from {sup 210}Po in the seafood consumed varies from 39 {mu}Sv for general populations to 2802 {mu}Sv for the 'critical group' consuming 320 kg of fish per year. The dose from {sup 137}Cs is negligible.

  3. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  4. El controvertido alineamiento Habana-Cienfuegos, Cuba

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    Cotilla Rodríguez, M. O.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Some neotectonic characteristics of the Habana-Cienfuegos lineament zone of NW to E-W direction and its five knots are presented, on its spatial relation with two epicenters of recent earthquakes (16-12-1982 in Torriente-Jagüey Grande and 9-3-1995 in San José de las Lajas. Reflections about activity of the lineament zone and its knots as well as specialist criteria over its delineation appear in the work.Se exponen algunas características neotectónicas de la zona de alineamientos Habana- Cienfuegos de dirección aproximada NO a E-O y sus cinco nudos de intersección. Se explican a partir del mecanismo de nudo sismoactivo dos epicentros de terremotos recientes (16-12-1982 en Torriente-Jagüey Grande y 9-3-1995 en San José de las Lajas. Reflexiones acerca de la actividad de la zona de alineamientos y sus nudos, y criterios de algunos especialistas respecto de su delimitación aparecen en el trabajo.them.

  5. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

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    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  6. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 137}Cs between 1994 and 2002 at Cienfuegos, Cuba

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    Alonso-Hernandez, C.M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)]. E-mail: carlos@ceac.perla.inf.cu; Cartas-Aguila, H. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Diaz-Asencio, M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Munoz-Caravaca, A. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Martin-Perez, J. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sibello-Hernandez, R. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Levels of {sup 137}Cs in total atmospheric deposition have been measured in the Cienfuegos region (Cuba) between 1994 and 2002. Samples were collected every three months, evaporated to dryness to obtain residual samples, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The {sup 137}Cs mean concentration in total deposition was 0.24 Bq m{sup -2} and data ranged between <0.05 and 0.62 Bq m{sup -2}. Precipitation rates and raintime have proved to be the most important factors controlling the concentration and depositional flux of {sup 137}Cs in the atmosphere over Cienfuegos, showing a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.93)

  7. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

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    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  8. Risk Factor to Chronic Disease no Transmitted In Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Preliminaries results of CARMEN II

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    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Cuba, the monitoring of them is an important element to alert health care system on its evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of four of the most important risk factors for these diseases during the preliminary data of the second survey of Cienfuegos CARMEN project, with emphasis on the differences with the first survey results. Method: Preliminary results of the second CARMEN survey are presented, corresponding to the first (847 cases measured integrally from a probabilitic and representative sample of the adult population of Cienfuegos City. Studied variables included: hypertension; obesity, measured by the body mass index, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results: 33.7% of interviewed persons were smokers, slightly lower than the first measurement, obesity BMI> = 30 kg/m2 was 18.8%, almost 8% higher than the baseline survey, the arterial hypertension to 35.5% and diabetes mellitus to 6.8%, both well above the measurement of 2001-2002. Conclusions: the risk factors discussed show that the problem after improving over the past 10 years, and generally worsens the values are much higher than those observed during the first measurement CARMEN.

  9. Associated Factors to Human Papilloma Virus. A study performed in Health Area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

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    Miryam González González del Pino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma Virus has been considered as the precursor of flat lesions in the cervical epithelium which develops Cervix uterine cancer. Objectives: to analyze risk factors associated to infections due to human papilloma virus. Method: An ambispective, descriptive study was carried out from January 2003 to January 2004, taking 60 patients whose Papanicolaou smears were abnormal. All these patients belonged to health area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. A guide for interview with different variables was used. Results: infected predominant ages were from 30 to 39 years old. 55% of the patients are married women or with stable sexual relationships. 6 patients comprised between 40 to 59 years old were observed with association to intra epithelium cervix neoplasias. For a 10 % of them, they have had from 3 to 12 sexual partners. The starting age to have sexual intercourse is from 15 to 19 years old. 75 % of the patients are smokers. Conclusions: results coincide with the medical literature reviewed regarding risk factors and its important relationship with NIC and so the cervicouterine cancer genesis.

  10. Atmospheric deposition patterns of (210)Pb and (7)Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

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    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M; Morera-Gómez, Yasser; Cartas-Águila, Héctor; Guillén-Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-12-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03' N, 80° 29' W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb are in the range of 13.2-132 and 1.24-8.29 Bq m(-2), and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m(-2), respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of (210)Pb and (7)Be were 47 and 700 Bq m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The (210)Pb/(7)Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05-0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days.

  11. Associated Factors to Human Papilloma Virus. A study performed in Health Area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. Factores asociados al virus del papiloma humano. Área V. Cienfuegos.

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    Adys Castro Barberena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Papilloma Virus has been considered as the precursor of flat lesions in the cervical epithelium which develops Cervix uterine cancer. Objectives: to analyze risk factors associated to infections due to human papilloma virus. Method: An ambispective, descriptive study was carried out from January 2003 to January 2004, taking 60 patients whose Papanicolaou smears were abnormal. All these patients belonged to health area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. A guide for interview with different variables was used. Results: infected predominant ages were from 30 to 39 years old. 55% of the patients are married women or with stable sexual relationships. 6 patients comprised between 40 to 59 years old were observed with association to intra epithelium cervix neoplasias. For a 10 % of them, they have had from 3 to 12 sexual partners. The starting age to have sexual intercourse is from 15 to 19 years old. 75 % of the patients are smokers. Conclusions: results coincide with the medical literature reviewed regarding risk factors and its important relationship with NIC and so the cervicouterine cancer genesis.
    Fundamento: El virus del papiloma humano se ha considerado el precursor de lesiones planas en el epitelio cervical las cuales desarrollan el Cáncer Cervico uterino. Objetivo: Analizar los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por virus del papiloma humano. Método: Se realiza un estudio investigativo, descriptivo, ambiespectivo, a partir de Enero del 2003 a Enero del 2004 comenzando en Enero 2003 estudiando 60 pacientes con citologías anormales, correspondientes al Área V del Municipio de Cienfuegos. Se empleo una guía de entrevistas con diversas variables. Resultados: Las edades predominantes de esta infección es de 30 – 39 años, el 55% son mujeres casadas o con relaciones

  12. Risk Factor to Chronic Disease no Transmitted In Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Preliminaries results of CARMEN II Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades Crónicas en Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Resultados preliminares de CARMEN II

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    Pedro Ovidio Orduñez García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Cuba, the monitoring of them is an important element to alert health care system on its evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of four of the most important risk factors for these diseases during the preliminary data of the second survey of Cienfuegos CARMEN project, with emphasis on the differences with the first survey results. Method: Preliminary results of the second CARMEN survey are presented, corresponding to the first (847 cases measured integrally from a probabilitic and representative sample of the adult population of Cienfuegos City. Studied variables included: hypertension; obesity, measured by the body mass index, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results: 33.7% of interviewed persons were smokers, slightly lower than the first measurement, obesity BMI> = 30 kg/m2 was 18.8%, almost 8% higher than the baseline survey, the arterial hypertension to 35.5% and diabetes mellitus to 6.8%, both well above the measurement of 2001-2002. Conclusions: the risk factors discussed show that the problem after improving over the past 10 years, and generally worsens the values are much higher than those observed during the first measurement CARMEN.Las enfermedades crónicas constituyen la primera causa de morbilidad y también de mortalidad en Cuba, la vigilancia de ellas constituye un elemento importante para alertar al sistema de salud sobre su evolución. El objetivo de esta comunicación breve es describir la prevalencia de cuatro de los más importante factores de riesgo de estas enfermedades durante el primer corte que se hace de la segunda medición del proyecto CARMEN Cienfuegos, mostrándose también las diferencias con los resultados de la primera medición. Método: Se presenta un corte de la segunda medición de la iniciativa CARMEN en Cienfuegos

  13. COST IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PLASMA IN THE BLOOD BANK OF CIENFUEGOS CUBA

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    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost information is an indispensable tool for planning, monitoring and timely decisions making in the organizations and is one of the most important elements for the internal management and analysis. The accurately knowledge of production and services allows the asses and analysis of the procedures, activities and productions return. The Blood Bank of Cienfuegos is unable to determinate the costs of their individual productions, which are derived from blood drawn and require different processes to obtain the final product. The objective of this work is to establish a procedure for determining the costs of production arising from the blood in the Blood Bank of Cienfuegos; this is achieved by designing and implementing a process costing accounting techniques linking management function of providing elements necessary for decision making. This shows that the currently costing that the entity applies is inadequate because it generates a single cost for all their products when in fact each involves a different cost.

  14. Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes in a tropical bay: Cienfuegos, Caribbean Sea

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    Armenteros, M.; Ruiz-Abierno, A.; Fernández-Garcés, R.; Pérez-García, J. A.; Díaz-Asencio, L.; Vincx, M.; Decraemer, W.

    2009-11-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes were studied in Cienfuegos Bay, a tropical semi-enclosed basin in the Caribbean Sea. Taxonomic (to species level) and functional (biological trait) approaches were applied for describing the assemblage structure and relating it to abiotic environment based on a sampling scheme in six subtidal stations and three months. Biological trait approach added relevant information to species pattern regarding relationships between diversity patterns and the abiotic environment. The most common morphotypes were deposit feeding nematodes, with colonising abilities of 2-3 (in a scale from 1 to 5), tail conical cylindrical or filiforme and body slender; and their abundance were correlated with depth, organic matter and silt/clay fraction. In spite of a high turnover of species, functional diversity of assemblages did not change notably in space and time. A result probably due to sampling of the habitat pool of species and to low heterogeneity of the studied muddy bottoms. Chemical pollution (organic enrichment and heavy metals) and hydrodynamic regime possibly drove the biodiversity patterns. Spatial distribution of assemblages support the existence of two well differentiated basins inside the bay, the northern basin more polluted than the southern one. The low hydrodynamic regime would determine a poor dispersion of nematodes resulting in high spatial variance in the assemblage structure; and also the associated hypoxic conditions and pollutants in sediments can explain the dominance of tolerant nematode species such as Daptonema oxycerca, Sabatieria pulchra, Terschellingia gourbaultae, and Terschellingia longicaudata. A comparison of spatial-temporal patterns of biodiversity between Cienfuegos Bay and other semi-enclosed bays in temperate regions suggests several similarities: nematode assemblages are strongly influenced by anthropogenic disturbance, temporal trends are weak or overridden by spatial

  15. Satisfacción laboral en el profesor de educación física de Cienfuegos (Cuba

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    Félix Zurita Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar los efectos de la edad, el género y antigüedad en la satisfacción laboral de los docentes de educación física en Cienfuegos (Cuba. En este trabajo de tipo descriptivo, exploratorio y de corte transversal, participaron 122 profesores a los que se les administró el Overall Job Satisfaction Scale. Tras distintos análisis de correlación, los resultados revelaron que las posibilidades de utilizar las capacidades, la promoción, la atención que se presta a las sugerencias que se hacen y la variedad de tareas realizadas, son las más valoradas por los docentes; por el contrario el salario es lo menos puntuado por la práctica totalidad de los participantes. Igualmente, es importante señalar, que no se encontró asociación por género aunque la tendencia hacía la satisfacción laboral es superior en las mujeres, donde sí se apreciaron diferencias fue respecto a la antigüedad, motivada por una menor satisfacción en aquellos sujetos que llevan poco tiempo en la docencia. Como conclusión, este estudio muestra la relevancia que el género y antigüedad pueden tener sobre la satisfacción general en profesores de educación física.

  16. Joint Task Force -Guantanamo Bay, Cuba: Open or Close?

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    2013-03-01

    December 1903, the treaty was finalized, and signed in Havana . Another treaty reaffirmed the lease in 1934; it granted Cuba and her trading partners...windward side. Ferry services provide transportation across the bay. The primary mission of this facility is to serve as a strategic logistics base for...the cost of transporting them securely to new facilities? Why spend this amount of money again, rather than keep the current 15 facilities in

  17. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in ashes from a fuel-oil power plant in Cienfuegos, Cuba, and the associated radiation hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Bernal-Castillo, J; Morera-Gómez, Y; Guillen-Arruebarrena, A; Cartas-Aguila, H A; Acosta-Milián, R

    2014-03-01

    The radioactivity of NORM was measured in ashes collected from a fuel-oil power plant in Cienfuegos, Cuba, using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U activity concentrations reached 240, 77, 59, 70 and 15 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The potential radiological hazard of these residuals was assessed. The radium equivalent activities of the samples varied from 54 to 345 Bq kg(-1). The gamma index was calculated to be lower than that of the reference values, and the gamma absorbed dose rate was higher than the average reported for the earth's crust; however, the assessed annual effective dose was slightly lower than the annual effective dose limit for public, i.e. 1 mSv. Therefore, these bottom ashes were not dramatically enriched with radionuclides and may be used as an additive for building materials without restrictions from a radiological protection point of view.

  18. Effect of Fitomas-E on seedling production of papaya var. Maradol Roja in Cienfuegos,Cuba

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    Fernando G. Serbelló Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in nursery in bag conditions was carried out at the Cienfuegos Horticultural Company, in order to evaluate the effect of different alternatives to stimulate the growth and the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. variety Maradol Red, in the period from June to September 2010. The treatments were: applying Fitomas-E, Trichoderma, EcoMic, the combination of Trichoderma + EcoMic and a control without application. We evaluated the height and diameter at four different positions, the number of leaves, green and dry mass of roots as well as for the external part of the plant at the transplantation time. The obtained data were subjected to the given statistical analyzes. Results indicate that the height and diameter of the papaya plants are increased with the application of Fitomas E and EcoMic, while a higher number of leaves is reached with the application of Fitomas E, and the combination of EcoMic with Trichoderma.

  19. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

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    David Javier Castro Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia metodológica. Los impactos ambientales fueron evaluados mediante el software GAIA versión 1.0, utilizando los criterios propuestos por la Guía Metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental de Conesa. Se identificaron 97 impactos ambientales negativos, entre severos y moderados integraron el 80.41 % de ellos. El factor ambiental más impactado fue el físico-químico con el 50.52 %. El subproceso no metálico resultó el más impactante, con el 50 % de los impactos severos negativos totales y el 34 % de los moderados. Se identificaron las principales causas asociadas y se diseñó un plan de intervención de 35 medidas con base en los principios de Producción Más Limpia. Los resultados contribuyen a lograr la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos de la entidad y a la sostenibilidad del reciclaje.

  20. Non-useful Papanicolaou smears. Analysis of their causes in the first semester 2005 in Cienfuegos city, Cuba Pruebas citológicas no útiles. Análisis de sus causas en el primer semestre de 2005 en Cienfuegos.

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    Miryam Magalys González González del Pino

    Full Text Available Background: Cervicouterine cancer is a common type of cancer in women. It is one of the three main death causes in women after breast and colon cancer. It is the first cause of mortality among malignant neoplasias in the female reproductive apparatus. Objective: to determine the causes of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in Cienfuegos’ province. Method: a retrospective study which had the non-useful Papanicolaou smear of the 1st semester of the year 2005 as samples the following variable were analyzed; age, health area and cause. Results: the main cause was the absence of the endocervical cells in the samples (91,1 %. The most affected health area were Palmira (8,83 %, Health area III (8,08 % and Juraguá (7,14 %. The higher quantity of non-useful Papanicolaou smear was found in the 30-39 year-old group. Conclusions: Although, the majority of health areas have an index below the 5% of non-useful Papanicolaou smear, there are still difficulties to fulfill adequately the program of early detection of Cervicouterine cancer, due to the issues faced when taking the samples.Fundamento: El cáncer cérvico uterino es una clase común de cáncer en la mujer, que se encuentra entre las 3 primeras causas de muerte después del cáncer de mama y del colon y es la primera causa de mortalidad entre las neoplasias malignas del aparato reproductor femenino. Objetivo: Determinar las causas de las citologías no útiles en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Método: Estudio retrospectivo, que tuvo como muestra las pruebas citológicas no útiles del primer semestre de 2005, con respecto a las cuales se analizaron variables como: edad de la mujer, área de salud y causas. Resultados: La causa principal fue la ausencia de células endocervicales en los extendidos (91,1 %; las tres áreas de salud más afectadas fueron

  1. Nutritional assessment of children at the day care center “Marineritos del Sur” in Cienfuegos province, Cuba. Evaluación nutricional de los niños del circulo infantil “Marineritos del Sur”. Cienfuegos.

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    Ernesto Martínez Ferrer

    2003-10-01

    cuenta sus características cambiantes y dinámicas. Objetivos: Realizar evaluación nutricional de niños con edades entre 2 y 6 años de un círculo infantil. Métodos : Estudio descriptivo correlacional de 133 niños con edades entre 2 y 6 años que llevaban más de un año en el circulo infantil ¨Marineritos del Sur¨, de Cienfuegos, entre el 1ero de septiembre de 1999 y el 31 de marzo del 2000.Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, peso, pliegues, circunferencia braquial, antecedentes patológicos personales. Resultados: Según los indicadores peso/talla, talla/edad, peso/edad, pliegue tricipital/edad, circunferencia braquial/edad, predominaron los pacientes entre 10 y 90 percentil. El cálculo del puntaje Z arrojó que 67,66 % eran eutróficos, 27, 06 % tendían a la obesidad y 5,28 % resultaron desnutridos. La giardia fue el parásito aislado con mayor frecuencia.

  2. DETERMINACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LOS COSTOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE PLASMA EN EL BANCO DE SANGRE DE CIENFUEGOS. CUBA

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    Pérez Falco, Grisel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La información de costos resulta herramienta indispensable para la planeación, el control y la toma de decisiones oportunas dentro de las organizaciones y constituye un elemento vital para la gestión y análisis interno de las entidades. Conocer con precisión los costos de las producciones o servicios permite valorar y analizar puntualmente los procesos, actividades y rendimientos en la producción. El banco de sangre provincial de Cienfuegos no logra determinar los costos de sus producciones individualmente, las cuales se derivan de la sangre extraída y requieren de procesos diversos para la obtención del producto final. El objetivo de este trabajo radica en el establecimiento de un procedimiento para la determinación de los costos de las producciones derivadas de la sangre en la entidad objeto de estudio; éste se logra mediante el diseño y aplicación de un costeo por procesos vinculando técnicas de la contabilidad de gestión, en función de aportar elementos precisos para la toma de decisiones. De esta forma se demuestra que el costeo que se aplica en la actualidad en esta entidad es inadecuado pues arroja un costo único para todas sus producciones cuando en realidad cada una implica un costo diferente.

  3. Historical Outline of Radiology in Cienfuegos

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    Clara Hilda Vega Blanco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La elevada importancia que ha tenido el desarrollo y utilización adecuada de la radiología (actualmente imagenología para el diagnóstico de diversas afecciones médicas en el presente siglo, especialmente en las últimas décadas, unida a la ausencia de investigaciones relacionadas con el surgimiento y evolución de dicha especialidad en nuestra localidad, sustenta la necesidad de brindar un mayor conocimiento de la historia de la Radiología en Cienfuegos. El objetivo de este estudio es exponer los elementos relacionados con el surgimiento y desarrollo de la Radiología en Cuba, particularmente en Cienfuegos, así como los beneficios que ha traído a la población de esta ciudad. Para ello se realizó un estudio cualitativo, de perfil histórico y descriptivo. Se exponen aspectos relacionados con la asistencia y la docencia del personal no médico y se hace alusión a diversas personalidades relevantes vinculadas a esta actividad. El surgimiento de la Radiología en la provincia se remonta a los primeros años de la segunda década del 1900, sin embargo, no fue hasta después del triunfo de la revolución en 1959, que experimentó un verdadero avance tecnológico.

  4. Health of the coral reefs at the US Navy Base, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba: a preliminary report based on isotopic records from gorgonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Michael J; Burchell, Meghan; Brunton, Dalston A; McCord, Michael R

    2014-06-15

    Specimens of the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla were sampled from several areas along the fringing reefs fronting the United States Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. Sample coverage extended from apparently healthy reefs in oceanic waters to declining reefs located in the plume of the drainage from upper parts of Guantánamo Bay. Tentacle tips were excised, and trunk sections were cut and polished. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon indicate a strong correlation of reef health with proximity to the plume of the river. Of all the worldwide cases in which land-based sources of pollution have impacted reefs, this one may well be the most intractable. The US Navy has jurisdiction over the reefs, with the obligation to protect them, yet the threat comes down the river from Cuba.

  5. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  6. Programa de Monitoreo Ambiental para Cementos Cienfuegos S.A

    OpenAIRE

    Mario A. Curbelo Hernández; José Luis Romero Cabrera; Henrry Ricardo Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en las instalaciones de Cementos Cienfuegos S.A. Cuba, con el objetivo de diseñar e implementar un programa de monitoreo de las variables de concentración de polvo en aire, tasa de deposición y concentración de metales pesados, para la valoración de la calidad del aire a partir de índices establecidos en la norma NC ISO 111:2004. Este programa incluye también el monitoreo de los parámetr...

  7. The last interglacial period at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and an estimate of late Quaternary tectonic uplift rate in a strike-slip regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, E. S.; Muhs, D. R.; Simmons, K. R.; Halley, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is an area dominated by a strike-slip tectonic regime and is therefore expected to have very low Quaternary uplift rates. We tested this hypothesis by study of an unusually well preserved emergent reef terrace around the bay. Up to 12 m of unaltered, growth-position reef corals are exposed at about 40 sections examined around ˜40 km of coastline. Maximum reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ˜11-12 m, whereas outer-coast shoreline angles of wave-cut benches are as high as ˜14 m. Fifty uranium-series analyses of unrecrystallized corals from six localities yield ages ranging from ˜134 ka to ˜115 ka, when adjusted for small biases due to slightly elevated initial 234U/238U values. Thus, ages of corals correlate this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Previously, we dated the Key Largo Limestone to the same high-sea stand in the tectonically stable Florida Keys. Estimates of paleo-sea level during MIS 5.5 in the Florida Keys are ~6.6 to 8.3 m above present. Assuming a similar paleo-sea level in Cuba, this yields a long-term tectonic uplift rate of 0.04-0.06 m/ka over the past ~120 ka. This estimate supports the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate should be low in this strike-slip regime. Nevertheless, on the southeast coast of Cuba, east of our study area, we have observed flights of multiple marine terraces, suggesting either (1) a higher uplift rate or (2) an unusually well-preserved record of pre-MIS 5.5 terraces not observed at Guantanamo Bay.

  8. Knowledge assessment of Cienfuegos´ health workers on human toxocariasis.

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    Martina S. Jiménez Suárez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.

  9. Reactive transport model of the formation of oxide-type Ni-laterite profiles (Punta Gorda, Moa Bay, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Cristina; Galí, Salvador; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Soler, Josep M.; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-type Ni-laterite deposits are characterized by a dominant limonite zone with goethite as the economically most important Ni ore mineral and a thin zone of hydrous Mg silicate-rich saprolite beneath the magnesium discontinuity. Fe, less soluble, is mainly retained forming goethite, while Ni is redeposited at greater depth in a Fe(III) and Ni-rich serpentine (serpentine II) or in goethite, where it adsorbs or substitutes for Fe in the mineral structure. Here, a 1D reactive transport model, using CrunchFlow, of Punta Gorda oxide-type Ni-laterite deposit (Moa Bay, Cuba) formation is presented. The model reproduces the formation of the different laterite horizons in the profile from an initial, partially serpentinized peridotite, in 106 years, validating the conceptual model of the formation of this kind of deposits in which a narrow saprolite horizon rich in Ni-bearing serpentine is formed above peridotite parent rock and a thick limonite horizon is formed over saprolite. Results also confirm that sorption of Ni onto goethite can explain the weight percent of Ni found in the Moa goethite. Sensitivity analyses accounting for the effect of key parameters (composition, dissolution rate, carbonate concentration, quartz precipitation) on the model results are also presented. It is found that aqueous carbonate concentration and quartz precipitation significantly affects the laterization process rate, while the effect of the composition of secondary serpentine or of mineral dissolution rates is minor. The results of this reactive transport modeling have proven useful to validate the conceptual models derived from field observations.

  10. Reconstruction of {sup 137}Cs signal in Cuba using {sup 7}Be as tracer of vertical transport processes in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Hernandez, C.M. E-mail: carlos@ceac.perla.inf.cu; Cartas Aguila, H.; Diaz Asencio, M.; Munoz Caravaca, A

    2004-07-01

    Levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be in aerosols have been measured in the region of Cienfuegos (Cuba) during the period 1994-1998. {sup 137}Cs showed the same seasonal trend as {sup 7}Be and the monthly regimes of precipitation seemed to be responsible for the observed pattern. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 7}Be ratio obtained in Cienfuegos and Miami (FL) in this period was used to calibrate the long-term database of {sup 137}Cs concentrations recorded in Miami (250 km from Cienfuegos). The database was then employed to reconstruct the {sup 137}Cs monthly concentrations in Cienfuegos since 1957.

  11. Reconstruction of metal pollution and recent sedimentation processes in Havana Bay (Cuba): A tool for coastal ecosystem management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Asencio, M., E-mail: misael@ceac.cu [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Alvarado, J.A. Corcho [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Alonso-Hernandez, C. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, Carretera Castillo de Jagua, Cienfuegos, CITMA-Cienfuegos (Cuba); Quejido-Cabezas, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. ICMyL, Mazatlan (Mexico); Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Gomez-Mancebo, M.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Froidevaux, P. [Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA), University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, and Physics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Past metal pollution in the heavy polluted coastal ecosystem of Havana Bay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effectiveness of pollution-reduction strategies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dated environmental archives to reconstruct sedimentation and pollution trends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of severe climatic events on sedimentation. - Abstract: Since 1998 the highly polluted Havana Bay ecosystem has been the subject of a mitigation program. In order to determine whether pollution-reduction strategies were effective, we have evaluated the historical trends of pollution recorded in sediments of the Bay. A sediment core was dated radiometrically using natural and artificial fallout radionuclides. An irregularity in the {sup 210}Pb record was caused by an episode of accelerated sedimentation. This episode was dated to occur in 1982, a year coincident with the heaviest rains reported in Havana over the XX century. Peaks of mass accumulation rates (MAR) were associated with hurricanes and intensive rains. In the past 60 years, these maxima are related to strong El Nino periods, which are known to increase rainfall in the north Caribbean region. We observed a steady increase of pollution (mainly Pb, Zn, Sn, and Hg) since the beginning of the century to the mid 90s, with enrichment factors as high as 6. MAR and pollution decreased rapidly after the mid 90s, although some trace metal levels remain high. This reduction was due to the integrated coastal zone management program introduced in the late 90s, which dismissed catchment erosion and pollution.

  12. Gynecological endoscopic surgery in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jorge Fernández

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last few years less invasive techniques for patients have been developed and endoscopic surgery is important example. Objective: To determine the advantages of endoscopic surgery and to relate ultrasonographic findings with surgical diagnoses. Method: Case study of 73 surgeries performed by gynaecological endoscopic surgery at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from Cienfuegos province in the period January 1998- May 2002. urgencies and and Salpingoclasias were excluded from this search. The statistical study included tests of percentage, accumulated frequency, Kappla´s index, mean and standard deviation. Results: The most recent gynaecological pathologies were: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, infertility and ovarian cyst. The relationship between ultrasonographic and surgical diagnosis was good for P.I.D and the intrauterine device in the abdominal cavity but not for endometritis. The most frequent laparoscopic procedures were salpingovariolasis and fimbrioplasty , ovarian cystectomy and contrasted laparoscopy. The two complications were bleeding which was controlled and facial subcutaneous emphysema.

  13. Diseño de un sistema para el aprovechamiento energético de biogás a partir de los residuos generados por el ganado vacuno en la Vaquería 101 perteneciente a la empresa pecuaria "Camilo Cienfuegos" (Pinar del Río, Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Los objetivos de este proyecto fin de carrera son: • Revisar de las experiencias disponibles acerca de la generación de biogás en biodigestores de bajo costo, y el aprovechamiento del biogás para cubrir las necesidades energéticas que se dan en la Vaquería 101, perteneciente a la empresa pecuaria Camilo Cienfuegos y ubicada en la provincia cubana de Pinar del Río. • Determinar el potencial de biomasa generado por el ganado vacuno de la vaquería. • Diseñar el sistema de gene...

  14. Characterization of rectum-colon cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itengré Ouédraogo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the recent advances in the medicine field which permit a better diagnosis and to establish treatments in early stages of the diseases, the colon and rectum cancer have shown an ascendant curve line in terms of incidence and mortality worldwide. There is an incidence around 11 000 new cases per year in Cuba, and it constituted the third cause of death in Cienfuegos province from 1988 to 1997. Objectives: To characterize the colon and rectum cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000. Methods: a descriptive, retrospective study carried out at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city, Cuba in order to characterize these kinds of cancer from 1995 to 2000. 221 patients were under studied after being surgically treated in the General and Colon Proctology Service with a diagnosis of colon and rectum neoplasia during those years. Data were obtained from the clinical records and biopsy reports. This work is just the first parte of the investigation, that's the reason complications and mortality are not mentioned at all. Results: there is a higher frequency of occurrence in the female patients and in patients older than 60 years although a 5 % of the cases were 40 years old or younger. The most frequent site was the rectum and hemorrhage was the most predominant clinical manifestation. The adenocarcinoma was presented in 90.5% and the highest per cent of the cases were diagnosed in B and C Duke's stage. Surgery was applied with curative intention in the majority of the patients meanwhile palliative surgery was predominant in the cases with occlusive clinical form. There were patients in C Duke´s stage that did not received chemotherapy treatment.

  15. Guidelines for Mental Health Interventions during Disasters at the “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Guía de intervención de salud mental en situaciones de desastres. Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”. Cienfuegos. Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Santana Castellón

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available These guidelines for mental health intervention within a hospital in cases of catastrophic situations have been prepared not only under the national standards but under the Pan-American Health Organization ones taking into account the specialists and experts’ experience on the topic and it has had the approval of the Scientific Council of the University General Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” from Cienfuegos. The guidelines describe the group of procedures to develop in the different cycles of disaster reduction (planning, quip and recovery mainly those related to patients, family members and hospital staff. This written record gathers the main psychological symptoms and diseases that result from these difficult situations and the main psychological techniques for such situations.La guía de intervención de salud mental en situaciones de desastres en una institución hospitalaria ha sido elaborada sobre la base de los lineamientos nacionales y de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, se ha consultado a expertos y especialistas del tema y aprobado por el Consejo Científico del Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos. El documento describe el conjunto de procedimientos a realizar en las distintas fases del ciclo de reducción de desastres (planificación, respuesta y recuperación, principalmente los relacionados con pacientes, familiares y trabajadores de la salud. Incluye los principales síntomas y enfermedades que desencadenan estos fenómenos en la esfera psicológica; así como las principales técnicas psicológicas a aplicar en situaciones de desastres.

  16. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  17. Notes on the Hospital of Cienfuegos

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    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview on the most relevant events that took place in the Hospital of Cienfuegos from the colonial, neocolonial and revolutionary period to the present day is conducted in order to pay tribute to the people and events that are important to highlight and to provide knowledge that will help to inform and educate new generations of professionals and workers of this institution.

  18. Incidence of neoplastic diseases in infants in Cienfuegos province from January 1988 to December 1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pedro Hernández Sosa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of neoplasias in children gathers of cancer that appear in children less than 15 years of age although some authors have stated that this age should be widened till youngsters less than 20 years. Although neoplasias in this age group only represent around 5 % of all neoplasms, there are important reasons that justify their investigation. Objective: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of neoplasm in children in Cienfuegos province. Method: Descriptive- retrospective study with a universe that gathered all the patients less than 15 years of age who had a diagnosis of neoplasia in Cienfuegos province, Cuba in the period January1988 – December 1998 . The rate of incidence per 100 000 inhabitants aged less than 15 was obtained and the variables under study were identification data: age, sex, race, (classified as whites and no whites , municipality of origin and type of tumour. The difference in incidence at the beginning and at the end of the period under study were calculated too. Results: The Annual means in the province was 12.45 x 10 5 inhabitants. The most affected age group was from 1 to 4 years of age with a rate of incidence of 15,25 x 10 5 inhabitants, with a predominance of white females. Cruces was the most affected municipality with a rate of 22,26 x 10 5 inhabitants. The tendency of infantile cancer in the province has diminished and it is more significant in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  19. Characterization of rectum-colon cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000. Caracterización del cáncer colorrectal. Provincia Cienfuegos. (1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Domínguez Suárez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the recent advances in the medicine field which permit a better diagnosis and to establish treatments in early stages of the diseases, the colon and rectum cancer have shown an ascendant curve line in terms of incidence and mortality worldwide. There is an incidence around 11 000 new cases per year in Cuba, and it constituted the third cause of death in Cienfuegos province from 1988 to 1997. Objectives: To characterize the colon and rectum cancer in Cienfuegos province from 1995 to 2000. Methods: a descriptive, retrospective study carried out at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city, Cuba in order to characterize these kinds of cancer from 1995 to 2000. 221 patients were under studied after being surgically treated in the General and Colon Proctology Service with a diagnosis of colon and rectum neoplasia during those years. Data were obtained from the clinical records and biopsy reports. This work is just the first parte of the investigation, that's the reason complications and mortality are not mentioned at all. Results: there is a higher frequency of occurrence in the female patients and in patients older than 60 years although a 5 % of the cases were 40 years old or younger. The most frequent site was the rectum and hemorrhage was the most predominant clinical manifestation. The adenocarcinoma was presented in 90.5% and the highest per cent of the cases were diagnosed in B and C Duke's stage. Surgery was applied with curative intention in the majority of the patients meanwhile palliative surgery was predominant in the cases with occlusive clinical form. There were patients in C Duke´s stage that did not received chemotherapy treatment.

    Fundamento: El cáncer colorrectal, a pesar de los recientes avances en el campo de la medicina, que permiten mejorar el diagnóstico y establecer tratamiento en

  20. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  1. Causes of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in two health areas. Cienfuegos, 2005. Causas de las pruebas citológicas no útiles en dos áreas de salud. Cienfuegos, 2005.

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    Mayrim Hernández González

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervicouterine cancer represents 10 % of all types of cancer, and it is one of the three main death causes in women. Objectives: to determine the factors that may influence in the diagnosis of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in health areas II and III of Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. Method: An ambispective analytic study was carried out in the second semester of the year 2005, in Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. 122 non-useful Papanicolaou smear from health areas II and III were collected and those carrier women of the above mentioned samples were dated to repeat the test. The variables were; requisites and conditions to perform the test, visualization of the cervix and presence of vaginal sepsis. Results: An inadequated sample taking was observed in 93 patients (76,2 %, as well as the bad conditions of the place where the samples were taken. There was also instrumentation deficiency. The interview in more than 50 % of women was not the adequate one. Conclusions: Yet, existing an acceptable index of non useful Papanicolaou smear in Cienfuegos province, the program to detect cervicouterine cancer confront difficulties in its application and results.
    Fundamento: El cáncer cérvico uterino representa el 10 % de todos los cánceres, y es una de las 3 primeras causas de muerte en las mujeres. Objetivo: Determinar los factores que influyen en el diagnóstico de citologías no útiles en las áreas de salud II y III del Municipio de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Se realizó un trabajo ambiespectivo y analítico, en el segundo semestre del año 2005, en el municipio de Cienfuegos. Se tomaron como muestra las 122 pruebas citológicas no útiles de las áreas II y III y se citó a las mujeres portadoras de dichas muestras para repetir la prueba citológica y aplicarles una encuesta. Las variables de an

  2. Caracterización de la mortalidad por cáncer en la provincia de Cienfuegos. 2010-2011 Characterization of Cancer Mortality in the Province of Cienfuegos. 2010 to 2011

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    María Magdalena Basanta Molina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer ha sido en Cuba, una de las primeras causas de muerte, y es la primera causa de años de vida potencialmente perdida y la de mayor impacto en la esperanza de vida al nacer. Objetivo: caracterizar la mortalidad por cáncer en la provincia Cienfuegos durante el bienio 2010 – 2011. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de serie de casos para caracterizar la mortalidad de la provincia Cienfuegos durante el bienio 2010 – 2011, según datos aportados por los certificados médicos de defunción y la revisión del Programa Estadístico de Mortalidad de la Provincia. La serie estuvo constituida por 1 602 fallecidos por cáncer, de ellos 786 del año 2010 y 816 del año 2011. Las variables utilizadas fueron: edad, sexo, municipio de residencia y principales localizaciones. Resultados: en Cienfuegos el cáncer se ubicó como segunda causa de muerte en el año 2010 y como primera en el 2011, se evidenció una sobremortaliad masculina en ambas etapas. Los hombres mueren por cáncer de pulmón, próstata, colon, laringe y las mujeres por cáncer de pulmón, mama, colon, y útero. Las defunciones prematuras por cáncer en el 2010, representaron el 59,2 % del total de fallecidos por cáncer, de ellas el 47,9 % se produjeron en el grupo de 65 a 74 años de edad. La mortalidad prematura en el año 2011 representó el 54,1 % de las defunciones totales por cáncer, con una discreta disminución. Conclusiones: se evidenció la inclusión del cáncer como primera causa de muerte asociada la progresión del envejecimiento poblacional con localizaciones que muestran brechas en la prevención y detección precoz del cáncer.Background: cancer has been one of the major causes of death in Cuba. In addition, it is the leading cause of years of potential life lost and it has the greatest impact on life expectancy at birth. Objective: to characterize cancer mortality in the province of Cienfuegos from 2010 to 2011. Methods: a descriptive

  3. Oral health status in Cienfuegos population

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    Emma Gil Ojeda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creation of reliable epidemiological profiles in different populations is a helpful practice that offers a general vision of how community health can be affected and it assess health systems interventions and provides information to guide the policy making process. Objective: To assess the population´s oral health condition of through the determining of the appropriate markers. Methods: Descriptive study in five health areas of Cienfuegos province including people selected by age group and through randomized sampling. The oral health condition of this population was analyzed, and the results were compared with the previous measurement dating from 1998. Results: The percentage of this population between 5-18 years of age without malocclusions or gingival and periodontal affectation was 72,6% and 38,6% respectively; the percentage of children with DMF-index at the age of five was 1,96, while the 88,2% of 18 years-old surveyed people have all their teeth. The mean of lost teeth in the age groups 35-44 and 60-74 was 7,6 and 24,7 respectively. Conclusions: Most of oral health markers improved compared with the previous measurements, except for the age group 5-18 without malocclusions and the percentage of people without gingival or periodontal affectations, which was slightly reduced.

  4. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

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    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  5. Sobrevida en leucemias en pacientes mayores de 60 años. Cienfuegos 1989-1993.

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    Maritza Cabrera

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 50 pacientes entre 60 y 89 años de edad, con el diagnóstico de leucemias agudas y crónicas, atendidos en los entre 1989 y 1993, en el Hospital Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima", de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino, del grupo entre 60 a 69 años y la leucemia linfoide crónica fue la variante más frecuente. El análisis de calidad de vida según el índice de Karnofsky, ubicó a las variantes agudas en escalas de peor rendimiento y las crónicas en escalas de mejor puntuación. La mayor probabilidad de supervivencia fue para el grupo entre 60 y 69 años, sin diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. Los sangramientos e infecciones, la leucopenia y la trombocitopenia, se relacionaron con las más bajas probabilidades de sobrevida. La complicación más común fue la bronconeumonía (70% y el hallazgo necrópsico, la infiltración leucémica visceral (74%. La supervivencia global fue de 11.28 a los 4.5 años.

  6. EXPERIENCIAS EN EL TEMA AMBIENTE – SALUD EN LA PROVINCIA DE CIENFUEGOS, CUBA

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    María Gloria Fabregat Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE La evolución del pensamiento geográfico permite tener hoy una herramienta teórica más completa sobre la aprehensión del espacio geográfico, con un enfoque holístico y sistémico. Visto como la interacción de elementos de su naturaleza, de su evolución social, económica y cultural, más; los cambios que ocurren en la actualidad sobre ese espacio; definidos en un tiempo y contexto específicos /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  7. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  8. CPAFFC Delegation in Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Cuban Institute of Friendship with the Peoples and the Cuba-China Friendship Association,a CPAFFC delegation headed by Zhang Enxiang,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Jilin Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Jilin Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Cuba from May 29 to June 3,during which it participated in the celebrations of the 160th anniversary of the Chinese arrival in Cuba.

  9. Cerebrovascular illness in the province of Cienfuegos. Tendency lines. A six years study Enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Líneas de tendencia. Estudio de seis años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Domínguez Suárez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cerebrovascular diseases constitute the third cause of death and first of handicap in Cuba. They are inside the tasks prioritized by the World Health Organization and they receive special interest in Cienfuegos province, that is one of the populations of more longevity of the country and shows high rates of mortality. Objective: To define the tendency lines, according to the type of cerebrovascular diseases in Cienfuegos province, over the last six years. Methods: There was realized a retrospective, and descriptive study, of a series of cases. The mortality was analyzed for the different types of cerebrovascular diseases. The data were obtained, of the monthly and annual reports of the Commission of cerebrovascular diseases. Results: A half rate of morbidity of 108, 89, was verified by 100 000 habitants; the mortality due to infarct and subarachnoid hemorrhages diminishes. It was not the same in presence of intracerebral hemorrhage, in which was observed an increment. Increased the number of alive patients after the discharge from the hospital, which due to infarct and other cerebrovascular diseases, were handicapped and for their condition generated a load to the society. Conclusions: The intracerebral hemorrhage constitutes the main problem for the mortality and the infarct for the morbidity.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en Cuba. Se encuentran dentro de las tareas priorizadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y reciben especial interés en la provincia de Cienfuegos, por encontrarse en ella una de las poblaciones más longevas del país y mostrar tasas elevadas de mortalidad. Objetivo: Definir las líneas de tendencia según el tipo de enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la provincia de Cienfuegos

  10. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  11. Las Mayacaceae de Cuba

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    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the genus Mayaca Aublet in Cuba are discussed. M. aubletii is confirmed as a distinct species, and a key, illustrations and distribution maps of M. aubletii and M. fluviatilis are included.Se discute la problemática del género Mayaca Aublet en Cuba. Se revalida Mayaca aubletii Michaux, y se ofrecen una clave, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución de M. aubletii y M. fluviatilis.

  12. Cuba: Clearing Perilous Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    democratization was on permanent hold. Interviewed by Tele- mundo , a Spanish-language TV network in the United States, the Cuban president was...states in Eastern Europe and Asia is the same as that with Cuba. But Cuba is a sui generis case in which analogies drawn from other countries do...United States and the West would not necessarily abate the regime’s authoritarian character. As Latin America, China, and Southeast Asia have demon

  13. An Island Called Cuba

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    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  14. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  15. Cienfuegos Botanical Garden and the Municipal Agricultural System, a territorial approach to local management extensionism

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    Tania Domínguez Soto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies the goods and services available in the Botanical Garden of Cienfuegos, from the plant genetic resources that tax the agricultural sector and that allow to establish synergies with the Agrarian System of the Municipality Cienfuegos with the purpose of producing food.

  16. Las Najadaceae de Cuba

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    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the family Najadaceae in Cuba. The presence of Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f. floridana and N. arguta var. arguta is confirmed, and the area of distribution of N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis and N. wrightiana is extended. A general key, illustrations and distribution maps are included.Estudio de la familia Najadaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la presencia de Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f.floridana y N. arguta var. arguta, y se amplía la distribución de N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis y N. wrightiana. Se presenta una clave general, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución.

  17. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    which market-type re- forms must be introduced in the economy to find a way out of Cuba’s callej6n sin salida (cul-de-sac). At issue, also, is whether...in northern Mexico. See Wayne A. Cornelius and Ann L. Craig, The Mexican Political System in Transition, San Diego: University of California , Center...special circumstances whereby his salida (exit) rebounds to Cuba’s advantage and his greater glory. For Endgame IV to start unfolding without violence

  18. Fracture fixation of the Odontoid process of the axis through an osseous-axis pin in Cuba. A case report.

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    José Ramón Tejera del Valle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The fractures of the odontoid process of the Axis has been a polemic topic for many years. The alternative technique of placing a fixation screw directly across the fracture site, reattaching the odontoid to the body of C2 had been gained defensors in the actuality in the world. The topic was reviewed, and the seventh case knowned was been operated in Cuba by this technique was presented. This intervention was realized in the Department of Neurosurgery of Cienfuegos. Current considerations are emitted.

  19. Incidence of neoplastic diseases in infants in Cienfuegos province from January 1988 to December 1998. Incidencia de las enfermedades neoplásicas de la infancia en Cienfuegos. Enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1998.

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    Mileny Acosta Fonseca

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of neoplasias in children gathers of cancer that appear in children less than 15 years of age although some authors have stated that this age should be widened till youngsters less than 20 years. Although neoplasias in this age group only represent around 5 % of all neoplasms, there are important reasons that justify their investigation. Objective: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of neoplasm in children in Cienfuegos province. Method: Descriptive- retrospective study with a universe that gathered all the patients less than 15 years of age who had a diagnosis of neoplasia in Cienfuegos province, Cuba in the period January1988 – December 1998 . The rate of incidence per 100 000 inhabitants aged less than 15 was obtained and the variables under study were identification data: age, sex, race, (classified as whites and no whites , municipality of origin and type of tumour. The difference in incidence at the beginning and at the end of the period under study were calculated too. Results: The Annual means in the province was 12.45 x 10 5 inhabitants. The most affected age group was from 1 to 4 years of age with a rate of incidence of 15,25 x 10 5 inhabitants, with a predominance of white females. Cruces was the most affected municipality with a rate of 22,26 x 10 5 inhabitants. The tendency of infantile cancer in the province has diminished and it is more significant in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Fundamento: El estudio de las neoplasias en niños comprende los casos de cáncer que se presentan en el grupo de menores de 15 años, aunque algunos autores han señalado que la edad debería extenderse hasta los menores de 20 años. A pesar de que las neoplasias en estas edades solo representan entre 1 y 5 % del total de las neoplasias, existen razones importantes que justifican su investigación.

  20. Cuba, Are Sanctions Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    through embargo and the Libertad Act providing humanitarian assistance to the Cuban people, and working to aid the development of civil society in the...State, “Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act of 1996,” Available from <http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/ar/us-cuba/libertad.htm

  1. Follow up and behavior of pediatric home admission in San Lazaro´s popular council in Cienfuegos Province.

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    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundaments: The development of Public Health in Cuba, especially in public health assistance has permitted the rescue of old modalities in regards to medical assistance, among of them home admissions, procedure that has its origin in our ancestors but now with the distinctive features of the ways of medical assistance, social system and economic resources among others. Objective: To assess the behaviour and follow up of paediatric home admissions in San Lázaro Popular Council. Method: Retrospective study of all the patients aged 0-14 years with home admissions in San Lázaro Popular Council who belong to the teaching policlinic ¨Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja¨ from Cienfuegos Municipality, from January to December 2002. The variables under study were: age, sex, nutritional assessment , cause of admission, admission by the general comprehensive doctor, hospital discharge, follow up, complications and stay. Results: short age was a determinant factor in home admissions: 78,4 % of the admitted patients were eutrophic; respiratory infections and acute diarrheas were the main reasons for admissions

  2. Associated Factors to Human Papilloma Virus. A study performed in Health Area V, in Cienfuegos, Cuba. Factores asociados al virus del papiloma humano. Área V. Cienfuegos.

    OpenAIRE

    Adys Castro Barberena; Mayrim Hernández González; Miryam González González del Pino

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human Papilloma Virus has been considered as the precursor of flat lesions in the cervical epithelium which develops Cervix uterine cancer. Objectives: to analyze risk factors associated to infections due to human papilloma virus. Method: An ambispective, descriptive study was carried out from January 2003 to January 2004, taking 60 patients whose Papanicolaou smears were abnormal. All these pat...

  3. Results of rhinoplasties of the nasal tip in Cienfuegos

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    Bernardo Félix Canto Vidal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the rhinoplasty of the nasal tip is one of the most difficult and challenging plastic surgeries the surgeon dedicated to the nasal deformities faces. Objective: exposing the results of the rhinoplasty accomplished to patients with nasal deformities. Methods: a descriptive study of results obtained in 145 patients who had a surgery to correct nasal deformities. They were attended at Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital of Cienfuegos, in a period of 10 years. Results: in 56 patients surgery was headed for embracing the nasal tip; in 45 patients to the rotation of the nasal tip; and in 44 patients to the projection of the nasal tip. The technique of the banner with graft of cartilage of the septum and the ear was used. Conclusion: in the analyzed period, the rhinoplasty accomplished in the province of Cienfuegos had satisfactory results, because the patient’s expectations were satisfied with a reduction of the costs of risks for them due to the use of local anesthesia.

  4. Cuba, cultures contemporaines

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Les principaux thèmes de ce numéro consacré à Cuba portent sur la culture insulaire contemporaine appréhendée dans une double perspective : depuis Cuba et également depuis l’exil. Pour le volet cubain, le dossier comprend : une étude des carnets de l’universitaire française Wanda Lekszycka rédigés pendant la période spéciale en temps de paix ; une approche de la revue culturelle et patrimoniale Opus Habana, actuellement produite et éditée par la Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Haba...

  5. Cuba confronts climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  6. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  7. Patients deceased in Cienfuegos city. Kind of patients, causes and place where they died.

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    María Gloria Fabregat Rodríguez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The analysis of mortality constitutes an important element for any study about the health situation of any population and for its epidemiological vigilance. Objective: to describe the behaviour of the first seven causes of death in the municipalities from Cienfuegos province according to age group and sex. Method: descriptive study about the behaviour of the first seven causes of death in Cienfuegos province from 1990-2002 according to age group and sex. The variables under study were total of deaths per age group and per municipality in each cause of death calculating the specific rates per inhabitant. Results: The causes of death analized in this paper represent the 77,52 % of the general mortality of the province. For all the studied causes the age group 65 years and more has the hihest mortality rates but particularizing for heart diseases the highest rate belongs to males from Cienfuegos municipality; for malignant tumors to Cumanayagua and Cienfuegos, for Cerebro Vascular Accidents the highest rates are for females from Cienfuegos municipality, influenza and pneumonia has the highest incidence in males from Aguada and suicide attempt in males from Aguada, Cruces and Cienfuegos respectively.

  8. Corporate Visual Identity of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos. Identidad visual corporativa de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos.

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    Gehnny Riverón Álvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 218/2009, issued by the Ministry of Economy and Planning on May 15th, 2009 states the transformation of the "Medicine School of Cienfuegos: Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado", into the "University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos", maintaining the same name. Therefore, the need for a new Corporate Visual Identity that allows our institution a new projection towards society has emerged and a corporate branding strategy has been designed for its identification. The present article describes the creative process, its foundations and symbols taken into account as it is described and regulated in the manual. This manual has been adopted by the Direction Board of University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos in the meeting from May 26th, 2011.En la Resolución No 218/2009, emitida por el Ministerio de Economía y Planificación el 15 de mayo del 2009 queda la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos - Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado- denominada Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Surge entonces la necesidad de una nueva identidad visual corporativa que le permita proyectarse como una nueva entidad ante la sociedad. Por ello, se procede a la creación de una marca corporativa para la identificación de esta entidad. En este artículo se expone el proceso creativo, los fundamentos, simbolismos tomados en consideración, descritos y regulados en un manual. Este quedó aprobado por el Consejo Dirección de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, en su reunión de 26 de mayo del 2011.

  9. Prevalencia, decomisos de hígado y pérdidas económicas por Fasciola hepatica en mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba .Prevalence, liver confiscation and economic losses by Fasciola hepatica in bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Barreto, Miguel A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio retrospectivo basado en los registros existentes sobre los hallazgos de fasciolosis en los mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara y Sancti Spíritus durante 5 años (2000-2004. Se sacrificaron 273 460 animales, de los cuales el 35,5% estaba parasitado por F. hepatica. Se decomisaron 49 173 hígados (18,0% delos animales sacrificados, siendo la provincia de Sancti Spíritus la de peores resultados. Las afectaciones por año fueron variables sobre todo en Cienfuegos y Villa Clara. Las pérdidas económicas fueron cuantiosas, calculándose, sólo por concepto de hígados decomisados en $ 436 656 (USD durante el período estudiado.SummaryA retrospective study was carried out based on the existent registrations of fasciolosis discoveries in the bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara and Sancti Spíritus during 5 years (2000-2004. 273 460 animals were sacrificed and the 35.5% of themwas infested with F. hepatica. 49 173 livers were confiscated (18.0% of the sacrificed animals, being the province of Sancti Spíritus the one with worse results. The affectations per year were variable mainly in Cienfuegos and Villa Clara. The economic losses were considerable, being calculated, only by concept of confiscated livers in $ 436 656 (USD during the studied period.

  10. Efecto de la fertilización orgánica e inorgánica sobre el comportamiento del fitoplancton en la estación acuícola de Boca Ambuila (Cuba) - (The effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on phytoplanktonic production in Boca Ambuila aquaculture station (Cuba).

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Con el objetivo de optimizar el empleo de fertilizantes en la preparación de los estanques de tierra de la Estación de Boca Ambuila, Cienfuegos, Cuba y garantizar un crecimiento adecuado de la productividad natural, se desarrolló un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con 4 tratamientos y tres repeticiones, durante 6 días para evaluar el efecto de diferentes fertilizantes y dosis sobre el desarrollo del fitoplancton. Las mayores concentraciones de células de fitoplancton y ...

  11. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  12. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  13. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

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    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  14. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

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    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  15. Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Duarte Marrero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with facial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears. Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.

  16. Major congenital defects. Relevant risk factors. Cienfuegos. 2000-2005.

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    Vivian Vázquez Martínez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major congenital defects have an impact on perinatal mortality and morbidity with economic and social consequences. Objective: To determine the relevant risk factors linked to the occurrence of congenital defects in Cienfuegos between 2000 and 2005. Methods: A case-control study was carried out. Women with fetus or newborns with major congenital defects formed the case group (255 while the control group consisted of a similar number of healthy children selected each year by a randomized simple sample. The variables gathered by the Cuban Congenital Defects Records were studied. Chi-Square method was used with 95% of accuracy and a reliance rate of 95%; logistic regression was used with the Wald test. Results: There was a predominance of Central Nervous System defects (28, 6%. The most relevant risk factors were a history of congenital defects, smoking habits, and acute infection during the first three months, as well as belong to the third birth on. Conclusion: The most clinical relevant risks factors were the congenital defect history and the acute infection during the firs three months.

  17. Specific and Optional Curriculum: An Experience in the Undergraduate Program of Chemical Engineering in Cienfuegos University, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yolanda García; Velázquez, Claudia Alvarado; Castillo, Rolando Delgado

    2016-01-01

    This paper pursues to define the pillars for designing the specific (SC) and optional curricula (OC) of Unit Operations and Processes (UOP) Discipline in the Chemical Engineering Program. To achieve this objective a methodology was developed, which was characterized by the participation of every member in the educational process: professors,…

  18. Nutritional assessment of children at the day care center “Marineritos del Sur” in Cienfuegos province, Cuba.

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    Zeida Bárbara Alejo Cruz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries in the last few years, there has been an increasing interest for the assessment of the Nutritional System which can be defined as a systemic and permanent process of collection, transmission analysis and interpretation of the information that allows to keep updated knowledge of the nutritional state. The follow up of the children´s growth and development has the importance not only to assist the children´s needs at a determined age but also to assist them with a preventive criteria taking into account their dynamic and changing characteristics. Objectives: To assess nutritionally the children gathered at the ages from 2 to 6 years that attend the day care center ¨Marineritos del Sur¨ for more than one year during the period September 1 st - March 2000. Methods: The variables under study were age, sex, weight, folds brachial circumference and past illnesses. Results: According to the indicators weight/size, size/age, weight / age, tricipital fold/ age, brachial circumference / age, patients between 10 and 90 percentile had a predominance. The calculus of the Z point showed that 67,66 % of the children were eutrophic, 27,=6 tended to obesity and 5,28 malnourished. Giardia Lambia was the most frequent isolated parasite.

  19. Reporte de campo y aislamiento de Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en aves de línea ligera en el centro de Cuba

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    Castellanos-Suárez, Omar I.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn una granja avícola del centro de Cuba en aves ligeras en la semana32-33 de vida productiva se observaron síntomas clínicos y lesionesmacroscópicas de una patología en cavidades que permitió la sospecha de un agente bacteriano. Posteriormente se aisló por primera vez en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico de Medicina Veterinaria deCienfuegos la presencia del Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en ovarios y vías respiratorias altas.SummaryIn a poultry farm of central Cuba in light birds during of 32-33 weekproductive life macroscopic lesions and clinical symptoms were observed in cavities a pathology, that allowed thesuspicion of a bacterial agent. Subsequently was isolated for the first time in the Laboratory of Diagnosis of Provincial Veterinary Medicine´ Cienfuegos the presence of Streptococcus spp beta hemolytic in ovaries and upper respiratory tract.

  20. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cuba. 746.2 Section 746.2 Commerce and... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act of... subject to the EAR) to Cuba, except as follows. (1) License Exceptions. You may export or reexport...

  1. Implementation assessment of the national program for the prevention and control of cerebro-vascular diseases in Cienfuegos. Period 2000-2004.

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    Rubén Bembibre Taboada

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The cerebrovascular deseases are the third cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba. Due to the seriousness of this situation it was created the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cerebrovascular Deseases. Objective: to evaluate the main achievements in the execution of this program, specifically in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: the prospective and descriptive study of a series of cases that engulfed all the patients with cerebrovascular deseases in the period of January the 1st,2000, to December 31st,2004 (n=3477. Data were obtained from the monthly and annually reports of the provincial comission; for the analysis of the deceased we counted on the reports of the Provincial Government of Health and of the State Commettee of Statistics. Results: we found a morbility rate of 192,26 per 100 000 inhabitants. The mortality rates decreased in 11,26 (from 82,51 to 71,25 per 100 000 inhabitants. The global lethality decreased in 13,74 (from 26,61 to 12,87 per 100 000 inhabitants: in infarcts, from 24,27 to 6,64; and in subarachnoid hemorrhage, from 39,21 to 24. An increment of favorable evolution in patients with brain attack and subarachnoid hemorrhage was notified, it did not happened with intracerebral hemorrhage. The evident outstanding results in the diminishing of progressive mortality and lethality during this five years support the correct decision of creating such a Program.

  2. Gynecological endoscopic surgery in Cienfuegos. Cirugía endoscópica ginecológica en Cienfuegos.

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    Rafael Alejandro Gómez Baute

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last few years less invasive techniques for patients have been developed and endoscopic surgery is important example. Objective: To determine the advantages of endoscopic surgery and to relate ultrasonographic findings with surgical diagnoses. Method: Case study of 73 surgeries performed by gynaecological endoscopic surgery at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from Cienfuegos province in the period January 1998- May 2002. urgencies and and Salpingoclasias were excluded from this search. The statistical study included tests of percentage, accumulated frequency, Kappla´s index, mean and standard deviation. Results: The most recent gynaecological pathologies were: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, infertility and ovarian cyst. The relationship between ultrasonographic and surgical diagnosis was good for P.I.D and the intrauterine device in the abdominal cavity but not for endometritis. The most frequent laparoscopic procedures were salpingovariolasis and fimbrioplasty , ovarian cystectomy and contrasted laparoscopy. The two complications were bleeding which was controlled and facial subcutaneous emphysema.

    Fundamento: En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevas técnicas, cada vez menos invasivas para las pacientes. La cirugía endoscópica es quizás el ejemplo más importante. Objetivos: Determinar las ventajas del método de cirugía endoscópica y establecer la concordancia entre el diagnóstico ultrasonográfico y el operatorio. Métodos: Estudio de serie de casos en el que se analizan 73 intervenciones quirúrgicas por cirugía endoscópica ginecológica en el Hospital Universitario ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨, provincia de Cienfuegos, desde enero de 1998 hasta mayo del 2002. Se excluyeron las urgencias y las salpingoclasias. Se aplicaron las pruebas

  3. Perinatal characterization of multiple pregnancy in Cienfuegos city from 2001 to 2002 Caracterización perinatal del embarazo gemelar en Cienfuegos (2001-2002).

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Díaz Brito; Gabriel Jiménez González; Alberto Jorge Fernández; Mariam Zam; Cristóbal Torres González

    2004-01-01

    Background: Multiple pregnancy is the gestation of more than one fetus in the uterine cavity, in this case two of them. This kind of pregnancy is considered a high obstetric risk due to its high rate in perinatal morbimortality. Objectives: to assess the morbimortality rate behavior in multiple pregnancy of two fetuses in Cienfuegos city. Methods: A descriptive retrospective stu...

  4. Nursing work in Spain and Cuba: an exchange experience. Labor de Enfermería en España y Cuba: Un intercambio de experiencia.

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    Héctor Cabrera Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed in 5 students from Granada that were in their working practices in Cienfuegos; mainly in policlinics, maternity homes, family doctors offices etc. as part of the agreement between Granada university and Cienfuegos Medicine School. Our experience has been very positive both, in the professional and personal field. The interchange between paramedical staff of both countries developed solidarity and humanism. This exchange allows knowing the high degree of transmissible diseases due to immigrants' arrival, lack of epidemiological control and waste of material and money. We can assure that the main achievement of this experience was encounter of these visitors with other Spanish students and teachers in the University of Granada. This activity was different from the traditional university lecture. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con 5 estudiantes de Granada que durante el mes de agosto del 2004 realizaron una pasantía por los diferentes centros de salud de nuestra provincia, enfatizando en los consultorios médicos, hogares maternos, Policlínico Principal de Urgencias, entre otros, como fruto del convenio efectuado entre la Universidad de Granada y la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Nuestra experiencia fue muy positiva tanto en el plano profesional como en el personal, predominó el intercambio entre el personal paramédico de ambos países; dejando frutos como la solidaridad y el humanismo. Este intercambio permitió conocer que existe alto grado de enfermedades transmisibles debido a la entrada de inmigrantes, deficiente control epidemiológico, así como derroche de material y dinero por su sistema de salud. Podemos señalar que la expresión máxima que manifestó esta experiencia de intercambio entre nuestras instituciones y las motivaciones que sobre la misma se abren al futuro, fue el encuentro desarrollado entre las estudiantes que visitaron Cuba con otros estudiantes y profesores espa

  5. Fracture fixation of the Odontoid process of the axis through an osseous-axis pin in Cuba. A case report. Fijación de la fractura del proceso odontoides del axis mediante tornillo transaxial en Cuba: reporte de un caso.

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    José Ramón Tejera del Valle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractures of the odontoid process of the Axis has been a polemic topic for many years. The alternative technique of placing a fixation screw directly across the fracture site, reattaching the odontoid to the body of C2 had been gained defensors in the actuality in the world. The topic was reviewed, and the seventh case knowned was been operated in Cuba by this technique was presented. This intervention was realized in the Department of Neurosurgery of Cienfuegos. Current considerations are emitted.

    Las fracturas del proceso odontoides del axis han sido un tema polémico durante muchos años. La alternativa técnica de colocar una fijación con tornillo directamente a través del sitio de la fractura, reatando la odontoides y el cuerpo de C2, ha ido ganando defensores en la actualidad mundialmente. Se revisa el tema y se reporta el séptimo caso conocido operado en Cuba mediante esta técnica, realizado en el Servicio de Neurocirugía de Cienfuegos. Se emiten consideraciones al respecto.

  6. Oral health status in Cienfuegos population Estado de salud bucal de la población de Cienfuegos.

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    Yumaidy Colina Sánchez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creation of reliable epidemiological profiles in different populations is a helpful practice that offers a general vision of how community health can be affected and it assess health systems interventions and provides information to guide the policy making process. Objective: To assess the population´s oral health condition of through the determining of the appropriate markers. Methods: Descriptive study in five health areas of Cienfuegos province including people selected by age group and through randomized sampling. The oral health condition of this population was analyzed, and the results were compared with the previous measurement dating from 1998. Results: The percentage of this population between 5-18 years of age without malocclusions or gingival and periodontal affectation was 72,6% and 38,6% respectively; the percentage of children with DMF-index at the age of five was 1,96, while the 88,2% of 18 years-old surveyed people have all their teeth. The mean of lost teeth in the age groups 35-44 and 60-74 was 7,6 and 24,7 respectively. Conclusions: Most of oral health markers improved compared with the previous measurements, except for the age group 5-18 without malocclusions and the percentage of people without gingival or periodontal affectations, which was slightly reduced. Fundamentación: La

  7. Implementation assessment of the national program for the prevention and control of cerebro-vascular diseases in Cienfuegos. Period 2000-2004. Evaluacion de la implementación del programa nacional para la prevención y control de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la Provincia Cienfuegos. Quinquenio 2000-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Iraola Ferrer

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The cerebrovascular deseases are the third cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba. Due to the seriousness of this situation it was created the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cerebrovascular Deseases. Objective: to evaluate the main achievements in the execution of this program, specifically in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: the prospective and descriptive study of a series of cases that engulfed all the patients with cerebrovascular deseases in the period of January the 1st,2000, to December 31st,2004 (n=3477. Data were obtained from the monthly and annually reports of the provincial comission; for the analysis of the deceased we counted on the reports of the Provincial Government of Health and of the State Commettee of Statistics. Results: we found a morbility rate of 192,26 per 100 000 inhabitants. The mortality rates decreased in 11,26 (from 82,51 to 71,25 per 100 000 inhabitants. The global lethality decreased in 13,74 (from 26,61 to 12,87 per 100 000 inhabitants: in infarcts, from 24,27 to 6,64; and in subarachnoid hemorrhage, from 39,21 to 24. An increment of favorable evolution in patients with brain attack and subarachnoid hemorrhage was notified, it did not happened with intracerebral hemorrhage. The evident outstanding results in the diminishing of progressive mortality and lethality during this five years support the correct decision of creating such a Program.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en Cuba. Dada la envergadura de este problema en nuestro país se implementó el Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las mismas. Objetivo: Evaluar los principales resultados de la ejecución del

  8. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

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    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  9. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  10. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  11. Playing Business "Ball" with Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ If you were lucky enough to have seen the World Volleyball Tournament,you must have seen the Cuban Women's volleyball team take on China in the championship game,a game of which Cuba has become the world champion for 10 times.The great determination and strong tenacity of these young Cuban girls' has been an encouragement to everyone that watches them play.

  12. Historical Notes on the Emergence and Development of the Physiological Sciences Society in Cienfuegos

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    María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development achieved by the scientific activity in the public health field, during the revolutionary period, promoted the origin of subsidiaries of scientific societies in different provinces of the country. In Cienfuegos the different medical specialties started to form their own chapters, among them, the Physiological Sciences. This paper is aimed at exposing the collected information about the emergence and development of the Scientific Society in Cienfuegos. A bibliographical review was realized and written testimonial sources were used (documents linked to the functioning of the mentioned organ. Elements related to the society, from its first Board of Directors, the main evidences found in scientific activities developed from its foundation, until its main contributions to the scientific work of the province.

  13. Impact of the Revolution´s Programs in Cienfuegos Dental Services

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    Beatriz García Alpízar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revolution´s Programs in Stomatology are part of a strategy to improve oral health of the population and the quality of the dental services. Objective: To asses the impact of Revolution´s Programs in the primary dental services in Cienfuegos. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study evaluating the tendencies of dental services markers of municipalities of Cienfuegos before and after the intervention between 2000 and 2007. Results: The effectiveness in Stomatology services improved in more than 100% in 2007 compared with 2005; the good use of prosthesis increased in 100%; the assistance covering and resolution index for persons over 60 years and bellow 19 increased lineally, reaching values similar to those of the first years of the studied period. Conclusions: The impact of the Revolution’s Programs was positive since the performance of the studied markers was superior after the intervention.

  14. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

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    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  15. Historical Summary of Postgraduate Teaching at the University of Medical Sciences in Cienfuegos

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    Manuel Ramón Fernández Urquiza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Postgraduate education is the highest level of the education system. Its main or essential objective is the academic training and continuing education of university graduates during their professional lives. This paper aims at collecting the history of postgraduate education in the province of Cienfuegos, from its origins to the present, including major teaching modalities in the continuing development of health professionals in the area.

  16. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Gontán Quintana; Alain Soto Ugalde; Elena Idaisy Otero Salabarría

    2013-01-01

    Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was c...

  17. Characterization of the Scientific Output of Health Professionals from Cienfuegos Visible in the Scopus Database

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    Yuniet Rojas Mesa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: the publication of the results from scientific research and projects ensures dissemination of science, exchange, feedback and update of its trends.Objective: to characterize the scientific output of health professionals from Cienfuegos visible in the Scopus database. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center including the publications by health professionals from Cienfuegos visible in the Scopus database from January 2007 to September 2013. The variables analyzed were: publications per year, topics discussed in the publications, most prolific authors, collaboration among institutions and countries as well as institutions according to the authors' affiliation. Results: 102 papers were retrieved, mostly by authors working in secondary care, specifically at the Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Provincial Hospital. A total of 141 authors are represented, 82 times as first authors and 230 as co-authors. Only 9.2 % appears five or more times. Most common topics are: cardiovascular diseases and public health. Collaboration with 13 institutions (nine papers with four national institutes and 30 with foreign institutions was observed. Conclusions: scientific output of health professionals from Cienfuegos visible in the Scopus database is still scant.

  18. Mortality from Malignant Tumors in Cienfuegos Province from 2004 to 2013

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    Noemí Domitila Bergantiño Collazo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer is currently one of the leading causes of death worldwide; an estimated 84 million people will die from this disease before 2015. Objective: to characterize mortality from malignant tumors in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: a retrospective descriptive study of mortality from malignant tumors in the province of Cienfuegos from 2004 to 2013 was conducted. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, location of tumors, mortality rates and years of potential life lost. Results: twenty four point eight percent of the deaths during the period studied was from malignancies; the higher number of deaths was observed in males and patients aged 70 years and over; the most common tumor location for both sexes was the trachea, bronchial tubes and lungs, prostate in males and breasts in females; 68.8 % of the deaths occurred at home; 83.7 % of the patients did not undergo necropsy; the highest rate of years of potential life lost occurred in 2007 (8.3 years of life per 1000 inhabitants followed by the year 2005 (rate of 8.2; the highest crude death rate occurred in 2013, followed by 2012, the lowest rate was in 2004. Rates showed an upward trend; Cumanayagua municipality had the higher mortality from malignancies in the province. Conclusions: the mortality rate from malignant tumors increases in the province of Cienfuegos.

  19. Periodontal Disease Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008

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    Arasay Calzada Bandomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases are a set of entities of multifactorial etiology. Diabetes mellitus is one of the conditions with a great impact on the periodontium and its interaction with microorganisms. Objective: to characterize the behaviour of periodontal disease in children and adolescents with diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008. Method: an epidemiological, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included diabetic children and adolescents under 19 years old who attended the endocrinology clinic of the Pediatric Teaching Hospital ‘’Paquito González Cueto" in the province of Cienfuegos, from January to November 2008. The Russell’s Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were applied. The following clinical variables were considered: metabolic control, duration of diabetes mellitus and nutritional assessment. A data-collecting form was used for data analysis. For the statistical processing SPSS (15.0 and Chi square statistical tests were used. Results: a highly significant dependence between oral hygiene and the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease was found as well as a strong association between the lack of metabolic decontrol and periodontal disease. Conclusion: there is a high prevalence of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents with diabetes in the province of Cienfuegos.

  20. Identidad visual corporativa de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos.

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    Gehnny Riverón Álvarez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la Resolución No 218/2009, emitida por el Ministerio de Economía y Planificación el 15 de mayo del 2009 queda la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos - Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado- denominada Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Surge entonces la necesidad de una nueva identidad visual corporativa que le permita proyectarse como una nueva entidad ante la sociedad. Por ello, se procede a la creación de una marca corporativa para la identificación de esta entidad. En este artículo se expone el proceso creativo, los fundamentos, simbolismos tomados en consideración, descritos y regulados en un manual. Este quedó aprobado por el Consejo Dirección de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, en su reunión de 26 de mayo del 2011.

  1. Cardiac Pacing in Cienfuegos from 2005 to 2009 Comportamiento de la estimulación cardiaca en Cienfuegos durante el quinquenio 2005 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanier Coll Muñoz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: permanent artificial pacemaker implantation improves cardiac function and life quality of patients requiring cardiac pacing. Objective: to describe the characteristics of patients undergoing permanent artificial pacemaker implantation and their results, in the period from January 2005 to December 2009 in the General University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima". Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. The sample consisted of 300 patients who were implanted with permanent artificial pacemakers in the Cardiology Service of the General University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima" in Cienfuegos, from 2005 to 2009. General data were collected from patients such as diagnosis, pacing mode used, surgical approach and complications. Results: the predominant age group was that of elderlies over 75 years old, and mostly males were predominant. The main action taken was that of a first implant using the cephalic vein dissection. The most common causes of implant were blocks the atrioventricular conduction and sinus node disease. The type of stimulation used was the VV-VVIR. Major complications included displacement of the electrode, hematomas and the pacemaker syndrome. Conclusion: the number of patients requiring cardiac electrical stimulation continues to increase in Cienfuegos. Elderly patients and the type of single-chamber pacing are predominant. Good results have been obtained with few complications.Introducción: la implantación de un marcapaso permanente mejora la función cardiaca y la calidad de vida de los pacientes con necesidad de estimulación eléctrica cardiaca. Objetivo: describir las características de los pacientes sometidos a implante de marcapasos permanentes y sus resultados, en el quinquenio de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital General Universitario ¨Dr. Gustavo

  2. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of sed

  3. Time for a New Cuba Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    government took over leadership of the island. The newly elected leader of Cuba, Estrada Palma , was forced by the United States Congress to rule under...providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil

  4. Metodología para la Implantación de un Sistema de Gestión por el Conocimiento en Empresas de Diseño y Servicios Ingenieros para el sector de la construcción en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Alfredo García Caraballo; José A. Macías Mesa

    2006-01-01

    En la ponencia se presenta la "Metodología para la Implantación de un Sistema de Gestión por el Conocimiento en Empresas de Diseño y Servicios Ingenieros para el sector de la construcción en Cuba " resultado de una investigación científica ejecutada por la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas con la colaboración de la Universidad de Matanzas "Camilo Cienfuegos" y que aplicada y validada en la primera permitió la creación de los cimientos de una cultura gerencial que r...

  5. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  6. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

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    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  7. Cáncer de tiroides. Caracterización en la provincia de Cienfuegos (2006-2010 Thyroid Cancer. Characterization in the Province of Cienfuegos (2006-2010

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    Álvaro Enrique Galeano Tenorio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Fundamento: el cáncer de tiroides es el carcinoma endocrino más común, aunque solo represente un 1% del total de tipos cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres, apareciendo fundamentalmente en las edades comprendidas entre los 25 y 65 años.
    Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos.
    Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, ambiespectivo, de corte longitudinal, con un total de 62 pacientes operados en el servicio de Cirugía General del hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, durante el quinquenio 2006-2010. Las variables estudiadas: tasas de incidencia anual, edad, sexo, localización y tipo histológico del tumor, y estado actual de los pacientes. Resultados: el mayor número de pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino, siendo el carcinoma papilar la variante histológica más diagnosticada (85,19 %. La incidencia mayor se registró en el año 2010. El grupo edades de 41 a 50 años fue el más representativo. El mayor número de cánceres (79,03 % se diagnosticaron en el estadio I.
    Conclusiones: la propia incidencia elevada del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos, en los últimos cinco años, ha hecho que la vigilancia sobre esta afección se haya incrementado, lo cual se evidencia por el diagnóstico en etapas tempranas, resultado de este estudio.

    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma, even when it represents only 1% of all cancers. Its incidence appears to increase in a 4% each year, and today is the eighth most common cancer among women, appearing mainly in the ages between 25 and 65 years old. Objective: To characterize the behaviour of thyroid cancer in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: A

  8. Neonatal surgery. Pediatric Hospital. Cienfuegos 2000-2003. Cirugía neonatal. Hospital Pediátrico. Cienfuegos 2000 – 2003.

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    Anabel Ledesma

    Full Text Available Fundament: In surgery the major percentage of deaths is related to the newborns who have to be operated, and among them, congenital malformations are one of the first causes of deaths all over the world. Objective: To describe neonatal surgery in the Paediatric Hospital from Cienfuegos province. Methods: Retrospective descriptive study to the 22 newborns aged less than 28 days who were surgically intervened from January 2000 to December 2003 at the ¨Paquito Gonzalez Cueto¨ Paediatric Hospital from Cienfuegos province. The variables under study were: age, sex, nutritional state, disorders, stay at the intensive care unit period of mechanical ventilation, postoperatory complications and follow up. Results: The Surgery was done to neonates older than 72 hours of being born, mainly males, with a weight more than 2500g. Intestinal atrasias were the most common congenital malformations and with longer hospital stay at the ICU . mechanical ventilation was prolonged during the postoperatory between 48 and 72 hours. The most frequent postoperatory complications were the syndrome of multiple organic dysfunction and evisceration . The final evolution was favourable in almost all the operated newborns.

    Fundamento: En la cirugía infantil el mayor porcentaje de fallecidos corresponde a los recién nacidos que han tenido que ser operados, y son las malformaciones congénitas una de las primeras causas de mortalidad infantil en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir la cirugía neonatal en el Hospital Pediátrico de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado a los 22 pacientes menores de 28 días que fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente desde enero del 2000 hasta diciembre del 2003 en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial ¨Paquito González Cueto¨ de Cienfuegos, que incluyó las siguientes

  9. Antifungal activity of extracts from three species of lichens in Cuba.

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    Daymara Idonay Vaillant-Flores

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the three lichens extracts. Extracts from Leptogium cyanescens, Physcia americana and Pyxine aff. cocoes were collected from the lichens thallus in 2009 in areas fromo the Cienfuegos Botanic Garden, Cuba. The fungicide activity was evaluated against phytopathogens fungi of potato: Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica. The study was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The compounds were extracted with acetone, concentrated by rotoevaporation, and evaluated at concentrations of 0,01 and 0,07% in potato dextrose agar (PDA culture medium; stock solution was made of 5% dimethilsufoxide. These extracts were classified by their toxicity as: toxic, slight and moderately toxic and harmless. The extracts from P. americana of 0,07% inhibited P. nicotianae 100%, and it showed values over 50% for R. solani. L. cyanescens only showed fungicide activity in both phytopathogens at the maximum concentration studied; similar results were obtained with the extract from P. aff. cocoes. The lichens extracts were classified as lightly toxic at the maximum concentration, and harmless at the minimum concentration.

  10. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

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    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  11. Epidemia de virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/sida. Cienfuegos, 1986- 2011

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    Bárbara Vitalia León Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Ha sido importante el impacto que el VIH ha provocado en el mundo. La Atención Primaria de Salud es el marco principal para la atención y cuidado a personas seropositivas, la vigilancia epidemiológica y la planificación de estrategias de intervención. Objetivo: Describir la epidemia del virus de inmunodeficiencia adquirida /sida en el municipio Cienfuegos, desde 1986 hasta el 2011.Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, que tuvo como objeto a los 233 pacientes seropositivos al VIH, en el periodo 1986 hasta 2011, en el municipio Cienfuegos. Se describieron variables como: edad, sexo, orientación sexual, vía de infección, incidencia quinquenal y enfermedades oportunistas menores y mayores. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes diagnosticados en edades de 15 a 44. El sexo masculino representó el 79,8 %. La orientación sexual sobresaliente fue la homosexual (hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, con un 59,2 %. La vía de infección más frecuente fue la sexual. De 2006 a 2011 se diagnosticó la mayor cantidad de casos, con un 47,6 % del total. Las enfermedades oportunistas menores más frecuentes fueron la candidiasis orofaríngea y la leucoplasia vellosa oral, con 52,8 y 15,9 % respectivamente; y las mayores, el Síndrome de desgaste, la neumonía por Pneumocystis jiroveci, la candidiasis esofágica y la neurotoxoplasmosis.Conclusiones: La epidemia en el municipio Cienfuegos se comportó de manera similar al resto del país, con un ascenso en los últimos años.

  12. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

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    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  13. Follow up and behavior of pediatric home admission in San Lazaro´s popular council in Cienfuegos Province. Comportamiento y seguimiento de los ingresos domiciliarios pediátricos en el consejo popular San Lázaro.

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    Teresita Rodriguez Izaguirre.

    Full Text Available Fundaments: The development of Public Health in Cuba, especially in public health assistance has permitted the rescue of old modalities in regards to medical assistance, among of them home admissions, procedure that has its origin in our ancestors but now with the distinctive features of the ways of medical assistance, social system and economic resources among others. Objective: To assess the behaviour and follow up of paediatric home admissions in San Lázaro Popular Council. Method: Retrospective study of all the patients aged 0-14 years with home admissions in San Lázaro Popular Council who belong to the teaching policlinic ¨Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja¨ from Cienfuegos Municipality, from January to December 2002. The variables under study were: age, sex, nutritional assessment , cause of admission, admission by the general comprehensive doctor, hospital discharge, follow up, complications and stay. Results: short age was a determinant factor in home admissions: 78,4 % of the admitted patients were eutrophic; respiratory infections and acute diarrheas were the main reasons for admissions
    Fundamentos: El desarrollo de la Salud Pública en Cuba, y en especial de la Atención Primaria de Salud, ha permitido el rescate de alguna modalidades antiguas de atención médica entre las que se encuentra el ingreso en el hogar, proceder este que tiene sus orígenes desde tiempos inmemoriales, pero con características distintivas dependientes de la forma de actuación médica, sistema social, recursos económicos, entre otros. Objetivo: Valorar el seguimiento y comportamiento del ingreso domiciliario pediátrico en el Consejo Popular San Lázaro de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Investigación retrospectiva de todos los pacientes de 0-14 años con ingresos en el hogar del Consejo Popular San L

  14. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  15. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Dantas THE AGE OF DISCOVERY-PreColumbian Cuba-Discovery and Occupation-THE COLONIAL PERIOD- Encomienda and Repartimiento-Colonial Administration-Economic...soil, tend the cattle, and perform other tasks as servants and porters for the Spaniards. 7 Cuba: A Country Study The Colonial Period Encomienda and...trust) and repartimientos (allotments). The encomienda system derived from Spanish feudal institutions of Roman origin, and in the New World it

  16. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  17. Efecto de la fertilización orgánica e inorgánica sobre el comportamiento del fitoplancton en la estación acuícola de Boca Ambuila (Cuba - (The effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on phytoplanktonic production in Boca Ambuila aquaculture station (Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Ceballos, Barbarito

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de optimizar el empleo de fertilizantes en la preparación de los estanques de tierra de la Estación de Boca Ambuila, Cienfuegos, Cuba y garantizar un crecimiento adecuado de la productividad natural, se desarrolló un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con 4 tratamientos y tres repeticiones, durante 6 días para evaluar el efecto de diferentes fertilizantes y dosis sobre el desarrollo del fitoplancton. Las mayores concentraciones de células de fitoplancton y los mejores valores de los índices poblacionales evaluados, se alcanzaron cuando se utilizaron Nutrilake (26 mg/L y Vacasa (10 mg/L. Es necesario realizar ensayos en otras épocas y evaluar otros fertilizantes en la Estación de Boca Ambuila.

  18. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  19. Incidence of ocular emergencies in the emergency room of the University General Hospital of Cienfuegos

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    Armando Rafael Milanés Armengol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few international and national studies on the incidence of ocular emergencies though there are frequent complaints. Objective: To determine the incidence and types of emergencies attended by the department of Ophthalmology at the General University Hospital of Cienfuegos. Methods: Case series study of all patients attended in the Emergency Department of Ophthalmology in Cienfuegos Hospital from March 2013 to March 2014. There were analyzed: name of the patient, sex, age, origin, diagnosis emergency, classification code colors, total of patients requiring surgical treatment and hospitalization. Results: Predominated aged 41-60 years (35.8%, males (58.6% and the largest number of cases attended corresponded to patients in the provincial capital. There was a predominance of green code (70.9%; the conditions most represented were inflammations of annexes followed by injuries; 72 patients needed surgery, (0.38% and 59 required hospitalizations, the rest of the patients were on ambulatory treatment with follow up in outpatient department ( 0.31%. Conclusions: The incidence of true ophthalmologic emergencies was low, for inflammatory conditions of Annexes classified as green code, were the most frequent cause of patient care; conditions that can be treated in primary services, indicating to mismanagement of physicians in the treatment of these ophthalmic conditions with consequent social and economic burden involving secondary services.

  20. Determination of the learning needs of doctors working in the Mountain Plan in Cienfuegos province.

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    Manuel Fernández Urquiza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is of great importance for the country´s educational strategy the constant studying of the staff already formed either technically or professionally . The actions within the Post graduate subsystem have been growing in organisation and maturity. The learning are determined and priorised taking into account the improving principles of the determination of the health personnel needs, the population needs and their level of satisfaction. Objectives: To carry out the diagnosis of the professional´s learning needs who are working at hospitals and consultations offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos province. Method: It is a qualitative research . The universe is formed by the staff working at the 2 hospitals and the 18 consultation offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos. The methods used are: Observation, Interviews to experts, Surveys and Group Dynamics. The techniques were applied taking into consideration David Leyva´s deductive model and Peter Park Investigation in Action. Results: learning needs were identified derived from professional competence . The Infrastructure problems that limit such competence was also defined

  1. Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Renowned doctor of Cienfuegos medical history in the twentieth century

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    Reinaldo José Pino Blanco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre was an outstanding medical and social personality in Cienfuegos during the first third of the xx century. The most significant aspects about his life and studies of Medicine are highlighted, as well as the postgraduate courses that he received later in France. Analyzed through different scenarios where he acted as an eminent surgeon, we refer to his contribution to the spreading of abdominal, prostatic and gynecological surgery in Cienfuegos, besides other innovations of high importance for the Cuban Medicine at that time. It is described his brilliant performance as director of the Hospital Civil and the Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, enhancing all the transformations, improvements, amplifications and openings of new services carried out in both centers under his guidance and supervision. all the recognitions received for different institutions and people in general were mentioned too, for his fruitful work and, particularly, for their performance during the epidemic of Influenza of 1918, that deserved him the title of exemplary citizen.

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

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    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

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    Nivia Gontán Quintana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  4. Diagnosing Learning Needs of Medicine Doctors in Relation to Imaging in Cienfuegos

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    Bárbara Aleida García Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite being so important for diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting pediatric patients, there are still gaps in general practitioners as for the interpretation and / or radiological diagnosis of the diseases that most frequently affect these patients. Objective: To diagnose the learning needs of Medicine Doctors in relation to imaging in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at the Paquito González Cueto University Pediatric Hospital and the Cecilio Ruiz de Zárate Polyclinic in Cienfuegos during the years 2008 and 2009. The study included 20 general practitioners. Survey and participant observation were used to determine the knowledge level on interpreting and / or diagnose of respiratory disorders, radiological diagnosis in acute abdominal pain, diagnostic ultrasound advantages in cases of abdominal tumor, imaging test to be performed for diagnosing the most common cause of urinary tract infection and indication and interpretation of diagnostic ultrasound of soft tissue. Results: Practitioners included in the study were scored as average as follows: 70.0% of when interpreting and / or diagnosing respiratory conditions, 50% in the radiological diagnosis of acute abdominal cases and 45% in the indication of soft tissue ultrasound. They were scored as poor in a 70% for the knowledge level on diagnostic benefits of ultrasound with intra-abdominal tumor masses. Conclusions: The main learning needs were detected in: interpreting and / or diagnosing respiratory diseases, radiological diagnosis of acute abdominal cases, indicating soft tissue ultrasound and diagnostic benefits of ultrasound for intra-abdominal tumor masses.

  5. Historia del Premio Anual de la Salud en Cienfuegos. Una reflexión necesaria

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    Víctor René Navarro Machado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el Premio Anual de la Salud es el máximo reconocimiento del sector salud a sus investigadores; constituye, por tanto, su evento científico más relevante desde 1976. Objetivo: exponer cronológicamente los hechos más relevantes en la historia del concurso Premio Anual de la Salud en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Métodos: se realizó una investigación histórica, entre abril-agosto del 2016, que incluyó una amplia revisión documental y la entrevista a informantes clave. Resultados: desde el año 1981, 42 investigaciones desarrolladas por autores cienfuegueros han obtenido premios o menciones nacionales en el concurso; desde 1996 ininterrumpidamente, todos los años se obtiene algún lauro. En el certamen provincial, entre 1998-2016, 274 trabajos se han evaluado por el tribunal provincial y se han entregado 121 premios o menciones. Ha existido estabilidad en el trabajo de los tribunales y varias personalidades lo han constituido por más de cuatro convocatorias. Conclusiones: la provincia de Cienfuegos tiene una rica tradición en la obtención de lauros en el Premio Anual de la Salud nacional; el evento provincial ha tenido calidad, fundamentada en la relevancia de las investigaciones y los investigadores, así como en la profesionalidad y apoyo institucional del concurso a nivel provincial.

  6. Impact of the Implementation of a Postgraduate Mastology Course in the Province of Cienfuegos

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    Lidia Torres Ajá

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuban medical universities are aimed at the social formation of general practitioners who incorporate knowledge and skills that allow them to develop an appropriate professional performance when facing health issues, such as breast cancer. Promoting their postgraduate training is highly important. Objective: To describe the results of the implementation of a postgraduate Mastology course. Methods: Educational research conducted in the province of Cienfuegos on the benefits reported after the implementation (from 2000 to 2010 of a postgraduate Mastology course for general practitioners. The course was taught to a group of 15 specialists in each edition. The first class was full-time taught. The second and the third one were taught twice a week. Results: A qualitative leap in the health status of breast cancer in the province of Cienfuegos and in the professional performance of specialists in general medicine as to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of breast diseases was evident. In general, there was a contribution of new elements to the provincial health system. Conclusions: The postgraduate Mastology course raised the competence standard of general practitioners.

  7. Cytogenetic Prenatal Diagnosis in the Province of Cienfuegos between 2007 and 2010

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    Pedro Alí Díaz-Véliz Jiménez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis is nowadays part of the care provided in developed countries to high-risk pregnant women and is an indispensable component of preventive genetic programs driven by the World Health Organization. Objective: To present the results of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: A chronological series study was developed at the Provincial Center of Medical Genetics of Cienfuegos on all cytogenetic prenatal diagnoses that were performed between 2007 and 2010. We analyzed causes of study, number of diagnoses and types of anomalies detected. Results: during the period analyzed, 1172 amniocentesis of pregnant patients were processed and 1076 of them were diagnosed for 91, 81 % efficiency. 85,5 % of the cases studied were women over 37 years old. 32 chromosomal abnormalities were detected. The order of frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among the positive cases was: numerical aberrations (65, 63 %, structural aberrations (18, 75 % and mosaics (15,63 %. The most common chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome with 46,88 % of total aberrations detected. Conclusions: the indicators analyzed behave similarly to those reported in literature both from our country or international.

  8. Perinatal characterization of multiple pregnancy in Cienfuegos city from 2001 to 2002

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    Mariam Zam

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancy is the gestation of more than one fetus in the uterine cavity, in this case two of them. This kind of pregnancy is considered a high obstetric risk due to its high rate in perinatal morbimortality. Objectives: to assess the morbimortality rate behavior in multiple pregnancy of two fetuses in Cienfuegos city. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study about multiple pregnancy of two fetuses was carried out in the University Hospital ¨Dr: Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨; in Cienfuegos city from 2001 to 2002. This kind of pregnancy with more than 28 weeks of gestation as well as the deliveries taken place in the above mentioned hospital constituted the sample of this investigation. The influence of this kind of pregnancy in the main perinatal morbimortality indicators was analyzed. Results: out of the total of 9 556 birth, 95 of them were of twins for a 0, 9 per cent of incidence. The increment of the maternal weight was over 12 kg. and was associated with the higher weight of the newborn baby. 61 % of the mothers presented obstetric diseases. The most frequent were preterm labor, hypertension, and premature rupture of the membrane. Cesarean delivery had the 51 % for both deliveries and its main causes were; malposition of one or both fetuses, soft parts dystocia and hypertension in the pregnancy process. The most frequent illnesses in the perinatal morbimortality were low weight at birth, fetal late antepartal death and the umbilical cord procidentia.

  9. Infantile and Juvenile Morbidity in Psychiatric Inpatients at Cienfuegos Province Morbilidad de los pacientes hospitalizados en el Servicio de Psiquiatría Infantil y Juvenil de Cienfuegos

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    Daimí Sarmiento García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown the rise in psychiatric disorders worldwide, either in children and youngsters, although these problems are not so evident to society as other health problems are . Objective: to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders according to age and sex in children and adolescents. Methods: Descriptive, transversal cohort study developed to 1181 patients who were admitted with psychiatric disorders at the psychiatric hospital from Cienfuegos province from the year 2004 to 2008, both included. Results: 65,8 % of the patients were females and 79,5 % of them were adolescents. Suicide attempt represented half 50,9 % of all the diagnostic cases. 61,7% of them belonged to the age group 11 to 14 years of age and equal percentage to the age group that included ages 15 – 18, being females 66,6% of these cases . 31,7 % of the preschoolers suffered from hyperkinetic disorders and 34 % of the school children presented with emotional disturbances. There was an annual mean of 236,5 hospital admissions. Conclusions: Suicide attempt as the first cause of psychiatric hospital admission, mainly in female adolescents is the most highlighting mental health problem at the Infantile and Juvenile Psychiatric Service in Cienfuegos province.Fundamento: diversos estudios demuestran que existe un aumento de trastornos psiquiátricos en el mundo, tanto en adultos como en la población infantil y juvenil, lo que no es tan evidente para la sociedad como otros problemas de salud. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de presentación de los trastornos psiquiátricos según edad y género en pacientes de edad infantil y juvenil. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, realizado a 1181 pacientes ingresados con trastornos psiquiátricos, en el Hospital Pediátrico de la provincia de Cienfuegos

  10. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

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    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  11. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orelvis Delgado López; Osvaldo López Corzo; Rafael Tenreyro Pérez; Juan Guillermo López Rivera

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the intern...

  12. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  13. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined...

  14. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  15. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in...

  16. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...

  17. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13...

  18. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  19. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  20. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  1. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L; Aguilar, Julio C; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  2. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  3. «Hórrido yermo de inflamada arena». Cienfuegos and Romantic Cosmic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. SEBOLD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was painful to be a journalist and poet with noble aspirations for reform during the reign of Charles IV. in the years immediately preceding, nine well known Spanish poets had already expressed in romantic form their deep anxiety and insecurity regarding the universe in which they dwelt. One of them, Meléndez Valdés, inventor of the Spanish name for romantic cosmic grief, fastidio universal, was Cienfuegos’s poetic mentor and friend. the present article explains how Cienfuegos joined the European and Spanish philosophical and literary traditions that led to the poetic expression of the afflicted romantic mentality, and how he at the same time became an outstanding innovator in this tradition.

  4. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  5. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

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    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  6. Automedicación en trabajadores de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos

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    Maira Quiros Enríquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la automedicación constituye un problema a nivel mundial por su alta incidencia y el riesgo que entraña para el bienestar de las personas que la practican. Objetivo: caracterizar la utilización de medicamentos sin prescripción médica en trabajadores no profesionales de la salud de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal donde se aplicó una entrevista a 49 trabajadores no profesionales de la salud de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Las variables más importantes estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, nivel educacional, antecedentes patológicos personales, automedicación, grupos farmacológicos utilizados y aprobación de la automedicación, las cuales fueron procesadas y sus resultados se expresan en números y porcientos. Resultados: la mayoría de los trabajadores se han automedicado al menos una vez en su vida, predominando las mujeres entre los 40 y 49 años de edad, universitarias. Los grupos farmacológicos más utilizados fueron los analgésicos y antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES, antihistamínicos y psicofármacos. Muchos de los trabajadores padecen de otras enfermedades, para las cuales toman además diversos medicamentos. La gran mayoría desaprueba la automedicación, aún aquellos que hacen uso de ella y la consideran un riesgo para su salud. Conclusiones: aún queda mucho por esclarecer sobre este fenómeno, que evidentemente constituye un problema también en nuestra sociedad por lo cual se deben encaminar los esfuerzos a promover un consumo racional y responsable de los medicamentos para garantizar la salud de la población.

  7. Stratification of Risk of Tuberculosis in People’s Councils of Cienfuegos Municipality

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    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the process of epidemiologic stratification is used as a base to categorize methodologically and in integral manner groups of population according to risk factors. Objective: accomplishing the stratification of risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in People’s Councils of Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a descriptive study in 18 People’s Councils, from 2007 to 2011 was conducted. The information got from the departments of statistics of the areas of health and Municipal Hygiene and Epidemiology units. To stratify the risks the criteria of the provincial commission of tuberculosis, the incidence of the disease in the last five years in the province and the measure of the prevalence of risk factors according to dispensarization of the year 2011 were taken into account. By means of program MapInfo 7, 5, the People’s Councils were classified as high, medium and low risk according to the moral values of the median of the incidence of cases and the average of contacts of patients white pulmonary tuberculosis, virus's prevalence of acquired been immunodeficiency, former imprisoned population, alcoholics, social cases, bigger population of 60 years and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Results: three People’s Councils were identified as high risk, 13 of medium risk and two of them as low risk. The People’s Councils classified as high risk were: Historic Center, Punta Gorda and San Lázaro that represented the 16.7 %. Conclusion: a space dispersion of risk of pulmonary tuberculosis at Cienfuegos Municipality was observed that represents an increment of the probability of the disease.

  8. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

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    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  9. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.

    1996-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  10. de la República de Cuba

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    Daniel Ponce de León Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un esbozo de las estrategias a seguir para la inserción de la información edafológica en la Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de la República de Cuba, a partir de un análisis del estado actual de desarrollo de la cartografía digital edafológica de Cuba y del desarrollo de bases de datos de la información de perfiles de suelo asociada. Se proponen una serie de tareas para lograr estos fines

  11. Integral Health Brigades. An Experience in Cienfuegos after Hurricane Denis Brigadas Integrales de Salud: Experiencia en Cienfuegos tras el paso del huracán Dennis

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    Roberto Baños García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hurricane Denis (July 2005 affected Cienfuegos province, causing great economic lost, no life was lost though. Health sector put in practice the previewed plans, including the levelled unfolding of 11 Integral Health Brigades up to the most affected places since the beginnings of the recovering phase. Objectives: to analyze the impact of the Integral Health Brigades in the affected areas. Method: For the article it were revised the statistics, enquiries to the population and workers of the health sector carried out by each Brigade, as well as the conclusions of the experience, analyzed in a provincial meeting for this purpose. Results: There was no disease outbreak, not even changes in morbidity. The psychological affection was very little. Population expressed its satisfaction for the immediate attention offered by health system. It allowed the direct work with people of greatest vulnerability and the stratification of their management in a more integral way. The labour bettered communitarian education and health promotion. Conclusions: in the most affected areas it was a necessary and positive element to elevate integral health attention to the community as part of the support to the civil defence sector.
    Fundamento: El huracán Dennis (julio 2005 afectó la provincia de Cienfuegos, causando grandes pérdidas a la economía, aunque no de vidas humanas. El sector Salud implementó los planes previstos, incluido el despliegue escalonado de 11 Brigadas Integrales de Salud a los sitios más afectados, desde el inicio de la fase recuperativa. Objetivos: Analizar el impacto de las Brigadas Integrales de Salud en el cuadro de salud de las áreas afectadas. Método: Para el artículo se revisaron los informes, estadísticas, encuestas a la población y a trabajadores del sector

  12. Major congenital defects. Relevant risk factors. Cienfuegos. 2000-2005. Malformaciones congénitas mayores. Factores de riesgo relevantes. Cienfuegos. 2000-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Barberis Pérez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Major congenital defects have an impact on perinatal mortality and morbidity with economic and social consequences. Objective: To determine the relevant risk factors linked to the occurrence of congenital defects in Cienfuegos between 2000 and 2005. Methods: A case-control study was carried out. Women with fetus or newborns with major congenital defects formed the case group (255 while the control group consisted of a similar number of healthy children selected each year by a randomized simple sample. The variables gathered by the Cuban Congenital Defects Records were studied. Chi-Square method was used with 95% of accuracy and a reliance rate of 95%; logistic regression was used with the Wald test. Results: There was a predominance of Central Nervous System defects (28, 6%. The most relevant risk factors were a history of congenital defects, smoking habits, and acute infection during the first three months, as well as belong to the third birth on. Conclusion: The most clinical relevant risks factors were the congenital defect history and the acute infection during the firs three months.

    Fundamento: Las malformaciones congénitas mayores influyen en la morbimortalidad perinatal, lo que tiene implicaciones sociales y económicas. Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo relevantes, asociados a la aparición de malformaciones congénitas mayores, en la provincia Cienfuegos en el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles no pareados. Las mujeres registradas con fetos o recién nacidos con malformaciones congénitas mayores, constituyeron el grupo de casos (255, mientras que el grupo control estuvo conformado por un número similar de niños sanos, seleccionados en cada año, por un muestreo aleatorio simple. Se estudiaron las variables recogidas en el modelo

  13. Periodontal Disease Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008 Comportamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en niños y adolescentes diabéticos de Cienfuegos en el año 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Arasay Calzada Bandomo; Esther María Castillo Betancourt

    2011-01-01

    Background: chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases are a set of entities of multifactorial etiology. Diabetes mellitus is one of the conditions with a great impact on the periodontium and its interaction with microorganisms. Objective: to characterize the behaviour of periodontal disease in children and adolescents with diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008. Method: an epidemiological, descriptive and cross-sec...

  14. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  15. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    1989 when Castro changed Cuba’s traditional revolutionary slogan from "Patria o Muerte ." (Fatherland or Death!) to "Socialismo o Muerte !" (Socialism...8217 prestigious government-affiliated publishing house, Fondo de Cultura Economics (FCE), has just been allowed to open an office in Havana. pretigou goermen

  16. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  17. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  18. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  19. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    independent labor movement, and no unified political opposition.10 Human Rights Overview Cuba has a poor record on human rights, with the government...journalists and librarians and leaders of independent labor unions 10 For further discussion of...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  20. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu; Daimí Sarmiento González; Mario Isaías Alzuri Falcato; Anais Leyva Madrigales

    2016-01-01

    Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of...

  1. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  2. The Bay of Pigs: Revisiting Two Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Museum of Playa Giron (the Bay of Pigs in the region of Cienega De Zapata, Cuba, celebrates the repulse of Brigade 2506 as the first reverse of US imperialism on the American continents. The equivalent Brigade 2506 Museum in Miami, dedicated to and maintained by the members of Brigade 2506, celebrates defeat at the Bay of Pigs as moral victory for the Cuban exiles. The forces were indeed implacable foes. Yet between the museums can be detected some curious similarities. Both present the common theme of the confrontation between forces of good and evil. Both celebrate the philosophy that dying for one’s country is the greatest good a citizen may achieve. Both museums fly the common Cuban flag. Both museums identify a common enemy: the United States of America. This article, by comparing the displays in the two museums, analyses some cultural elements of what, despite decades of separation, in some ways remains a common Cuban culture.

  3. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  4. Characteristics of the obstetric patient in critical stage in Cienfuegos province.

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    Bárbara Lucía Cabezas Poblet

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundaments: The critically ill patient has an important place in the assessment of the quality of the medical assistance since around 5 % of all females who reach a full term pregnancy without potential risk factors, become this kind of patients due to different causes. Objective: To characterize the obstetric patient in a critical state in the period that covers January 1 st 1991- December 31 st 2001 in Cienfuegos province. Method: Correlational Descriptive-retrospective study carried out at the ICU of the Clinico-Surgical University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in a 10 year period and includes the 323 critically ill obstetric patients who were admitted at that ward. The variables under study were: mother´s age parity, type of labor, past history, surgical procedures, cause of admission at the ICU, patients state at discharge and cause of death. Results: 59,1 % of the patients were aged 20-29 years . The patient´s past history was related to hypertension and bronchial asthma. The procedure most widely used was the cesarean section followed by hysterectomy as emergency. The principal cause of admission at the ICU was hypovolemic shock, pre eclampsia - eclampsia and sepsis. The major amounts of patients were discharged alive. Only 8 % died. There was a predominance of direct maternal death, highlighting among them haemorrhage and hypertension in pregnancy.

  5. Diseño orientado a elevar la seguridad en la red troncal de ETECSA Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Morejón López

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La red de ETECSA Cienfuegos así como la mayoría del resto de las redes locales territoriales de la empresa, debido a su topología actual presentan problemas de seguridad, escalabilidad, falta de supervisión, falta de privilegios y vulnerabilidad ante los fallos físicos. Para resolver esto se propone un nuevo diseño de red, que incluye acciones como: Inserción de un Conmutador Capa-3, creación de subredes para distintas funciones, creación de ACLs para el control del tráfico, mejorar el mecanismo de almacenamiento de trazas, extensión de las subredes creadas hacia las áreas principales de la empresa que se encuentran geográficamente dispersas, implementación de protocolos para automatizar el manejo de enlaces redundantes dentro de la red troncal. Con la implementación del nuevo diseño que se expone en el presente trabajo, se le da solución a los problemas existentes.

  6. Action Plan to Improve State Examination Results. Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Program. Cienfuegos, 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Núñez Martínez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the analysis of the state examination results in the 21 programs of the Health Technology undergraduate studies in the province of Cienfuegos during the 2008-2010 academic years showed four programs with largest number of failing students. Among them, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation had the highest failure rates in the 2009-2010 academic year. Objective: to implement an action plan to improve academic performance of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation students on the theoretical exercise of the state examination. Methods: a before-after intervention study was conducted from September 2008 to July 2012. It included 52 students who failed the written state examination and 100% of the students who took the exam in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic years to whom the plan was applied. Results: an improvement plan validated by experts was developed. It included actions that had an impact on low academic performance on the theoretical exercise of the state examination, as well as on the shortcomings of the design and implementation of the evaluation system. The quality of results on state examinations improved after putting the action plan into practice. Conclusion: this action plan allowed changing the unfavorable performance on state examinations in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation program during the 2008-2010 period.

  7. Conservation of the Palms (Arecaceae in the Solid Guamuhaya, county Cienfuegos

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    Duanny Suárez Oropesa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years a floristic study was carried out on the family Arecaceae, according to the vegetable formations and the altitude in the southeast region of Cienfuegos province in the Guamuaya Mountains, with the objective of knowing the state of conservation of the palms species of present. The work embraced nine towns in those that the presence of species of this gender was determined by means of the observation method, the collections were carried out in an aleatory and intensive way, keeping in mind the micros hábitats where they progress this group of plants. They were five species, two endemic local, one endemic national and two autochthonous. According to their conservation state they are threatened species. Coccothrinax crinita subsp brevicrinis Borhidi & Muñiz, with category of In Danger (IN; Coccothrinax miraguama subsp. roseocarpa (León Borhidi & Muñiz, Sabal maritima (Kunth Burret and Roystonea regia (Kunth O.F. Cook, smaller Concern (LC, intending In Critical Danger (CP to Coccothinax sp.

  8. Educational Intervention in 7- to 11-year-old Children with Malocclusions. Area VII, Cienfuegos

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    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: according to the World Health Organization, malocclusions are the third health problem in the world; consequently their detection and proper treatment are a priority. Objective: to evaluate the outcome of an educational intervention in children with malocclusions caused by oral habits. Methods: a quasi-experimental study involving 52 children with malocclusions was conducted in an elementary school in Cienfuegos from September 2010 through June 2011. First, the diagnosis was established; subsequently the Nice Smile Program was implemented on a weekly basis and finally, the results of the educational, preventive and therapeutic actions targeted at children, parents and educators were evaluated in order to reduce malocclusions and their clinical manifestations. Results: the level of awareness in children, parents and educators increased significantly, and 64.6 % of dentomaxillofacial deformities (abnormal bilabial closure, increased overjet and open bite, was eradicated; hence, there was a reduction of children with malocclusions. Conclusion: the intervention was effective since it led to increased awareness about dentomaxillofacial deformities in children, parents and educators. In addition, it contributed to the eradication of this problem in children, and in general, to the improvement of the components of the stomatognathic system.

  9. Characterization of Nosocomial Infection in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Cienfuegos 2005-2009

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    Lourdes Elena Duany Badell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: children can frequently develop nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care units. Objective: to characterize nosocomial infections in pediatric patients treated in intensive care units. Methods: a retrospective case series study was conducted in the Intensive Care Unit at Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos, between 2005 and 2009. The sample consisted of 70 patients who developed nosocomial sepsis and were admitted directly to the service. The variables studied were age, procedures performed during hospitalization, type of sepsis by site, isolated germs, microbiological support (microbiology tests and condition at discharge (recovered or deceased. Results: nosocomial infections showed a rate of 3.2 per 100 patients discharged. Children under 1 year (41.4 % were the most frequently affected. Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation was the most common infection (29.4%. Venous catheterization was used in all cases. Microbiology tests were performed in 84.2 % of cases, 85.3% of them had a positive result. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated bacteria and was also associated with highest mortality. Conclusion: nosocomial sepsis in this service was more frequent in children under one year, as a result of mechanical ventilation. Malnutrition and chronic illness were an important predisposing factor in these patients.

  10. Thoracic Trauma in the Province of Cienfuegos. A Three-year Study

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    Susan Paola Orozco Aguirre

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: thoracic traumas have a high incidence in today's society and they are very important due to the nature of the organs located inside the chest. Objective: to characterize thoracic trauma. Methods: a case series study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos. All 184 patients treated for thoracic trauma and admitted to the department in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 were studied. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, skin color, occupation, place where the accident occurred, cause of trauma, affected anatomical site, clinical presentation, treatment, patient’s condition at discharge and compliance with good clinical practice guidelines. Results: most patients were males aged 41 to 31 years. Stab wounds predominated. Pleura and lung were the most affected anatomical sites while closed pneumothorax was the most frequent clinical presentation. Adherence to good clinical practice guidelines was appropriate in 92% of the cases. Conclusions: thoracic trauma differs in some aspects when compared to other countries because of social and economic differences.

  11. Dental health state in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province.

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    Emma Gil Ojeda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The absence of consice data of some indicators in the stomatological subsystem of our province difficults the knowledge of the real situation of the dental health in our province population. Objetive: to determine some epidemiological indicators related to dental health in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province. Method: a descriptive epidemiologcal study. Methods: 253 621 patients in a range of 20 years old and more. All health areas including municipalities were taken into consideration from May to June 2004. Results: The kind of denture more demanded for its rehabilitation by the population was the upper and the lower one. The highest indicators of cavities and exodonties were found in the 35 to 59 year-old group of patient as well as in the rural areas. The anatomic localization of cavity lesions were predominant in the posterior dental sector with a relation between sectors of 1:1,7. The lowest percetange in the covering range of stomatological attention was found in the 35 to 59 year-old group with 5 and 18 % in the majority of the municipalities. Conclusions: Through this investigation the behaviour of proposed indicators were evaluated as well as the necesities of treatment to establish future strategies of work in order to improve the dental health in the population.

  12. Digital suction and family functionality in children in Health Area II. Cienfuegos.

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    Ana María Nápoles Quintero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakground: Digital suction is a pernicious habit that can produce not only alterations of dental-facial's structures, but also of child's social relationships and its self-esteem. Objective: To evaluate the existent relationship between finger suction habit in children and family functionality. Method: An analytic study of cases and controls was carried out, in girls and boys of 5th and 6th levels in 8 day-care centres belonging to Area II of Cienfuegos municipality during the course 2005-2006. The studied variables were: finger suction habit, age, level, sex, and family functionality. Family functionality was perceived through the test FF-SIL. Chi square test was used to determine the relationship among the studied variables. Results: The finger suction habit prevailed in girls; functional families prevailed in the study. Most of the children with this habit come from dysfunctional families. Conclusion: Dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families are proportionally major in the group of girls and boys with this habit, being shown the dependence between the variables finger suction and family function.

  13. Cuba's National eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ariel; Gorry, Conner

    2008-01-01

    Cuba has been building a national strategy using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health since the establishment of the National Medical Sciences Information Center (CNICM) in 1965. Back then, vital statistics and health data - considered a cornerstone of the country's new universal health system - were transmitted by hand or over the phone. As technology grew more sophisticated over the next 30 years, microprocessors and computers were integrated into the process. In 1992, reeling from economic crisis, Cuba founded the national health telematics network known as INFOMED (www.sld.cu), betting on the strategy that ICTs could be used to improve population health at low cost. From these initial efforts until today, the country has followed a policy to build and strengthen a virtual health information infrastructure.[1].

  14. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  15. Cuba - a library for multidimensional numerical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, T

    2004-01-01

    The Cuba library provides new implementations of four general-purpose multidimensional integration algorithms: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. Suave is a new algorithm, Divonne is a known algorithm to which important details have been added, and Vegas and Cuhre are new implementations of existing algorithms with only few improvements over the original versions. All four algorithms can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces.

  16. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  17. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Congress Congressional Research Service 7 only a small and tightly regulated private sector, no independent labor movement, and no unified political...75 democracy activists, including independent journalists and librarians and leaders of independent labor unions and opposition parties. At present...Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19

  18. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  19. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  20. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Sariego

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis (HT is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  1. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  2. Periodontal Disease Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008 Comportamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en niños y adolescentes diabéticos de Cienfuegos en el año 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arasay Calzada Bandomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases are a set of entities of multifactorial etiology. Diabetes mellitus is one of the conditions with a great impact on the periodontium and its interaction with microorganisms. Objective: to characterize the behaviour of periodontal disease in children and adolescents with diabetes in Cienfuegos in 2008. Method: an epidemiological, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included diabetic children and adolescents under 19 years old who attended the endocrinology clinic of the Pediatric Teaching Hospital ‘’Paquito González Cueto" in the province of Cienfuegos, from January to November 2008. The Russell’s Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were applied. The following clinical variables were considered: metabolic control, duration of diabetes mellitus and nutritional assessment. A data-collecting form was used for data analysis. For the statistical processing SPSS (15.0 and Chi square statistical tests were used. Results: a highly significant dependence between oral hygiene and the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease was found as well as a strong association between the lack of metabolic decontrol and periodontal disease. Conclusion: there is a high prevalence of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents with diabetes in the province of Cienfuegos.Fundamento: las enfermedades periodontales inflamatorias crónicas son un conjunto de entidades de etiología multifactorial, entre las afecciones con mayor repercusión sobre el periodonto en su interactuar con los microorganismos se encuentra la diabetes mellitus. Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en niños y adolescentes diabéticos en Cienfuegos en el año 2008. Método: se realizó un estudio epidemiol

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in workers of Medical Science college in Cienfuegos city. Prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en los trabajadores de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos.

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    Yadira Suaréz

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the many studies that have been carried out in the late 30 years on non transmitting diseases and the different cardiovascular risk factors, little have been published about metabolic syndrome. Objective: to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the worker population of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive, correlating study was done, with a sample of 109 persons of both sex from the worker staff of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos. The following variables were studied: sex, age, fasting glycaemia, HDL cholesterol, tryglicerids , arterial pressure, abdominal , and body mass index. Also, from these variables it was delimited the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Results: it was observed that 26.5% of the population has elevated tryglicerids, the 38.8% has low rates of HDL cholesterol, and near 60% is obese. On the other hand, the 18.4% of the studied were considered as bearers of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: the cardiovascular risk factors that more affect the workers of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos are: obesity and low rates of HDL cholesterol. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high, similar to that of some developed countries.

    Introducción: A pesar de los variados estudios que se han realizado en los últimos 30 años sobre las enfermedades no transmisibles y los diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovasculares, poco se ha publicado sobre el síndrome metabólico. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en la población de trabajadores de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional con una muestra de 109 personas de ambos sexos extraídas del universo laboral de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Se

  4. «Hórrido yermo de inflamada arena». Cienfuegos and Romantic Cosmic Pain «Hórrido yermo de inflamada arena». Cienfuegos y el dolor cósmico romántico

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    Russell P. SEBOLD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was painful to be a journalist and poet with noble aspirations for reform during the reign of Charles IV. in the years immediately preceding, nine well known Spanish poets had already expressed in romantic form their deep anxiety and insecurity regarding the universe in which they dwelt. One of them, Meléndez Valdés, inventor of the Spanish name for romantic cosmic grief, fastidio universal, was Cienfuegos’s poetic mentor and friend. the present article explains how Cienfuegos joined the European and Spanish philosophical and literary traditions that led to the poetic expression of the afflicted romantic mentality, and how he at the same time became an outstanding innovator in this tradition.Era doloroso ser periodista y poeta de nobles aspiraciones reformativas durante el reinado de Carlos IV. Ya en años inmediatamente anteriores, nueve conocidos poetas españoles habían expresado en forma romántica su honda angustia e inseguridad ante el universo en que moraban. Uno de éstos, Meléndez Valdés, inventor del nombre español del dolor cósmico romántico, fastidio universal, fue el mentor poético y amigo de Cienfuegos. En el presente artículo se explica cómo Cienfuegos reunió las tradiciones filosóficas y literarias europeas y españolas que llevaron a la expresión poética de la afligida mentalidad romántica, y cómo llegó al mismo tiempo a ser un destacado innovador en esta tradición.

  5. Impact of the Revolution´s Programs in Cienfuegos Dental Services Impacto de los programas de la Revolución en los servicios estomatológicos de la provincia de Cienfuegos

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    Yumaidy Colina Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revolution´s Programs in Stomatology are part of a strategy to improve oral health of the population and the quality of the dental services. Objective: To asses the impact of Revolution´s Programs in the primary dental services in Cienfuegos. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study evaluating the tendencies of dental services markers of municipalities of Cienfuegos before and after the intervention between 2000 and 2007. Results: The effectiveness in Stomatology services improved in more than 100% in 2007 compared with 2005; the good use of prosthesis increased in 100%; the assistance covering and resolution index for persons over 60 years and bellow 19 increased lineally, reaching values similar to those of the first years of the studied period. Conclusions: The impact of the Revolution’s Programs was positive since the performance of the studied markers was superior after the intervention.

    Fundamento: Los programas de la Revolución en Estomatología constituyen una estrategia para mejorar la salud bucal de la población y la calidad de los servicios. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de los programas de la Revolución en los servicios estomatológicos del nivel primario de salud en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo longitudinal donde se evalúan la tendencias de los indicadores de la atención estomatológica de todos los municipios de la provincia de Cienfuegos antes y después de la intervención en el período comprendido entre el año 2000 y el 2007 Resultados: La efectividad en el servicio de Estomatología General Integral creció en más de un 100 % en el 2007 respecto al 2005; el aprovechamiento de prótesis evidenció un incremento de un 100 %; la cobertura asistencial e índice de resolutividad para el mayor de 60 años y el menor de 19 a

  6. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in n

  7. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  8. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  9. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and

  10. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  11. Cuba a la Deriva en un Mundo Postcommunista (Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    turismo y ]a biotocnologia, ontro otres. Hasta ol moemnto, ne so han anunciado impertantos doscubrimiontos do yacimiontos petroliforos; on vo:, ol...rdgimon esti contande con el turismo y la biotocnologia come armas para combatir ol dotoriero ocon6mico do Cuba. Sin ombargo, ninguna do ostas doe

  12. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  13. Repercussion of the University of the older in Cienfuegos. Course 2005-2006. Repercusión de la Universidad del adulto mayor en Cienfuegos. Curso 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Goicochea Borrell

    Full Text Available The University of the older is a great opportunity in life for the retired. The need of achieving a preparation of our aged citizens and to try to make them feel useful in the society, has made possible the existence of classrooms in different places, which offer a determined program that allows the extension of knowledge of these students. In the present work, a brief exposition is made about the results of this program in the province of Cienfuegos.
    La Universidad del adulto mayor es una gran oportunidad en la vida para los jubilados. La necesidad de lograr una preparación de nuestros adultos mayores y tratar de hacerlos sentirse útil en la sociedad, ha puesto a la disposición de estos, las aulas de la Universidad del adulto mayor en diferentes lugares, las cuales brindan un programa determinado que permite la ampliación de conocimientos en estos alumnos. En el presente trabajo se hace una breve exposición de los resultados de este programa en la provincia de Cienfuegos.

  14. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    years, and Omar Rodríguez Saludes , sentenced to 27 years. Other sentenced democracy activists included economist Marta Beatriz Roque (who had been...Convertible Peso ’ No Longer Linked to U.S. Dollar,” CubaNews, April 2005, p. 3. Beginning in 1993, Cubans were allowed to own and use U.S. dollars and to...exchange their dollars for “convertible pesos ,” with a 10% surcharge for the exchange. Cubans could exchange their dollars or deposit them in banks with

  15. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  16. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  17. Cuba. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-05-01

    Cuba and Puerto Rico with a pronounced trough extending northwest- ward over this NIS Area. A region of high fre- quency of tropical storms is...i /,;. \\\\’. CEtQtRAL lUGÄRENO, N^f^NUEVlTAS hiŕ𔃻" y Cei^fRAL MANATI Puerto Padre « Marti Guäimaro • x CENTRAL i ELIA Victoria de...MANAli Marti • Puerto Padre • airnaro • # Victoria de CENTRAL ■: las Tunas V: ELIA • OMAJA VNCISCO

  18. Nursing work in Spain and Cuba: an exchange experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Villegas Dorticós

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed in 5 students from Granada that were in their working practices in Cienfuegos; mainly in policlinics, maternity homes, family doctors offices etc. as part of the agreement between Granada university and Cienfuegos Medicine School. Our experience has been very positive both, in the professional and personal field. The interchange between paramedical staff of both countries developed solidarity and humanism. This exchange allows knowing the high degree of transmissible diseases due to immigrants' arrival, lack of epidemiological control and waste of material and money. We can assure that the main achievement of this experience was encounter of these visitors with other Spanish students and teachers in the University of Granada. This activity was different from the traditional university lecture.

  19. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos was conducted between 2008 and 2012. Demographic variables, in addition to variables related to clinical data and pharmacotherapeutic aspects were analyzed. Results: sixty five point seven percent of patients were adolescents and 77.1% were of urban origin. The most common diagnoses were acute and transient psychotic disorder and schizophrenia. Sixty three percent had a family history of psychiatric disorder. Forty percent were treated with trifluoperazine and an equal percent took haloperidol. Psychotic symptoms were controlled in 58% of patients during the first weeks. Conclusion: white adolescent patients from urban areas with a family history of psychiatric illness predominated. They received regular psychiatric attention and experienced the symptoms for a short time before being treated. The most frequently prescribed medications were typical antipsychotic drugs, which caused adverse reactions in a third of the patients. In the first few weeks, psychotic symptoms were controlled in most patients, although half of them experienced a recurrence of symptoms, which evolved into conditions with worse prognosis.

  20. Formas de diagnóstico y discapacidades por lepra en la provincia de Cienfuegos de 1980 a 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moisés Sabatés Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la lepra es una enfermedad crónica y transmisible que acompaña al hombre desde sus inicios. Es capaz, en su evolución, de producir grandes deformidades muy temidas por los pacientes. Objetivo: describir la forma de diagnóstico y las discapacidades por lepra en la provincia de Cienfuegos de 1980 a 2005. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de serie de casos sobre pacientes con diagnóstico de lepra en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Se analizaron las variables: forma de diagnóstico (precoz o tardío, la existencia de discapacidades. El procesamiento de la información se realizó empleando el programa SPSS, para lo cual se creó una base de datos con las variables antes referidas.  Resultados: la proporción y tendencia de la forma de detección, precoz o tardío fue variable, en general predominaron los casos con diagnóstico precoz y sin incapacidad. Conclusiones: se evidenció, mediante la serie estudiada, la importancia de un diagnóstico precoz para evitar la aparición de discapacidades, pues a medida que aumenta el número de diagnóstico precoz disminuye proporcionalmente el número de discapacidades en los enfermos.

  1. In-hospital Mortality due to Respiratory Diseases in the Provincial Hospital of Cienfuegos. 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuva Leyva Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: in-hospital mortality is a health indicator commonly used as a measure of quality of care. Respiratory diseases are a major cause of deaths in hospitals. Objective: to describe mortality from respiratory diseases at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive study of all patients over 18 years old who died from respiratory diseases in the hospital of Cienfuegos from 2010 to 2014 was conducted. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, length of stay, services where the patients died, cause of death, and associated diseases. Results: there was an increase in patients admitted for respiratory diseases and a higher mortality from these diseases (36.2%. Males (54.7%, patients over 75 years (62.5%, and those admitted to internal medicine wards (39.2% predominated. Forty eight point eight percent died within the first 72 hours. The most common respiratory conditions were: pneumonia/bronchopneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer, respectively. Sixty three point four percent of the cases developed associated diseases, mainly cardiovascular conditions (26.6%. Conclusions: respiratory diseases are responsible for high in-hospital mortality; the most common causes are pneumonia/bronchopneumonia, mainly in males and in patients older than 75 years.

  2. The Contribution of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital to Medical Education in Cienfuegos, 1979-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical review of the contribution of the Dr. Gustavo Alderguía Lima Hospital to the emergence and development of higher medical education in Cienfuegos, emphasizing on the early stages. It highlights the fact that, true to the provincial tradition, everything was organized, implemented and developed with our own professionals. It includes some events that demonstrate the role played by this institution, its faculty, workers in general, and undergraduate and graduate students in achieving better health and education in the province, as well as the integration with other institutions. A group of difficulties and challenges in the field of teaching faced by the hospital for almost four decades is also discussed. It is argued that the university hospital of the future in Cienfuegos must be based on the general policies of our health system, but adapting them to the local context to be consistent with Marti's dream "with all and for the good of all", bearing in mind that we have to fulfill the mandate that the hospital must be “a symbol of the health, life, and happiness of the people of Cienfuegos” and that “it is impossible to close the doors”.

  3. Clinical and Epidemiological behavior of Acute Dentoalveolar Abscess in Patients of the Health Area VII in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: acute dentoalveolar abscess is a dental emergency and one of the major condition affecting the population; however, there are few studies on the subject. Objective: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of acute dentoalveolar abscess in patients of the health area VII in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2013 in the Health Area VII, Cienfuegos. The universe consisted of 672 patients and the sample included 374 individuals selected by simple random sampling. Primary data recording and data collection was obtained from medical records prior informed consent of the patients. The main variables were age, sex, pulp irritating agents. Results: females were more affected with 55, 35% and the 19-34 year age group with 33.69%. The main pulp irritator was microbial, 59.36%. Among the iatrogenic factors, the remains of decayed tissues were significant with 32.35%. Conclusions: there is a high number of patients with acute dentoalveolar abscess, thus, as a dental emergency, the dentist should know the characteristics and factors that develop the disease to promote a comprehensive job in terms of health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of affected patients.

  4. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare.

  5. Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  6. La agricultura urbana en la ciudad de Cienfuegos: ejes estratégicos en pos de la sostenibilidad agrícola. Urban agriculture in the city of Cienfuegos: strategic areas towards agricultural sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Asunción Moreno Lorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento progresivo de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, su población y el incremento del número de fuentes de contaminación atmosférica, que afectan cada vez más la salud de la población, revelan la necesidad de perfeccionar el Ordenamiento Territorial y Urbano, así como las políticas de manejo territorial que contribuyan a su sostenibilidad. Por ello, es objetivo de la investigación caracterizar la agricultura urbana que se realiza en la ciudad de Cienfuegos y determinar los ejes estratégicos, para la realización ulterior de su plan de ordenamiento territorial y urbano. La transformación de la agricultura urbana demanda de un proceso de ordenamiento territorial y urbano del sector que permita el mejor aprovechamiento de los recursos y el manejo sostenible. Para la determinación de los ejes estratégicos se procedió con métodos participativos a elaborar la visión de futuro deseada para la agricultura urbana, con la elaboración de la matriz DAFO, que representa una técnica pertinente para el análisis estratégico y la formulación del problema y la solución. La identificación y caracterización de variables y análisis espacial mediante un Sistema de Información Geográfica, permitieron determinar los impactos positivos y negativos en su entorno urbanístico, ambiental, económico y social, enunciando los ejes estratégicos para el ordenamiento urbano. El artículo presente da cuenta de esa experiencia. The progressive growth of the city of Cienfuegos, its population and increase of the number of sources of air pollution, affecting increasingly health of the population, reveal the need for improve the land use and urban and policies land management that contribute to sustainability. Therefore, it is research objective to characterize urban agriculture that held in the city of Cienfuegos and determine the strategic axes, for the further implementation of its plan of land use and urban. The transformation of urban agriculture

  7. Determination of the learning needs of doctors working in the Mountain Plan in Cienfuegos province. Determinación de las necesidades de aprendizaje de los médicos del Plan Turquino en la provincia de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández Urquiza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is of great importance for the country´s educational strategy the constant studying of the staff already formed either technically or professionally . The actions within the Post graduate subsystem have been growing in organisation and maturity. The learning are determined and priorised taking into account the improving principles of the determination of the health personnel needs, the population needs and their level of satisfaction. Objectives: To carry out the diagnosis of the professional´s learning needs who are working at hospitals and consultations offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos province. Method: It is a qualitative research . The universe is formed by the staff working at the 2 hospitals and the 18 consultation offices at the Turquino Plan in Cienfuegos. The methods used are: Observation, Interviews to experts, Surveys and Group Dynamics. The techniques were applied taking into consideration David Leyva´s deductive model and Peter Park Investigation in Action. Results: learning needs were identified derived from professional competence . The Infrastructure problems that limit such competence was also defined

    Fundamento : Es de sumo interés para la estrategia educacional del país la constante superación de los recursos humanos ya formados técnica y profesionalmente. Las acciones dentro del subsistema de posgrado han ido ganando en organización y madurez. Entre los principios del perfeccionamiento está la determinación de las necesidades del personal de salud, a partir de las necesidades que se detectan y el nivel de satisfacción de la población; se determinan de esta forma las necesidades de aprendizaje y sus prioridades. Objetivos: Realizar diagnóstico de las necesidades de aprendizaje de los profesionales (médicos que se encuentran laborando en los hospitales y los consultorios

  8. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  9. Heavy metal determination by X-rays spectrometry in superficial sediments at Havana Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelen, Alina; Izquierdo, Walter; Lopez, Neivy; Corrales, Yasser; Casanova, Amaya O.; Diaz, Oscar; Manso, Maria V.; D' Alessandro, Katia [Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: alina@instec.cu; Reyes, Enma; Toledo, Carlos [Central Laboratory Criminology, Havana (Cuba); Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marlen; Ramirez, Marta [Engineering Centre for Environmental Management of Bays and Coasts, Havana (Cuba)], E-mail: beltran@cimab.transnet.cu; Soto, Jesus [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)], E-mail: sotoj@unican.es

    2007-07-01

    Havana Bay is a typical bag-type located in the Western-North Coast of the Republic of Cuba. Since 1980 it has been the object of a study for sea bottom rehabilitation and improvement of quality of the waters, where the final objective will be the recovery of the coastal and marine ecosystem. Thirteen surface samples of the Havana Bay (Cuba) were collected and analysed by X-Rays spectrometry. Some majority elements (Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Cl, Al, Fe, Mg, C and O) were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with microanalysis to perform geomorphologic analysis. Nine elements (Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr and Pb) have been measured using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) with a Si(Li) detector. Multivariate statistical was used for the analysis. The concentration levels showed this bay as the most polluted in Cuba. The highest contents of Cu, Zn and Pb were obtained in Atares and Marimelena Cove; these elements are indicators of urban as well as industrial pollution. (author)

  10. Counter-Insurgency in Cuba: Why Did Batista Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    influence on society.9 Cuba lacked a strong democratic tradition. The political traditions, transplanted by Spain to the New World, were feudal in nature...following causative factors: 1. Colonial history that emphasized a Spanish feudal model. 2. The respect for stronJ centralized authority embodied in the...by Andres Valdespino in the mid 1950s as a political organization dedicated to solving Cuba’s political instability. - Sociedad de Amigos de la

  11. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P.K.; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a ...

  12. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  13. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  14. Update on Comprehensive Management of Cholera. Recommendations of the Expert Workshop. Cienfuegos 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lina Valdés Gómez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a reemerging disease that was reintroduced into Cuba in late 2012. A provincial workshop attended by 83 professionals from the health institutions in the territory was developed on August 27, 2014 in order to analyse the technical elements for prevention and management of cholera outbreaks and to improve the provincial prevention and control plan for this disease. Group techniques including brainstorming and focus group were applied. Finally, the groups met to present their recommendations and approve the document. Main areas for improvement are related to: keeping an intensive training program, particularly for new professionals and technicians; having safe means for disinfecting and washing contaminated clothes; developing a health promotion and prevention strategy related to “clean hands” and “safe drinking water”; improving the information flow and intra- and inter-sectoral collaboration. It is concluded that the cholera prevention and control plan comprises the technical elements for an appropriate response; however, it can be improved by means of new training and control actions, increased risk perception among health professionals and in the communities, effective control of events and improved networking and inter-sectoral work.

  15. Virtual Visit - Cuba/March 30 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Visitor Centre

    2016-01-01

    No próximo dia 30/03/2016, o Centro de Promoción Cultural Comunitário KCHO ESTUDIO ROMERILLO (http://www.kchoestudio.com/proyecto/Kcho%20Estudio%20Romerillo,%20Laboratorio%20para%20el%20Arte/) realizará uma Visita Virtual ao Experimento ATLAS, no Centro Europeu de Pesquisa Nuclear, o CERN, na Suíça. Em CUBA, a visita será coordenada pelos professores Amadeu Albino Junior (IFRN - BRASIL), Anderson Guimarães Guedes (UFRN – Brasil). Na Suíça, o detector será apresentado por Denis Oliveira Damazio (BNL/CERN). Após uma curta apresentação sobre o LHC e o Detector ATLAS, os participantes poderão fazer perguntas sobre a experiência.

  16. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  17. La obra de Mariano Benlliure en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna Enrique, Martha Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el estudio de la obra escultórica de Mariano Benlliure Gil en Cuba. Justamente los dos trabajos de mayor envergadura del maestro valenciano en la isla caribeña son el panteón de la familia Falla Bonet, ubicado en el Cementerio de Colón, y el grupo escultórico de tema taurino El coleo. No obstante, existen otras piezas de mediano y pequeño formato de las que también nos hacemos eco en este artículo. Este valioso conjunto de obras procede de la afición al coleccionismo de a...

  18. Cuba, desarrollo, dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel J. Fresneda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reexamina la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente en Cuba, observando las variables de dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural. Busca distinguir cómo, a pesar de haber existido una desconexión política en la isla, su estrategia de desarrollo socialista enfrenta retos significativos que están determinados por el grado de heterogeneidad de su economía y por la profundidad de su dependencia al sistema de intercambio mundial. Como desafíos más importantes para la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente, se denotan: a evaluar los efectos de la incorporación de actores supranacionales en los marcos de una heterogeneidad estructural, por la insuficiencia de financiamientos y capital; y b proponer un desarrollo endógeno a partir de la incorporación del capital humano logrado en la isla.

  19. MEDIO SIGLO DE VIVIENDA SOCIAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania González Couret

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El próximo año 2010 cumple un siglo el primer barrio obrero proyectado y construido en Cuba. Después de 1959 la vivienda cubana se ha caracterizado por un estándar general y uniforme correspondiente al modelo de la vivienda social masiva nacida en Europa a inicios del siglo XX, y a diferencia de lo que sucede en otros países en desarrollo, continúa siendo una responsabilidad del Estado. El artículo ofrece una panorámica de la evolución y tendencias de la vivienda social en Cuba durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Los inicios en los anos '60s se caracterizaron por la búsqueda de tecnologías apropiadas y nuevas formas de expresión para la vivienda social masiva de un país en desarrollo y en Revolución, intentando "erradicar" las condiciones habitacionales precarias, y las diferencias entre la ciudad y el campo. A partir de los 70s la vivienda cubana se vio comprometida con los sistemas de prefabricación de alta tecnología, como vía para dar solución a la demanda masiva. En los '80s cobró fuerza la conservación de los centros urbanos tradicionales y la crisis de los '90s obligó a abandonar definitivamente la industrialización pesada y buscar soluciones "alternativas". El trabajo concluye con el debate actual.

  20. Seguridad del paciente con trastorno mental en el Sistema de Salud Mental de la provincia de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Cordero Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El tema de la seguridad del paciente en el Sistema de Salud Mental constituye una necesidad impostergable de estudio, análisis, investigación e implementación. El objetivo de este trabajo es enfocar dicho tema como la integración de tres grandes sistemas: seguridad asistencial, seguridad tecnológica y seguridad logística. El sistema de salud mental en la provincia Cienfuegos, es abordado en algunos de los tópicos tratados, pero la mayoría de los contenidos es aplicable a nivel nacional, pues van desde la práctica asistencial propiamente dicha hasta cuestiones legales y éticas.

  1. Caracterización clínico-epidemiológica de pacientes con herpes simple en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Curbelo Alonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el herpes simple es una afección frecuente, considerada como una infección de transmisión sexual, sin embargo no es habitual notificarla. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a pacientes con virus del herpes simple en Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, que incluyó 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de herpes simple, que acudieron a las consultas de Dermatología en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, en el periodo de enero a junio de 2007. Se analizaron: edad, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes patológicos familiares, edad de comienzo de las primeras lesiones, tipo de infección, localización y factores desencadenantes de las lesiones. Resultados: la infección fue más frecuente en edades entre 35 y 44 años, sexo femenino y color de piel blanca; la mayoría negó antecedentes patológicos familiares. La edad de aparición de la enfermedad fue después de los 15 años; prevaleció la recurrencia sobre la incidencia. La boca se presentó como el sitio de localización más frecuente; el estrés, la exposición al sol y los trastornos digestivos resultaron ser los posibles factores que desencadenaron la enfermedad. Conclusiones: la enfermedad se presenta fundamentalmente en pacientes con edad media de 34 años, de color de piel blanca y sexo femenino. Su principal localización es peribucal.

  2. Análisis y predicción de la incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Danilo Pacheco González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la eliminación de la tuberculosis como problema de salud pública precisa el perfeccionamiento de las acciones preventivas sobre los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva.Objetivo: analizar la incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva en el municipio Cienfuegos durante 1995-2013 y establecer pronóstico para el cuatrienio 2014- 2017.Métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo que incluyó 133 casos de pacientes con baciloscopia positiva notificados. Se analizó: edad, sexo, área de salud, resultado de la baciloscopia, demora y lugar de diagnóstico. La predicción fue realizada con el modelo suavizado exponencial de Brown.Resultados: la baciloscopia positiva presentó una tendencia decreciente, representó el 56,1 % del total de casos de tuberculosis pulmonar. Predominaron los enfermos masculinos y el grupo de edades de 60 años y más. El 84,2 % de los casos presentó codificaciones altas en los exámenes microscópicos de esputo realizados. Menos del 52 % de los diagnósticos fueron realizados en la atención primaria de salud y solo el 50 % se enmarcó dentro del tiempo establecido por el programa como indicador operacional. Se predice que ocurrirá un discreto descenso de casos nuevos de pacientes con baciloscopia positiva en los próximos cuatro años. Conclusiones: eliminar la tuberculosis como problema sanitario es posible a mediano plazo en Cienfuegos; sin embargo el incumplimiento persistente de los indicadores que evalúan las acciones preventivas realizadas en los casos con baciloscopia positiva es y será un obstáculo serio para reducir la morbilidad y transmisibilidad de la enfermedad en la localidad.

  3. Cáncer de tiroides. Caracterización en la provincia de Cienfuegos (2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Enrique Galeano Tenorio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de tiroides es el carcinoma endocrino más común, aunque solo represente un 1% del total de tipos cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres, apareciendo fundamentalmente en las edades comprendidas entre los 25 y 65 años.Objetivo: caracterizar el comportamiento del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, ambiespectivo, de corte longitudinal, con un total de 62 pacientes operados en el servicio de Cirugía General del hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, durante el quinquenio 2006-2010. Las variables estudiadas: tasas de incidencia anual, edad, sexo, localización y tipo histológico del tumor, y estado actual de los pacientes. Resultados: el mayor número de pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino, siendo el carcinoma papilar la variante histológica más diagnosticada (85,19 %. La incidencia mayor se registró en el año 2010. El grupo edades de 41 a 50 años fue el más representativo. El mayor número de cánceres (79,03 % se diagnosticaron en el estadio I. Conclusiones: la propia incidencia elevada del cáncer de tiroides en la provincia de Cienfuegos, en los últimos cinco años, ha hecho que la vigilancia sobre esta afección se haya incrementado, lo cual se evidencia por el diagnóstico en etapas tempranas, resultado de este estudio.

  4. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  5. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M G; Valdés, L; Carbonel, I; del Rosario, D; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J; Delgado, J; Cabrera, M V

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled.

  6. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban government stated its intent...

  8. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for...

  9. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  10. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent...

  11. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in §...

  12. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  13. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a...

  14. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  15. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and...

  16. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for...

  17. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  18. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  19. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Delgado López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the internet wereused. Through this method of research it was possible to understand the theoretical aspect ofunconventional gas, the definition of the unconventional gas types that can be present in Cuba andthe most perspectives areas in order to begin its exploration. From these results it is possible toconclude that: The term unconventional gas is used because of the unconventional technical used formake the production of natural gas profitable from low quality reservoirs, and not because it is ahydrocarbon with different characteristics. The main unconventional gas types, which are beingdeveloped nowadays worldwide, are: Tight gas, shale gas y coal bed methane. Preliminarily, in Cubaonly exist conditions for tight and shale gas development.

  20. Victoria Brú Sánchez and the epidemic of influenza in Cienfuegos, 1918 Victoria Brú Sánchez y la epidemia de Influenza de 1918 en Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Dario Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brief biographical data are exposed about the nurse Victoria Brú Sánchez, such as her birth, childhood and adolescent years. Some factors are mentioned that influenced in their vocational orientation toward the Infirmary, such as her family antecedents and personal experiences when witnessing other epidemics that whipped our population in those years. We refer too her life as student of the School of Nurses in the Hospital Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de La Habana. It is mentioned as well all the places where she worked after graduation and the different positions that she occupied during its brief, but brilliant, professional life. The most characteristic features in her personality and her self-denying and heroic behavior, are analyzed, principally during the epidemic of Influenza that affected Cienfuegos in the year 1918, moment in which she lost the life trying to help other people.Se exponen breves datos biográficos de la enfermera Victoria Brú Sánchez, en cuanto a su nacimiento, infancia y juventud. Se mencionan algunos factores que influyeron en su orientación vocacional hacia la enfermería, tales como sus antecedentes familiares y vivencias personales al presenciar otras epidemias que azotaban a nuestra población en aquellos años. Se describe suscintamente su etapa de alumna de la Escuela de Enfermeras del Hospital Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes de La Habana y, una vez graduada, se mencionan todos los lugares donde trabajó y los distintos cargos que ocupó durante su breve, pero brillante, vida profesional. Se analizan los rasgos más característicos de su personalidad y su comportamiento abnegado y heroico durante la epidemia de Influenza que afectó a Cienfuegos en el año 1918, donde perdió la vida en el cumplimiento de su deber y por lo cual se convirtió en mártir de la enfermería cubana.

  1. Saharan dust events measured at Camaguey, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuna, J.; Estevan, R.; Barja, B.

    2012-12-01

    Using AERONET level 2.0 dataset from Camagüey, Cuba, Saharan Dust events have been measured from 2009 to the present. The sunphotometer, operated by GOAC in cooperation with RIMA (Red Iberica de Medicion de Aerosoles) has been also contributing to AERONET. Five Saharan dust events AOD measured in July 2009 have been compared with Spatio-temporal coincident MODIS (both from Aqua and Terra instruments) measurements of AOD. Also the SKIRON model AOD forecasts for the same period over Camagüey were compared with local measurements. The daily average values of the sunphotometer measured AOD and modeled forecasted AOD show a better agreement than the rest of the combinations of AOD selection criteria tested, but still notable differences are present. The lack of background aerosols AOD in the forecast produces additional differences in the absence of Saharan dust. In the case of the long range transport of Saharan aerosols the forecasted AOD values are higher than the measured ones. The differences daily mean sunphotometer AOD and the daily mean areal MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) AOD are lower than the differences between the daily maximum sunphotometer AOD and the daily areal maximum MODIS (both from Terra and Aqua) AOD. The mean areal AOD MODIS values (both for Terra and Aqua) underestimates the high aerosols concentrations and overestimates the lower ones, measured by the sunphotometer. New research is underway, covering the 2009 and 2010 Saharan dust events. Preliminary results are shown.

  2. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  3. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  4. Bayes and empirical Bayes: do they merge?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Sonia; Scricciolo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference is attractive for its coherence and good frequentist properties. However, it is a common experience that eliciting a honest prior may be difficult and, in practice, people often take an {\\em empirical Bayes} approach, plugging empirical estimates of the prior hyperparameters into the posterior distribution. Even if not rigorously justified, the underlying idea is that, when the sample size is large, empirical Bayes leads to "similar" inferential answers. Yet, precise mathematical results seem to be missing. In this work, we give a more rigorous justification in terms of merging of Bayes and empirical Bayes posterior distributions. We consider two notions of merging: Bayesian weak merging and frequentist merging in total variation. Since weak merging is related to consistency, we provide sufficient conditions for consistency of empirical Bayes posteriors. Also, we show that, under regularity conditions, the empirical Bayes procedure asymptotically selects the value of the hyperparameter for ...

  5. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in...

  6. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  7. Educación en el trabajo en la disciplina Medicina General Integral. Municipio Cienfuegos. Curso 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Vitalia León Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la educación en el trabajo es la forma fundamental de organización del proceso docente educativo en la carrera de Medicina, su principal objetivo es contribuir a la formación de habilidades que caracterizan las actividades profesionales del egresado de ciencias médicas. Objetivo: identificar factores relacionados con el desarrollo de la educación en el trabajo en la disciplina Medicina General Integral en las áreas del municipio Cienfuegos. Métodos: investigación pedagógica en la que se utilizaron métodos teóricos, de análisis y síntesis. Se aplicó una entrevista estructurada a profesores de experiencia docente en la disciplina Medicina General Integral, en el curso 2011-2012. Se analizaron: categoría docente y científica de los profesores, planificación de la educación en el trabajo, cantidad de asignaturas recibidas en los consultorios. Resultados: el 64, 8% de los profesores no tenía categoría docente, la totalidad de los categorizados eran instructores. El 6,5 % poseía la categoría de máster. Se utilizó el 83,3 % de los consultorios para la asignatura de Medicina General Integral de sexto año, seguida de la de quinto y primer año. Más del 55 % de los profesores recibió en sus consultorios siete asignaturas o más y solamente el 18, 5 % recibió de una a tres. Conclusiones: dentro de los principales factores relacionados con la educación en el trabajo de la disciplina Medicina General Integral, en el municipio Cienfuegos durante el curso 2011-2012, estuvieron la poca preparación docente e investigativa de los profesores, falta de planificación para dicha actividad y la confluencia de gran cantidad de asignaturas en un mismo consultorio.

  8. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965), 51-67; Paul Castro, " Problemas del faicimandento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialista, No. 55 (March 1966...34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965, 51-67; and iFail Castro, " Problemas del ffncionamiento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialists, No. 55 (March...mtica del Partido Comnista de Cuba: Tesis5 Resolucion La Habana: Departamentod Orienacin volucianaria del Ccmite Central del PCC, 1976), pp. 114-116. 64

  9. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  10. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings.

  11. Pay Inequality in Cuba: the Special Period and After

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of pay inequality in Cuba from the early 1990s through 2004, during what was known as the “Special Period in Times of Peace” and after. We measure pay inequality across sectors and regions, using the between-groups component of Theil’s T statistic, and we map the changing components of that statistic in order to provide a compact summary of structural change in Cuba. This method helps us to observe the transition of the Cuban economy from one based fundamenta...

  12. El V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe RUÍZ ALONSO

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN: El artículo describe de forma prolija el desarrollo y resultados del V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba celebrado en La Habana eri octubre de 1997. Por el papel hegemónico del Partido Comunista Cubano en el sistema político cubano, las conclusiones del citado congreso pueden ser interpretadas como elementos claves de reflexión en el marco de la situación económica y política de Cuba.ABSTRACT: This article describes in a detailed manner the development and results of the V Congr...

  13. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.

  14. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archicon...

  15. Neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en tumores sólidos. Hospital General Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos Enero 2009- 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Luisa Jiménez Madrigal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y retrospectivo referente al comportamiento de la neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en tumores sólidos en el período comprendido Enero 2009- 2013 atendido en el servicio de oncología del Hospital General Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos de la provincia Sancti-Spíritus. La población la conformaron 230 enfermos neutropénicos relacionados con la quimioterapia. La investigación describe de forma general la relación existente entre la neutropenia con la quimioterapia, localización tumoral, entidades nosológicas asociadas, edad, sexo, tratamientos quimioterapéuticos y antibióticos más utilizados. Pudo observarse que existe alta incidencia de neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer de pulmón, el grupo más afectado fue el de 50-59 años predominando el sexo femenino con un alto índice de hipertensos asociados. Los tratamientos más utilizados fueron Etopóxido-Platino y Ceftrixone-Amikacina.

  16. DESARROLLANDO LA GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO. UN CASO DE ESTUDIO: CENTRO METEOROLÓGICO PROVINCIAL DE CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Curbelo Valladares

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available

    El trabajo tiene como objetivo la elaboración de una propuesta de lineamientos metodológicos para desarrollar la gestión del conocimiento en el Centro Meteorológico Provincial de Cienfuegos. Se utilizaron varias técnicas y métodos que contribuyeron a la recopilación y procesamiento de la información obtenida, entre ellos se destacan: las encuestas, la revisión de documentos, observación directa, el método de los escenarios, el método Delphi y el método Saaty. Los lineamientos metodológicos que se proponen son de utilidad para emprender una primera etapa de organización de la gestión del conocimiento en el marco de la organización, y son el producto de la aplicación de un proceso de análisis y síntesis sobre casos prácticos en que desarrollar esta perspectiva ha tenido éxito. Es de resaltar además el enfoque de recursos y capacidades desarrollado en el trabajo para elaborar la propuesta.

  17. Cuba. Escenarios demográficos hacia 2030 Cuba. Demographic scenarios towards 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un ensayo de construcción de escenarios demográficos para Cuba hacia 2030, introduciendo los elementos fundamentales del cambio de la población a partir de las tendencias recientes observadas en las variables que determinan su dinámica, se debaten los elementos que se consideran claves para modelar su posible evolución, dado que en un contexto como el actual, pronosticar el comportamiento futuro de la población, por lo menos hasta un mediano plazo y con la mayor precisión posible, se convierte en un instrumento esencial para ofrecer criterios cada vez más refinados para la conformación de las políticas orientadas al alcance de las mejores condiciones posibles en el proceso de desarrollo económico del país.

  18. Cyathura specus, a new cave Isopod from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1965-01-01

    During the years 1958-1960, several shipments of specimens collected in the Caguanes Caves of Cuba were sent to the United States National Museum by GILBERTO SILVA TABOADA. Mr. SILVA'S collections included 3 specimens of a blind anthurid isopod, which I determined to be a species of Cyathura, simila

  19. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implem

  20. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  1. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  2. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    soldiers “ encomiendas ” or “jurisdiction over geographic areas”31 and the right to tax the indigenous population and to force them to work for the...Empire in 1521.”35 The discovery of gold led many to leave Cuba and, in order to encourage the settlers to stay, the Spanish gave “ encomiendas ” “to

  3. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  4. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-23

    disgraced, no one was safe."ś I agree with Schulz when he says that a golpe de estado is unlikely in Cuba in the near future." Fidel Castro has...Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay .94 Taking this into consideration, the best course of action for the United States would seem to

  5. Some Interesting Data About Women Physicists in Cuba (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias

    2009-04-01

    Although the number of women physicists in Cuba, as in the entire world, is less than men physicists, their presence in the academic leadership is strong, unlike the limited women's role in many other countries. Some interesting numeral data are presented to demonstrate this affirmation. This fact emphasizes the advantages reached by women and the increasing prestige obtained by women physicists in our country.

  6. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  7. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  8. Reflexions on multidisciplinarity and geologic risk management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbán Rodríguez Liber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological risk management has special relevance in construction and the creation of new infrastructure in Cuba. The aim of this work was to focus on making some reflections about the multidisciplinarity analysis of geological risk management in the country from a critical perspective

  9. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  10. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  11. Characterization of facial burns from maxillofacial surgery. Cienfuegos 2005 - 2007 Caracterización de las quemaduras faciales desde la cirugía máxilo facial. Cienfuegos 2005 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cristina Jiménez Beato

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A descriptive study and retrospective study with 87 patients for facial burns, were treated at the Burn Service of the Hospital General Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "Cienfuegos between January 2005 and September 2007. Objective: To characterize the care of patients with facial burns to help develop knowledge, attitudes and skills medical - surgery in the maxillofacial surgeon. Method: the source of information used were the records of patient care in the emergency department Burned Service and these data were selected that identified the patients as well as other related directly with facial burns. For each patient, more severe burning classified according to their size and depth. Results: In this study facial burns were more frequent in females aged 16 to 34 years, the most common cause of these lesions was in contact with boiling liquids as the predominant type skin burns, with extensions between 2 and 4% of the face area. In 44 patients affected centers facial structures, so predominant involvement of the ears. The priest most used in the facial region was the stop with silver sulfadiazine. Approximately 50% of patients were affected in the organs of sense, particularly in the ears, Conclusion: The traumatic facial burns are more severe conditions than any other location for the possible commitment to the airways.Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo con 87 pacientes que por sufrir quemaduras faciales, fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos entre enero del 2005 y septiembre del 2007. Objetivo: caracterizar la atención al paciente con quemaduras faciales para contribuir al desarrollo de conocimientos, actitudes y aptitudes médico – quirúrgicas en el cirujano m

  12. Digital suction and family functionality in children in Health Area II. Cienfuegos. Succión digital y funcionamiento familiar en niños. Área II. Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl López Fernández

    Full Text Available

    Bakground: Digital suction is a pernicious habit that can produce not only alterations of dental-facial's structures, but also of child's social relationships and its self-esteem. Objective: To evaluate the existent relationship between finger suction habit in children and family functionality. Method: An analytic study of cases and controls was carried out, in girls and boys of 5th and 6th levels in 8 day-care centres belonging to Area II of Cienfuegos municipality during the course 2005-2006. The studied variables were: finger suction habit, age, level, sex, and family functionality. Family functionality was perceived through the test FF-SIL. Chi square test was used to determine the relationship among the studied variables. Results: The finger suction habit prevailed in girls; functional families prevailed in the study. Most of the children with this habit come from dysfunctional families. Conclusion: Dysfunctional and severely dysfunctional families are proportionally major in the group of girls and boys with this habit, being shown the dependence between the variables finger suction and family function.

    Fundamento: La succión digital es un hábito pernicioso que puede producir no sólo alteraciones de las estructuras dentofaciales, sino también de las relaciones sociales del niño y su autoestima. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación existente entre el hábito de succión del dedo en el niño con el funcionamiento familiar. Método: Se realizó un estudio analítico, de casos y controles, en niñas y niños de 5to y 6to año de vida de 8 círculos infantiles pertenecientes al Área II del municipio de Cienfuegos durante el curso escolar 2005-2006. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron: hábito de succión del dedo, edad, año de vida, sexo, y funcionamiento familiar. Mediante la prueba FF-SIL se

  13. Deforming buccal habits in children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos. 2005. Hábitos bucales deformantes en niños de 5 a 11 años. Cienfuegos, 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie María Padilla Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are very complex neuromuscular patterns. Deforming buccal habits can obstruct the normal growth and development of stomatognathic system. Objective: To characterize subjects with deforming habits. Method: An observational, descriptive and correlacional study was developed in 341 children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos from December 2004 to September 2005. In addition to the clinical examination, an interview was performed to parents/tutors and teachers. Data was collected in a data formulary and variables as age, sex, deforming buccal habits and dentomaxillofacial anomalies were analyzed. Findings: Deforming buccal habits frequency was 79%. The most common habits were lingual protraction (47, 2%, baby bottle suction (32, 6% and onychophagia (23, 5%, all of them predominant in girls. 75% of the children with these habits developed anomalies; being vestibule-version (21, 1%, increased over bite (20,2% and bilabial incompetence (17,9% the most frequent. Conclusions: It was confirmed that deforming Buccal habits are a health problem that affects the stomatognathic system. This should be treated by the General Integral Dentist in a systematic and direct way.
    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza muy compleja. La práctica de los hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático. Objetivo: Caracterizar los portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional, en 341 niños de 5 a 11 años, del municipio Cienfuegos, en el período de diciembre 2004 a septiembre 2005. Además del examen clínico, se realizó entrevista a padres/tutores y maestros de cada niño. La información fue almacenada en un formulario de

  14. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  15. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  16. Análisis de los procesos de renovación de las aguas de la Bahía de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cómo intercambia sus aguas la Bahía de Cienfuegos con el Mar Caribe y cuáles factores determinan la velocidad de este proceso es un tema pobremente abordado. Determinar la distribución del tiempo de residencia de las aguas de la Bahía de Cienfuegos, considerando a este sistema natural como un reactor de mezcla continua, mediante la aplicación del modelo ideal de mezcla perfecta, fue el objetivo fundamental de este trabajo. Con la aplicación de métodos numéricos tridimensionales que simulan las características hidrodinámicas de la bahía, se evalúa la influencia del viento y los aportes fluviales sobre su capacidad de intercambio con el Mar Caribe. Se determinan tres características del proceso de renovación de las aguas: los tiempos de residencia de retardo y de residencia local. Las distribuciones espaciales de los tiempos de retardo y de residencia local, revelaron diferencias en la capacidad de autodepuración de los lóbulos norte y sur de la bahía, la existencia de zonas de lento movimiento, el carácter estacional de estas características y fuertes gradientes verticales del tiempo de residencia que en algunas zonas de la bahía superan los 10 d entre el fondo y la superficie. Se concluye que la Bahía de Cienfuegos es un sistema de lento intercambio con un tiempo de residencia que puede alcanzar hasta 60 d, por lo que resulta necesario y vital fortalecer acciones de gestión ambiental que reduzcan las cargas contaminantes que afectan este ecosistema.

  17. Características de los usuarios del Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje y la Investigación de la Universidad de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Aylén Pérez Borges; Amarilys Suárez Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar a los usuarios del Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje y la Investigación (CRAI) de la Universidad de Cienfuegos “Carlos Rafael Rodríguez”. Método: Se realizó un análisis bibliográfico de los términos relacionados con el estudio, un análisis de la metodología AMIGA, así como de las estadísticas que brinda el sistema automatizado de préstamos de esta biblioteca universitaria sobre los usuarios que más visitan el centro. Resultados: Se identificaron diversos grupos de ...

  18. TUMOR PHYLLODES DE LA MAMA.CARACTERIZACIÓN EN LA PROVINCIA CIENFUEGOS.ESTUDIO DE 20 AÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Aja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El tumor Phyllodes de la mama es poco frecuente. Tiene un origen fibroepitelial con potencial agresivo y representa el 0.3% a 0.4% de todos los tumores mamarios y el 2.5% a 3% de los tumores epiteliales de dicho órgano.Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fundamental es caracterizar desde el punto de vista clínico patológico los tumores Phyllodes operados en la provincia de Cienfuegos durante 20 años.Tipo de estudio: descriptivo prospectivo observacional. Periodo evaluado: 20 años desde 1 de enero de 1987 hasta el 31 de diciembre del 2006. Universo: 57 pacientes.Métodos: para realizar nuestra investigación hemos seguido anualmente durante estos 20 años los casos operados en nuestra provincia, examinando personalmente los casos en consulta de Mastología antes de operarlos y siguiéndolo por consulta de operados durante más de 5 añosResultados fundamentales: como resultados fundamentales de nuestra investigación obtuvimos que se operaron en esos 20 años un total de 57 tumores Phyllodes, los cuales representaron el 2.9% del total de tumores fibroepiteliales de mama operados.Aunque el mayor número de casos se detectó en pacientes de más de 40 años, queremos resaltar que en este periodo se operaron los únicos tumores Phyllodes en niña y en adolescente reportados en nuestra provincia

  19. Epidemiological study on Buccal Health in the 12 years old population of Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumaidi Colina Sánchez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 12 years-old children population is worldwide taken as a reference age to compare the buccal health condition of different countries, by means of various indicators that measure the presence of the main buccal diseases. The knowledge of these epidemiological profiles generates information to guide the services planning policies of the Primary Health Care. Objective: To characterize 12 years-old population's buccal health condition. Methods: Cross- sectional descriptive correlative study with a stratified probabilistic sample of 90 children starting from a universe conformed by the 269 adolescents that constitute the total of the 12 years old population of the Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos municipality. Pearson’s chi-square and Mantel-Haenszel lineal tendency tests were used with the determination of the relative risk and reliance intervals of 95%. Results: The decay prevalence reached 54, 4%. The COP-D index was 2, 45 being the decayed component the major percentage with 4.6%. The periodontal disease was more frequent in boys than in girls, with 54, 9% and 30, 8% respectively. 80,9% of the segments is healthy. In those affected, the calculation prevailed in 11,7%. It was determined that faulty obturations, inheritance and faulty buccal hygiene were the most affecting risk factors for children with decays, while in the periodontal disease it was faulty buccal hygiene. Malocclusions presented a prevalence rate of 40%. Out of which, 55,6% required secondary level attention. Those with habits present a risk 2 times superior of making sick. The sick epidemiological category was present in 77,8% of the total. Conclusions: We emphasize the prevention need as core issue of the primary medical care in the world today; being the General-Integral Dentist a transforming agent that according to his/her formation is capable to assume the existent health problem and to modify it positively, acting from the earliest ages.

  20. CÁLCULO DE LOS COSTOS DE CALIDAD EN LA UNIDAD EMPRESARIAL DE BASE PRODUCCIONES VARIAS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente informativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011.

  1. Assessment of the Impact of Super Storm Sandy on Coral Reefs of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    of natural phenomena or anthropogenic effects. We made a careful effort to distinguish between the two. Partial mortality as used in this assessment...Suharsono, Eds. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium (pp. 63–68). October 23–27, Bali , Indonesia. NASA’s Hurricanes/Tropical

  2. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Scarpaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina cómo los pequeños empresarios en Cuba perciben sus entornos internos y externos en un país que regula fuertemente la emergencia de una clase empresarial. Partimos del concepto de intercambios cotidianos o emprendimiento mundano que fue desarrollado originalmente en la ex Unión Soviética, como un lente para comprender el comportamiento de los actores no estatales tanto en Cuba como en la ex Unión Soviética. Nuestro estudio de caso se enmarca en un contexto social e identifica cómo los empresarios cubanos se sostienen fuera del mercado. El resultado es un reajuste en el cual el emprendimiento cubano muestra varias características similares al sistema soviético llamado blat; al mismo tiempo que revela atributos que le son únicos.

  4. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  5. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  6. Modelling the uv/x-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    CERN Document Server

    Haardt, F; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  7. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  8. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  9. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  10. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  11. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  12. CuBA - a CUDA implementation of BAMPS

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno; Eilhauer, Ulrike; Bouras, Ioanni

    2012-01-01

    Using CUDA as programming language, we create a code named CuBA which is based on the CPU code "Boltzmann Approach for Many Parton Scattering (BAMPS)" developed in Frankfurt in order to study a system of many colliding particles resulting from heavy ion collisions. Furthermore, we benchmark our code with the Riemann Problem and compare the results with BAMPS. They demonstrate an improvement of the computational runtime, by one order of magitude.

  13. Pharmacovigilance in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bárzaga Arencibia, Z.; López Leyva, A.; Mejías Peña, Y.; González Reyes, A.R.; Fernández Manzano, E.; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) detected following increased education about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba. Methods: Over a period of 24 months (January 2009 to December 2010), all reports of suspected ADRs in children to the Provincial Pharmacovigilance Centre in Camagüey Province were analysed. ADRs were classified in relation to causality and severity. Results: There were 533 reports involvi...

  14. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  15. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  16. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  17. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  18. Zero in on postpartum hemorrhage to reduce Cuba's maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and the first direct cause of maternal death in most countries. In Africa and Asia, it accounts for about one third of all maternal deaths. Put more graphically: worldwide, one woman dies every minute from PPH. Defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL after vaginal birth or ≥1000 mL after cesarean delivery, PPH can be fatal in just two hours. In Cuba, between 2000 and 2012, maternal deaths directly related to obstetric causes totaled 410, 24.1% of which occurred postpartum, with PPH the leading cause.[1] While Cuba is among the Latin American countries with lowest maternal mortality, the decline has been slow over the last 20 years: in 1998, direct maternal mortality was 26.5 per 100,000 live births and in 2012, the rate was 21.5. This is troubling and deserves careful study, especially given that Cuba has a single, unified health system supported by significant political will-determining factors in important advances made in maternal-child health on par with wealthier countries.

  19. Cienfuegos’ Linguistic Anxieties. Notes on the Author’s Papers Held at the Spanish Royal Academy Las inquietudes lingüísticas de Cienfuegos. Noticia de los papeles del autor conservados en la Real Academia Española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ÁLVAREZ DE MIRANDA DE LA GANDARA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the relationship between Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos and the Spanish Royal Academy. Cienfuegos was inducted in 1799 and remained more or less active until 1805. He had an abiding interest in linguistic questions, and his membership in the Academy give him a chance to work on both grammatical and lexicographic issues. Few of the studies ever reached the light of day, however. Here, both the published works and the unpublished manuscripts that are held in the Library and the Archive of the Spanish Royal Academy are described in detail.Se estudia la relación existente entre Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos y la Real Academia española, en la que ingresó en 1799 y en la que se mantuvo más o menos activo hasta 1805. Siempre manifestó Cienfuegos interés por las cuestiones lingüísticas, y su pertenencia a la Academia le dio ocasión para desarrollar algunos trabajos de ese carácter, tanto gramaticales como lexicográficos. En este estudio se da cuenta de los muy pocos que llegaron a ver la luz, y, sobre todo, se describen detalladamente los que quedaron manuscritos tanto en la Biblioteca como en el Archivo de la Real Academia Española.

  20. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  1. CASCO BAY PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  2. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of influenza A H1N1 pandemic viruses in Cuba, May 2009 to August 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexander Piñón; Herrera, Belsy Acosta; Ramírez, Odalys Valdés; García, Amely Arencibia; Jiménez, Mayra Muné; Valdés, Clara Savón; Fernández, Angel Goyenechea; González, Grehete; Fernández, Suset I Oropesa; Báez, Guelsys González; Espinosa, Bárbara Hernández

    2013-07-01

    The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected in Cuba in May 2009. The introduction of a new virus with increased transmissibility into a population makes surveillance of the pandemic strain to the molecular level necessary. The aim of the present study was the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains that circulated in Cuba between May 2009 and August 2010. Seventy clinical samples were included in the study. Nucleotide sequences from the hemagglutinin HA1 region segment were obtained directly from clinical samples. Genetic distances were calculated using MEGA v.5.05. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MrBayes v.3.1.2 software. Potential N-glycosylation sites were predicted using NetNGlyc server 1.0. The 48 Cuban sequences of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 obtained were similar to the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) vaccine strain. Most of the Cuban strains belonged to clade 7. Cuban viruses showed amino acid changes, some of them located at three antigenic sites: Ca, Sa, and Sb. Two dominant mutations were detected: P83S (100%) and S203T (85.7%). Glycosylation site analysis revealed the gain of one site at position 162 in 13 sequences. The findings in this study contribute to our understanding of the progress of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, since this virus is at the starting point of its evolution in humans.

  3. Characteristics of the obstetric patient in critical stage in Cienfuegos province. Caracterización de la paciente obstétrica en estado crítico en la provincia de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando T. Espín González

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Fundaments: The critically ill patient has an important place in the assessment of the quality of the medical assistance since around 5 % of all females who reach a full term pregnancy without potential risk factors, become this kind of patients due to different causes. Objective: To characterize the obstetric patient in a critical state in the period that covers January 1 st 1991- December 31 st 2001 in Cienfuegos province. Method: Correlational Descriptive-retrospective study carried out at the ICU of the Clinico-Surgical University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in a 10 year period and includes the 323 critically ill obstetric patients who were admitted at that ward. The variables under study were: mother´s age parity, type of labor, past history, surgical procedures, cause of admission at the ICU, patients state at discharge and cause of death. Results: 59,1 % of the patients were aged 20-29 years . The patient´s past history was related to hypertension and bronchial asthma. The procedure most widely used was the cesarean section followed by hysterectomy as emergency. The principal cause of admission at the ICU was hypovolemic shock, pre eclampsia - eclampsia and sepsis. The major amounts of patients were discharged alive. Only 8 % died. There was a predominance of direct maternal death, highlighting among them haemorrhage and hypertension in pregnancy.

    Fundamento : La paciente obstétrica en estado crítico ha adquirido un importante valor puesto que constituye un punto de mira para evaluar la calidad de la atención médica, ya que un 5 % de todas de todas las féminas que llegan al término de la gestación sin factores de riesgo potenciales, se convierten por diferentes causas en este tipo de paciente.

  4. Calidad de la atención médica a pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio. Cienfuegos 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la evaluación constituye una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la atención a los pacientes. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la atención médica a pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio admitidos en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos en junio de 2011. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de sistemas y servicios de salud en la que se analizaron como variables: las relacionadas con estructura (recursos humanos y materiales, procesos (cumplimiento de los protocolos establecidos para la atención y resultados (impacto en la mortalidad. Se aplicó un formulario a los 22 pacientes estudiados, se utilizó una guía de observación que evaluó la existencia de recursos humanos y materiales necesarios para la atención en el hospital. Los datos se procesaron en el programa SPSS 15,0 y se expresaron en números absolutos y porcientos. Resultados: en la dimensión estructura no se encontraron carencias de recursos materiales esenciales para la atención, hubo dificultades con la cobertura de enfermería en el Servicio de Cardiología. En la atención prehospitalaria hubo demora en acudir a consulta, dificultades en la prescripción de aspirina y la no realización de trombólisis. En la posthospitalaria se centraron en la rehabilitación y trabajo en la modificación de los factores de riesgo asociados. En el hospital hubo dificultades en la realización de las pruebas ergométricas al alta y en la remisión para la rehabilitación en el Área de Salud. Conclusiones: existen dificultades en la calidad de atención a los pacientes, dificultades que se hacen más evidentes en la Atención Primaria de Salud.

  5. 77 FR 11377 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by...

  6. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by...

  7. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 24, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by...

  8. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  9. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr., U... to all aircraft (except public aircraft) entering or departing the United States to or from...

  10. Higher Education in Cuba in the 2000s: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Elvira Martin

    This paper reviews the development of higher education in Cuba and its current status. Current educational development in Cuba is the result of more than four decades of sustained social and political endeavor. Three main features of this development have been identified. The first is the absolute commitment of the state to the educational…

  11. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., academic nature; (ii) The research comprises a full work schedule in Cuba; (iii) The research has a..., or performance under contracts for the provision of the telecommunications services, or the.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to...

  12. Scientific investigations on Integral General Medicine during the historic evolution of this specialty. Cienfuegos, 1988-2005. Las investigaciones científicas en Medicina General Integral durante la evolución histórica de la especialidad. Cienfuegos, 1988-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lara Calderín

    Full Text Available Background: The program of the doctor and nurse of the family has undergone several structural, organizational, methodological, of socioeconomic context and of political priority changes and it is unknown the influence of such evolution on the works of conclusion of the Integral General Medicine specialty in Cienfuegos. Objective: To compare the works of conclusion of the Integral General Medicine specialty in three different stages of the program of the doctor and nurse of the family in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study for which a sample of the act of the pertaining to the estate exams, archived in the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos, was revised, corresponding to the years 88-92, 99-00, 04-05, and tribunal members of the exams were enquired to know about the work situation of the authors, tutors, grades, investigation themes. Results: It was found that the authors work situation varies according to the municipalitie´s expansion. The present stage is characterized by the location in Venezuela and Haiti. Specialists of the Health Primary Attention have tutored most of the investigations. The excellent grade was given to more than 50% of the investigations in the first and last stage. Conclusions: The majority of the investigations topics correspond to the main Health programs, but new ones are being adopted while others are abandoned. Methodological deficiencies continue.
    Fundamento: El Programa del Médico y Enfermera de la Familia ha pasado por varias etapas de cambios estructurales, organizacionales, metodológicos, del contexto socioeconómico y de priorización política y no se conoce qué influencias ha tenido esa evolución histórica sobre los trabajos de terminación de la especialidad de Medicina General Integral en Cienfuegos. Objetivo: Comparar los trabajos de terminación de

  13. Cáncer gástrico. Caracterización de los casos operados en la provincia de Cienfuegos (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Leonel Otzoy Cún

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer gástrico es el tumor digestivo más frecuente, en algunos países ocupa la segunda causa de muerte por tumores malignos. Objetivo: caracterizar desde el punto de vista clínico-epidemiológico los cánceres gástricos operados en la provincia de Cienfuegos en el trienio 2009-2011. Métodos: estudio de serie de casos del total de pacientes operados (57 de cáncer gástrico en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de la provincia de Cienfuegos, de enero del 2009 a diciembre de 2011. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, factores de riesgo, enfermedades asociadas, localización anatómica, variante histológica, etapa clínica en el momento del diagnóstico, técnicas quirúrgicas aplicadas, complicaciones de la cirugía y estado de los pacientes al momento del egreso. Resultados: el mayor número de pacientes pertenecía al sexo masculino, comprendido entre 50 a 60 años. Los factores de riesgo que más predominaron fueron el tabaquismo, alcoholismo y gastritis crónica. El mayor porciento de los tumores se localizó en el antro gástrico en las etapas clínicas III y IV en el momento del diagnóstico. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el adenocarcinoma. La técnica quirúrgica más utilizada fue la gastrectomía subtotal ampliada, solamente un 5 % de los casos presentaron complicaciones de la cirugía propiamente dicha. El 96,5 % de los pacientes egresó vivo. Conclusiones: En Cienfuegos los hombres mayores de 50 años son más propensos a padecer de cáncer gástrico; en el mayor número de casos el diagnóstico es tardío y más del 30 % se trata con técnicas paliativas.

  14. Cuatro aspectos del sector construcción, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the common title of «Four Aspects of the Construction Sector in Cuba», we gather some other works, to a certain extent different in theme and focus, but which globally may help to outline both the present level of the technical development of the construction sector and its potential installed. There is described in the «Technical Center of Construction and Materials», which is a basic institution and one which promotes the technological development of the sector. In another work are reviewed the construction systems employed in Cuba, both autochthonous and foreign, as these systems are the basis and support of Cuban construction. In the third place there is reproduced a punctual aspect of the research work being carried out in ICIDCA (Research Center of the élite of Cuba; it deals with the employment of megasse in the production of agglomerates for use in construction. The panorama finalizes with a brief, schematical resume of the construction of industrial buildings of one storey, by means of prefabricated elements or of industrial origin, which respond to some strict conditions and which are carried out following rigorous rules of the project. We understand that the ensemble of these four facets constitutes a significant sample of that plural prism and ensemble which Is the construction sector of any country.Bajo el título común de «Cuatro Aspectos del Sector Construcción, en Cuba», recogemos otros tantos trabajos, en cierto modo dispares de temática y enfoque, pero que globalmente pueden ayudar a perfilar tanto el nivel actual del desarrollo técnico del sector construcción, como su potencial instalado. Se describe el «Centro Técnico de la Construcción y los Materiales» a modo de institución básica e impulsora del desarrollo tecnológico sectorial. Se pasa revista, en otro trabajo, a los sistemas constructivos empleados en Cuba, tanto autóctonos como foráneos, por ser estos sistemas la base y soporte real del

  15. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  16. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  17. Medical genetics in Cuba and its social impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genetics it is the science that studies the genes of the individuals, their operation, their transmission, their alterations, their relationships with other genes and their interaction with the environment. The present article approaches aspects of great interest corresponding to this science, in the same one he/she appears reflected a summary of examples that you/they evidence the advances of the medical genetics in Cuba as well as achievements in favor of the health and the well-being of the children and the Cuban family in general that they register among the noblest ideals and it reflects the humanist and solidary character of the Cuban Revolution.

  18. Narraciones de la esclavitud en Cuba y los Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Schulman, Ivan A.

    2014-01-01

    Para mostrar la construcción del imaginario social inserta en las narraciones cubanas de la esclavitud, el artículo formula algunas de las complejas estrategias y direcciones discursivas de obras literarias de Estados Unidos y Cuba. Al enfocar las correspondencias y asimetrías de poder que condicionan la producción de estos textos, que crean sus separados universos ideológicos, se cuestiona la noción tradicional de que las narrativas cubanas sobre la esclavitud eran «abolicionistas», se escri...

  19. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  20. Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds in Humid Tropical Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cuesta-Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid deposition, a direct effect of gaseous air pollutants, is causing widespread damage to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Further, these pollutants are responsible for the corrosion of building materials and cultural objects, as well as having an impact on human health. In Cuba, main atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds varies from approximately 12.0 to 65.0 kg N ha�1 year�1 in rural areas. Ammonia and ammonium are the most important elements in Cuba�s tropical conditions.

  1. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    El caso cubano señala el alto grado de politización del tema de los derechos humanos en las relaciones internacionales, puesto que el debate se centra en la falta de derechos civiles y políticos o de las libertades democráticas en el único régimen autoritario de las Américas. Cuba demuestra, al mismo tiempo, que tanto las sanciones impuestas por Washington como el compromiso condicionado de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferen...

  2. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection.

  3. Modelo de velocidades sísmicas de Cuba Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Palau Clares, Raúl; Moreno Toirán, Bladimir; Ángel Blanco Rodríguez, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio determina un modelo unidimensional de velocidades de ondas sísmicas muy útil en la rutina diaria de análisis de datos para la localización geográfica de los eventos sísmicos y como modelo inicial para los estudios de tomografía sísmica 3D. Para determinar el modelo de velocidades se utilizó el catálogo cubano de terremotos desde 1998 hasta el 2004. La zona escogida para el estudio se encuentra ubicada en la parte oriental de la isla de Cuba, específicamente entre los 19,80...

  4. Environmental Radioactivity Study in Surface Sediments of Guacanayabo Gulf (Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H.; López-Pino, N.; Rizo, O. Díaz; Bernal, J. L.; D'Alessandro, K.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Casanova, O. A.; Gelen, A.; Martínez, Y.; Aguilar, J.; Arado, J. O.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-01

    Sediment samples have been collected in the Guacanayabo gulf located in the southeast Cuba, to determinate the radioactivity levels of 210Pb, 234Th, 214Pb, 137Cs, 232Th and 40K using Low-Background Gamma Spectrometry and to evaluate its impact in the habitat of important marine species for fishery industry. The obtained results show the lowest radioactivity levels determined in Cuban marine environments. The species capture declination in the last years is not originated by radioactive pollution of the zone.

  5. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  6. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  7. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  8. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  9. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  10. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  11. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  12. Análisis de alternativas de mejora para la producción de azúcar en la provincia de Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Berlan Rodríguez-Pérez; Ana Margarita Contreras-Moya; Elena Rosa-Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo analizar la producción de azúcar en las tres empresas azucareras de Cienfuegos, para cuantificar los impactos ambientales con un enfoque holístico. Se utili- zaron técnicas de recopilación de información tales como: la entrevista personal, la revisión bibliográfica, la tormenta de ideas y el trabajo en equipo, que sirven de apoyo para la utilización de mapas de proce- so, diagrama de flujo, Análisis del Ciclo de Vida y análisis económico. Se tomó...

  13. Adherence to good practices in membrane premature rupture. Perinatology Service. University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”, Cienfuegos city. From January to December 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimi Miranda Pérez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament:Nursing good practice demands standardizationof care,in such a way that they guide and unite the different ways of performance. Objetive: to determine the adherence of the care plan to the guide of good nursing practice in the premature rupture of the membranes and the level of the staff for the level of preparation for its performance in the Service of Perinatology. Methods: Descriptive, correlational and prospective study applied to 622 pregnant women admitted at the Perinatology Service of ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ Hospital from Cienfuegos province who had a rupture of the membrane. 311 patients (50% of the universe, selected with probabilistic simple randomized way, without exclusive criteria were studied. Adherence was measured by using evaluation means. Results:43 % of the assessed clinical records, received between 95 and 100 points . Among the 16 nurses evaluated , 43,7 % had difficulties, being 25 % technicians.

  14. Las relaciones Unión Europea-Cuba. Evolución y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Díaz Lezcano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre la Unión Europea y Cuba han sido oscilantes y precarias desde que fueron establecidas en 1988. A pesar del importante papel de Europa en la actividad económica de Cuba, ésta es el único país de América Latina y uno de los pocos del mundo que no tiene un convenio de colaboración con la Unión Europea. Ello se debe, en lo fundamental, a la supeditación de la U.E a la política de los Estados Unidos.Siguiendo los dictados de Washington, las relaciones de la U.E con Cuba se rigen, desde 1996, por la llamada Posición Común, que condiciona el mejoramiento de los vínculos a un cambio radical en el sistema político prevaleciente en la Isla. De mantenerse esta situación, como todo parece indicar, no se debe esperar un cambio notable a corto y mediano plazo.Palabras Clave: Cuba como caso especial; Posición Común de la U.E.; Triángulo U.E - EE.UU.-Cuba; Transición a la Democracia en Cuba; Crisis del 2003. The relations European Union-Cuba. Evolution and perspective.AbstractThe relations between the European Union and Cuba have been oscillating and precarious since they were established in 1988. In spite of the important paper of Europe in the economic activity of Cuba, this one is the only country of Latin America and one of the few of the world that does not have an agreement of collaboration with the European Union. It must, in the fundamental thing, to the supeditation of the U.E to the policy of the United States.Following the dictations of Washington, the relations of the U.E with Cuba govern, from 1996, by the call Common Position, that it conditions the improvement of the bonds to a radical change in the prevaleciente political system in the Island. to stay this situation, as everything seems to indicate, a remarkable change to and medium term is not due to hope short.Keywords: Cuba as special case; Common Position of the U.E.; Triangle U.E - EE.UU. - Cuba; Transition to the Democracy in Cuba; Crisis of the

  15. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company......’s purpose: selling millions of goods, some of which are ‘designer’ items and some of which are considered design icons....

  16. Conocimientos sobre factores de riesgo y prevención de enfermedades oculares en pacientes atendidos en la provincia de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rafael Milanés Armengol

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el conocimiento de la población sobre factores de riesgo y cómo llevar a la práctica las medidas preventivas para evitar la aparición de enfermedades visuales es vital para conservar una buena salud ocular.Objetivo: determinar los conocimientos que poseen pacientes atendidos en la provincia de Cienfuegos sobre factores de riesgo y prevención de enfermedades oculares. Métodos: estudio descriptivo sobre 300 pacientes mayores de 18 años que asistieron a las consultas de oftalmología en Cienfuegos, desde enero hasta marzo del 2016, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta que incluyó variables como: edad, sexo, profesión, así como aspectos relacionados con el conocimiento que tenían sobre factores de riesgo y prevención de las enfermedades oculares. Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino, la edad comprendida en mayores de 50 años y el grupo de profesionales. Los más atentos a la prevención ocular fueron las personas de mayor edad y las mujeres. Los encuestados presumen tener conocimientos sobre la prevención ocular, pero existe un desconocimiento elevado de las acciones que deben realizar para preservar al órgano visual con una buena salud, fundamentalmente los dos pilares de la prevención: la protección solar y la visita al especialista. Conclusiones: aún existe desconocimiento de los factores de riesgo y la importancia de la prevención ocular. A pesar de la relevancia de la función visual en la sociedad actual, los ojos no son objeto de tantas medidas preventivas.

  17. Síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de Cienfuegos. Segunda medición de CARMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El conocimiento de las prevalencias de los principales factores de riesgos cardiovasculares y del síndrome metabólico en una comunidad, es determinante para establecer programas preventivos de salud.Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de la ciudad de Cienfuegos, así como su relación con los principales factores de riesgo.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal del tipo descriptivo correlacional. La muestra se obtuvo mediante un método probabilístico y es representativa de la población mayor de 17 años del área de salud IV del municipio de Cienfuegos; se estudiaron 209 personas extraídas de un universo de 16577 individuos, se utilizó un porcentaje de prevalencia esperada del 18 %, un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95 %, una precisión de ± 5 % y una tasa de no respuesta del 35 %.Resultados: La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico se determinó en 21,7 %, la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial fue de 39,2 %, la obesidad en 24,8 % y la diabetes mellitus en 10,7 %. La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en mayores de 40 años fue de 43,7 % con una razón de prevalencia de 2,40 para el sexo masculino.Conclusiones: Existe una alta prevalencia de los principales factores de riesgo en la comunidad, la principal triada de asociación para el síndrome metabólico esta formada por la hipertensión, hipertrigliceridemia e hipocolesterolemia de HDL.

  18. Comportamiento clínico epidemiológico del absceso dentoalveolar agudo en pacientes pertenecientes al área VII de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el absceso dentoalveolar agudo es una de las urgencias estomatológicas y una de las principales enfermedades que afectan a la población, sin embargo existen muy pocos estudios sobre el tema.Objetivo: describir comportamiento clínico epidemiológico del absceso dentoalveolar agudo en pacientes pertenecientes al área VII, de Cienfuegos. Métodos: investigación observacional, descriptiva realizada de enero a diciembre de 2013 en el Área VII, de Cienfuegos. El universo fue de 672 pacientes y la muestra de 374, escogida mediante muestreo probabilístico aleatorio simple. El registro primario de datos y recolección de la información se obtuvo mediante la historia clínica individual previo consentimiento informado a los pacientes. Las principales variables fueron: edad, sexo, irritantes pulpares.Resultados: el sexo más afectado fue el femenino con 55,35 % y el grupo de edad el de 19 a 34 con 33,69 %.El irritante pulpar predominante fue el microbiano 59,36 %. Dentro de los factores iatrogénicos, los restos de tejidos cariados se destacaron con un 32,35 %.Conclusiones: existe un número elevado de pacientes con absceso dentoalveolar agudo, por lo que, como urgencia estomatológica, debe ser una preocupación del estomatólogo conocer las características, comportamiento y factores que desarrollan la enfermedad, para propiciar un trabajo integral en cuanto a la promoción de salud, prevención, curación y rehabilitación de los pacientes afectados.

  19. La United Fruit Company en Cuba: Organización del trabajo y resistencia obrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zanetti Lecuona Lecuona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la United Fruit actuó como una empresa azucarera, situación hasta cierto punto excepcional dentro de la especialización bananera que trazó el perfil de esa empresa a escala continental. El estudio que aquí se propone sobre las prácticas de la Compañía en Cuba, en particular respecto a su manejo de la fuerza de trabajo y las relaciones laborales, contribuye a esclarecer algunas constantes de la conducta empresarial de la United en sus diferentes ámbitos de operación.Palabras Clave: Cuba; United Fruit Company; trabajadores; condiciones de trabajo; relaciones laborales. The United Fruit Company in Cuba: Work organization and labor resistanceAbstractIn Cuba, the United Fruit Company was a sugar company, a situation to some extent exceptional in the banana profile of this company. The analysis of the practices of the United Fruit in Cuba, in particular with regard to its handling of the labor force and of labor relations, will contribute to a better knowledge of the entrepreneurial behavior of this company in its different areas of operations.Keywords: Cuba; United Fruit Company; workers; labor conditions; labor relations.

  20. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  1. Characterization of medicine students regarding Research Methodology in Cienfuegos Medical School. Caracterización de los alumnos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos en temas de Metodología de la Investigación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica González Brito

    Full Text Available Introduction: University excellence is linked to excellence in the educative process and research field. Objective: To determine the knowledge level about Research Methodology of Medicine students, including those in Mario Muñoz Monroy group. Methods: This study was developed in the Medicine School in Cienfuegos with a stratified sample using measurable instruments. Results: Students do not know the different kinds research, the variables and the most frequent statistic techniques.

    Introducción: El camino de la excelencia universitaria pasa, fundamentalmente, por la excelencia del proceso docente-educativo y del proceso de investigación científica. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre Metodología de la Investigación que poseen los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina, incluyendo a los que pertenecen al movimiento Mario Muñoz Monroy. Métodos: Estudio realizado en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, par el cual se empleó un muestreo estratificado para tener representatividad de todos los años de Medicina, se aplicaron instrumentos medibles a tales efectos. Resultados: Los estudiantes desconocen los tipos de estudio, las variables de investigación y las técnicas estadísticas más utilizadas.

  2. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  3. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  4. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archiconocidas, la investigación del reflejo del proceso independentista cubano en la prensa de canaria aporta sustanciosos elementos al conocimiento del papel de los procesos de comunicación en la historia y en la cultura de ambos archipiélagos, en el importante contexto del fin de siglo XIX.

  5. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  6. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy.

  7. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  8. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  9. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  10. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  11. Metodología para la Implantación de un Sistema de Gestión por el Conocimiento en Empresas de Diseño y Servicios Ingenieros para el sector de la construcción en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfredo García Caraballo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la ponencia se presenta la "Metodología para la Implantación de un Sistema de Gestión por el Conocimiento en Empresas de Diseño y Servicios Ingenieros para el sector de la construcción en Cuba " resultado de una investigación científica ejecutada por la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas con la colaboración de la Universidad de Matanzas "Camilo Cienfuegos" y que aplicada y validada en la primera permitió la creación de los cimientos de una cultura gerencial que reconoce el valor que tienen para una organización, el uso adecuado de la información y la insustituible importancia de utilizar y preservar los conocimientos adquiridos por los trabajadores en el transcurso del tiempo, que son a su vez parte estratégica de su patrimonio. Dicha metodología facilita extender esta cultura a todos los niveles de dirección de la organización y entre sus trabajadores, como vía para alcanzar la eficacia y eficiencia necesarias en nuestra economía.

  12. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  13. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  14. Cuba: los entornos cambiantes de la partcipación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo DILLA ALFONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La participación popular ha sido una permanente invocación del discurso político revolucionario cubano, particularmente en las instancias comunitarias. Este ensayo trata de analizar la evolución de los diseños, instituciones y realidades participativas a partir de su relación con las situaciones políticas y los modelos de reproducción económicos. Por su relevancia, se presta especial atención al sistema municipal cubano. Este fue creado en 1976 y ha experimentado diversas modificaciones, las más importantes de las cuales tuvieron lugar en 1992. Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en Cuba en los últimos diez años imponen a la participación nuevos retos, entre ellos la necesidad de una concepción más autónoma y pluralista del accionar popular en la esfera pública, lo que de alguna manera ya se expresa en algunos esfuerzos oficiales por adecuar los patrones de participación existentes (esencialmente una participación paternalista-clientelista y en la emergencia de movimientos comunitarios que intentan controlar y transformar las vidas cotidianas en los vecindarios.ABSTRACT: Popular participation has been a permanent slogan in the political discourse of revolutionary Cuba, particularly at the community level. This article deals with the design and evolution of institutions and participatory realities starting with its relation with the political situation and economic models of reproduction. Special attention is given to the municipal system created in 1976 and modified severa! times from which the most important modification was the one in 1992. The social and economic changes of Cuba during the last ten years have posed new challenges to participation such as the need for a more autonomous and pluralistic conception of "popular praxis" in the public sphere. This is present in the official efforts to adequate existing participatory norms (particularly the paternalistic-clientelistic participation and

  15. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  16. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  17. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  18. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  19. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Valle García, R. del; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; Solís-Marín, F. A.; A. Laguarda-Figueras; Durán González, A. de la L.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from western Archipelago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba. The Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, central north region of Cuba, has been submitted to a significant tourist development, with the corresponding increase of hotel infrastructure and highways. We sampled 20 stations considering biotope variation in the macrolagoon and the external areas. The samplings were carried out in March - April and October - November, 2001 (20 days per sampling). Towards the external area - where ...

  20. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    embargo. The United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, Canada and Mexico , are also two of Cuba’s largest trading partners...getting through the lean "Special Period" by way of subsistence farming. Dr. Fernando Funes-Aguilar of the Havana-based Grupo de Agricultura Organica...www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/cubanfarms.htm>. Internet. Accessed 19 October 2001. Baklanoff, Eric N. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico

  1. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Democratic ( Libertad ) Act enacting 7 penalties for: foreign companies doing business with Cuba; permitting U.S. citizens to sue foreign investors who...U.S. resident were killed.27 The U.S. responded in March of 1996 by drafting the Cuba Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act ( Libertad Act) or the Helms...settlements of provisions in the Libertad Act would call for political suicide for the Revolution and Castro would avoid this at all costs. TOTAL ENGAGEMENT

  2. TRINIDAD, PRODUCTO TURÍSTICO INTEGRAL Y SOSTENIBLE EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el desmantelamiento de la Unión Soviética, Cuba apostó claramente por el desarrollo del sector turístico. Trinidad, debido a su histórico conjunto urbano propio de la ciudad colonial y su enclave geográfico entre la montaña y el litoral, se ha convertido en un importante destino que aúna el turismo de playa con el de naturaleza y el cultural. En el presente artículo se analizarán los factores que hacen de Trinidad un referente internacional, así como la repercusión que esta actividad ejerce tanto en la economía familiar como en la recuperación del patrimonio local y su entorno ambiental; por ello ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

  3. The Training of Physics Teachers in Cuba: A Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Alamino Ortega, Diego

    The regular, systematic training of physics teachers in Cuba is quite recent when compared to the long history of physics itself. However, its development may serve to illustrate some interesting solutions to a long-standing question: How should a physics teacher be trained in agreement with a certain society at a given moment? In the Cuban context the answer to this question involves quite an original sequence of continuities and breaks, following perhaps the thoughts of Bolívar's teacher, Simón Rodríguez, who wrote in the nineteenth century: "Beware! The mania of slavishly imitating the enlightened nations may well make America in its infancy play the role of an old lady."

  4. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  5. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  6. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  7. [Laryngeal cancer in Camaguey (Cuba). Study of 168 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda Marisy, H; Pila Pérez, R; Castillo Toledo, L; Pila Peláez, R

    1994-01-01

    A recent study of cancer of the larynx made at the Manuel Ascunce Domenech Provincial Hospital in Camagüey, Cuba, from 1985 to 1992 is presented. In this period 168 patients were diagnosed as having this illness. Male patients of 51-70 years age were predominant and smoking was an important factor in 76% of all patients and alcohol consumption in 20.2% of patients. The most common site was the glotis (39.2%) and the epidermoid variety was the most frequent type (95.5%). The tumors classified as T1a No Mo were the most representative of the group (32.1%). We encountered metastasis in only 11.3% of our patients. The terapeutic regimen used was radiotherapy.

  8. Isolation and identification of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from sugarcane varieties in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops in Cuba and other countries in the world. The worldwide occurrence of G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane and other plants suggest a beneficial association between this species and grass species. The potentialities of endophytes in the agricultural biotechnology are very high, that is why the detec-tion of this bacterium inside of sugarcane is so important. The aim of this work was to detect the occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in 18 varieties of sugarcane growing in Cuba. This species was isolated in 13 varieties on the basis of micromorphological and colonies characteristics. For the first time it was isolated G. diazotrophi-cusfrom varieties Cuba 1616-75, Cuba 751-75, Campos Brasil 44-52 and SP701143 cultivated in Cuba. The 46 isolates from the varieties Jaronú 60-5, Cuba 323-68 and Media Luna 318 were identified as G. diazotrophicusby morphological and biochemical test.

  9. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  10. Los intereses sectoriales de la vivienda social en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rabinovich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans les premières années qui ont suivi la révolution cubaine, l’Etat embrassa la responsabilité totale dans le domaine du logement social. Cette contribution analyse les modalités de prise en compte des tensions entre critères technocratiques et ceux du « design » ainsi que le rôle attribué à la population dans les politiques et programmes d’habitations collectives depuis 1959. Elle met en lumière le modèle étatique sectoriel lequel a progressivement priorisé la quantité et défini la qualité par des critères de productivité à bas coûts. L’exemple de l’ONG Habitat-Cuba illustre également la fragilité des expériences innovantes des années 1990 qui ont tenté de réconcilier les aspects technocratiques avec les attributs esthétiques, spatiaux et fonctionnels de l’habitat par des approches dites participatives.In the first few years following the Cuban revolution, the State assumed full responsibility for public housing. The present contribution analyzes modalities for dealing with the tensions between technological and design-related criteria, as well as the role set aside for the public in collective housing policies and programmes since 1949. It sheds light on the statist model that has gradually given priority to quantity while defining quality via criteria for low-cost productivity. The example of the NGO Habitat-Cuba also illustrates the fragile nature of the innovative experiments of the 1990s, which attempted to reconcile technocratic aspects with the aesthetic, spatial and functional attributes of housing by means of so-called participatory approaches.

  11. Success and failures of inward-looking development in Cuba (1990-2008): opportunities and problems for small farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Rodríguez, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    While the rest of Latin America followed outward-looking policies of agrarian development during the 1990s and early 2000s, Cuba implemented an inward-looking model during this period. In the midst of the most severe crisis in its history, the Special Period, Cuba dramatically shifted from export dependency to inward-looking development. Cuba is a unique case in terms of agricultural development. Cuba’s agricultural development model provoked important transformations in the country’s agricul...

  12. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  13. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinaidys Gómez Selemeneva; Blanca Blanco Camping; Juan R. Conde Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. English abstract. In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main...

  14. Una literatura sin residencia fija. Insularidad, historia y dinámica sociocultural en la Cuba del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette, Ottmar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available From its very beginnings, Cuban literature has been a literature with no fixed abode: written between Cuba and Mexico (Jose María Heredia, Cuba and Spain (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, Cuba and the U.S. (Cirilo Villaverde, or between Cuba, Europe and the Americas (Jose Martí, but to mention the outstanding figures in Cuba's 19th Century. This article tries to unfold and develop the consequences of this new perspective by insisting on the specific «frictional» character of Cuban literature and culture today.

    Desde sus inicios, la literatura cubana se ha constituido como literatura sin residencia fija: entre Cuba y México (José María Heredia, entre Cuba y España (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, entre Cuba y Estados Unidos (Cirilo Villaverde o entre Cuba, Europa y las Américas (Jose Martí, para solo mencionar las grandes figuras del siglo XIX. Partiendo de este análisis, el presente artículo trata de sacar las consecuencias de este hecho desarrollando una nueva visión de la cultura y de las letras cubanas insistiendo, además, en su carácter especificamente «friccional».

  15. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

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    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  16. Diagnosing Learning Needs of Medicine Doctors in Relation to Imaging in Cienfuegos Diagnóstico de las necesidades de aprendizaje en imagenología pediátrica del Médico General Integral Básico en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Aleida García Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite being so important for diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting pediatric patients, there are still gaps in general practitioners as for the interpretation and / or radiological diagnosis of the diseases that most frequently affect these patients. Objective: To diagnose the learning needs of Medicine Doctors in relation to imaging in Cienfuegos. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at the Paquito González Cueto University Pediatric Hospital and the Cecilio Ruiz de Zárate Polyclinic in Cienfuegos during the years 2008 and 2009. The study included 20 general practitioners. Survey and participant observation were used to determine the knowledge level on interpreting and / or diagnose of respiratory disorders, radiological diagnosis in acute abdominal pain, diagnostic ultrasound advantages in cases of abdominal tumor, imaging test to be performed for diagnosing the most common cause of urinary tract infection and indication and interpretation of diagnostic ultrasound of soft tissue. Results: Practitioners included in the study were scored as average as follows: 70.0% of when interpreting and / or diagnosing respiratory conditions, 50% in the radiological diagnosis of acute abdominal cases and 45% in the indication of soft tissue ultrasound. They were scored as poor in a 70% for the knowledge level on diagnostic benefits of ultrasound with intra-abdominal tumor masses. Conclusions: The main learning needs were detected in: interpreting and / or diagnosing respiratory diseases, radiological diagnosis of acute abdominal cases, indicating soft tissue ultrasound and diagnostic benefits of ultrasound for intra-abdominal tumor masses.Fundamento: a pesar de la importancia que entraña el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades que afectan al paciente pediátrico, existen carencias por parte de los médicos generales

  17. Apuntes para la historia de la enseñanza de la Oftalmología en Cienfuegos: 1961-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Machado Héctor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El recuento de la historia permite la traslación en el tiempo hacia épocas más distantes no compartidas. Ese viaje puede resultar interesante para las diferentes generaciones y responderles, de esta forma, a la necesidad de conocer las raíces. Mezclada con los orígenes de la medicina, la Oftalmología, muy rudimentaria, era practicada por diferentes personas como sacerdotes, médicos, cirujanos u otros menos calificados, por lo que solo se conoce parcialmente lo realizado en la antigüedad. Sobre su enseñanza en la provincia de Cienfuegos no existen muchos documentos, por eso este artículo tiene como propósito hacer un recuento de la enseñanza de la Oftalmología en esta provincia desde 1961 hasta la actualidad, haciendo énfasis en los cambios en la etapa revolucionaria que se inicia con la división política administrativa del país. Abarca desde la creación de centros formadores de estudios técnicos, los programas de la Licenciatura en Optometría y Óptica, los médicos especialistas del sector en la nueva provincia hasta la apertura del Centro de Cirugía Oftalmológica, dotado de las más modernas técnicas.

  18. El estrés en mujeres de la Facultad de Ciencias Pedagógicas de la Universidad de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ana Beatriz Alfonso García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en la Facultad de Ciencias Pedagógicas, ubicada en la Sede Conrado Benítez de la Universidad de Cienfuegos. La misma tiene como objetivo caracterizar el estrés presente en mujeres de la Facultad Se utilizó una muestra de 20 mujeres, donde se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria por departamentos, teniendo en cuenta como criterios de inclusión que fueran mujeres, docentes y que estuvieran motivadas. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de una entrevista semi-estructurada y el Cuestionario de Afrontamiento al Estrés. La información se analizó cuantitativa y cualitativamente, utilizando un procesamiento estadístico a través del SPSS (paquete estadístico del cuestionario. El mismo se realizó con tablas de contingencia, análisis de frecuencias y pruebas no paramétricas. Se obtuvo que las mujeres recientemente estuvieran sometidas a estrés, relacionado con diversos estresores, lo que ocasionó síntomas físicos y psicológicos. Como principales estilos de afrontamiento predominó en la muestra estudiada la planificación y solución de la situación estresante, la búsqueda de apoyo social y el distanciamiento, así como la realización de otras actividades que permiten la relajación.

  19. Características de los usuarios del Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje y la Investigación de la Universidad de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylén Pérez Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar a los usuarios del Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje y la Investigación (CRAI de la Universidad de Cienfuegos “Carlos Rafael Rodríguez”. Método: Se realizó un análisis bibliográfico de los términos relacionados con el estudio, un análisis de la metodología AMIGA, así como de las estadísticas que brinda el sistema automatizado de préstamos de esta biblioteca universitaria sobre los usuarios que más visitan el centro. Resultados: Se identificaron diversos grupos de usuarios a nivel de estudiantes, profesores, facultades, centros universitarios municipales, y centros de estudios; a la vez que dos grupos centrales: usuarios reales y potenciales. Conclusiones: Se conocieron algunas de las características de los usuarios del CRAI, partiendo de los grupos identificados por el centro, teniendo en cuenta aspectos como sus niveles educacionales e intereses. Se considera que un estudio más detallado puede quedar abierto para cumplimentar este objetivo a un nivel mayormente exhaustivo.

  20. Lesions of the buccal mucosa in elderly. A study performed in five family doctor´s office of health area III in Cienfuegos city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpízar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Bucal lesions in aged persons are very frequent and are not the same in many countries and regions. To know about them is of great importance for we can plan preventive activities and medical services for their attention Objective: To describe the more frequent intraoral mucous lesions in individuals with 60 years old and more. Methods: Descriptive study with a sample of 270 aged persons (both sexes, obtained through simple random sample out of a universe of 1014 individuals with 60 years old and more, from Area III in Cienfuegos. Detailed physical examination was applied to all the studied patients as well as a questionnaire where data of interest were engulfed. Results: From all studied cases, the 26.7% presented some type of bucal lesion, predominantly in women (17.8%. The more frequent lesions were: sub prosthesis stomatitis (10%, leukoplasia (6.2%, and fissuratum epulis (4.4%. The more frequent anatomic localizations of these lesions were: the palatum durum with 27 cases of sub prosthesis stomatitis, the alveolar sulcus with 11 fissuratum epulis, and the jugal mucosa with 4 cases of candidiasis and 7 leukoplasias. Conclusions: A high percentage of this geriatric population presented some type of bucal mucosa lesions, women were the most affected, lesions of prosthetic origin were predominant, as well as pre malignant lesions. The predominant localizations of the lesions were the palatum durum, the alveolar sulcus, and the jugal mucosa.

  1. Análisis de alternativas de mejora para la producción de azúcar en la provincia de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlan Rodríguez-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo analizar la producción de azúcar en las tres empresas azucareras de Cienfuegos, para cuantificar los impactos ambientales con un enfoque holístico. Se utili- zaron técnicas de recopilación de información tales como: la entrevista personal, la revisión bibliográfica, la tormenta de ideas y el trabajo en equipo, que sirven de apoyo para la utilización de mapas de proce- so, diagrama de flujo, Análisis del Ciclo de Vida y análisis económico. Se tomó como referencia la meto- dología de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV que aparece en la serie de normas NC ISO 14040, y se com- plementó con métodos de evaluación del impacto ambiental. A partir del desarrollo de las fases del pro- cedimiento aplicado: definición de alcances y objetivos, análisis de inventario, evaluación de impacto ambiental y análisis de mejora; se lograron identificar y cuantificar los principales impactos que genera el ciclo de vida del azúcar, y analizar como variante de mejora la implementación del riego por goteo, indi- cando su factibilidad ambiental y económica.

  2. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  3. Fundadores de la Primera Escuela de Veterinaria de Cuba: Síntesis Biográfica (Founders of the First School of Veterinary Science in Cuba: Biographical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Prado, Enrique A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl 10 de abril de 1907 se fundó en La Habana la Escuela Libre de Veterinaria, primera institución para la enseñanza formal de la veterinaria en Cuba, gracias al esfuerzo personal de varios veterinarios graduados en universidades extranjeras, uno de ellos natural de España. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esbozo biográfico de los fundadores, los que además de ser protagonistas de este hecho histórico para la veterinaria cubana que recientemente cumplió su centenario, se convirtieron posteriormente en relevantes figuras de la profesión en Cuba y gozaron del merecido prestigio y reconocimiento. AbstractOn April 10, 1907 was founded in Havana the School of Veterinary Science, first institution for the formal teaching of the veterinary science in Cuba, thanks to the personal effort of several veterinarians graduated in foreign universities, one of them born in Spain. In this work is presented a biographical sketch of the founders who besides being main characters of this historical fact for the Cuban veterinary science that recently completed its centennial, they became outstanding figures of the profession later on in Cuba and they enjoyed the deserved prestige and recognition.

  4. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  5. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  6. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  7. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  8. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  9. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit...

  10. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  11. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  12. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  13. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  14. Conferencia caracterización y normalización de materiales de construcción cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Proaño Cadena, Gaston Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    II JORNADAS IBEROAMERICANAS SOBRE “CARACTERIZACIÒN Y NORMALIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN” Ciudad de la Habana – Cuba (2002) II JORNADAS IBEROAMERICANAS SOBRE “CARACTERIZACIÒN Y NORMALIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN” Ciudad de la Habana – Cuba (2002)

  15. A PARTIAL-EQUILIBRIUM SIMULATION OF INCREASING THE U.S. TARIFF-RATE SUGAR QUOTA FOR CUBA AND MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Petrolia, Daniel R.; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    A model consisting of Cuba, Mexico, the U.S., and an aggregated "Rest of the World" was developed to simulate increases in U.S. sugar imports from Cuba and Mexico. Results indicate that increased imports would generate up to $505 million in U.S. net gains, and that world prices increase only minimally.

  16. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 23, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-4107 Filed... Notice of February 23, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage...

  17. común manejada por campesinos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miranda-Lorigados

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La variación genética de 27 accesiones locales de frijol común colectadas en la comunidad de El Tejar - La Jocuma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, se evaluó utilizando marcadores moleculares RAPD (Polimorfismos de ADN Amplificados al Azar y caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos. En total se emplearon 15 cebadores RAPD que generaron 31 fragmentos polimórficos de ADN (un promedio de 2,03 fragmentos por cebador. Las distancias genéticas fueron calculadas utilizando el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen-Dice, y representadas mediante un dendograma (método UPGMA. Se evaluaron una serie de caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos con los que se realizaron análisis multivariados que generaron un clúster (distancias euclidianas y un análisis de componentes principales. El análisis generado a partir de los marcadores RAPD y de los caracteres morfo agronómicos, reveló que las accesiones estudiadas generaron dos grupos principales que corresponden presumiblemente a los acervos Mesoamericano y Andino, considerando las distancias genéticas entre grupos y las diferencias en determinados caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos

  18. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  19. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. [i]Cladosporium[/i] cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by [i]Leptosphaeria, Coprinus[/i] and the [i]Aspergillus-Penicillium [/i]type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  20. Cuba. La fecundidad, el PIB y el salario medio real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reducción de la fecundidad en Cuba, de naturaleza secular y acelerada, y la consecuente contracción de la capacidad multiplicativa de la población, se han convertido hoy en un objeto de atención de los diferentes actores sociales y de política, incluyendo sin duda a los propios demógrafos cubanos, que habían estado advirtiendo sobre ello desde hace ya más de tres décadas. Lo que más resalta del proceso de transición de la fecundidad en el país es, sin duda, lo abrupto de su inicio, la velocidad con que transcurrió, así como la ausencia de desarrollo económico que la acompañó. De ahí que el debate hoy se centre en la instrumentalidad de los diferentes determinantes que condujeron esa transición, y sobre todo, en el papel que jugaron los factores económicos en las diversas etapas, sobre todo en aquellas coyunturas en las que la población debió realizar las actividades de su vida en condiciones de acentuada vulnerabilidad debido a las crisis. Así, de lo que se trata es de aportar elementos que contribuyan a completar el conocimiento sobre el estado de la relación fecundidad-desarrollo en el contexto actual.

  1. Las publicaciones en Cuba tras las Independencias Hispanoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José SÁNCHEZ BAENA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene una doble vertiente, por un lado dar a conocer las consecuencias que tuvo para la cultura impresa en Cuba el final del trienio liberal y del dominio español en la América continental, y por otro analizar cómo se muestran, a través de los contenidos de las publicaciones periódicas más importantes, los aspectos más destacados que inciden en la sociedad cubana. El extraordinario desarrollo económico y comercial, que tuvo como máximo exponente al grupo de la sacarocracia, hizo imparable la evolución de la imprenta y sus productos, pese a las fuertes medidas de control y censura impuestas ante el miedo al contagio independentista. Aparecieron entonces algunas publicaciones seriadas con cierto nivel en sus contenidos, como la Revista Bimestre Cubana, y comenzó lentamente la expansión de la imprenta por nuevas poblaciones de la Isla.

  2. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Níquel (Ni en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas realizadas reflejanun contenido medio de 122,3 mg kg-1de Ni total, muysuperior al señalado por la literatura internacional y valoresextremos de hasta 2850,0 mg kg-1en suelos desarrolladossobre rocas ultrabásicas (serpentinita. Sin embargo, noexisten reportes de valores elevados (tóxicos del elementoen los cultivos. En el trabajo se discute el origen y formasen que se encuentra el Ni en los suelos cubanos; así comosu posible efecto tóxico para las plantas y animales que sealimentan de ellas. Finalmente, se concluyó planteando lanecesidad de establecer Límites Permisibles de Ni en elsuelo, diferenciados de acuerdo al tipo de suelo y su uso.

  3. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  4. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Deler-Hernandez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: B. infuscatus LeConte, 1855, B. interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= B. stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn.n. and B. metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, B. chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: B. quadridens from Mexico and Central America and B. trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with B. truncatipennis and considered a valid species.

  5. Cuba: the strategic choice of advanced scientific development, 1959-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Baracca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is continuing attracting the attention of the international scientific community for some important and unexpected achievements in applied science such as health biotechnology. They represent outcomes of the 1959 decision of Cuba to develop an advanced scientific system in order to address the most urgent problems for the development of the country and to overcome the condition of subalternity. This ambitious objective was tackled in a very original way, making a broad and wide-ranging recourse to every effective support and collaboration, with Soviet but also Western scientists and institutions, in addition to a peculiar Cuban inventiveness. Indeed, immediately after the revolution, Cuba developed an advanced and articulated scientific system, and achieved a level of excellence in leading scientific fields, like biotechnology, quite independently from the Soviet Union, which was behind in this field. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, that could have put the achievements of the Re...

  6. Characterization of cerebro-vascular disease in the Intermediate Care Unit. Multicentre study in the central part of Cuba. Caracterización de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en Servicios de Cuidados Intermedios. Estudio multicentro en la región central de Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Erice Lafont

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Cerebrovascular diseasets constitute the third cause of death and the first cause of disability worldwide and in Cuba, hence it has been included among the prioritised programs of the World Health Organisation and by our Ministry of Public Health. Objective: To characterize cerebrovascular diseasets in the Polivalent Therapy Service of the central region of the country. Method: multicenter descriptive study of a series of cases carried out at the Clinical Surgical Hospitals ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from Cienfuegos province, and ¨Arnaldo Milián Castro¨ from Villa Clara with a revision of 1218 clinical records of patients who were interviewed and whose data was processed afterwards. Results: There was a predominance of the white race ( 75,3 %, male sex (56,7 % and hypertension was the risk marker ( 71,3 % . The isquemic cerebrovascular desease was the most frequent reported with 86,7 % and anti-aggregate platelets was the medication most frequently used (77,5 % In regards to the location of the lesion 51,1 % were reported in the parietal region and the predominant diagnosis was the atherothrombotic infarct ( 59,9 %. The most common complication was cerebral oedema ( 45,2% . On discharge the state was ¨alive with disability¨ ( 62,2%. Conclusions: Cerebrovascular diseases is a health problem in our environment. Hypertension is the most frequent risk marker observed and there is a predominance of ischemic ictus . Once established the disease is established, it evolves to disabilities or death in most of the cases.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en el mundo y en Cuba; se encuentran dentro de los programas priorizados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y por nuestro Ministerio de Salud

  7. Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Renowned doctor of Cienfuegos medical history in the twentieth century Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Gloria de la medicina cienfueguera en el siglo XX.

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    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre was an outstanding medical and social personality in Cienfuegos during the first third of the xx century. The most significant aspects about his life and studies of Medicine are highlighted, as well as the postgraduate courses that he received later in France. Analyzed through different scenarios where he acted as an eminent surgeon, we refer to his contribution to the spreading of abdominal, prostatic and gynecological surgery in Cienfuegos, besides other innovations of high importance for the Cuban Medicine at that time. It is described his brilliant performance as director of the Hospital Civil and the Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, enhancing all the transformations, improvements, amplifications and openings of new services carried out in both centers under his guidance and supervision. all the recognitions received for different institutions and people in general were mentioned too, for his fruitful work and, particularly, for their performance during the epidemic of Influenza of 1918, that deserved him the title of exemplary citizen.El Dr. Alfredo Méndez Aguirre representó una destacada personalidad médica y social en Cienfuegos en el primer tercio del siglo XX. Se señalan los aspectos más significativos de sus estudios de Medicina en la Universidad de La Habana, así como los cursos de perfeccionamiento que recibió en Francia posteriormente a su graduación. Se analiza su vida profesional a través de los distintos escenarios en donde se desempeñó como cirujano eminente, siendo el que inició en Cienfuegos la Cirugía abdominal, prostática y ginecológica, entre otros aportes e innovaciones de suma importancia para la medicina cienfueguera de aquellos años. Se describe su brillante actuación como Director del Hospital Civil y del Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, resaltando todas las transformaciones, mejoras, ampliaciones y aperturas de nuevos

  8. Resultados de la implementación de las reglas de Ottawa en el servicio de urgencia del Hospital Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos.2009.

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    George Noel García Rodríguez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Las reglas de Ottawa para el tobillo fueron desarrolladas para ofrecer un organigrama de decisión a la hora de indicar una radiografía a pacientes con lesiones del tobillo y el mediopie. Las mismas son muy sencillas de aplicar por el examinador, el objetivo fue validar su aplicación en el servicio de urgencia del hospital provincial Camilo Cienfuegos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para la validación de las reglas de Ottawa que se compuso de su análisis en relación con la confirmación radiológica (radiología anteroposterior y lateral de tobillo. En una tabla de 2x2. La muestra estuvo autolimitada a 100 pacientes. La mayor incidencia estuvo en el sexo masculino con 34 casos (64% y la edad media fue de 32,6 años, con un rango de 16/ 72 años. El mecanismo principal que originó la lesión fue la rotación interna, aducción o inversión con 39 casos (78%. La sensibilidad fue del 100%, La especificidad del 78.72%, el Porciento de falsos positivos y negativos fue de 21 % y 0%, con una prevalencia del 6%. La Probabilidad posprueba (a posteriori del valor predictivo positivo fue de 24 % y el valor predictivo negativo de 100%. La regularización en el uso de las reglas de Ottawa en los departamentos de urgencias disminuiría el uso de radiografías innecesarias, además de contribuir a darle un uso racional de los recursos de salud.

  9. Características neuropsicológicas del niño preescolar con Hipotiroidismo Congénito en la Provincia de Cienfuegos.

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    Yaser Ramírez B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El hipotiroidismo congénito es la causa más frecuente de retraso mental previsible. El diagnóstico clínico en las primeras etapas de la vida es muy impreciso, de ahí que se hayan puesto en marcha programas de diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz cuyo objetivo fundamental es un desarrollo neurocognitivo y su nivel optimización. Método y objetivos: Con el objetivo de evaluar el perfil neurocognitivo en niños hipotiroideos en edad preescolar se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo que incluyó a los pacientes en edades entre 4 a 6 años con seguimiento en consulta de hipotiroidismo congénito del Hospital Pediátrico “Paquito González Cueto” de Cienfuegos. Solo existían 6 niños a los cuales se les aplicó la batería neuropsicológica Luria Inicial, rendimiento intelectual, escala de comportamiento y potenciales evocados. Resultados: Se constató que estos pacientes presentan limitaciones en el sistema óptico- espacial y en el sistema de control inhibitorio. El primero afecta el desarrollo de la orientación espacial del acto motor y la percepción visual con detalles y el otro sistema afecta el control atencional en la edad y conlleva a dificultades para seguir instrucciones verbales. Recomendación: El seguimiento y la vigilancia del neurodesarrollo permiten ir explicando las alteraciones sistemáticas que se presentan en estos niños y hace posible una intervención temprana a favor del posterior proceso de escolarización.

  10. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  11. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  12. The Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  13. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto ...

  14. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  15. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  16. Hotel and tourism development in Cuba : opportunities, management challenges and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Cubillo Pinilla, José María

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten years, Cuba has recorded the highest rate of growth in tourism arrivals of all Caribbean countries to become the third most popular tourism destination in the Caribbean region and the second destination in the region for Europeans. In the process, tourism has become Cuba’s most lucrative sector. Based on in-depth interviews with senior executives of Cuban and foreign international hotel chains operating on the island and desk research in and outside Cuba, it appears that the b...

  17. Felicidades en el Día de la Veterinaria en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El 24 de marzo de 1961 fue escogido para homenajear a los veterinarios en Cuba en recordación de la firma de la Resolución 254 del Consejo de Ministros de la República de Cuba , la que unificó todos los servicios veterinarios del país en los Servicios Veterinarios Revolucionarios, primera organización estatal dedicada a la atención gratuita de animales de cría y mascotas

  18. Drilling horizontal wells from the coast to reach offshore heavy oil pool, Puerto Escondido field, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puentes, G.E.; Alvarez, R.R. [Cubapetroleo, Havana, (Cuba); Marrero, F.M. [Ministry of Basic Industry, Havana, (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    A series of vertical oil wells were drilled in the Puerto Escondido field in Cuba as part of an oil exploration program in the 1970s. The drilling of well PE-3 in 1992 revealed that the field contained one of the most significant oil finds in the western region of Cuba. Due to the fractured nature of the reservoir, it was determined that future wells should be drilled using horizontal drilling technology to increase hydrocarbon recoveries, and to maintain high production rates. The first horizontal well was successfully drilled in April, 1997. Four other wells were drilled by September 1998. This paper briefly described the drilling techniques used.

  19. Científicos españoles exiliados en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alted Vigil, Alicia; González Martell, Roger

    2002-01-01

    The first part of this article studies the internal situation in Cuba in the 1930's as well as the links between Spanish exiles and the Cuban cultural and academical institutions. It goes on with a review of the exiled scientists that used the island as a temporary residence. The last part offers an analysis of the professional life and main scientific contributions of those scientists who chose to remain in Cuba: Gustavo Pittaluga, Luis Amado-Blanco, Pedro Domingo Sanjuan, Javier Fernández d...

  20. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  1. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  2. Adherence to good practices in membrane premature rupture. Perinatology Service. University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”, Cienfuegos city. From January to December 2002. Adherencia a buenas prácticas en rotura prematura de membranas. Servicio Perinatología. Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguia Lima". Cienfuegos. Enero- diciembre 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosleidy Capote Fragoso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament:Nursing good practice demands standardizationof care,in such a way that they guide and unite the different ways of performance. Objetive: to determine the adherence of the care plan to the guide of good nursing practice in the premature rupture of the membranes and the level of the staff for the level of preparation for its performance in the Service of Perinatology. Methods: Descriptive, correlational and prospective study applied to 622 pregnant women admitted at the Perinatology Service of ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ Hospital from Cienfuegos province who had a rupture of the membrane. 311 patients (50% of the universe, selected with probabilistic simple randomized way, without exclusive criteria were studied. Adherence was measured by using evaluation means. Results:43 % of the assessed clinical records, received between 95 and 100 points . Among the 16 nurses evaluated , 43,7 % had difficulties, being 25 % technicians.

    Fundamento:Las buenas prácticas de enfermería exigen la estandarización de los cuidados, de modo que guíe y unifique los diferentes modos de actuación. Objetivo: Determinar la adherencia del plan de cuidado a la guía de la buena práctica de enfermería en la rotura prematura de membranas y el grado de preparación del personal para su realización en el Servicio de Perinatología.Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, correlacionar y retrospectivo realizado en un universo de 622 gestantes ingresadas en el Servicio de Perinatología del Hospital ¨Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ de Cienfuegos con rotura prematura de membranas, del que se tomó una muestra de 311 pacientes, el 50 % del universo, escogidas por el método probabilistico al azar simple por sorteo, sin criterios de exclusión. La adherencia fue medida a través de instrumentos de

  3. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  4. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

  5. Interrelationship of the terranes in western and central Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Krystyna

    1993-03-01

    Present-day Cuba is a complex of terranes. In the western and central parts of the island the Sierra de los Organos and the Escambray terranes, which are genetically related, and the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequences of the Greater Antilles arc are distinguished. The Escambray and Sierra de los Organos massifs are terranes that were detached from their source areas near the Yucatan. A rift separating the Yucatan from the Florida-Bahama plate was involved. Separation of the Escambray sequence from that of the Sierra de los Organos took place in the Early Cretaceous along a NE-SW-trending transform fault. The Escambray sequence was transported together with the Greater Antilles island arc in front of the Farallon plate. About 80 Ma ago the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequence of the Greater Antilles island arc was thrust over the ophiolitic association. In this way the Zaza zone was formed. At that time some overthrusting and metamorphism took place in the Escambray massif, which was then overthrust and pressed into the Zaza zone. At about 45-50 Ma ago detachment and nappe overthrusting took place in the Sierra de los Organos and overthrust units reached the margin of the margin of the Florida-Bahama plate. Various structures are involved in the Zaza zone, including: (1) the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequences of the Greater Antilles arc (which is a tectonized and overthrust terrane); and (2) the ophiolitic association (the Greater Antilles arc terrane is thrust over this association). Both of these tectonic units were folded together. The Sierra de los Organos and the Escambray terranes were thrust onto the Zaza zone and then deformed together with it during later phases.

  6. ¿Dominio público en Cuba?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción doctrinal del Dominio Público como categoría jurídica nació con la finalidad de articular un sistema de protección de las necesidades colectivas que satisfacían determinados bienes. Esta función de protección se le atribuyó al Estado, su titular. La titularidad de éste sobre los bienes de Dominio Público no podía ir acompañada de las facultades de disposición propias del derecho de propiedad. Sin embargo, la existencia dentro del Dominio Público de bienes creados por el hombre y bienes provenientes de la naturaleza dio lugar a la distinción entre el “Dominio público natural”, integrado por los recursos naturales destinados al uso común de todos, y el “Dominio público artificial”, formado por bienes de uso público construidos para dar respuesta a las necesidades del hombre. Por ello se cuestiona si constituye el Dominio Público un mecanismo de gestión ambiental en Cuba. Pudiendo determinarse que no existe una nominación de dominio público en el país y por consiguiente no se utiliza esta institución como mecanismo de protección ambiental, recomendando prestar una especial atención a este novedoso mecanismo de protección con la finalidad de su aplicación en el territorio nacional.

  7. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  8. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  9. Clave de identificación para larvas del orden Ephemeroptera presentes en Cuba Key for the identification of larvae of Ephemeroptera from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany D. González-Lazo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Por primera vez se ofrece una clave para la identificación taxonómica de las especies de Ephemeroptera registradas en Cuba. La clave permite la identificación de las 6 familias, los 12 géneros y 32 de las 34 especies que habitan en la Isla. La presente clave constituirá una herramienta sistemática para los estudios de biodiversidad de las efímeras en el archipiélago cubano.A dichotomous key is given for the first time for the taxonomical identification of the species of Ephemeroptera recorded from Cuba. The key allows the identification of the 6 families, 12 genera and 32 of the 34 species that inhabit this country. The present key will constitute an important systematic tool for the study of biodiversity of mayflies in the Cuban archipelago.

  10. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  11. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. Abstract In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main tenets for business change management and implementation. It also describes the process of change for the implementation of internal control in an organization.

  12. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  13. Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The resilience of the Cuban political model appears paradoxical against the backdrop of extreme economic hardship, loss o foreign support and increasing pressure by the United States and the anti-Castro opposition. Notwithstanding adverse global circumstances following the demise of the Soviet Union -its main source of economic support- the Cuban revolutionary government has managed to hold onto power. In this paper the authors analyze the conditions under which Cuba has remained committee to...

  14. Management, treatment and advantage of municipal wastes in CUBA; Modelo para la gestion, tratamiento y aprovechamiento de residuos urbanos en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.; Lopez, M.; Rovirosa, N.; Travieso, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas CNIC. Cuba (Cuba); Garcia-Morales, J. L. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    This release proposes, in base to the accumulated technological experience, a procedure that facilitates a maximum advantage of the urban waste (solid urban waste and residual urban waters) in Cuba. The procedure is based, in first term, in organizing people in order to promote a selective system of picking up of the urban waste in two fractions; Biodegradable wastes and Residuals not Biodegradable. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. CUBA Y LA TRANSICIÓN POLÍTICA: TAN CERCA Y... TAN LEJOS. REFLEXIONES 2009 SOBRE EL FUTURO POLÍTICO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  16. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  17. Peripheral Reading on Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos’s Poetry Lectura periférica de la poesía de Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel LAMA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to complete from different sides some aspects already dealt with by the critics about the poetry of Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos. Such as the formation of its limited corpus, its verse lines not collected among his works and which were published in Gonzalo de Córdoba, López Peñalver’s version of the French novel or the powerful feeling of death which can be noticed in his most spirited and famous compositions.Este trabajo intenta completar desde diferentes lados algunos aspectos ya abordados por la crítica de la obra poética de Nicasio Álvarez de Cienfuegos. Así, la formación de su reducido corpus, sus versos no recogidos entre sus obras y que se publicaron en Gonzalo de Córdoba, la versión de López de Peñalver de la novela francesa o el poderoso sentimiento de la muerte que se aprecia en sus composiciones de mayor aliento y más renombradas.

  18. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  19. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  20. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  1. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  2. Generation of a landslide risk index map for Cuba using spatial multi-criteria evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    his paper explains the procedure for the generation of a landslide risk index map at national level in Cuba, using a semiquantitative model with ten indicator maps and a cell size of 90× 90 m. The model was designed and implemented using spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques in a GIS system.

  3. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education,…

  4. Slavery and Cinema in Cuba: The Case of Gutierrez Alea's The Last Supper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    "The Last Supper" deals with slavery and social stratification in late eighteenth century Cuba. In this article, the film is described in artistic and historical terms, and is discussed in relation to the larger body of theory on Latin American slavery. (EB)

  5. Control Programs of tuberculosis from 1963 to 1970 in Cuba. Historic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ramón Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fight against tuberculosis began in Cuba at the end of the XIX century, in Santiago de Cuba. At the beginning of the XX century the League Against Tuberculosis was created with a limited action for the lack of funds and an adequated strategy. In 1936 The National Board of tuberculosis was created, that accomplished few activities and they did not cause impact neither in morbidity nor in mortality produced by the disease in the population. In 1959, with the change of strategy introduced by the State Public Health Department, directed fundamentally toward the promotional activities and prevention of health, the Tuberculosis's department was organized, that established and directed the Program of Control of Tuberculosis for the first time in Cuba in 1963, completely renewed in 1970. This work has the purpose to describe and systematize the principal experiences of the First Program of Control of Tuberculosis (1963, doing a historical analysis of the elements and actions that were introduced like changes in the version of the Program of Control of 1970 and its repercussion in the subsequent evolution of the disease in Cuba.

  6. Education in Cuba--An Alternative Educational Discourse: Lessons to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the Cuban education system, which is well known for its focus on inclusion and equality of opportunity, but also for its focus on political and ideological conformity. The economic crisis in Cuba has led to an educational crisis as well, both in terms of teacher shortages and a decrease in quality and in…

  7. The Flowering of Identity: Tracing the History of Cuba through the Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Teaching history through the visual arts is one way of bringing the past into the present. In Cuba, the visual arts and architecture have reflected the country's "flowering of identity" through time, as a multi-ethnic population has grown to recognize its own distinct history, values and attributes, and Cuban artists have portrayed the island's…

  8. Emerging Interaction of Political Processes: The Effect on a Study Abroad Program in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The emerging interaction of political processes sets the stage for the level of macro uncertainty and specific risk events that may occur in an international relationship. Strongly defined social control in Cuba, formal and informal, dominates the dynamics of the relationship, while simultaneously government, formal, action in the U.S. dominates…

  9. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, D; Hart, M; Espinosa, F; Garcia, S; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S; Urushibara, N; Kawaguchiya, M; Kobayashi, N

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29), a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories. PMID:25356357

  10. Improving Oasis Beach: Creating a sustainable and attractive beach around hotel Oasis in Varadero Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, E.F.; Poelhekke, L.; Schlepers, M.H.; De Boer, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the North of Cuba, the Oasis beach area is situated. The beach suffers from structural erosion and earlier measures to deal with this have not succeeded. In this project, a solution is offered to reach two goals: foremost, a beach improvement to the Oasis beach sector and second, a halt to the s

  11. The land and freshwater gastropods collected in Cuba by M.G. Rutten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Morris K.

    1970-01-01

    While making geological studies in Cuba during 1933 Recent gastropods were collected by M.G. Rutten and H.J. MacGillavry in the provinces of Pinar del Río, Las Villas, and Camagüey. The collection of 54 species and subspecies is stored in the Zoölogisch Museum in Amsterdam. Some new locality records

  12. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  13. High proportion of mannosidosis and fucosidosis among lysosomal storage diseases in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Sainz, C; González-Quevedo, A; González-García, S; Peña-Sánchez, M; Giugliani, R

    2012-08-13

    Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. Data from individuals who had been referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Havana from hospitals all over the country between January 1990 and December 2005 were analyzed. This institute was the only laboratory to provide enzyme-based diagnostic testing for 19 LSDs in Cuba during this period. Occurrence rates were calculated by dividing the number of postnatal diagnoses by the number of births during the study period. The combined occurrence of LSDs in Cuba was 5.6 per 100,000, lower than that reported in other studies conducted on Caucasian populations. The most frequent individual LSDs were: mucopolysaccharidosis type I (1.01 per 100,000) and, surprisingly, alpha-mannosidosis (0.72 per 100,000) and fucosidosis (0.62 per 100,000). These findings may be related to specific genetic characteristics and admixture of the Cuban population. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. We conclude that the epidemiology of these diseases can vary regionally, and we stress the need for similar surveys in other Latin American countries.

  14. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  15. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  16. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Quinones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other ß-lactams, a ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29, a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories.

  17. Científicos españoles exiliados en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alted Vigil, Alicia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article studies the internal situation in Cuba in the 1930's as well as the links between Spanish exiles and the Cuban cultural and academical institutions. It goes on with a review of the exiled scientists that used the island as a temporary residence. The last part offers an analysis of the professional life and main scientific contributions of those scientists who chose to remain in Cuba: Gustavo Pittaluga, Luis Amado-Blanco, Pedro Domingo Sanjuan, Javier Fernández de Castro, Julio López Rendueles, etc.

    En una primera parte se hace un esbozo de la situación existente en Cuba en los años treinta y de la vinculación de los exiliados españoles a instituciones culturales y académicas cubanas. A continuación se habla de los exiliados científicos que utilizaron la isla como lugar de tránsito. Por último, se traza la trayectoria profesional de aquéllos que decidieron establecerse definitivamente en Cuba, destacando sus principales aportes científicos. Entre éstos: Gustavo Pittaluga, Luis Amado-Blanco, Pedro Domingo Sanjuan, Javier Fernández de Castro, Julio López Rendueles y otros.

  18. Havanna city seawall: The Malecón in Havana, Cuba (workplan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, E.; Versmissen, K.; Meijer, M.; Muilwijk, M.; Groenendaal, E.

    2003-01-01

    Havana City is situated on the north coast of the Republic of Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean Sea. Because of Spanish and African influences Havana is one of the most picturesque cities of the western hemisphere. In the 18* and 19* century a part of the city that lies adjacent to the sea,

  19. Collaborative efforts for managing Melaleuca in the Ciénega de Zapata, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ciénega de Zapata Biosphere Reserve is the largest protected area not only in Cuba but also throughout the Caribbean. This swamp ecosystem is characterized by a high biodiversity that comprises several endemic birds, reptiles and invertebrates and is visited by 65 species of birds during their a...

  20. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  1. Cuba After Castro; What Policy Best Serves U.S. National Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2001) 10 U.S. Department of State, "Fact Sheet: Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity ( Libertad ) Act of 1996," 1 Apdl, 1996; available from http... Libertad ) Act of 1996," 1 April, 1996; available from http:/lusinfo.state.-ove/qe-qional/arlus- cuba/helms.htm: Internet. Accessed 19 December, 2001. 22

  2. Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's growin

  3. Militares españoles transmigrantes de Cuba a México, 1898-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera B., Maria de Socorro

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the emigration of Spanish military men from Cuba to Mexico at the end of the Cuban wars for independence. After 1898, these military preferred to emigrate to Mexico rather than remaining in Cuba or returning to Spain. In Mexico they tried to solve problems of money and other legal affairs related to the Ministry of War and Navy in Spain. This migration is characterized as a transmigratory movement.

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la emigración de Cuba a México de algunos militares españoles al término de las guerras de independencia de esta Isla, en el ámbito de los movimientos de transmigración. Este trabajo muestra cómo después de 1898, dichos militares prefirieron emigrar a México en lugar de permanecer en Cuba o de volver a España. Desde México, algunos de ellos tramitaban asuntos pendientes con el Ministerio de Guerra y Marina español.

  4. San José de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanely Mulet del Pozo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha trabajado en demostrar la importancia e incidencia de los abonos orgánicos en el desarrollo de los cultivos, en la obtención de producciones más sanas a partir del mejoramiento de los nutrientes del suelo. Por lo anterior resulta necesario el conocimiento de los factores que determinan su interacción y comportamiento con las plantas, suelos y los procesos mecanizados en que dichos abonos se encuentran presentes. Actualmente el humus de lombriz representa un abono orgánico de mucho interés, dadas las ventajas que posee para la nutrición de las plantas, por eso, resulta interesante y valioso conocer sus propiedades y así facilitar los procesos tecnológicos relacionados con la manipulación, transportación y distribución en el campo, así como su interacción con el suelo y las plantas. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es la determinación de algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas, químicas y biológicas del humus de lombriz obtenido en condiciones de la vaquería de la finca Guayabal, San José de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba. Se precisaron las metodologías correspondientes para la separación de muestras y efectuar los análisis físico mecánicos, químicos y biológicos. Las propiedades obtenidas son: peso volumétrico libre, peso volumétrico compactado, coeficiente de compactación, ángulo de caída libre, ángulo de derrumbamiento y humedad del humus, pertenecientes a las llamadas propiedades físico- mecánicas. Las propiedades químicas: contenidos de: N, P, K, Mg, Ca, acidez (pH y cantidad de materia orgánica. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el humus de lombriz estudiado posee condiciones y propiedades que le permiten mejorar la estructura del suelo, su interacción con los plantas y definir parámetros de conjuntos mecanizados para su tratamiento y distribución

  5. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  6. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  7. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1955, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, descriptions of enforcement activities, and...

  8. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  9. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1958, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, and descriptions of enforcement activities.

  10. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  11. Comportamiento clínico epidemiológico del trauma ocular grave según clasificación estandarizada, Cienfuegos, 2009 -2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Cruz Martínez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Son múltiples los tipos de urgencias atendidas en los servicios de oftalmología, pero entre ellas los traumatismos oculares constituyen una de las causas más frecuentes.Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento clínico epidemiológico de los pacientes con trauma ocular según clasificación estandarizada. Métodos: Se estudió una serie de casos de 86 pacientes con trauma ocular, ingresados desde enero del 2009 a diciembre del 2011, en el Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos. Fueron analizadas las variables: sexo, edad, actividad realizada en el momento del trauma ocular, tipo de trauma, topografía de la lesión, tipo de lesión, agudeza visual al ingreso, reflejos pupilares, complicaciones (aparecidas en el período desde el trauma hasta egreso y la puntuación según cálculo de la escala de trauma ocular. Resultados: La mayoría de los traumas ocurrieron durante actividades laborales (62,79 %, sobre todo labores agrícolas. La agudeza visual inicial fue mejor para el trauma cerrado, predominando la de grado III. El hifema y la catarata traumática fueron las complicaciones más frecuentes del trauma cerrado (69,57 % y del abierto (41,18 %, respectivamente. La contusión predominó en el trauma cerrado (95,45 % y la herida penetrante en el trauma abierto (78,13 %. El pronóstico visual tuvo un comportamiento similar para ambos tipos de trauma, con predominio de la categoría 3 según escala de trauma ocular. Conclusiones: Vincular la exploración de las variables oftalmológicas incluidas en la clasificación estandarizada con variables de comportamiento clínico epidemiológico, permitió una adecuada clasificación de los traumas.

  12. La Colaboración Cochrane en Cuba. La producción de informes sobre ensayos clínicos realizados en Cuba en las bases de datos Medline y en el Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Cañedo Andalia, Rubén; Araújo Ruiz, Juan A.; Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo; Gutiérrez Calzado, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Pub/Medline database, available in the Internet, was explored aimed at identifying the publication of clinical trial result reports by Cuban authors in national and foreing journals as well as the position of Cuba with regard to the rest of the Iberoamerican countries. The Web of Science was also examined. In Medline, 142 references of clinical trial reports published by Cuban authors were found: 116 in foreing publications and 26 in national journals. Cuba is situated in the 6th place among ...

  13. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  14. Slave resistance and the politics of slavery: Brazil and Cuba, 1791-1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parron, Tâmis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political impact of slave activism in Brazil and Cuba from 1790 to 1825, covering the period from the beginning of the Revolution of Saint-Domingue to the establishment of the Constitution of Brazil (1824 and the granting of absolute power to the captains general of Cuba (1825, in the immediate context of the end of the wars of independence on the continent. Instead of discussing and classifying the specific character of the different expressions of collective slave resistance in a typological order, this article tries to understand the effect of those actions on the macro-political dynamic of these two aspects by verifying to what extent they made up the political and institutional framework of slavery in Brazil and Cuba.

    El artículo examina el impacto político del activismo esclavo, en Brasil y Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, esto es, desde el inicio de la Revolución de Saint-Domingue al otorgamiento de la Constitución del Brasil (1824 y al decreto de facultades omnímodas para los capitanes generales de Cuba (1825, en el contexto inmediato del término de las guerras de independencia en el continente. En lugar de discutir y clasificar en un orden tipológico el carácter específico de las diversas expresiones de resistencia esclava colectiva, el artículo intenta comprender el efecto de esas acciones en la dinámica macropolítica de los dos espacios, verificando en qué medida aquéllas conformaron el cuadro político e institucional de la esclavitud en Brasil y en Cuba. [pt] O artigo examina o impacto político do ativismo escravo, no Brasil e Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, isto é, do início da Revolução de Saint-Domingue à outorga da Constituição do Brasil (1824 e à decretação das faculdades onímodas para os capitães generais de Cuba (1825, no contexto imediato do término das guerras de independência no continente. Ao invés de discutir e classificar em uma ordem tipológica o caráter específico das

  15. CUBA竞争平衡研究%The Resarch of Competitive Balance in CUBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢科

    2015-01-01

    运用测度联赛竞争性平衡的基尼指数(GINI )、胜率标准差(SDWP )、赫芬达尔指数(HHI )等方法对CUBA竞争性平衡进行统计分析,结果表明:(1)CUBA 男子与女子联赛都存在不同程度的竞争不平衡.随着联赛的发展,男女联赛之间的竞争性平衡差距反而越大,呈现轻度负相关(-0.135);(2)高校高水平运动员的招生、学业管理、经费投入是影响CUBA 竞争平衡的主要因素.根据研究结果与分析,提出以下建议:确保高校构建高水平篮球队的经费;注重运动员训练和学业两方面的表现,借鉴NCAA 关于运动员学业的管理制度(Academic Progress Rate )等.%By testing the methods of measuring competitive balance of league matches, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Gini Coefficient, the Standard Deviation of Winning Percentages, the article analyzes the competitive balance of CUBA statistically. The result shows that:(1) it exists a competitive unbalance problem in men′s and women′s CUBA to some extent. With the development of the league matches, more gaps is growing between men′s and women′s CUBA, and they show a negative correlation(-0.135).(2) High level student sports athlete′s admission, academic management and financial outlay devotion are the key factors of high standard sport teams′ construction which affects the competitive balance of CUBA. According to the research findings, there are several suggestions as follows:(1) Ensure enough budget of establishing high standard basketball team among high schools. (2) Pay attention to athlete′s performance of discipline and study, referring to Academic Progress Rate of NCAA.

  16. Lesions of the buccal mucosa in elderly. A study performed in five family doctor´s office of health area III in Cienfuegos city. Lesiones de la mucosa bucal del adulto mayor. Un estudio en cinco consultorios del área III de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Fundament: Bucal lesions in aged persons are very frequent and are not the same in many countries and regions. To know about them is of great importance for we can plan preventive activities and medical services for their attention Objective: To describe the more frequent intraoral mucous lesions in individuals with 60 years old and more. Methods: Descriptive study with a sample of 270 aged persons (both sexes, obtained through simple random sample out of a universe of 1014 individuals with 60 years old and more, from Area III in Cienfuegos. Detailed physical examination was applied to all the studied patients as well as a questionnaire where data of interest were engulfed. Results: From all studied cases, the 26.7% presented some type of bucal lesion, predominantly in women (17.8%. The more frequent lesions were: sub prosthesis stomatitis (10%, leukoplasia (6.2%, and fissuratum epulis (4.4%. The more frequent anatomic localizations of these lesions were: the palatum durum with 27 cases of sub prosthesis stomatitis, the alveolar sulcus with 11 fissuratum epulis, and the jugal mucosa with 4 cases of candidiasis and 7 leukoplasias. Conclusions: A high percentage of this geriatric population presented some type of bucal mucosa lesions, women were the most affected, lesions of prosthetic origin were predominant, as well as pre malignant lesions. The predominant localizations of the lesions were the palatum durum, the alveolar sulcus, and the jugal mucosa.

    Fundamento: Las lesiones bucales en los ancianos son muy frecuentes y difieren en diferentes países y regiones, conocer sobre estas es de gran importancia pues permite planificar actividades preventivas y servicios médicos para su atención. Objetivo: Describir las lesiones mucosas intraorales más frecuentes en los individuos de 60 años y m

  17. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  18. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739). We received no letters commenting on the proposed rule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim V swimming event. The...

  19. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... portion of Presque Isle bay during the Bay Swim VI swimming event. This temporary safety zone is...

  20. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  1. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  3. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  4. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  5. Una llamada de “urgencia” para tutela cautelar en la justicia administrativa en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El régimen jurídico de la tutela cautelar que rige hoy por hoy para la justicia administrativa en Cuba, se basa en el principio de ejecutabilidad de los actos administrativos, y por tanto, en la regla de la no suspensión de las decisiones de la administración pública. El modelo construido tomó como referencia el sistema de justicia cautelar administrativa del derecho franco-español de finales del siglo xix. En el siguiente trabajo se parte del presupuesto de la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma en torno a la ordenación jurídica de la tutela cautelar administrativa en Cuba; para la cual se aportan argumentos teóricos que justifican una modificación en pos de ampliar y reforzar el rol de la tutela cautelar en la jurisdicción contencioso-administrativa.

  6. práctica del turismo rural en la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Alejandra Camargo Toribio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo incluye parte de los resultados que se obtuvieron en la tesis doctoral “Aportaciones metodológicas para la implementación del turismo rural en la República de Cuba. Estudio de caso: zona turística de Viñales” (Camargo, 2003. El objetivo principal de este artículo es conocer las preferencias de los clientes internacionales para la práctica del turismo rural, modalidad que no está establecida de forma consciente en la República de Cuba y que, de acuerdo con el potencial naturalcultural existente, tiene amplias posibilidades para su introducción. Con este fin se aplica una encuesta donde los viajeros evalúan, en una escala ascendente, la importancia que le conceden a un conjunto de elementos para la práctica de la modalidad rural

  7. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  8. Sócrates sofista, Brás Cubas filósofo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lara Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo é comparar as estratégias argumentativas de Sócrates e Brás Cubas, tais como ironia e aporia. Consideramos a estrutura ficcional machadiana como condição para a expressão cética, que ao desconfiar da realidade ou do que dela se supõe saber, instaura uma nova perspectiva, ou seja, outro nível de realidade que prescinde dos valores dogmáticos como Verdade e Essência. A justificativa geral para esse tipo de abordagem é que as questões ali descritas são encorpadas por situações ficcionais, gerando um ceticismo que se expressa numa obra de ficção. Brás Cubas e Sócrates esboçam conjecturas que descrevem as relações paradoxais do ser humano.

  9. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  10. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

  11. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  12. Psychosocial stress at work in pregnant health workers from Havana city, Cuba 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, María de Lourdes; Instituto Nacional de Salud de los Trabajadores. La Habana, Cuba. Master en Psicología y en Salud Ocupaciona.; Aguilera, María de los Angeles; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud en el Trabajo.; Aldrete, María Guadupe; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud en el Trabajo.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Evaluate the level of psychosocial stress at work according to the models of demand-control of the work tension and imbalance effort recompense; and to determine associations between the psychosocial stress at work and pregnancy complications. Material and methods. We performed a prospective cohort study with 78 pregnant health workers from the municipality of the Havana city, Cuba, in the period 2005-2006. Those interviewed responded a version to Spanish of the Job Content Que...

  13. Eating à la Criolla : Global and Local Foods in Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    PILCHER, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the changing meanings of local and global foods in Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico. Nineteenth-century Latin America is often viewed as a period of liberal ascendancy when imported goods were highly valued, while on the contrary, the twentieth century is seen as a time of populist nationalism that embraced local culture and, at least until the neoliberal era, rejected European and North American imports. Nevertheless, liberals sought to balance their international sophisticati...

  14. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  15. Soil conservation practices in maize-bean production systems in Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Two trials were conducted in production conditions in watersheds of the Pinar del Río province, one in Campo Hermoso and the other in La Comunidad La Leña, Cuba. At both sites, rotations were conducted involving two bean varieties: BAT 304 and Tomeguin 93, followed by maize associated with Mucuna deeringianum. Border ridges were established with Stizolobium d. and Canaraline protected by live barriers of Leucaena leucocephela and Gliricidia sepium. Soil losses were estimated in sedimentation ...

  16. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The resilience of the Cuban political model appears paradoxical against the backdrop of extreme economic hardship, loss o foreign support and increasing pressure by the United States and the anti-Castro opposition. Notwithstanding adverse global circumstances following the demise of the Soviet Union -its main source of economic support- the Cuban revolutionary government has managed to hold onto power. In this paper the authors analyze the conditions under which Cuba has remained committee to...

  17. An eighteenth-century community in exile : the 'floridanos' in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Landers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the evacuation of 1763, when Floridians had to move away after the English seized the colony from Spain. Most of the migrants settled in Cuba. Several hundred families of Spanish descent and their slaves made new lives in Havana. Author focuses on the Florida Africans and Indians and the history of a new multi-ethnic settlement named San Agustín de la Nueve Florida.

  18. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  19. United States Security Policy Implications of a Post-Fidel Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-10

    YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 10-03-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research Project 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4...specifically that, “…we will work in equal partnership, advance economic and social inclusion, safeguard citizen safety and security, promote clean ...regime’s vulnerability” section. 89 Obama, Barack, National Security Strategy, 35. 90 Valdes, Tania , “More than 2,500 freed in Cuba amnesty: rights

  20. The two great revolutions in the Caribbean, Haiti and Cuba: examples or lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PANTOJAS GARCÍA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Why did the two great revolutions of the Caribbean, Haiti and Cuba, were condemned to ostracism by its contemporaries and are presented as bad examples rather than exemplary events? These and other related questions are answered examining three arguments: revolution as a critical transition event, economic sustainability as a central challenge for revolutions, and revolution versus the ontology of the Caribbean as a subordinate region.