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Sample records for ciclo risk study

  1. Riesgo cardiovascular del paciente hipertenso con seguimiento prolongado en atención primaria. El efecto del envejecimiento (ciclo risk study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento La evolución del riesgo cardiovascular estimado, puede servir para valorar la efectividad de las diferentes intervenciones terapéuticas que se realizan en pacientes con seguimiento habitual en las consultas del médico de familia. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar diferentes sistemas de evaluación del efecto de las intervenciones preventivas en la evolución del riesgo coronario en el seguimiento a largo plazo de personas hipertensas en Atención Primaria. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo longitudinal con seguimiento de 8.42 pacientes hipertensos de 34 a 70 años durante 6 años en dos centros de atención primaria, con una intervención de mejora de calidad (ciclo de mejora en el último año en uno de ellos. El seguimiento mínimo en atención primaria previo al inicio del estudio fue de dos años. Las variables principales fueron edad y sexo, presión arterial, lípidos, tabaquismo, diabetes y riesgo cardiovascular (RCV(Framingham-Wilson en la situación real y considerando constante la edad en el primer supuesto y los factores de riesgo en el segundo y el riesgo relativo. Resultados: Se encontró un descenso de la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica de 11,78 mmHg (IC95%:10,51-13,05 y 8,83 mmHg (IC95%:8,13-9,53 respectivamente y LDL-Colesterol 15,94 mg/dl (IC95%:11,77-20,12, un ascenso del HDLColesterol de 7,53 mg/dl (IC95:6,39-8,66, disminución del tabaquismo del 31% y un aumento de diabéticos. El riego coronario disminuyó 1,40(IC95%:0,87-1,93 puntos porcentuales, el RCV con edad constante descendió 3,84(IC95%:3,35-4,33 y con factores de riesgo constantes incrementó 3,06(IC95%:2,82- 3,29. El Riesgo relativo descendió de 2,50 a 1,85. Conclusiones: El envejecimiento puede enmascarar el efecto logrado por la atención sanitaria en el control del riesgo cardiovascular absoluto. El riesgo relativo podría ser una alternativa para monitorizar el seguimiento.

  2. Ciclo Basico Polivalente (Basic Comprehensive Courses of Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of comprehensive secondary schools in Argentina to meet the diversified goals of the population in any given geographical region. The plan described here provides for the creation of several basic-study cycles within one school so that students may pursue courses in commercial, technical, and academic fields.…

  3. Das séries aos ciclos de estudos: o desafio da (descontinuidade De los grados a los ciclos de estudios: el desafío de la (descontinuidad From grades to study cycles: the challenge of the (discontinuity

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    Doralice Aparecida Paranzini Gorni

    2009-12-01

    ón formativa en su cotidiano. Este trabajo ha sido basado en una encuesta cualitativa que propuso la adecuación de la evaluación del alumno a la de la escuela en ciclos de estudios e fue realizado de 2004 a 2006 en cuatro etapas: grupo de estudios realizado con el profesorado del 1º al 4º grados juntamente con el cuadro técnico-pedagógico de dicha escuela; asesoramiento individual al profesorado para trabajarse en la planificación anual y bimestral; elaboración de fichas para el acompañamiento del desempeño de los alumnos; asesoramiento al profesorado cuanto al relleno de las fichas de sus respectivas clases, además de la realización de reuniones mensuales para evaluarse y encaminar las dificultades encontradas, visando la construcción de un instrumento que posibilitara la elaboración de un método de evaluación continuado y reflexivo, integrado a la práctica pedagógica. Se obtuvo un resultado positivo junto a 50% del profesorado. Es necesario resaltar la necesidad de hacer el profesorado efectivo en las escuelas por mediante la elaboración de políticas que combatan el elevado grado rotativo de profesores y que les garanticen condiciones para que ellos se envuelvan en proyectos que contribuyan para la mejoría de la calidad de la práctica pedagógica y para enfrentar las dificultades existentes en el cotidiano de la escuela.During the 1980's, the reorganization of the Brazilian traditional grades of elementary school into cycles began, based on the principle of enlarging the students' learning period and on the idea of continuity. This study aimed to investigate the evaluation practices in a public school organized in cycles, as well as the necessary conditions to implement the formative assessment in their daily lives. A qualitative study held from 2004 to 2006 proposed the adequacy of the students' evaluation. The research was developed in four stages: a study group with the teachers and the technical-pedagogical body was carried out; assistance to

  4. Performance study of a combined cycle power plant with integral gasification; Estudio del desempeno de una planta de potencia de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rocha, Jose Clemente

    2007-04-15

    integration to an existing combined cycle power plant. The strategic location of the Tula combined cycle, which is adjacent to Miguel Hidalgo refinery, presents the opportunity of applying the gasification technology as a viable alternative: firstly, for the use of petroleum coke that at this moment is been produced in the Mexican refineries or using the petroleum coke that could be produced in the adjacent refinery; and secondly, by the possibility of applying the concept of reconfiguration of the Tula combined cycle to operate as CCGI, with the objective of improving its thermal regime, its generation capacity and its global thermal efficiency. This way, every study realized to predict the performance of an existing combined cycle power plant using a gasification process and operating under the concept of combined cycle with integrated gasification (CCGI) is of utility for later studies, that consider the concept of reconfiguration of existing conventional power plants in Mexico, for example, the coal-electric or fossil fuel, which use polluting fuels such as coal or fuel oil, so that a reconfiguration using the gasification technology could replace these fuels reducing the emission of polluting agents to the atmosphere. Also, this study would be useful for studies that contemplate the installation of a gasification system in an adjacent refinery to a combined cycle in order to take advantage of the coke produced in this one and to improve the thermal regime, the global thermal efficiency, and the electric generation capacity of the combined cycle. [Spanish] A nivel mundial, en la ultima decada se ha incrementado el interes por usar el coque del petroleo como combustible en la generacion limpia de energia aplicando la tecnologia de gasificacion. Este interes se debe principalmente el incremento en la produccion del coque de petroleo como consecuencia del procesamiento de mayores volumenes de crudo pasado en las refinerias y al incremento en el rendimiento de los productos

  5. Capitulo XVI. Del ciclo agricola al ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Figura 63. Figuritas de palmas que representan a las presas de caza Los mariwin, héroes de los capítulos precedentes, se presentan en ellos como aparecidos que mantienen vínculos simbióticos con las últimas plantas comestibles, que crecen en los restos de un sitio de poda: por supuesto, las piñas, pero sobre todo los pijuayos (wani). En otras palabras, se presentaban como metáforas del fin del ciclo vital y agrícola, lo que explicaría que se “vistan” de helechos, plantas vivaces, prontas para...

  6. Analisis termodinamico de los ciclos de rankine

    OpenAIRE

    Fuste Paredes, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto final de grado tiene como objetivo general el estudio y análisis termodinámico del ciclo de Rankine y sus modificaciones. Pretende dar un enfoque general de los distintos parámetros que intervienen y afectan en el aumento del rendimiento de las instalaciones que trabajen con él, así como de las variaciones del ciclo de Rankine para instalaciones de gran potencia, como son el ciclo Rankine con recalentamiento y el ciclo regenerativo de Rankine. En definitiva, la finalidad de este...

  7. Vidas precarias y Ciclo Vital

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Adán

    2014-01-01

    El artículo propone entender la precariedad en un análisis que sobrepase las condiciones laborales, y que observe la formación de un ciclo vital atravesado por sistemas generales de administración de los medios de subsistencia. Estos sistemas en el contexto neoliberal se han transformado profundamente a través del crédito y la capitalización individual. De modo que el conjunto vital de la población queda precarizado. Se trata entonces de...

  8. Séries no ensino privado, ciclos no público: um estudo em Belo Horizonte Grades in private schools, learning cycles in public schools: a study carried out in Belo Horizonte

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    Paulo Roberto Vidal de Negreiros

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é entender o fenômeno que tem ocorrido nas esferas de ensino público e privado no Brasil no que diz respeito à aplicação do art. 23 da Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional - LDB -, Lei n. 9.394/96, que trata da organização dos tempos escolares. Ao flexibilizar e delegar a autonomia aos estabelecimentos de ensino na escolha da organização dos tempos escolares esta lei acabou provocando uma situação diversificada. Os dados revelam que a rede pública movimenta-se mais rapidamente para uma organização em ciclos enquanto que a rede privada de ensino mostra-se mais propensa à continuidade da organização seriada. Dados estatísticos recentes, fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira - Inep - comprovam isso. As razões pelas quais os estabelecimentos de ensino público adotam o sistema de ciclos têm sido objeto de muitas publicações. No entanto, quando a escola particular é o foco dessa questão, não se sabe ao certo quais as razões da não adesão à proposta dos ciclos e nem os motivos da continuidade do sistema seriado.The objective of this study is to understand what has been occurring in the spheres of public and private education in Brazil, concerning the application of art. 23 of the Guidelines and Bases Act of Education - LDB -, Law n. 9.394/96, which deals with the organization of school times. This law has caused a diversified situation by allowing flexibility and delegating autonomy to teaching institutions to decide on school time's organization. The data indicate that the public schools are moving more quickly towards an organization based on cycles, whereas the private ones are more inclined to keep grades. Recent statistic data, supplied by the National Institute of Pedagogical Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira - Inep -, prove it. The reasons why public teaching institutions adopt the learning cycle have been discussed in many

  9. Polibutadieno alto-cis: estudo viscosimétrico em tolueno e ciclo-hexano High-cis polybutadiene: viscometric study in toluene and cyclohexane

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    Ivana L. Mello

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas medidas viscosimétricas, em soluções de tolueno e ciclo-hexano, a 30°C, com polibutadieno alto-cis, sintetizado com catalisadores à base de neodímio. Foram empregadas diferentes equações para determinar os valores de viscosidade intrínseca: Huggins; Kraemer; Martin; e Schulz-Blaschke, por extrapolação gráfica; e Solomon-Ciuta; Deb-Chanterjee e; novamente, Schulz-Blaschke, por determinação por um único ponto. Os valores de viscosidade intrínseca obtidos pelos dois métodos (extrapolação gráfica e por um único ponto foram comparados a fim de se verificar a validade da determinação por um único ponto para os sistemas analisados, bem como determinar que equação fosse a mais adequada para esse tipo de cálculo. Foram calculadas as constantes viscosimétricas de Huggins, Kraemer e Schulz-Blaschke e foi feita uma análise da qualidade do solvente, levando-se em conta também os valores do parâmetro de solubilidade de Hildebrand dos solventes e do polímero. Foi determinada a distância média quadrática entre as extremidades das cadeias poliméricas por meio da equação de Flory, para tal foram utilizados os dados viscosimétricos obtidos, bem como os pesos moleculares determinados por viscosimetria e por cromatografia de exclusão por tamanho. Verificou-se que o método de determinação por um único ponto foi apropriado para o polibutadieno alto-cis, tanto para o cálculo de viscosidade intrínseca quanto de peso molecular. Em tolueno, a equação de Solomon-Ciuta foi a mais adequada, ao passo que a equação de Deb-Chanterjee foi mais apropriada para o polímero em ciclo-hexano. Verificou-se também que o tolueno foi o melhor solvente para o polibutadieno em função dos maiores valores de viscosidade intrínseca e de distância média quadrática entre os extremos da cadeia polimérica. Os valores obtidos para as constantes viscosimétricas confirmaram essa observação.Viscometric measurements, in

  10. Perspectiva temporal futura y ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio es describir qué cambios se producen en la perspectiva temporal futura (PTF) durante el ciclo vital. Para evaluar la PTF a lo largo del ciclo vital se ha utilizado el modelo de Nurmi (1989), que consta de tres componentes: motivación, planificación y evaluación prospectiva. En el estudio participaron cuatro grupos de personas de diferentes edades: 130 adolescentes (15-18 años), 150 estudiantes universitarios (19-28 años), 100 personas de mediana edad (30-59 años) ...

  11. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities; Um estudo sobre o efeito domino em instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-07-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  12. Las películas del ciclo

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Jesús; Aparicio, José; Muñoz, Carlos; Muñoz, Txema; Murgio, Pello; Puig, Xavier; Rebordinos, José Luis; Torres, Sara

    1990-01-01

    Angulo, J.; Aparicio, J.; Muñoz, C.; Muñoz, T.; Murgio, P.; Puig, X.; Rebordinos, JL.... (1990). Las películas del ciclo. Nosferatu. Revista de cine. (2):35-73. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/40746. 35 73 2

  13. Avaliação da tolerabilidade e do controle de ciclo de dois contraceptivos orais de baixa dose: estudo comparativo aberto Assessment of the tolerability and cycle control of two low-dose oral contraceptives: an open-label study

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    Edmund C. Baracat

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo aberto comparativo em nove centros brasileiros para avaliar a tolerabilidade e o controle de ciclo obtido com o uso de dois contraceptivos orais de baixa dose contendo 20 mg etinilestradiol/75 mg gestodeno e 20 mg etinilestradiol/150 mg desogestrel, durante seis ciclos de tratamento. Foram selecionadas 167 mulheres saudáveis com vida sexual ativa (77 no grupo do gestodeno e 90 no grupo do desogestrel, das quais 138 completaram os seis ciclos de tratamento. Em um subgrupo de novas usuárias realizou-se também perfil lipídico e hemostático. Foram avaliados 867 ciclos no total. Ocorreu sangramento irregular em 4,6% dos ciclos com gestodeno e em 8,1% com desogestrel. A tolerabilidade a ambas preparações foi boa, mas houve significativamente mais náusea no grupo do desogestrel. O controle de ciclo foi bom com os dois contraceptivos, sendo que houve freqüência significativamente menor de sangramento irregular no grupo do gestodeno quando se leva em conta que todos os ciclos foram considerados. Não houve alterações clinicamente significativas no perfil hemostático. O perfil lipídico mostrou tendência a tornar-se mais favorável após seis ciclos de tratamento com as duas preparações. Não ocorreu alteração no peso médio das mulheres no grupo do gestodeno; no grupo do desogestrel houve aumento significativo no peso médio de aproximadamente 1 kg após seis meses de tratamento. A adesão ao tratamento foi boa com as duas preparações. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que preparações contendo baixa dose de gestodeno ou desogestrel associados a 20 mg de etinilestradiol são contraceptivos bem tolerados que permitem bom controle de ciclo, sem efeitos colaterais significantes.An open-label comparative study was conducted in nine centers in Brazil to evaluate the tolerability and cycle control of two low-dose oral contraceptives containing 20 mg ethynylestradiol/75 mg gestodene and 20 mg ethynylestradiol/150 mg

  14. The impact of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a summary of the reports of various subprojects on nuclear safety. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role and usefulness of major risk studies in societal opinion forming and decision making processes. The primary research material consisted in seven major risk studies, three of which were concerned with radioactive waste handling, two with reactor safety and two with comparative studies of various sources of energy. Special attention was given to the following four aspects: a) the way in which the studies were interpreted b)the extent to which these studies have clarified the risks they analyse c) the extent to which these studies have narrowed the scientific debate d) the degree to which these studies have actually influenced safety measures and regulatory policy. The picture which emerges is one of success in relation to the effects on the nuclear establishment and largely a failure as attempts at settling disputes and informing the public. (G.B.)

  15. Ciclos Reales y Política Económica Ciclos Reales y Política Económica

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    Valentín Carril

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Kydland and Freescott have described a method for studying business cycles. The method has been successfully applied to U.S. data, which are relatively long and detailed. This paper shows a way to use the method to study the business cycle in Chile and discuses policy implications. Ciclos Reales y Política Económica

  16. L’ipotesi del ciclo vitale, la politica fiscale e la previdenza sociale

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    Tullio Jappelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro riassume le principali implicazioni dell’ipotesi del ciclo vitale per quanto riguarda il risparmio individuale e aggregato, la politica fiscale e la previdenza sociale, soffermandosi sui contributi più importanti di Modigliani su questi temi. Anche se non è facile conciliare alcuni risultati empirici recenti con l’ipotesi del ciclo vitale, soprattutto gli aspetti di inerzia, miopia e comportamento irrazionale documentati nella letteratura comportamentale, gli studi di Modigliani rappresentano ancora oggi la base di riferimento principale per studiare le decisioni dirisparmio individuali e per operare scelte di politica economica.

  17. Liquid-base cytology: a new method for oestral cycle study in wistar's rats Citologia de base líquida: um novo método para o estudo do ciclo estral em ratas Wistar

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    Rand Randall Martins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was the standardization of a collection technique and staining in liquid-base that allies the pratical and cytological wealth, making possible a larger reproductibility and microscopic easiness. METHODS: Female wistar rats (n=20 were submitted to the daily vaginal collection in saline and fastened washed (ether/alcohol and stained in suspension with a solution of Evans Blue 0.025%. The sample was pondered by centrifugation and observed under lens of 40 x. RESULTS: The stained smears allowed clear differentiation of the phases of hormonal cycle (diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus; besides the differentiation of the cellular types in relation to its maturation degree having as parameters the cellular size, nucleus / cytoplasm relationship (NCR and ink reaction. The study demonstrated the existence of three basic cellular patterns: cells with low NCR, accentuated cyanophily and small size; cells with increment in NCR, cyanophilic loss and larger volume cytoplasmatic and without nuclei keratinization cells in squamous aspect. CONCLUSION: The staining of the material allowed, besides the cytological classification, the quantification possibility that would result in a perfected accompaniment of the cycle estrous.OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi à padronização de uma técnica de coleta e coloração em meio líquido que alie a praticidade e a riqueza citológica, possibilitando uma maior reprodutividade e facilidade microscópica. MÉTODOS: Ratas wistar (n=20 foram submetidas à coleta vaginal diária em salina e o lavado fixado (éter/álcool e corado em suspensão com solução de azul de Evans 0,025%. A amostra foi concentrada por centrifugação e observado sob objetiva de 40 x. RESULTADOS: Os esfregaços corados permitiram nítida diferenciação das fases do ciclo hormonal (diestro, proestro, estro e metaestro; além da diferenciação dos tipos celulares em relação ao seu grau de matura

  18. Personalidad sana en el ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Bardají, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    En el desarrollo de la personalidad, de la persona, en su devenir hacia la madurez, la psicología se interesa, desde luego, por los cambios comportamentales debidos al ciclo biológico, pero, no menos, a los que se siguen de un determinado curso de experiencias y de acciones de la persona individual. En este último sentido la personalidad no sólo crece o se desarrolla; asimismo aprende y en algún sentido se hace a sí misma, contribuye al curso de su propia vida. Universidad de Málaga. Campu...

  19. Autorrelatos do amor no ciclo vital adulto

    OpenAIRE

    José Augusto Evangelho Hernandez; Sinele Valle da Costa; Juliana Ramos Ribeiro; Caroline Almeida Areias; Karina Nascimento Valladares dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa transversal comparou grupos de pessoas de diferentes faixas etárias, adultos jovens, maduros e maiores de 50 anos. Foram verificadas possíveis modificações do amor ao longo do ciclo vital adulto. Participaram 211 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, envolvidos em tipos variados de relações amorosas, que responderam à Escala Triangular do Amor de Sternberg. Os resultados da análise de variância multivariada mostraram interações significativas entre os componentes do amor e as faixas etári...

  20. Ciclo de vida del entomonematodo nativo

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz, Adriana; Luque, Jesús Emilio

    2011-01-01

    En el laboratorio de Control Biológico de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional, sede Bogotá, se estudio la biología básica del entomonemátodo nativo Steinernema feltiae Filipjev, 1934 (Rhabditida: Steinemematidae). Utilizando larvas de último instar de la polilla mayor de las colmenas Galleria mellonella, expuestas a 8000 juveniles infectivos/caja de petri y realizando disecciones diariamente, se determinaron los estados de desarrollo, duración del ciclo vida y relación de sexo...

  1. Histomorphometric and functional studies of the rat thyroid throughout the estrous cycle Histomorfometria e função tireoidiana no ciclo estral da rata

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    R. Serakides

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the estrous cycle on the thyroid gland was studied. Twenty one five-to-seven-month-old Wistar female rats were divided according to the stage of the estrous cycle in two groups: metaestrus-diestrus and proestrus-estrus. After gross inspection, the thyroids were weighed, sampled, and processed for staining with hematoxilyn-eosin. Seric concentrations of total T4, free T4, total T3, TSH, progesterone, and estradiol were measured. The values of estradiol were significantly higher in the proestrus-estrus stage. However, no significant differences in the plasmatic concentrations of progesterone, free T4, total T4 and TSH throughout the cycle were found. The results of the morphometric study of the thyroid did not indicate any significant differences between the groups. These findings suggest that there is no thyreotrophic effect of estrogen during the estrous cycle in rats.

  2. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan Volodymyr L.; Posokhov Igor M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management...

  3. Relação entre ciclo menstrual e planejamento dos treinos: um estudo de caso - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i1.4381 The relation between the menstrual cycle and training schedule: a case study - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i1.4381

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    Carlos Alexandre Molena Fernandes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de caso teve como objetivo verificar a relação do treinamento de tênis de campo com o ciclo menstrual em uma atleta com 17 anos de idade. O período de treinamento foi de 16 semanas. As avaliações motoras foram realizadas em dois momentos, no período de ovulação do ciclo menstrual da atleta investigada. Foram analisadas as capacidades motoras específicas ao tênis de campo: velocidade, potência muscular de membros superiores, potência muscular de membros inferiores e agilidade. Os resultados encontrados demonstram que houve melhora considerável em todas as variáveis. Sendo assim, sugere-se que um planejamento orientado, baseado no princípio da individualidade, poderá orientar cargas de treinos, buscando melhores resultados, entretanto são necessárias monitorações, em diferentes períodos do ciclo menstrual com uma população maior, na busca de respostas por demais fatores relacionados com a menstruação e exercício.This case study had as objective to verify the relation between tennis training and the menstrual cycle of a 17-year-old athlete. The training period lasted 16 weeks. Performance tests were carried out in two instances during the ovulation period of the menstrual cycle of the investigated athlete. Motor skills specific to tennis were analyzed: speed, arm muscle strength, leg muscle strength and agility. The results demonstrated a considerable improvement in all variables. Therefore, it is suggested that a guided plan, based of the principle of individuality, will be able to guide training loads and seek better results. However, monitoring is necessary in the different periods of the menstrual cycle, using a larger population sample, in the search for answers to other factors related to menstruation and exercise.

  4. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

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    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  5. Ciclos reais brasileiros em dois setores

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    Fabio Kanczuk

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Construímos um modelo de equilíbrio geral dinâmico de dois setores com o intuito de investigar o comportamento dos ciclos reais brasileiros. Quando os investimentos dos dois setores são agregados de acordo com uma Cobb-Douglas para formação de capital, o modelo é consistente com as volatilidades cíclicas dos componentes das contas nacionais e com a natureza contracíclica das exportações líquidas e do câmbio real. Caso a elasticidade de substituição entre o consumo de comercializáveis e de não comercializáveis seja baixa, o modelo também reproduz a volatilidade observada no câmbio real.We construct a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the Brazilian business cycles. When investments from each sector are aggregated according to a Cobb-Douglas for capital formation, the model is consistent with the cyclical volatilities of national income components as well as with the countercyclical character of net exports and real exchange rates. If the elasticity of substitution between consumptions of tradeables and non-tradeables is low, the model can also reproduce the observed real exchange rates volatilities.

  6. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  7. Juros reais e ciclos reais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Kanczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de equilíbrio geral dinâmico, construído para estudar a relação quantitativa entre flutuações nas taxas de juros reais e os ciclos reais da economia brasileira. Quando as firmas estão sujeitas a restrições de capital de giro, o modelo é consistente com as volatilidades cíclicas dos componentes das contas nacionais e com a natureza contracíclica dos juros reais. Simulações com regras de Taylor alternativas indicam como as estimações econométricas da curva IS dinâmica estão sujeitas à crítica de Lucas. O artigo apresenta sugestões de como o modelo de metas inflacionárias atualmente utilizado pelo Bacen deveria ser modificado para incorporar os resultados encontrados.This paper presens a dynamic general equilibrium model to assess the quantitative relation between fluctuations in real interest rates and business cycles in the Brazilian economy. When firms are subject to working capital restrictions, the model is consistent with the cyclical volatilities of national income components as well as with the countercyclical character of real interest rates. Simulations with alternative Taylor rules indicate how econometric estimations of the dynamic IS curve are susceptible to the Lucas critique. The paper suggests how the inflation targeting model currently used by the Central Bank of Brazil should be transformed to incorporate its findings.

  8. Movimientos correctos a la velocidad correcta sobre los ciclos correctos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Mejía Q.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue explicar cómo una pequeña empresa colombiana compite en el mercado de telecomunicaciones de Estados Unidos. Esto fue posible usando el modelo de la Doble Hélice de Fine, que muestra los ciclos estructurales de cambios tecnológicos, sobre los que la compañía tuvo que tomar las decisiones estratégicas correctas para seguir la dinámica sectorial a la velocidad correcta. El estudio de caso consistió en una síntesis histórica sectorial y de la empresa, incluyendo hitos claves, después, la velocidad fue medida y finalmente una decisión fue recomendada para poder sobrevivir sobre el patrón de movimientos y cambios sectoriales. / The purpose of this study was to explain how a little Colombian company competes in the dynamic US telecomm market. It was possible by using Fine´s Double Helix Model that shows two structural cycles to explain technological movements, in each cycle, the company studied had to do the correct strategic decisions to follow the industrial dynamics at the right clockspeed. The case study consisted of an industrial and a company historical synthesis, including key issues, afterwards, clockspeed is measured and finally a decision is recommended to survive on the pattern of industrial changes and movements.

  9. Currículo en el nivel preescolar costarricense: El Ciclo Materno Infantil (CMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Chaves Álvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Recibido 20 de abril de 2009 • Aprobado 14 de setiembre de 2009 • Corregido 15 de octubre de 2009

     

    Resumen. Este artículo aborda la conceptuación y la descripción del Ciclo Materno Infantil como parte del nivel de preescolar del sistema educativo formal costarricense. Con el propósito de tener una visión más amplia de este Ciclo, se hace un repaso por el concepto de currículo, así como de los elementos que lo conforman, y, luego, se detallan específicamente los aspectos relacionados con el currículo de preescolar costarricense del Ciclo Materno Infantil, tomando como punto de partida el Programa de Estudio que se elaboró para atender este Ciclo en el sistema educativo de Costa Rica.

     

    Abstract. The present article tackles the conceptualization and description of the Infantile Maternal Cycle as p The present article tackles the conceptualization and description of the Infantile Maternal Cycle as part of the preschool level of the Costa Rican educational system. With the intention of having a wider vision of this Cycle, a revision is done for the curriculum concept, as well as, for the elements that shape it, and then there is a detailed description of specific aspects related to the preschool Costa Rican curriculum of the Infantile Maternal Cycle, taking as a starting point the Program of Study that was designed to attend the above Cycle in the Costa Rican educational system.

  10. STUDY OF A RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Marn-Ling Shing; Chen-chi Shing; Kuo Lane Chen; Huei Lee

    2011-01-01

    Risk management has become an important issue in the information security area. This study proposes a Semi-Markov chain model to manage the information security risk. When the state information is not recognized as a normal state, the model can send a warning signal to the manager. A simulated model was used to validate the semi-Markov chain model.

  11. STUDY OF A RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk management has become an important issue in the information security area. This study proposes a Semi-Markov chain model to manage the information security risk. When the state information is not recognized as a normal state, the model can send a warning signal to the manager. A simulated model was used to validate the semi-Markov chain model.

  12. Ciclos electorales en política fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Lema, Daniel; Streb, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Primero usamos casos empíricos concretos para motivar la discusión de los ciclos electorales en política fiscal. Luego presentamos una revisión teórica y econométrica de la literatura. Teóricamente, los ciclos se pueden interpretar en términos de un problema de inconsistencia temporal que enfrentan los gobiernos bajo información asimétrica: no es creíble que los gobiernos respeten una regla de presupuesto equilibrado antes de las elecciones, a menos que existan actores de veto legislativos qu...

  13. Risk Assessment Study for Storage Explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Azhar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, there has been rapidly increasing usage in amount of explosives due to widely expansion in quarrying and mining industries. The explosives are usually stored in the storage where the safety precaution had given high attention. As the storage of large quantity of explosive can be hazardous to workers and nearby residents in the events of accidental denotation of explosives, a risk assessment study for storage explosive (magazine had been carried out. Risk assessment study had been conducted in Kimanis Quarry Sdn. Bhd, located in Sabah. Risk assessment study had been carried out with the identification of hazards and failure scenarios and estimation of the failure frequency of occurrence. Analysis of possible consequences of failure and the effects of blast waves due to the explosion was evaluated. The risk had been estimated in term of fatalities and eardrum rupture to the workers and public. The average individual voluntary risk for fatality to the workers at the quarry is calculated to be 5.75 x 10-6 per person per year, which is much lower than the acceptable level. Eardrum rupture risk calculated to be 3.15 x 10-6 per person per year for voluntary risk. There is no involuntary risk found for fatality but for eardrum rupture it was calculated to be 6.98 x 10-8 per person per year, as given by Asian Development Bank.

  14. Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160476.html Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds Blood condition ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older stroke victims suffering from anemia -- a lack of red blood cells -- may have ...

  15. La teoria del ciclo vitale del risparmio di Modigliani cinquant’anni dopo

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    Mauro Baranzini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early 50s Franco Modigliani and Richard Brumberg and Albert Ando, ​​formulated the life-cycle theory of consumption and saving, which has been a huge success and undisputed for at least three decades. However, since the early 80s the life-cycle theory has been criticized in an increasingly tight for at least four reasons. The first is the existence of a significant intergenerational transmission of wealth, due to factors exogenous to the model of the life cycle. The second reason is the increasing evidence that the rich continue to save a greater extent than the less fortunate, as, in fact, Keynes argued. The third reason is that there is increasing evidence, at least in Western Europe and Japan, young families, during twenty and thirty years of age, save a positive and growing share of their income, which arises in decided contrast to the original version of the life-cycle theory. Finally, a number of empirical studies have found that retirees dismiss a high proportion of their income. This requires a serious rethinking of the approach of the life-cycle theory, which affects both the economic analysis and economic policy. Nei primi anni ’50 Franco Modigliani, insieme a Richard Brumberg e ad Albert Ando, formulò la teoria del ciclo vitale del consumo e del risparmio, che ha riscosso un enorme e indiscusso successo per almeno tre decenni. Tuttavia, a partire dai primi anni ’80 la teoria del ciclo vitale è stata criticata in modo sempre più serrato, per almeno quattro ragioni. La prima consiste nell’esistenza di una significativa trasmissione intergenerazionale della ricchezza, da ricondurre a cause esogene al modello del ciclo vitale. La seconda ragione è rappresentata dalla crescente evidenza che i ricchi continuano a risparmiare in misura maggiore rispetto ai meno fortunati, come, in effetti, Keynes sosteneva. Il terzo motivo è che vi sono prove sempre più evidenti, almeno nell’Europa occidentale e in Giappone

  16. Expectativa y ciclo: hacia una dinámica keynesiana

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    García Molina Mario

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In chapter 17 of the General Theory, Keynes introduced the concept of the own-rates of interest in order to study a monetary economy of production, under an implicit assumption of equilibrium. This paper extends this concept for the analysis of a monetary economy in permanent disequilibrium and upon essential uncertainty. It is shown how the theories of liquidity preference and of finance are taken as complementary explanations. Differences between actual and expected own rates help to explain short term phenomena. and the behavior of capitalist along the business cycle. Depressions appear as a possibility which, in the case of ocurring it is necessary either state intervention or any other exogenous element to the same market in order to overcome them.

    En el capitulo 17 de la Teoría General, Keynes introduce el concepto de tasa propia de interés para estudiar una economía monetaria bajo un supuesto implícito de equilibrio. En este trabajo se aplica el mismo concepto al análisis de una economía monetaria en desequilibrio permanente y con una incertidumbre irreductible. Se muestra que las teorías de la preferencia por la liquidez y la de financiamiento constituyen explicaciones complementarias. Las diferencias entre tasas propias esperadas y realizadas ayudan a explicar los fenómenos de corto plazo y el comportamiento de los inversionistas a lo largo del ciclo de negocios. Las depresiones aparecen como una posibilidad que, en caso de ocurrir, no pueden ser superadas sin intervención del Estado o de otro elemento exógeno al mercado mismo.

  17. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Polyakov, S.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2004-07-01

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  18. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  19. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  20. Análise do ciclo de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Quinta-Nova, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    No âmbito da palestra abordou-se a temática da Análise do ciclo de vida (ACV) ou "análise ambiental do ciclo de vida" como ferramenta que permite analisar o impacte ambiental de um produto ou processo. Essa análise é feita sobre toda a "vida" do produto ou processo, desde o seu início (por exemplo, desde a extracção das matérias-primas no caso de um produto) até o final da vida (quando o produto deixa de ter uso e é considerado como resíduo), passando por todas as etapas intermédias, designad...

  1. Evaluation of Newer Risk Markers for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Classification A Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavousi, Maryam; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lindemans, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van der Lugt, Aad; van den Meiracker, Anton H.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether newer risk markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) improve CHD risk prediction remains unclear. Objective: To assess whether newer risk markers for CHD risk prediction and stratification improve Framingham risk score (FRS) predictions. Design: Prospective population-based study.

  2. Manejo cultural do maracujazeiro-amarelo em ciclo anual visando à convivência com o vírus do endurecimento dos frutos: um estudo de caso Handling of the of yellow passion fruit plant in annual cycle aiming the coexistence with the pwv (passion fruit woodiness virus: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Costa Sampaio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de caso teve por objetivo analisar a qualidade dos frutos e a produtividade em t/ha de maracujá-amarelo, em dois ciclos anuais, plantados, respectivamente, nos dias 04-10-04 (1º plantio e 20-08-05 (2º plantio. As mudas da seleção Afruvec foram formadas em tubetes no interior de estufa com tela antiafídeo. O pomar, nos dois ciclos produtivos, foi irrigado por gotejamento, adotando-se uma densidade de 1.600 plantas/ha. O 1º plantio foi erradicado no dia 13-07-05, em função de o pomar apresentar a totalidade das plantas com sintomas típicos do vírus do endurecimento dos frutos (PWV nas folhas e frutos. No 1º e no 2º plantios, os sintomas tiveram início no dia 26-01-05 e no dia 04-01-06, respectivamente. Não houve necessidade de eliminação de plantas em ambos os plantios, já que o início dos sintomas de PWV ocorreu quando as plantas se encontravam em pleno florescimento. Pelos resultados, pode-se concluir que o manejo adotado regionalmente, com plantio em ciclo anual, permitiu uma ampliação do período de colheita, decorrente da antecipação de plantio no 2º ano; uma produtividade de 16,94 kg/planta e 18,39 kg/planta, no 1º e 2º anos, respectivamente; um aumento da rentabilidade na safra de 2006 em função: da maior produção, melhor cotação dos frutos para mesa e indústria, e aproveitamento dos investimentos realizados no 1º ano. As técnicas empregadas promoveram uma eficiente redução do potencial de inóculo regional, favorecendo uma sustentabilidade na produção.This case study aimed to analyze the quality of fruits and productivity in t/ha of the yellow passion fruit in two annual cycles, respectively on October 4th, 2004 (1st planting and August 20th, 2005 (2nd planting. In the 1st planting it was eradicated on the July 13th, 2005, in function of the orchard presenting the totality of the plants with typical symptoms of PWV in fruits and leaves. The seedlings of the selection Afruvec were formed in

  3. The German risk study. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe nuclear power plant accident can be followed by a considerable release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere. Due to atmospheric dispersion, areas of different sizes can be contaminated. The corresponding doses can cause early illnesses, early fatalities, latent effects and genetic effects. They are accompanied by economic effects. Within the consequence model of the German Risk Study, early and late fatalities and genetically significant doses are calculated. The calculations are based on real data or phenomena such as the population around 19, present or future German sites, or 115 real weather sequences, as well as on models such as an atmospheric dispersion model, a dose model, a model of protective actions or a health effects model. Within this lecture, the consequence model applied in the German Risk Study will be discussed in detail and the results will be presented. (orig./RW)

  4. Determinantes y caracteristicas de los ciclos economicos en Mexico y estimacion del PIB potencial

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Posadas; Ociel Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    En un entorno en el que la prolongada estabilidad en los ciclos economicos de nuestro principal socio comercial es tema de gran debate por la incertidumbre que genera su sostenibilidad, conviene analizar el tema de los ciclos y el crecimiento potencial de nuestra economia considerando los cambios en la estructura productiva en los anos posteriores a la entrada en vigor del TLCAN. El presente texto se divide en dos partes; en la primera, dedicada a los ciclos economicos, se especula sobre las ...

  5. Does Communicating (Flood) Risk Affect (Flood) Risk Perceptions? Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    People's risk perceptions are generally regarded as an important determinant of their decisions to adjust to natural hazards. However, few studies have evaluated how risk communication programs affect these risk perceptions. This study evaluates the effects of a small-scale flood risk communication

  6. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  7. Morphological features and vascularization study of caprine cyclic corpus luteum Características morfológicas e estudo da vascularização do corpo lúteo cíclico de cabras ao longo do ciclo estral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza M. Miranda-Moura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland that regulates either the estrous cycle and pregnancy. It presents extreme dependency on the adequate blood supply. This work aims to evaluate goat corpus luteum (CL vascular density (VD over the estrous cycle. For that purpose, 20 females were submitted to estrus synchronization/ovulation treatment using a medroxyprogesterone intra-vaginal sponge as well as intramuscular (IM application of cloprostenol and equine chorionic gonadotrophine (eCG. After sponge removal, estrus was identified at about 72hs. Once treatment was over, female goats were then subdivided into 4 groups (n=5 each and slaughtered on days 2, 12, 16 and 22 after ovulation (p.o. Ovaries were collected, withdrawn and weighted. CL and ovaries had size and area recorded. Blood samples were collected and the plasma progesterone (P4 was measured through RIA commercial kits. The VD was 24.42±6.66, 36.26±5.61, 8.59±2.2 and 3.97±1.12 vessels/mm² for days 2, 12, 16 and 22 p.o, respectively. Progesterone plasma concentrations were 0.49±0.08, 2.63±0.66, 0.61±0.14 and 0.22±0.04ng/ml for days 2, 12, 16 e 22 p.o, respectively. Studied parameters were affected by the estrous cycle phase. Values greater than 12 p.o were observed. In the present work we observed that ovulation occurred predominantly in the right ovary (70% of the animals, which in turn presented bigger measures than the contra lateral one. There is a meaningful relationship between the weight and size of the ovary and these of CL (r=0.87, r=0.70, respectively, pO corpo lúteo é uma glândula endócrina temporária que regula tanto o ciclo estral quanto a prenhez, apresentando extrema dependência de aporte sanguíneo adequado. Objetivaram-se avaliar mudanças morfométricas dos ovários e densidade vascular (DV dos corpos lúteos (CL de cabras ao longo do ciclo estral (AOLC. Vinte animais foram submetidos ao tratamento para indução/sincronização do estro, usando esponjas

  8. Afrontamiento, resiliencia y bienestar a lo largo del ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Mayordomo Rodriguez, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    El ser humano a lo largo del ciclo vital se enfrenta situaciones y sucesos para los que debe poner en marcha estrategias de afrontamiento que faciliten su adaptación y generen bienestar. La mayoría de los teóricos del afrontamiento (Carver, Scheier y Weintraub, 1989; Lazarus y Folkman, 1984; Moos, 1988; Moos y Billing, 1982), concuerdan en clasificar tres dominios generales de las estrategias según cómo éstas estén dirigidas a: la valoración (afrontamiento cognitivo), un intento de encontr...

  9. Study On Machining Processing Technology Risk Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiqing

    2015-01-01

    In the industrial production process,only to ful y guarantee the machining production safety, it can been ensured that the smooth completion of machining process.Under this back ground,in the machining production process,the machinery processing safety would been ful y concerned,several factors, which may lead to the problem of mechanical processing and production process,were analyzed,and the relevant control strategies were researched.In view of this situation,this paper wil specifical y combined with the machining process characteristics to study the machining process manufacturability risk control.

  10. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  11. Yeats, Cuchulain e la fine del ciclo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Calimani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In analysing two ‘Cuchulain plays’ by Yeats, this study highlights the central quality of modernism in On Baile’s Strand, where tragedy is deflated by farce and contaminated with low-mimetic style, and the full expression of despair is hindered by a Blind Man and a Fool, acting as spectators and providing an alternative view of existence. In The Death of Cuchulain the hero’s tragedy is revisited, thus haunting the final moments of his life. Yet again, Cuchulain is denied his tragic stature and is assigned a farcical death which diminishes his mythical figure. The ultimate stage of demythization is reached in Purgatory, a play with no Cuchulain, where an Old Man and a Boy reproduce the father-son struggle, with the former killing the latter. Yeats’s obsessive theme has come to an end. The annihilation of the Cuchulain myth and its central event, at the end of Yeats’s life, seems to be pointing to the end of all ideals in a final apocalypse devoid of any possible eternal return.

  12. Solar (superíndice) 2, remisión de V. ciclo solar .

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Solar (superíndice) 2, remisión de V. ciclo solar . en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Solar (superíndice) 2, remisión de V. ciclo solar . in the dictionary Dicter.

  13. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  14. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy or psychiatric diseases have increased risk of suicide, but whether the risk is influenced by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is unclear. Studies have suggested that AEDs in general increase the risk of suicidal behaviour shortly after initiation. This study...

  15. Study Links Severe Head Injury to Parkinson's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159811.html Study Links Severe Head Injury to Parkinson's Risk Researchers only found an association, could not ... of consciousness may increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, new research suggests. "It could be that ...

  16. Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158854.html Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests ... 16, 2016 MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise may significantly reduce your risk for many types ...

  17. Comparison of veterinary import risk analyses studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de C.J.; Conraths, F.J.; Adkin, A.; Jones, E.M.; Hallgren, G.S.; Paisley, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two veterinary import risk analyses (IRAs) were audited: a) for inclusion of the main elements of risk analysis; b) between different types of IRAs; c) between reviewers' scores. No significant differences were detected between different types of IRAs, although quantitative IRAs and IRAs publ

  18. El autoconcepto físico durante el ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Esnaola Etxaniz, Igor

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar el autoconcepto físico durante el ciclo vital. La muestra está compuesta por 1.259 participantes divididos en cuatro tramos de edad: adolescencia (12-18 años), juventud (19-30 años), edad adulta (31-49 años) y personas mayores de 55 años. Tanto en la muestra de mujeres como en la de varones, los resultados indican que las percepciones en las escalas de habilidad física y condición física van disminuyendo desde la adolescencia hasta las person...

  19. Corpos e ciclos da vida sanumá-yanomami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Guimarães

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta etnografia sobre os Sanumá, subgrupo yanomami do alto rio Auaris, estado de Roraima, explora aspectos centrais de sua vasta e complexa cosmologia. Discute a noção de corpo e os ciclos de vida onde estados especiais devem ser observados no processo de construção da pessoa.This ethnography focuses on the Sanumá, a Yanomami subgroup located on the upper Auaris River, in the northernmost state of Roraima in Brazil. It explores central aspects of their vast and complex cosmology by discussing the concept of body and life cycles where special states related with the construction of the person must be observed.

  20. ESTUDIO DEL BULLYING EN EL CICLO SUPERIOR DE PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ruiz Arroyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestra investigación trata el fenómeno del bullying en el ciclo superior de primaria. Para llevarla a cabo, hemos elaborado un cuestionario ad hoc a partir de una revisión bibliográfica de diferentes investigaciones en las que se han utilizado varios instrumentos, pruebas, cuestionarios... Este instrumento nos ha servido para analizar diferentes temas: la percepción que tienen los niños de ciclo superior sobre el bullying, en qué escenarios del centro escolar se producen más estos comportamientos, los diferentes tipos de bullying (físico, verbal y exclusión social y cuáles se producen más a menudo y analizar las respuestas que nos dan los alumnos en función del género y del curso (5.º y 6.º. Los resultados que hemos obtenido muestran, entre otras cosas: que en los niños se da más el bullying físico, mientras que en las niñas predomina el de tipo verbal y exclusión social; que la única diferencia según el curso es que en 6.º curso se da más exclusión social que en 5.º curso; y que donde se producen más conductas de bullying es en el patio, seguido del aula cuando no se encuentra el docente. Finalmente, partiendo de los resultados obtenidos, hemos elaborado unas propuestas de actuación psicopedagógicas para mejorar la convivencia en la escuela y otros espacios educativos.

  1. Study of the scenarios for the Cycle 12 of the Unit 1 of the CNLV; Estudio de escenarios para el ciclo 12 de la Unidad 1 de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In this work the preliminary results of a study of scenarios of it loads of fuel and operation of the Cycle 12 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde power station are presented. Based on the Plan of Energy Use (PUE) for this cycle, they were studied different possibilities, with the idea to satisfy the energy demand under sure performance of the reactor. In this work were contemplated similar fuel assemblies to those that are using at the moment in the Cycle 11 of that unit. The reload proposals using the Haling principle and patterns of control bars with the intelligent technique not exhaustive well-known as taboo search are analyzed. The simulator Cm-Presto was used to evaluate the scenarios. This study even continuous analyzing different options and improving the results. (Author)

  2. Epidemiological study of the effects of nuclear and fuel cycle facilities on the health of the neighbouring populations; Estudio epidemiologico del efecto de las instalaciones nucleares y del ciclo sobre la salud de las poblaciones vecinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, A.; Lentijo, J. C.; Lopez-Abente, G.; Pollan, M.; Ramos, M. R.; Rodriguez, M.; Tello, O.; Urbano, I.

    2010-07-01

    The Carlos III Health Institute and the Nuclear Safety Council, signed an agreement for the performance of an epidemiological study to investigate the possible effects of exposure to ionising radiations on the health of populations living in the vicinity of nuclear and radioactive facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. (Author)

  3. New technologies for offshore wildlife risk studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Caleb

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Two research initiatives by Pandion Systems, funded by the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE), are addressing the enormous challenges of conducting offshore wind-wildlife risk/impact studies by providing new wildlife sensing technologies that surmount some of the limitations of previous techniques. Both initiatives rest on the shoulders of pioneering European studies and experience. One entails the development of a remote-operating acoustic/thermographic detector. This device, designed with input from the Danish National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) and Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (CLO), will provide species-specific occurrence data, as well as flight altitude estimation, for vocalizing flying wildlife that flies within a detection beam that corresponds roughly to the rotor swept zone of a single, commercial marine wind turbine. While the detection beam is small and limitations exist for silently flying animals, this device will be capable of providing information on bats and on federally-listed bird species that has been difficult or impossible to achieve with other methods. A preliminary version of this device was developed in 2009-2010 in a BOEMRE-funded pilot study, and a sea-worthy device is currently being developed, scheduled for initial deployment on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) in summer, 2011. A second initiative is targeted at developing a high-definition aerial survey protocol capable of providing a safe, cost-effective, reproducible snapshot of bird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distribution on the entire AOCS. This research, being conducted with a team of technologists and biologists including scientists from the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), entails conducting a series of pilot experiments in spring, 2011 with a variety of different aircraft, cameras, flight altitudes, and image resolutions, to determine optimum protocols for the large-scale surveys. Both of

  4. Behavior of uranium isotopes along a tidal cycle in a study affected by acid mine drainage; Comportamiento de los isotopos de uranio a lo largo de un ciclo mareal en un estuario afectado por denaje acido de minas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A.; Martin, J. e.; Olias, M.; Garcia, C.; Bolivar, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers converge in an estuarine system known as the Ria de Huelva, which is an ecosystem of great interest, conditioned by hydrochemical facts. The main objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of uranium isotopes in the waters of the Red River estuary in a tidal cycle under hydrochemical conditions of high gradients of salinity and pH generated by the acidic waters of the Rio Tinto and seawater. (Author)

  5. Life cycle assessment and product category rules for the construction sector. The floor and wall tiles sector case study; Analisis de ciclo de vida y reglas de categoria de producto en la construccion. El caso de las baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, G.; Gazulla, C.; Fullana, P.; Celades, I.; Ros, T.; Zaera, V.; Godes, B.

    2011-07-01

    This paper illustrates the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) activities performed during the preparation of the Spanish Product Category Rules (PCR) relative to the construction sector. Specifically, the study presents the results obtained from the life cycle analysis of the floor and wall tile sector, which served as the basis for the drafting of the PCR required for the definition of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). More than 50 Spanish companies in the ceramic tile sector participated in the study, providing inventory data on the manufacture of their products. Additionally, bibliographic information and the GaBi 4 software database by PE International were used to complete background and generic data, such as those related to energy and transportation processes. EPDs are voluntary declarations based on LCA studies that permit the disclosure and dissemination of environmental information quantified over the life cycle of a product. The definition of PCRs for ceramic tiles was performed in accordance to the UNE EN ISO 14025 and ISO 21930 standards and they have been submitted to industries and professional association public consultations. PCRs have been developed in the context of the DAPc program (promoted by the Catalan Government and CAATEEB) and represents the first eco labelling activity for building products in Spain. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  7. Emulsiones tipo crema preparadas a base de leche de soja 3: Efecto de ciclos de temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner, Jorge R.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of temperature cycling on emulsions formulated with reconstituted soy milk, sunflower oil and high melting point milk fat was analysed. The emulsions were prepared at 60 ºC , stored at 4 ºC (3 h, warmed at 40 ºC or 50 ºC (30 min and afterwards recooled at 4 ºC (2h. Although solid fat content of emulsions did not raised after tempering at 40 ºC , increase of G' and G'' was observed only in those formulated with 40 % lipid phase. This phenomenon was attributed to droplet aggregation due to partial melting, recrystallization and reordering of fat crystals in oil droplets. The main droplet destabilization mechanism was the partial coalescence; it was corroborated by nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry and droplet size distribution studies. On the other hand, the consistency of 20 % of lipid phase emulsion did not increased. Low droplet concentration disfavoured the partial coalescence of droplets. Similar assays on cream at 40 ºC and cream-like soy milk emulsions at 50 ºC , did not show rheological modifications, due to almost total melting of milk fat during tempering.En este trabajo se analizó el efecto de ciclos calentamiento-enfriamiento sobre cremas preparadas a 60 ºC con leche de soja en polvo reconstituida, aceite de girasol y grasa láctea y almacenadas posteriormente a 4 °C durante 3 horas. Los ciclos consistieron en un calentamiento a 40 °C o 50 °C (30 min seguido de un re-enfriamiento a 4 °C (2 horas. En los ensayos realizados sobre cremas formuladas con 40% de fase lipídica se observó un aumento de los valores de G' y G'' después del ciclo 40 °C- 4 °C , a pesar de no haberse observado un aumento en el contenido de grasa sólida. Estos resultados se atribuyen a la formación de agregados de gotas inducida por la fusión parcial, reordenamiento y recristalización de la grasa láctea en las gotas. Estudios de resonancia magnética nuclear de

  8. Nível de aderência dos artefatos de contabilidade gerencial sob a perspectiva do ciclo de vida organizacional: um estudo de caso = Adherence level of managerial accounting tools in the perspective of organizational life cycle: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Antonovz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo demonstra a evolução do uso dos artefatos de contabilidade gerencial sob a perspectiva dociclo de vida organizacional, investigando de acordo com o modelo delineado por Miller e Friesen(1984, que verifica a evolução da entidade, desde o nascimento até seu declínio. O modelo foiconfirmado pelo trabalho de Moores e Yuen (2001, que se baseou no estudo de Miller e Friensen(1984 para verificar como a evolução dentro deste modelo interfere no uso dos artefatos dacontabilidade gerencial. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, utiliza-se de um estudo de casoaplicado em uma indústria de confecções do Noroeste do Paraná, conhecida como pólo industrialnessa área. Os achados do estudo evidenciam que há uma relação direta da evolução da entidade e oefetivo uso dos artefatos disponíveis, mas que nem sempre o estágio de vida em que esta se encontraconfirma tal situação, ou seja, não há necessariamente uma evolução do uso dos artefatos aliados àevolução da entidade. O trabalho pode confirmar a posição da empresa com relação ao modeloescolhido, porém foi verificado que não necessariamente todos os artefatos de contabilidade gerencialevoluíram conforme o modelo de Moores e Yuen (2001.This study aimed to demonstrate the evolution of the use of Management Accounting tools from theperspective of the organizational life cycle, by investigating the model outlined by Miller and Friesen(1984, based on the evolution of the human body, from birth to their decline, interferes the use ofthese tools. The model was confirmed by the work of Moores and Yuen (2001, which was based onthe study of Management Accounting, and the understanding of the evolution of entities. Using thetechnique of case study, justified as the most appropriate to describe a managerial position and capable to shows a real situation. The organization chosen is an industry of clothing the Northwest sideof Paraná, known as industrial pole in the area. The

  9. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram II; Hiwarkar PA; Kulkarni PN

    2009-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban...

  10. Implementation of Risk Management in Malaysian Construction Industry: Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman; Chen Wang,; Farhanim Sheik Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Construction industries are exposed to wide array of risks, such as financial, design, and contractual ones, which might have a direct impact on their performance toward achieving the desired objectives. Risk Management is a proactive decision-making process used to minimize and manage the risks in the most efficient and appropriate manner. However, most construction firms in Malaysia do not apply formal risk management in their projects. Thus, this study aims to identify the actual process o...

  11. Study on the Credit Risk in Societies with Agricultural Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenica POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The credit risk is one of the most important risks the banks face in their daily work and it has a direct impact on bank performance. In the current context, a bank has available a variety of options to determine capital requirements, to decrease the credit risk. This study aims to analyze the correlation of the main indicators of creditworthiness of firms and the credit risk, that a bank will take giving credit to these firms.

  12. Putting risk analysis into perspective: a comparative review of major societal risk studies of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emphasis in this final report of the project Evaluation of major Swedish energy risk assessments in an international perspective is shifted towards the comparative aspect. The comprehensive nuclear risk study has been used as an instrument to satisfy many needs simultaneously. The research consisted of an examination of existing risk studies of five nations, namely West Germany, UK, US, Canada and Sweden. The effect of nuclear risk studies on society at large and on public attitude towards nuclear power in particular is discussed. Finally, the effect on the nuclear establishment is analysed. (G.B.)

  13. Study on risk evaluation related to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2006, the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan revised the Regulatory Guide for Reviewing Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities, which has introduced, in addition to the conventional deterministic approach, the concept of probabilistic 'residual risk' that arises from the earthquake exceeding the defined design standard earthquake Ss. In response to this, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) requested the utilities to evaluate the residual risk for all the domestic nuclear power plants, in addition to the deterministic back-check to the revised guideline. In this residual risk evaluation, conformity will be checked for each plant to satisfy the performance objectives (i.e. core damage frequency and containment failure frequency) and the safety goal (i.e. average individual risk). In this situation, it is inevitable for JNES to establish consecutive evaluation system for seismic PSA models, including level-1 (core damage frequency), level-2 (containment failure frequency and release of radioactive materials) and level-3 (radiological consequence), in order to perform its own seismic PSA, keeping adequate quality level. With the established evaluation system, it becomes possible to timely and efficiently review the results of the utilities through cross-checking utilizing the results of JNES. In 2010, level-1, 2, 3 PSA modeling for all the domestic light water reactors have been almost completed as well as PSA modeling for multi-unit site and tsunami was progressed to prepare for the review for the 'residual risk' by the utilities. (author)

  14. Ciclos clássicos num ambiente de racionalidade limitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylson Jair da Silveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho toma como ponto de partida o modelo macrodinâmico de Richard M. Goodwin, apresentado no clássico artigo “A Growth Cycle” (1967. Neste modelo a interação entre distribuição de renda e acumulação de capital gera um ciclo de crescimento que oscila em torno de uma trajetória de crescimento equilibrado. O objetivo do presente trabalho é investigar a possibilidade de existência de ciclos goodwinianos com heterogeneidade de salários e de taxas de lucro. Essa análise é realizada considerando o processo de concorrência entre trabalhadores num ambiente de racionalidade limitada. Para formalizar o processo de concorrência entre trabalhadores foram utilizados dois recursos: (i a “alegoria das ilhas”, que tem sido amplamente adotada na macroeconomia moderna, a fim de apreender situações de informação imperfeita; e (ii os instrumentos analíticos desenvolvidos pela teoria dos jogos evolucionários aplicada a ambientes sociais. O modelo construído combina o modelo de Goodwin com uma formalização estilizada do fluxo de trabalho como um processo de imitação num ambiente de racionalidade limitada (dinâmica de replicação num contexto social. Neste modelo demonstra-se a possibilidade de o sistema econômico não convergir para um estado de equilíbrio de longo prazo e a possibilidade do sistema econômico convergir para um ciclo goodwiniano caracterizado por heterogeneidade de salários e de taxas de lucro.This paper starts from the macrodynamical model developed by Richard M. Goodwin, which was first shown in the seminal paper “A Growth Cycle” (Goodwin, 1967. In this model it was described an interaction between income-distribution and capital accumulation that generates a growth cycle swinging along a balanced growth path. The objective of this work is to investigate the possibility of existence of goodwinian cycles with heterogeneity in wage and in profit rates. This task is carried out considering the

  15. Risk management study: Importance of human element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) caused neither deaths nor injuries to plant workers or the general public, nor did it release a significant quantity of radioisotopes to the environment. GPU Nuclear Corporation (GPUN), the subsidiary responsible for the cleanup of TMI-2 and the operation of TMI-1 and Oyster Creek units, has recognized important accident lessons and seeks to assure that nothing of similar consequence happens again. To this end, a risk management group (RMG) was formed in early 1988 to develop a framework for proactive identification, evaluation, and cost-effective reduction and management of risks of all types. The RMG set out to learn as much as possible about risks and their management in nuclear and other high-technology industries. The RMG has been developing a basic model that identifies and describes attributes of safety and risk-management programs. These are divided among four categories, management, people, activities, and equipment. The integration of these elements into a basic decision-making process for management is the essential challenge. Position papers are in preparation or under consideration on specific key issues, including professionalism; critique feedback and followup; PRA uses (including desktop-computer applications); simulation interactions with training, operating and emergency procedure development, job design, and human factors; and safety ethos

  16. Importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio en el ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Melero Marcos, Luis; Ventola Barrado, María Luisa I.

    1995-01-01

    RESUMEN: A lo largo del ciclo vital, los individuos experimentan una serie de acontecimientos que, sin duda, influyen en su desarrollo individual y colectivo. Tales acontecimientos parecen introducir cambios en la vida de los sujetos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar la importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio, desde la consideración de que el estudio de los mismos es consustancial con el estudio del ciclo vital. Desde este punto de partida, se ha establecido la...

  17. Ingeniería de sistemas y automática en las asignaturas obligatorias de los nuevos planes de estudio de ciclo largo y segundo ciclo

    OpenAIRE

    Candelas Herías, Francisco Andrés; Puente Méndez, Santiago Timoteo; Ortiz Zamora, Francisco Gabriel; Gil Vázquez, Pablo; Torres Medina, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio sobre la vinculación de asignaturas obligatorias en las universidades públicas españolas al Área de Ingeniería de Sistemas y Automática. Las titulaciones estudiadas son Ingeniero en Automática y Electrónica Industrial (de solo segundo ciclo), Ingeniero Industrial e Ingeniero en Informática (de ciclo largo) de los nuevos planes de estudio. Estas son las titulaciones donde el Área tiene mayor presencia en materias troncales.

  18. Risk And Risk Management Techniques In Bank: A Detail Study Of Basel Accord

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Risk measurement and management has become a critical area for each organization in this highly competitive world. Banks and other financial institutes are the most sensitive to various kinds of risk and these institutions are highly involved in financial transaction on daily basis at comparatively much higher volume. In this research study, the researcher has tried to analyze various kinds of risks associated with the banks and their measurement & management techniques. In order to understan...

  19. A Study of Enterprise-wide Risk Management and Risk Reporting Practices in UK Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, it indeed becomes harder for companies to plot the right course for their continued success in this age of globalizations. Companies are sinking into more vulnerable position to risks as before and it would ultimately affect both operational activities of firms and decision making process of stakeholders. Therefore, practices of risk management and risk reporting have gained more attention from outside stakeholders, as well as academic community. The study aims to fi...

  20. A preliminary study on application of risk assessment to seismic risk management of nuclear fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on risk-informed safety regulation and/or management of nuclear installations are being carried out world widely on the background of progress in development of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology and its application. The study on PSA methodology and application is on going at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. A PSA methodology has been developed for MOX fuel fabrication facilities in this study. A preliminary study on application of risk assessment to examine seismic risk management of nuclear fuel facilities has been also carried out as one of those research activities. A simple approach of assessing risk has been investigated based on the analytical policy so called 'graded approach' in which detail of risk analysis can be changed corresponding with the level of potential risk of facilities. Following three issues have been studied with a sample case of uranium fuel fabrication facility. (1) Approach to application of Seismic PSA to examine reasonable practicable seismic risk management, (2) Assessing method of seismic induced accident scenarios and their consequence, (3) Applicable safety level to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management. (author)

  1. Influência do ciclo lunar no parto: mito ou constatação científica? Influencia del ciclo lunar en el parto: mito o constatación científica? Influences of lunar cycle in labor: myth or scientific finding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bueno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas superstições são encontradas em nossas vidas. Na medicina, uma profissão que se orgulha em métodos baseados em evidências para tratamentos, isso não é uma exceção. Uma superstição que abrange o parto é a influência de determinadas fases do ciclo da lua, mais especificamente a lua cheia. Embora estudos tenham demonstrado que o aumento de partos está relacionado com o ciclo lunar, existe discordância sobre quando ocorre o pico do volume de partos em cada fase da lua. Frente à divergência de resultados existentes na literatura que relaciona os eventos do ciclo lunar com parto, o objetivo desta revisão foi realizar um levantamento bibliográfico na tentativa de esclarecer esta cultura popular com base nos resultados apresentados por diferentes autores.Se encuentran las supersticiones por todas partes en nuestras vidas, y la medicina, una profesión que tiene orgullo acerca de los tratamientos con base en evidencia, no está extinta. La influencia de ciertas fases del ciclo lunar, específicamente la luna llena, es una superstición sobre el parto. Aunque algunos estudios han demostrado un aumento en los partos que se relacionan al ciclo lunar, ha habido discordancia sobre cuando, en el ciclo lunar, el volumen máximo ocurre. Afronte a la divergencia de los resultados existentes en la literatura que relacionan los eventos del ciclo lunar con los partos, el objetivo de esta revisión era explorar la literatura en el esfuerzo de explicar esta cultura popular con la base en los resultados presentado por los diferentes investigadores.Superstitions are found everywhere in our lives, and medicine, a profession that is prides itself on an evidence-based approach to treatment, is not exempt. A superstition that pervades the labor and delivery floor is that it is busier during certain phases of the lunar cycle, specifically the full moon. Although some studies have demonstrated an increase in deliveries that are related to the lunar

  2. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  3. Sobre el ciclo maya de 819 días

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto Quiñones Garza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos autores consideran que los mayas manejaban un ciclo de 819 días, que habría tenido un carácter mágico o ritual, sin descartar alguna manifestación astrológica o astronómica. Un enfoque que no ha sido tomado en cuenta hasta hoy, es el puramente aritmético, el posible interés del sacerdocio maya en este número como tal. Se especula aquí que el número 819 está relacionado con el valor de TT, además de la probable vinculación que esta cifra podría guardar con sus sistemas numérico y calendárico. Dos situaciones se vislumbran como importantes contribuciones, el planteamiento epistemológico implícito y los resultados obtenidos como información básica para futuras investigaciones dentro de la etnomatemática y la antropología.

  4. Modelo de ciclo de vida de empreendimentos sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Meira de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um modelo de ciclo de vida de empreendimentos sociais. Os dados primários foram obtidos em entrevistas com fundadores de 10 empreendimentos sociais de Curitiba (PR acerca da história de vida da organização. A análise qualitativa dos dados identificou cinco etapas de evolução (Ação Social, Associação, Visibilidade Social, Rede Social e Representatividade Social com, respectivamente, seis momentos de crise que determinam a passagem para uma etapa posterior (Desequilíbrio Social, Identidade, Foco, Controle, Responsabilização e Ética. O estudo reafirma as diferenças entre o empreendedorismo social e o privado e justifica o tratamento diferenciado entre eles. O modelo pode subsidiar a decisão dos gestores sobre o futuro da organização, bem como de financiadores públicos e privados, gestores de redes sociais, pesquisadores, consultores, administradores públicos, entre outros stakeholders, e abre caminho para outros estudos sobre o tema.

  5. Single particle effects, Biostack, and risk evaluation - Studies on the radiation risk from Galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    The possible health risks posed by Galactic cosmic rays, especially the possible heightened cancer risk, are examined. The results of the Biostack studies of the biological effects of high-energy cosmic rays are discussed. The biological mechanisms involved in possible harm due to cosmic rays are considered.

  6. Correlational Study of Risk Management and Information Technology Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Many IT projects fail despite the best efforts to keep these projects within budget, schedule, and scope. Few studies have looked at the effect of project risk management tools and techniques on project success. The primary focus of this study was to examine the extent to which utilization of project risk management processes influence project…

  7. Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented.

  8. Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented

  9. Estudo prospectivo comparativo dos ciclos de ultra-som 14% e 67% do WhiteStarTM na cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação com a técnica " nuclear preslice" Comparative prospective study of 14% and 67% duty cycles of the ultrasound power with WhiteStarTM in the phacoemulsification cataract surgery using the nuclear preslice technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar os ciclos de 14% e 67% de ultra-som ligado, módulo contínuo, e controle manual do pulso, no aparelho Sovereign® com sistema WhiteStarTM, para a cirurgia de catarata, utilizando-se a técnica de facoemulsificação "nuclear preslice" nos quesitos: tempo efetivo de ultra-som, porcentual de ultra-som, volume de solução salina e perda de células endoteliais. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, comparativo de 32 pacientes (38 olhos, com catarata nuclear senil NO3NC3 e NO4NC4 (LOCS III, randomizados em dois grupos, nos quais foi realizada a facoemulsificação com a técnica "nuclear preslice" e controle de pulso manual. No pré-operatório foram realizados: exame oftalmológico completo, biometria, paquimetria central corneana e microscopia especular. No pós-operatório foram avaliados, nas primeiras 24 horas após a cirurgia, a acuidade visual e paquimetria central corneana e, após 3 meses, realizada a microscopia especular. RESULTADOS: As cirurgias com ciclo 67% apresentaram tempo efetivo de ultra-som significantemente maior do que as cirurgias pelo ciclo 14%, em cataratas mais densas. O porcentual de ultra-som no ciclo 67%, em diferentes densidades de cataratas, foi significantemente maior do que no ciclo 14%. Não houve diferenças quanto ao volume de solução salina utilizado nas cirurgias. Não se observou diferença significante na perda de células endoteliais nos diferentes ciclos de ultra-som. Houve correlação positiva significante entre a perda de células endoteliais e as variáveis: tempo efetivo de ultra-som e volume de solução salina utilizado, em ambos os ciclos. CONCLUSÕES: O tempo efetivo e o porcentual de ultra-som foram menores nas cirurgias com ciclo de ultra-som 14%, em cataratas mais densas. O volume de solução salina utilizado e a perda de células endoteliais foram semelhantes em ambos os ciclos. O tempo efetivo de ultra-som e o volume de solução salina foram correlacionados à maior perda de c

  10. Study on cancer risk in aircrews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, epidemic surveys on cancer risk in aircrews were performed in several countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Japan, Philippines and Denmark. Here, the authors reviewed those survey reports aiming to elucidate the effects of natural radiation due to cosmic rays, especially neutron in aircrews. Those survey reports demonstrated that incidences of cutaneous cancer, brain tumor, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer, colon cancer and leukemia were higher in the aircrews than ordinary people. The survey made with a total of 1600 women crews in Finland showed that their mean accumulated dose was 20 mSv and the risk for mammary cancer was 1.9. Moreover, the risks of mammary cancer for women crews were also reported to be higher in Denmark and Iceland. However, it was difficult to obtain conclusive information since the number of those survey subjects were not so large and there is a possibility of healthy worker's effects because the cohorts of those surveys are special, i.e., aircrews are very healthy in special. The radiation exposure on airway crews is characterized by neutron radiation, which occupies over than a half of the total dose of natural radiation. Thus, relative biological effectiveness of neutron radiation was evaluated to compare with those of gamma ray and X-ray and it was pointed out that the mammary gland is highly sensitive to neutron exposure and its RBE was comparatively large. Thus, it was thought that it is necessary to further accumulate basic information for carcinogenesis related to low-dose neutron exposure. (M.N.)

  11. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. PMID:24372277

  12. Study Links Sleep Problems to Stroke Risk, Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160229.html Study Links Sleep Problems to Stroke Risk, Recovery Treating sleep difficulties ... research suggests. The review of 29 previously published studies found that sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are ...

  13. Niveles de progesterona durante el ciclo normal y silencioso en bovinos en el trópico colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Grajales L; Aureliano Hernández V; Esperanza Prieto

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la secuencia de cambios en los niveles de progesterona (NP) durante el Ciclo Normal (CN) y Ciclo Silencioso (CS). Materiales y métodos. 94 Hembras de los grupos raciales Holstein x Cebú (HC), Simmental x Cebú (SC), Romosinuano (R) y Cebú (C) se estudiaron desde la pubertad y durante los tres primeros ciclos estrales. Se tomaron muestras de sangre para determinar las concentraciones de progesterona mediante Radioinmunoanálisis, se determinaron...

  14. Experimental life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Ciclo evolutivo experimental de Lagochilascaris minor, Leiper 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa Campos

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor was studied using material collected from human lesion and applying the experimental model: rodents (mice, hamsters, and carnivorae (cats, dogs. In mice given infective eggs, orally, hatch of the third stage larvae was noted in the gut wall, with migration to liver, lungs, skeletal musculature and subcutaneous tissue becoming, soon after, encysted. In cats infected with skinned carcasses of mice (60 to 235 days of infection it was observed: hatch of third stage larvae from the nodules (cysts in the stomach, migration through the oesophagus, pharynx, trachea, related tissues (rhino-oropharynx, and cervical lymphonodes developing to the mature stage in any of these sites on days 9-20 post inoculation (P.I.. There was no parasite development up to the mature stage in cats inoculated orally with infective eggs, which indicates that the life cycle of this parasite includes an obligatory intermediate host. In one of the cats (fed carcass of infected mice necropsied on day 43 P.I., it was observed the occurence of the self-infective cycle of L. minor in the lung tissues and in the cervical region which was characterized by the finding of eggs in different stages of development, third stage larvae and mature worms. It's believed that some component of the carnivorae gastrointestinal tracts may preclude the development of third stage larvae from L. minor eggs what explains the interruption of the life cycle in animals fed infective eggs. It's also pointed out the role of the intermediate host in the first stages of the life cycle of this helminth.A partir de material colhido de lesões humanas estudou-se o ciclo evolutivo de Lagochilascaris minor empregando-se o modelo experimental: roedores (camundongos, hamster e carnívoros (gatos, cão. Em camundongos inoculados com ovos infectantes, por via oral, observou-se eclosão de larvas de 3º estágio na parede do intestino, migração das mesmas para o fígado, pulm

  15. A study of the methodologies used in risk management standards for dealing with risk attitude in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Robert

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This study has been devised to both raise awareness on the topic of risk attitude within risk management, but also to advise practicing organisations on the shortfalls of risk management standards, which may have been consulted in the development of their own individual risk management plans. Within this study, the methodologies outlined for dealing with risk attitude, within three risk management standards; the IRM standard, PRINCE 2 and the PMBOK, are examined. Furtherm...

  16. The study of risk in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Simonneau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of published evidence exists on the risk factors for disease progression in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The Scientific Steering Committee for the Study of Risk in PAH was established to bring together leading clinical and statistical experts in PAH and risk modelling, for the purpose of advancing the understanding of the risk of development and progression of PAH. Herein, we discuss the impact of this information on three key areas: 1 clinical decision-making; 2 policy and reimbursement; and 3 future trials and research.

  17. L’ipotesi del ciclo vitale, la politica fiscale e la previdenza sociale (The hypothesis of the life cycle, fiscal policy and social security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Jappelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro riassume le principali implicazioni dell’ipotesi del ciclo vitale per quanto riguarda il risparmio individuale e aggregato, la politica fiscale e la previdenza sociale, soffermandosi sui contributi più importanti di Modigliani su questi temi. Anche se non è facile conciliare alcuni risultati empirici recenti con l’ipotesi del ciclo vitale, soprattutto gli aspetti di inerzia, miopia e comportamento irrazionale documentati nella letteratura comportamentale, gli studi di Modigliani rappresentano ancora oggi la base di riferimento principale per studiare le decisioni di risparmio individuali e per operare scelte di politica economica.    The paper summarizes the main implications of the life cycle hypothesis regarding the individual and aggregate saving, fiscal policy and social security, focusing on the most important contributions of Modigliani on these issues. Although it is not easy to reconcile some recent empirical results with the hypothesis of the life cycle, especially the aspects of inertia, myopia and irrational behavior documented in the literature behavioral, the studies of Modigliani still represent the basis of reference for the study of individual savings decisions and to make policy choices.  JEL Codes: D91Keywords: ciclo vitale, risparmio, modigliani, politica economica

  18. Caffeine and the risk of hip fracture: the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, D P; Felson, D T; Hannan, M T; Anderson, J J; Wilson, P W

    1990-10-01

    Caffeine increases urinary calcium output and has been implicated as a risk factor for osteoporosis. The authors examined the effect of caffeine on hip fracture risk in 3,170 individuals attending the 12th (1971-1973) Framingham Study examination. Coffee and tea consumption, age, Framingham examination number, weight, smoking, alcohol consumption, and estrogen use were used to evaluate hip fracture risk according to caffeine intake. Hip fractures occurred in 135 subjects during 12 years of follow-up. Fracture risk over each 2-year period increased with increasing caffeine intake (one cup of coffee = one unit of caffeine, one cup of tea = 1/2 unit of caffeine). For intake of 1.5-2.0 units per day, the adjusted relative risk (RR) of fracture was not significantly elevated compared with intake of one or less units per day. Consumption of greater than or equal to 2.5 units per day significantly increased the risk of fracture. Overall, intake of greater than two cups of coffee per day (four cups of tea) increased the risk of fracture. In summary, hip fracture risk was modestly increased with heavy caffeine use, but not for intake equivalent to one cup of coffee per day. Since caffeine use may be associated with other behaviors that are, themselves, risk factors for fracture, the association may be indirect. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  19. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...

  20. CICLO DE VIDA: JUEGO EDUCATIVO MOVIL “EDUCAMOVIL”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith del Pilar Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe la creación de un modelo de ciclo de vida para el desarrollo de juegos educativos en plataformas móviles, teniendo en cuenta las consideraciones para su construcción como un software de calidad. El modelo para el desarrollo de juegos educativos en plataformas móviles es una guía enmarcada en un entorno pedagógico que facilitará la creación de juegos educativos, abriendo las puertas al desarrollo de videojuegos como prácticas de laboratorio, exploración de ambientes virtuales sin necesidad de materiales costosos y así poder transmitir conocimientos a los estudiantes. La metodología desarrollada se logró a través de la recopilación de información de los distintos modelos de desarrollo de software existentes, en ambientes educativos y su enfoque a plataformas móviles, realizando un estudio de ventajas y desventajas, recomendaciones y algunos recursos de los modelos actuales y su adaptación a estos dispositivos; buscando establecer los pasos básicos, coherentes, involucrados en las fases de análisis, diseño, implementación y pruebas para la creación de juegos, enmarcados en un contexto de estrategias pedagógicas de los modelos existentes y dando la respectiva documentación para el desarrollo en plataformas móviles.

  1. Analysis of the alcohol consumption phenomenon among adolescents: study carried out with adolescents in intermediate public education Análisis del fenómeno del consumo de alcohol entre adolescentes: estudio realizado con adolescentes del 3º ciclo de escuelas públicas Análise do fenômeno do consumo de álcool em adolescentes: estudo realizado com adolescentes do 3º ciclo de escolas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Barroso; Aida Mendes; António Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the alcohol consumption phenomenon in public schools in Coimbra, Portugal (7th, 8th and 9th grades) for the implementation of a preventive program of alcohol use/abuse. This is a quantitative, descriptive and correlational study. The sample included 654 students (51.5% female) between 12 and 18 years of age. The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescent form (AEQ-A) and the Questionnaire of Knowledge on Alcohol were used for data collection. Results show that ...

  2. Análisis cuantitativo de los ciclos económicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Vázquez, Nelson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis clásico de series temporales asumía que la serie histórica era la suma de tendencia, ciclo regular, estacional y perturbación aleatoria, movimientos que pueden reducirse a tendencia y ciclo. La descomposición en tendencia y ciclo permitía un análisis separado de ambos tipos de movimientos. Esta aproximación suponía que el ciclo era una desviación respecto de la tendencia (determinista a largo plazo, a la cual revertían aquellos ciclos. Cualquier shock aleatorio tenía sólo un efecto transitorio que se agotaba en uno o unos pocos periodos. Este enfoque ha sido hoy abandonado y sustituido por otro de naturaleza probabilística. En particular el artículo de Nelson y Plosser (1982 habría significado el fin de una aproximación ya cuestionada. En este trabajo, los autores contrastaron la hipótesis de raíz unitaria para diversas series macroeconómicas norteamericanas, encontrando que era imposible rechazarla. Mientras que en la primitiva visión, las fluctuaciones se contemplaban como desviaciones respecto a la tendencia determinista, la existencia de raíz unitaria significa que todas las fluctuaciones representan cambios 2 permanentes en la tendencia a largo plazo, dado que el efecto de cualquier shock, permanece indefinidamente, en lugar de agotarse con el paso del tiempo. De ahí la importancia de la existencia de raíz unitaria en el análisis cuantitativo del ciclo. Sólo mediante la diferenciación se alcanzaría la estacionariedad. En caso contrario, es decir si se elimina una tendencia temporal a una serie generada por un proceso de camino aleatorio (el ejemplo paradigmático de tendencia estocástica, se obtendrán inferencias espurias sobre el ciclo (Nelson y Kang, 1981. En esta cuestión como en tantas otras, es perceptible la evolución metodológica experimentada por la econometría, que se ha desplazado desde un enfoque determinista, donde lo que importaban eran cuestiones como la obtención de la cronolog

  3. Vestibular characterization in the menstrual cycle Caracterização vestibular no ciclo menstrual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Ishii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders in the menstrual cycle can affect labyrinthine fluid homeostasis, causing balance and hearing dysfunctions. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. AIM: compare the results from vestibular tests in young women, in the premenstrual and postmenstrual periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty women were selected with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years, who were not using any kind of contraceptive method for at least six months, and without vestibular or hearing complaints. The test was carried out in each subject before and after the menstrual period, respecting the limit of ten days before or after menstruation. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the menstrual cycle phases only in the following vestibular tests: calibration, saccadic movements, PRPD and caloric-induced nystagmus. We also noticed that age; a regular menstrual cycle; hearing loss or dizziness cases in the family; and premenstrual symptoms such as tinnitus, headache, sleep disorders, anxiety, nausea and hyperacusis can interfere in the vestibular test. CONCLUSION: there are differences in the vestibular tests of healthy women when comparing their pre and postmenstrual periods.As alterações hormonais do ciclo menstrual podem comprometer a homeostase dos fluidos labirínticos, gerando alterações no equilíbrio e na audição. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados dos testes do exame vestibular em mulheres jovens, nos períodos pré e pós-menstrual. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas vinte mulheres, entre dezoito e trinta e cinco anos, que não fizessem uso de qualquer tipo de anticoncepcional, com audição normal e sem queixas vestibulares. O exame vestibular foi realizado em cada participante no período pré e no período pós-menstrual, em ordem aleatória, e respeitando o limite de até dez dias antes do início da menstruação e até dez dias após o início da menstruação. RESULTADO: Foi observada

  4. La teoria del ciclo vitale del risparmio di Modigliani cinquant’anni dopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Baranzini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nei primi anni ’50 Franco Modigliani, insieme a Richard Brumberg e ad Albert Ando, formulò lateoria del ciclo vitale del consumo e del risparmio, che ha riscosso un enorme e indiscussosuccesso per almeno tre decenni. Tuttavia, a partire dai primi anni ’80 la teoria del ciclo vitale èstata criticata in modo sempre più serrato, per almeno quattro ragioni. La prima consistenell’esistenza di una significativa trasmissione intergenerazionale della ricchezza, da ricondurre acause esogene al modello del ciclo vitale. La seconda ragione è rappresentata dalla crescenteevidenza che i ricchi continuano a risparmiare in misura maggiore rispetto ai meno fortunati,come, in effetti, Keynes sosteneva. Il terzo motivo è che vi sono prove sempre più evidenti,almeno nell’Europa occidentale e in Giappone, che le famiglie giovani, durante i venti e i trentaanni di età, risparmiano una quota positiva e crescente del proprio reddito, e ciò si pone indeciso contrasto con la versione originaria della teoria del ciclo vitale. Infine, numerosi lavoriempirici hanno rilevato che i pensionati accantonano una parte elevata del proprio reddito. Ciòimpone un serio ripensamento dell’approccio della teoria del ciclo vitale, che interessa sia l’analisieconomica sia la politica economica.

  5. Analysis of hyaluronic acid concentration in rat vocal folds during estral and gravidic puerperal cycles Análise da concentração do ácido hialurônico nas pregas vocais de ratas durante o ciclo estral e ciclo gravídico-puerperal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Sá Pedroso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hormone plays an important role in the larynx. Among other substances, vocal folds contain hyaluronic acid, which tissue concentration may vary according to hormone action. AIM: the objective of this study is to analyze hyaluronic acid concentration in the vocal folds during estral and gravidic-puerperal cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study. 40 adult rats were divided into two groups. In the first group we used 20 rats to establish the concentration of hyaluronic acid during the estral cycle and in the second group, 20 animals were submitted to the same procedure but during the gravidic-puerperal cycle. RESULTS: Variations in hyaluronic acid concentration was not observed during the estral cycle. In the gravidic puerperal cycle group, an increase in hyaluronic acid concentration was observed in the puerperal subgroup. Comparing the two groups of estral and gravidic-puerperal cycles, no difference was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In comparing all subgroups of estral and gravidic-puerperal cycles, an increase in hyaluronic acid concentration was noticed only in the puerperal phase.Os hormônios exercem importante influência sobre a laringe. A prega vocal contém, entre outras substâncias, o ácido hialurônico, cuja concentração nos tecidos pode variar com a ação dos hormônios. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar comparativamente a concentração do ácido hialurônico nas pregas vocais de ratas durante o ciclo estral e ciclo gravídico-puerperal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas 40 ratas adultas, divididas em dois grupos, no primeiro grupo utilizamos 20 ratas para determinação da concentração do ácido hialurônico no ciclo estral, no segundo grupo, também de 20 animais, foi realizado o mesmo experimento no ciclo gravídico-puerperal. RESULTADOS: No grupo do ciclo estral não observou-se variação da concentração do ácido hialurônico. No grupo do ciclo grav

  6. Computational program to design heat pumps by compression (ciclo 1.0); Programa computacional para diseno de bombas de calor por compresion (ciclo 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alba Rosano, Mauricio [CIE, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new computational program has been developed in order to design single stage compression heat pumps. This software, named CICLO 1.0 allows the design of water-water, water-air, air-water and air-air heat pumps, for industrial and residential applications. CICLO 1.0 simulates three types of compressors: reciprocating, screw and scroll. Also has a data base created with REFPROP software which includes eleven refrigerants. The condenser and evaporator simulation includes global conductance (UA) determination, and when one or both are shell and tube's type, this software shows the even number of tube passes by shell. The software determines the best compressor and refrigerant setup taking the COP as a parameter; in order to obtain this, is necessary to know the inlet/outlet conditions of the fluid to be heated, the inlet conditions of the fluid that gives heat, and the electric motor efficiency that drives the compressor. The afforded results by CICLO 1.0 are: operation conditions from compression cycle, that means, pressures and temperatures at the inlet/outlet from every heat pump component are determined: as well as refrigerant mass flux, COP, power required by compressor, volumetric and isentropic efficiencies, heat exchangers global conductance and more data. CICLO 1.0 has been executed with heat pump data that nowadays are operating, and the results from the simulation have been very similar each other with data reported from operational facilities. [Spanish] Se ha desarrollado un nuevo programa computacional para el diseno de bombas de calor por compresion de vapor de una sola etapa. Este programa, CICLO 1.0, permite el diseno de bombas de calor de tipo: agua-agua, agua-aire, aire-agua y aire-aire, que se utilicen para aplicaciones industriales, de servicios y residenciales. CICLO 1.0 simula tres tipos de compresores: reciprocante, de tornillo y scroll: cuenta con una base de datos de refrigerantes creada con el programa REFPROP la cual incluye once

  7. Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. - Research highlights: ►Energy sector investors should not be bothered only about the absolute cost figures of the input factors like fossil fuels but should also be careful about the fluctuation of their costs while making the investment decisions. ►Inclusion of renewable energy in the investment portfolio can increase the cost apparently but can reduce the risk hedging costs, too. ►International carbon price may not be a good factor to encourage renewable energy investment in the market.

  8. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  9. Methods and models used in comparative risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons

  10. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  11. Ciclos de desenvolvimento humano e formação de educadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Miguel G.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ciclos não são mais uma proposta isolada de algumas escolas, a nova LDB os legitimou e estão sendo adotados por muitas redes escolares. Este texto se pergunta pelo tipo de profissional que está sendo formado nessa modalidade de organização do trabalho pedagógico. A reflexão está estruturada em duas partes. A primeira reflete sobre o caráter formador do repensar das concepções e práticas de formação que acontecem na implantação dos ciclos. A segunda parte reflete sobre as virtualidades formadoras de todo o processo de desconstrução de uma estrutura centrada nas Temporalidades ou Ciclos do Desenvolvimento Humano.

  12. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken;

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals...... chicken pox was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) in the US studies. Although there is some overlap in risk factors between oligodendroglial tumors and gliomas as a group, it is likely...

  13. International study on the risks of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the current lack of statistical power of individual worker studies to estimate cancer risks precisely, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) held a meeting in 1988 to discuss the possibility of international collaborative analyses based on pooling data from different countries. It was decided to carry out a feasibility study of an international collaborative study of groups of workers who had not been investigated at that time. Following that meeting a 'Study Group' comprising epidemiologists and dosimetry experts from each of the interested countries was set up under IARC coordination. The feasibility study established that, within each of the 12 countries represented, information was available to allow identification of a cohort of radiation workers whose mortality could be studied in relation to occupational dose, both retrospectively and prospectively. The retrospective study would be likely to have sufficient statistical power to rule out risks more than a few times current risk estimates. (Author)

  14. Analysis of the alcohol consumption phenomenon among adolescents: study carried out with adolescents in intermediate public education Análisis del fenómeno del consumo de alcohol entre adolescentes: estudio realizado con adolescentes del 3º ciclo de escuelas públicas Análise do fenômeno do consumo de álcool em adolescentes: estudo realizado com adolescentes do 3º ciclo de escolas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Barroso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the alcohol consumption phenomenon in public schools in Coimbra, Portugal (7th, 8th and 9th grades for the implementation of a preventive program of alcohol use/abuse. This is a quantitative, descriptive and correlational study. The sample included 654 students (51.5% female between 12 and 18 years of age. The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescent form (AEQ-A and the Questionnaire of Knowledge on Alcohol were used for data collection. Results show that positive expectancy on alcohol is discriminative of consumption and occurrence of intoxication. Positive expectancy exists even before adolescents have significant experiences with alcohol consumption and increases with age, which reinforces the need for early preventive effort. These results permitted to improve the prevention program included in the school curriculum of the 7th grade students.Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el fenómeno del consumo de alcohol en las escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Coimbra (7º,8º y 9º para implementar, en la práctica, un programa de prevención del uso/abuso del consumo alcohólico excesivo. Es un estudio del tipo cuantitativo, descriptivo y de correlación. La muestra incluyó 654 estudiantes (51.5% del sexo femenino, con edades entre 12 y 18 años. El Cuestionario de Expectativas referentes al Alcohol de estudiantes - Formato Adolescentes (CEA-A y el cuestionario del conocimiento referente al alcohol fueron utilizados para obtener los datos. Los resultados demostraron que las expectativas positivas referentes al alcohol hacen una diferencia entre el consumo de alcohol y la ocurrencia de la embriaguez; inclusive, esta discriminación existe entre los adolescentes antes de tener experiencias significativas con el consumo de alcohol y aumentan con la edad. Reforzando la necesidad de desarrollar precozmente esfuerzos preventivos. Estos resultados permitieron el perfeccionamiento del programa de prevención que

  15. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  16. Una nueva copla sefardí antigua del ciclo de la reina Ester (Purim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassán, Iacob M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this posthumous article (edited by Elena Romero, the author tries to determine the classical corpus of the Purim “Coplas” of the Queen Esther cycle, referring to their strophic structure, their authors and the problems of edition and diffusion. Likewise, this study represents a significant step in the establishment of a corpus of Purim “Coplas” known as “novísimas.” An edition is presented here of an hitherto unknown “Copla” belonging to the first group: La bebienda de Purim.

    En el presente artículo (postumo y editado por Elena Romero se determina el corpus clásico de las coplas de Purim del «ciclo de la reina Ester», aludiendo a su estrofismo, autores y problemt mática de las ediciones y su difusión; asimismo se avanza en la determinación del corpus de las coplas de Purim llamadas «novísimas». Finalmente se lleva a cabo la edición de una copla del primer grupo hasta ahora desconocida: La bebienda de Purim.

  17. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  18. Ciclo de desarrollo de Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula, Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera, Trigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Lopera Antonio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el ciclo de desarrollo de una abeja sin aguijón: Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula. Latreille 1811 (Hymenoptera. Trigonini. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: El periodo comprendido entre la postura del huevo y la emergencia del imago, es, en las obreras, de 36.5 días en promedio. La duración del ciclo se hace mayor a medida que las celdas se alejan del centro del panal. Se determinaron 3 instares larvales y 5 fases pupales para obreras.

  19. Ciclo vital da família e envelhecimento: contextos e desafios

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Henriqueta de Jesus Silva Figueiredo; Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva Martins; Luzia Wilma Santana da Silva; Palmira da Conceição Martins de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Os focos dos cuidados de enfermagem têm vindo a apresentar configurações diferentes face às mudanças sociais que exigem novas necessidades de saúde. O ciclo vital da família caracteriza-se por padrões de regularidade funcional, associados às funções, estrutura e processos interacionais. Nesta perspectiva a compreensão destes padrões na última etapa do ciclo vital, que se caracteriza pela adaptação ao envelhecimento, permitirá interacções mais ajustadas à promoção da saúde familiar....

  20. Reseña del ciclo Escuelas Argentinas emitido por Canal Encuentro

    OpenAIRE

    Trotta, Lucía; Santucci, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    El ciclo Escuelas Argentinas, como el plural de su título lo indica, hace referencia a la diversidad de experiencias educativas. La idea central no consiste en hablar del modelo de escuela argentina tradicional sino de la forma particular que adquiere la institución escuela en cada contexto en el que está inmersa. Escuelas Argentinas consta de dos temporadas con 13 capítulos cada una, de 30 minutos de duración. La producción fue dirigida por Bruno Stagnaro entre los años 2006 y 2008. El ciclo...

  1. Estudio de la eficiencia del ciclo de un motor de encendido Por chispa de 5 tiempos

    OpenAIRE

    Mad riñán Molina, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar de forma teórica y experimental la eficiencia de un motor que opere en un ciclo de 5 tiempos (ciclo Otto más una carrera de expansión adicional). Para desarrollar el estudio se realizó una simulación cero-dimensional utilizando el modelo de gas ideal para un motor de 5 tiempos y se comparó con su equivalente de 4 tiempos. Posteriormente se ejecutó la fase experimental en la cual fue necesario adaptar un banco de pruebas, en el cua...

  2. The Oncogenic Risks of Diagnostic CT Scam Studies in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.

    2004-07-01

    Brenner et al (2001) reported that estimates of the exposure to children from CT scans indicates that the exposures are both higher than from conventional radiographic studies and higher than is necessary to obtain quality examinations. utilizing the oncogenic risk data from the RERF study in Japan, Brenner et al estimated that the oncogenic risk in this population of CT exposed children exposed each year would result in an additional 500 cases of cancer. This risk estimate is supported by the RERF epidemiological data obtained from the populations exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. the increased risks associated with the increased exposure from CT scans have raised concern and stimulated discussion. Although there is little doubt about the benefits of CT scans in improving the health care of children, there is concern about the estimated oncogenic risk, especially since the frequency of CT studies has been increasing. Applying the oncogenic risks of ionizing radiation from the RERF data may not be appropriate for all types of radiation exposure for accurately predicting the incidence of cancer in exposed children because of the impact of 1) partial versus whole-body irradiation, and 2) the protraction of the exposure. Other population of children who have been exposed to radiation and whose incidence of cancer has been studied will be presented and those studies indicate that the risk of cancer is much lower or not increased at all with exposures in the diagnostic range. finally, the dramatic impact of the use of CT scans in clinical pediatric practice saves lives and improves diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, it is crucial that a scholarly evaluation of the risks and benefits should be initiated. The radiology community and the manufacturers have already initiated programs to decrease the exposure significantly. But it is essential that well-planned, retrospective and prospective epidemiology studies should be initiated to study the oncogenic risks. If you want to

  3. Political Risk in Credit Evaluation: Empirical Studies and Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Financing trade between economic agents located in different countries is affected by many types of risks, resulting from incomplete information about the debtor, the problems of enforcing international contracts, or the prevalence of political and financial crises. Trade is important for economic development and the availability of trade finance is essential, especially for developing countries. Relatively few studies treat the topic of political risk, particularly in the context of internat...

  4. Just Luck: An Experimental Study of Risk Taking and Fairness.

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Konow, James; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    Choices involving risk significantly affect the distribution of income and wealth in society, but there is probably no more contentious question of justice than how to allocate the gains and losses that inevitably result from risky choices. This paper reports the results from the first experiment, to our knowledge, to study fairness views about risk-taking, where the main aim is to examine whether people's fairness considerations mainly focus on ex ante opportunities or ex p...

  5. Project Risk Management: : A Case Study in Contingencies

    OpenAIRE

    Koelmeyer, Chris; Pisone, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in international projects has resulted in higher risk along with difficulties in control and coordination. Effective project management can therefore be seen as being essential to the success of projects. The purpose of this paper is to understand how a large multinational company currently handles these issues. This paper conducts a case study that will look at the relationship between contingencies and their effects on project risk management. The findings show that alth...

  6. Study on territorial risk assessment in Beibu Gulf of Guangxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Hou, L. S.; Zhang, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    This study is based on the theories of terrestrial exploration risk in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Using ArcGIS and modelling methods, the spatial distributions of resources and environmental carrying capacity, terrestrial exploration dynamics, and terrestrial exploration potential are studied and evaluated in an integrated way. The results of the study are as follows: Mashan county, Longan county, Luchuan county, et al. have some low-risk land that can be explored, and infrastructure investment should be increased in these locations. Whereas, low-risk terrestrial development is possible in Qinzhou city, Heng county, Longan county, et al. and should be carried out in a planned and gradual fashion. The medium risk regions are distributed all over the region, but are concentrated in the city area of Nanning. However, the middle and north parts of Yulin city, the south part of Chongzuo city, Qinnan district, et al. are also in the same category and priority can be given to improve the quality and efficiency of these regions. The high risk regions, mainly distribute in the Liangqin district, Yining district, Binyang county, et al. This region should focus on the development principles of priority protection, appropriate development, and point-like development. Whereas, the extremely-high-risk areas, of which more than 60% are in Tiandeng county, Daxin county, Shanglin county, et al., are unsuitable for further development. The three-dimensional risk matrix method can make up for the deficiencies of other methods and has broad prospects in regional terrestrial development risk assessment.

  7. Trauma & the reproductive lifecycle in women Trauma e o ciclo reprodutivo feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Born

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Women are at significantly higher risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD than men, resulting in increased psychosocial burden and healthcare related costs. Recent research has shown complex interactions between the impact of traumatic experiences, and the reproductive lifecycle in women. For example, women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD who also report a history of sexual or physical abuse are more likely to present with different neuroendocrine reactivity to stressors, when compared to premenstrual dysphoric disorder subjects without prior history of trauma or abuse or non-premenstrual dysphoric disorder subjects. In addition, women with a history of abuse or trauma may experience re-emergence of symptoms during pregnancy. Lastly, females who experience miscarriage may present with even higher prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. In this manuscript we examine the existing data on gender differences in post-traumatic stress disorder, with particular focus on psychological and physiological factors that might be relevant to the development of symptoms after exposure to traumatic events associated with the reproductive life cycle. Current options available for the treatment of such symptoms, including group and counselling therapies and debriefing are critically reviewed.Mulheres estão sujeitas a um maior risco para o desenvolvimento de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT do que os homens, o que acarreta prejuízos e custos significativos do ponto de vista psicossocial e de saúde pública. Estudos recentes mostram interações complexas entre o impacto de experiências traumáticas e o ciclo reprodutivo feminino. Por exemplo, mulheres com transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual (TDPM, que também relatam histórico de trauma ou abuso físico, estão mais sujeitas a apresentar uma resposta neuroendócrina diferenciada após exposição a um fator ou evento estressante, quando

  8. Sleep and multisystem biological risk: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E Carroll

    Full Text Available Short sleep and poor sleep quality are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and mortality. This study examines the contribution of sleep duration and sleep quality on a multisystem biological risk index that is known to be associated with morbidity and mortality.Analyses include a population-based sample from the Midlife Development in the United States survey recruited to the Biomarker substudy. A total of 1,023 participants aged 54.5 years (SD = 11.8, 56% female and 77.6% white, were included in the analyses. A multisystem biological risk index was derived from 22 biomarkers capturing cardiovascular, immune, lipid-metabolic, glucose-metabolic, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems. Self-reported average sleep duration was categorized as short (5 sleep.Linear mixed effect models adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, BMI, and health status were performed. As compared to normal sleepers, multisystem biological risk in both short (B(SE = .38(.15, p<.01 and long sleepers (B(SE = .28(.11, p<.01 were elevated. Poor quality sleep alone was associated with elevated multisystem biological risk (B(SE = .15(.06, p = .01, but was not significant after adjustment for health status. All short sleepers reported poor sleep quality. However in the long sleepers, only those who reported poor sleep quality exhibited elevated multisystem biological risk (B(SE = .93(.3, p = .002.Self-reported poor sleep quality with either short or long sleep duration is associated with dysregulation in physiological set points across regulatory systems, leading to elevated multisystem biological risk. Physicians should inquire about sleep health in the assessment of lifestyle factors related to disease risk, with evidence that healthy sleep is associated with lower multisystem biological risk.

  9. Integrated Risk Research. Case of Study: Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Jaimes, M.

    2015-12-01

    This integrated risk research include the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such hazard identification, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. We determined risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37ºN, 92.25ºW. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed mainly to earthquakes, landslides and floods. We developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic zonation, landslides and flood susceptibility using standard methodologies. Vulnerability was quantified from data collected from local families interviews considering five social variables: characteristics of housing construction, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing community plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception. Local families surveyed were randomly selected considering a sample statistically significant. Our results were spatially represented using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Structural vulnerability curves were generated for typical housing constructions. Our integrated risk analysis demonstrates that the community of Motozintla has a high level of structural and socio-economical risk to floods and earthquakes. More than half of the population does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan and perceive that they are in high risk to landslides and floods. Although the community is located in a high seismic risk zone, most of the local people believe that cannot be impacted by a large earthquake. These natural and social conditions indicate that the community of Motozintla has a very high level of risk to natural hazards. This research will support local decision makers in developing an integrated comprehensive natural hazards mitigation and prevention program.

  10. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  11. Gasification integrated to combined cycles; Gasificacion integrada a ciclos combinados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Alcaraz C, Agustin M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    de metales. Finalmente, en los nuevos esquemas de refinacion del petroleo se preve utilizar la coquizacion para aprovechar mejor el ondo de barril. El residuo producto de este proceso, conocido como coque de refineria, tiene un bajo valor comercial, un poder calorifico elevado y un alto contenido de azufre y metales. La gasificacion ha sido desarrollada en las ultimas dos decadas, en los paises altamente industrializados, como una alternativa para la generacion eficiente y limpia de electricidad a partir de combustibles sucios, asi como para la obtencion de ciertos combustibles en lugares donde no se tiene acceso al petroleo, pero si al carbon. Esta tecnologia cumple los reglamentos mas estrictos del mundo en lo que a emisiones contaminantes se refiere y es la unica solucion, junto a los lechos fluidizados, para los problemas que presentan algunos combustibles que son dificiles de quemar con tecnologias convencionales, como el carbon mineral, el coque de petroleo e incluso los residuos liquidos de la refinacion. Con base en los anterior, es posible pensar en la integracion de esta tecnologia a una planta de ciclo combinado para la generacion de electricidad o a una refineria generando vapor, energia electrica, hidrogeno y otros insumos a un costo competitivo, de manera tal que se resuelven los problemas de manejo y almacenamiento de los residuos; por otro lado se maximiza el aprovechamiento de los recursos energeticos primarios en el pais.

  12. GENETIC VARIATION AND DECREASED RISK FOR OBESITY IN THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of variation in the leptin [LEP (19A>G)] and melanocortin-4 receptor [MC4R (V103I)] genes on obesity-related traits in 13 405 African-American (AA) and white participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We tested the association...

  13. A influência do ciclo menstrual na flexibilidade em praticantes de ginástica de academia La influencia del ciclo menstrual sobre la flexibilidad en practicantes de gimnasia de academia The influence of the menstrual cycle on the flexibility in practitioners of gymnastics at fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Mattos Melegario

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar se existem diferenças no grau de flexibilidade nas fases do ciclo menstrual de mulheres adultas jovens praticantes de ginástica de academia. A amostra intencional foi composta de 20 mulheres, com idade de 18 a 35 anos (25,8 ± 6,06, com o ciclo menstrual regular (28 até 32 dias e que não faziam uso de anticoncepcional oral. Dados referentes ao ciclo menstrual e atividade física habitual foram obtidos através da aplicação de um questionário. A flexibilidade foi aferida através da goniometria, utilizando-se oito movimentos, em três fases do ciclo menstrual. Os sujeitos foram submetidos a um teste hormonal, em que foram verificadas as taxas de estrona, estradiol e progesterona. O tratamento estatístico foi feito através de análise descritiva e inferencial (teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e ANOVA. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa (p Este estudio ha tenido por objetivo investigar si existen diferencias en el grado de flexibilidad en las fases del ciclo menstrual de mujeres adultas jóvenes practicantes de gimnasia de academia. La muestra intencional fue compuesta de 20 mujeres, con edades entre 18 a 35 años (25,8 ± 6,06, con ciclo menstrual regular (28 a 32 días y que no hacían uso de anticonceptivo oral. Datos referentes al ciclo menstrual y actividad física habitual fueron obtenidos a través de una encuesta. La flexibilidad fue medida a través de la goniometría, utilizándose ocho movimientos, en tres fases del ciclo menstrual. Los individuos fueron sometidos a un test hormonal, en donde se verificaron la tasa de estrona, estradiol y progesterona. El tratamiento estadístico fue hecho a través del análisis descriptivo y de inferencia (test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y ANOVA. Los resultados encontrados mostraron que no hubo diferencia significativa (p This study aims to verify if there are differences in the degree of flexibility in the phases of

  14. Avaliação de Ciclo de Vida: Ferramenta do Pensamento Sistêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Maury de Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available RESENHA CALDEIRA-PIRES Armando, SOUZA-PAULA Maria Carlota de, VILAS BOAS Roberto C. (orgs. Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida a ISO 14040 na America Latina. Brasília: Abipti, 2005, 337 p. 21,5 cm. Apoio CNPq, CYTED, UnB. ISBN 85-89263-04-5.

  15. Back work ratio of Brayton cycle; La relacion de trabajo de retroceso de un ciclo Brayton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaver de la Fuente, M. [Universidad Maritima del Caribe (Venezuela)]. E-mail: mmf_umc@hotmail.com

    2010-07-15

    This paper analyzes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational software helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle. [Spanish] En este articulo se estudia la relacion que existe entre las temperaturas, la relacion de trabajo de retroceso y el trabajo neto en el ciclo Brayton, que es el ciclo ideal que describe el comportamiento de los motores de turbina de gas. La aplicacion de programas computarizados ayuda a mostrar la influencia de la relacion de trabajo de retroceso o relacion de acoplamiento, la temperatura de entrada al compresor y la temperatura de entrada a la turbina en este ciclo termodinamico ideal. Los resultados obtenidos permiten deducir que el valor maximo que alcanza la relacion de trabajo de retroceso dependera de los limites de temperatura maxima y minima impuestos en el ciclo Brayton.

  16. Influência do ciclo lunar na captura de morcegos Phyllostomidae Influence of moon cycle in phyllostomid bat capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. L. Esbérard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência da luz da lua no padrão de atividade de morcegos já foi documentada em algumas espécies. Geralmente os morcegos reagem ao aumento da iluminação reduzindo o uso de espaços abertos e restringindo a atividade de forrageio ou a duração do período de atividade. Para estabelecer a influência do ciclo lunar na eficiência de captura de morcegos, foi realizada uma análise com 28 noites de capturas no sudeste do Brasil. A taxa de captura e a riqueza de espécies apresentaram relação linear inversa com a porção iluminada pela lua. Das espécies mais freqüentemente capturadas, apenas duas apresentaram relação significativa e negativa com o aumento da iluminação pela lua. Maiores variações na riqueza de espécies foram observadas em morcegos catadores e nectarívoros. Os dias após a lua nova são os mais produtivos em relação a capturas e riqueza. A riqueza local não pode ser totalmente amostrada se a amostragem for restrita a qualquer período do ciclo lunar. Para estudar a comunidade de morcegos é mais apropriado realizar amostragem durante todo o ciclo lunar.The influence of moonlight on the activity patterns of bats has been reported to some species. In general, bats react to the increase of nocturnal illumination by reducing the use of open spaces, by limiting foraging activity or by shortening the activity periods. To determine the influence of moon cycle on the efficiency of bat netting, captures of 28 night-samplings were analyzed in southeastern Brazil. The capture rate and species richness were inversely related to the moonlight intensity. Among the most frequently netted species, only two showed significant and negative relation with increasing moonlight. The highest variation in species richness was observed in gleaners and nectarivorous species. The days following new moon were the most productive in terms of capture rate and species richness. The local species richness was not archived when sampling was

  17. Studies of cancer risk among Chernobyl liquidators: materials and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper presents the methods and design of two case-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators - one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the other of thyroid cancer risk - carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. The specific objective of these studies is to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low-to-medium- (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consists of the approximately 10,000 Baltic, 40,000 Belarus and 51,000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. Four controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, matched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confounding factors for the tumours of interest. Overall, 136 cases and 595 controls after receiving their consent were included in the studies. A method of analytical dose reconstruction has been developed, validated and applied to the estimation of doses and related uncertainties for all the subjects in the study. Dose-response analyses are underway and results are likely to have important implications to assess the adequacy of existing protection standards, which are based on risk estimates derived from analyses of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors and other high dose studies. (author)

  18. Offshore risk assessment principles, modelling and applications of QRA studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2007-01-01

    attempt has been made to capture the new trends in the regulations, to the extent they are known. There have over the last 10-15 years been published a few textbooks on risk assessment, most of them are devoted to relatively generic topics. Some are also focused on the risk management aspects, in general and with offshore applicability. None are known to address the needs and topics of the use of QRA studies by the offshore industry in particular. The present work is trying to bridge this gap. The use of QRA studies is somewhat special in Northern Europe, and par- cularly in Norway. The use of

  19. Security risk analysis in retail store, Case study: Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahany, Raihana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was conducted to protect the valuable assets of the case study company. By using the risk analysis, it will improve their business resilience by being well organized to prevent the occurrence of the threats and taking appropriate measure as response to it and by applying corporate security it can help to manage the safety of business function and assets of the case company. The purpose of this study is to identify various type of external and internal risk in the case company...

  20. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  1. Auto-organização e complexidade: o problema do desenvolvimento do ciclo vigília-sono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Castilho Piqueira

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available NESTE ARTIGO tenta-se estabelecer algumas interpretações teóricas para os conceitos de auto-organização e complexidade em sistemas biológicos, utilizando-se idéias originárias da Teoria da Informação e da Teoria dos Sistemas Dinâmicos. Além disso, apresenta-se um exemplo de aplicação dos métodos propostos ao problema da caracterização do grau de organização do ciclo vigília-sono em bebês.THIS ARTICLE is a trial on stablishing some theoretical formalisms for the concepts of self-organizing and complex biological systems, using ideas from Information Theory and Dynamical Systems Theory. As an example the organization of the sleep-wake cycle in babies is studied, applying the methods proposed.

  2. Influência das diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual na flexibilidade de mulheres jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz da Silva Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O ciclo menstrual é o principal responsável por modificações da fisiologia feminina, que pode afetar algumas respostas morfofuncionais. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência das diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual na flexibilidade de mulheres jovens. MÉTODO: 44 voluntárias divididas em um grupo controle (n = 24, que fazia uso regular de contraceptivos hormonais, e um grupo experimental (n = 20, que não utilizava anticoncepcionais, foram submetidas a três dias de avaliações, uma em cada fase do ciclo menstrual (folicular, ovulatória e lútea. Foram avaliados dados antropométricos (massa corporal, índice de massa corporal, circunferência de cintura e abdômen e de composição corporal (percentual de gordura e massa magra. A flexibilidade foi mensurada através do teste de sentar e alcançar no banco de Wells. Aplicou-se, então, o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney para as comparações intergrupos e o teste de Friedman para a comparação entre as diferentes fases menstruais. Resultados: Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas intra e intergrupos entre as diferentes fases do ciclo (p > 0,05. Foi observada maior variabilidade no grupo controle em comparação ao experimental. CONCLUSÃO: As diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual não interferem na flexibilidade de mulheres jovens, independente do uso de anticoncepcionais hormonais.

  3. Sincronización de los Ciclos Económicos: el Caso de Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamanca Lugo Andrés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En este documento se investiga acerca de la existencia y la identificación de un ciclo 
    económico común entre Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela. Se busca una evidencia de la
    sincronización de los ciclos económicos de estos países, a través de diferentes medidas 
    no paramétricas, en conformidad con los ciclos y mediante la construcción de un ciclo 
    común de referencia. De acuerdo con esto, se ajusta un modelo de Markov-Switching
    autoregresivo multivariado (MS-VAR que confirma la existencia de dicho ciclo
    Finalmente, la cronología del ciclo común es reconstruida a partir de las probabilidades 
    suavizadas del modelo y es contrastada con el ciclo común de referencia.

  4. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  5. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W E [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P K; Kim, I S [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    C R Hooijmans; Rovers, M M; Vries, R.B.M. de; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Langendam, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic Reviews (SRs) of experimental animal studies are not yet common practice, but awareness of the merits of conducting such SRs is steadily increasing. As animal intervention studies differ from randomized clinical trials (RCT) in many aspects, the methodology for SRs of clinical trials needs to be adapted and optimized for animal intervention studies. The Cochrane Collaboration developed a Risk of Bias (RoB) tool to establish consistency and avoid discrepancies in assessi...

  7. Study on Risk of Enterprise' Technology Innovation Based on ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan

    The risk in the process of enterprise' technology innovation is concluted five subsystems: environmental risk, market risk, enterprise capacity risk, project risk and project management risk, 16 risk factors under each subsystem are identified. A Interpretative Structural Modeling(ISM) of of risk factors is established, the relationship and influence levels of them is confirmed, the purpose is to help enterprise assessing risks and taking countermeasure to minimize the potential loss and increase the innovation income.

  8. RELAÇÕES HÍDRICAS EM DOIS HÍBRIDOS DE MILHO SOB DOIS CICLOS DE DEFICIÊNCIA HÍDRICA WATER RELATIONS IN TWO HYBRIDS OF CORN UNDER TWO CYCLES OF WATER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS PIMENTEL

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudadas as relações hídricas de dois híbridos de milho (Zea mays L., em casa de vegetação: o IAC 8222 (híbrido com tolerância ambiental e o DINA 10 (híbrido comum; submetidos a um ou a dois ciclos de estresse, aos 30 e 46 DAP. O IAC 8222 manteve o potencial hídrico de folha (psihf superior ao do DINA no primeiro ciclo de estresse e no segundo ciclo, em plantas que sofreram os dois ciclos (com endurecimento, no sexto e último dia de deficiência hídrica, não havendo diferenças em relação ao conteúdo hídrico relativo (CHR entre os híbridos. Houve um aumento da concentração de açúcares solúveis e de aminoácidos com a deficiência hídrica, sem diferenças entre os híbridos no primeiro ciclo de déficit hídrico, e com aumento significativo somente na concentração de aminoácidos no DINA 10 submetido aos dois ciclos, no último dia do segundo ciclo. A concentração de K+ não variou nem com os ciclos nem entre híbridos. Portanto, só houve diferenças na acumulação de solutos osmóticos entre os híbridos, quanto ao teor de aminoácidos no DINA 10 submetido aos dois ciclos, no segundo ciclo. Contudo, o IAC 8222 manteve o seu psihf alto, podendo ter promovido um ajuste do coeficiente de extensibilidade de parede, que foi acentuado com o endurecimento.A study was conducted to evaluate the water relations of two corn (Zea mays L. hybrids in a greenhouse experiment: IAC 8222 (hybrid adapted to environmental stress and DINA 10 (common hybrid, under one or two cycles of water stress applied at 30 and 46 days after sowing. During the first water deficit cycle, and at the second cycle for plants submitted to both cycles, the leaf water potential (psihf of IAC 8222 was higher than the psihf of DINA 10, at the 6th and last day of water stress, with no difference for the relative water content (CHR between the hybrids. The soluble sugars and amino acids accumulated during the water stress, but no

  9. Núcleo central e periferia das representações sociais de ciclos de aprendizagem entre professores Centro y periferia de las representaciones sociales de ciclos de aprendizaje entre maestros Core and periphery of social representation cycles between learning teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laêda Bezerra Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo identifica as representações sociais de ciclos de aprendizagem entre professores de Recife e suas implicações práticas, demarcando a saliência e estrutura dessas representações. Participaram do estudo 103 professores. O procedimento de coleta utilizado foi a associação livre de palavras. Os dados foram processados pelo software EVOC, que oferece um gráfico com quatro quadrantes onde localizamos o provável núcleo central e sistema periférico da representação social. Os resultados apontam um discurso racionalizado, ou seja, a saliência dessa representação permite afirmar que os docentes, embora na prática critiquem e rechacem os ciclos de aprendizagem, nas suas representações revelam sintonia com a proposta da rede municipal. Sugerimos, portanto, estudos mais densos das práticas cotidianas desses docentes, para depreender aspectos das representações sociais que nos pareceram pouco revelados.El artículo identifica las representaciones sociales de los ciclos de aprendizaje entre los profesores de Recife y sus implicaciones prácticas, señalando la importancia y la estructura de estas representaciones. Los participantes fueron 103 docentes. El procedimiento de recolección utilizado fue la asociación libre de palabras. Los datos fueron procesados por software EVOC, que ofrece un gráfico con cuatro cuadrantes donde localizamos el probable núcleo central y sistema periférico de la representación social. Los resultados muestran un discurso racional, es decir, la importancia de esta representación permite afirmar que los profesores, aunque en la práctica critican y niegan los ciclos de aprendizaje, en sus representaciones muestran de acuerdo con la propuesta de la red municipal. Sugerimos, por lo tanto, los estudios más densos de las prácticas cotidianas de los profesores, para inferir aspectos de las representaciones sociales que nos parezcan poco revelados.This article identifies the social

  10. Risk factors of knee osteoarthritis, WHO-ILAR-COPCORD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barghamdi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To evaluate the association between age, sex, BMI, waist/hip ratio, smoking, religion, ethnicity, education and knee osteoarthritis. "nMethods: Eligible subjects were randomly included from participants of Tehran COPCORD study, of whom 480 subjects with knee osteoarthritis were compared to 490 subjects without (case-control study. Using a questionnaire developed by COPCORD group (Asia & Oceania, we enquired about the risk factors of knee osteoarthritis i.e. age, sex, BMI, Waist/Hip ratio, religion, ethnicity, education and smoking. Knee osteoarthritis was defined using ACR criteria. Each knee was unit of analysis using GEE technique to evaluate these associations. "nResults: Age (OR; 1.096; CI95%: 1.091-1.1; P: 0.00 and sex (OR; 2.85; CI95%: 2.49-3.28; P: 0.00 showed significant association with knee osteoarthritis. Overweight (OR; 1.81; CI95%: 1.28-2.55; P: 0.00 and obesity (OR; 3.3; CI95%: 2.34-4.66; P: 0.00 both showed higher risk for knee osteoarthritis. The association between waist/hip ratio and knee osteoarthritis showed an OR of 5.28, CI95%: 0.89-31.44; P: 0.07. However, this association was only borderline significant. People with different religion or ethnicity and smokers had no extra risks for knee osteoarthritis. Higher education is a protective factor for knee osteoarthritis as people who had university education compared to people with no/primary education showed a lower risk for knee osteoarthritis (OR; 0.54; CI95%: 0.38-0.78; P: 0.00. "nConclusions: Our study confirmed that elderly, females, overweight and obese people are at higher risk to develop knee osteoarthritis as found in western societies. Higher education is a protective factor against knee osteoarthritis. Ethnicity, religion and smoking showed no extra risk of knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Teaching Middle School Social Studies: Who is at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sherry L.; Wilhelm, Ron; Nickell, Pat; Culligan, John; Sparks, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the problem in labeling children "at risk" because it may be detrimental to their futures. Provides examples of two middle school social studies teachers who have adapted their teaching to meet the needs of all classroom learners by getting to know each student personally. (CMK)

  12. Severe acute maternal morbidity: study of epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridu Sinha

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Study of risk factors associated with SAMM can provide important contributions to improve quality of available health care system in order to achieve reduction in maternal mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2141-2145

  13. Blood lipid levels and prostate cancer risk; a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Roermund, van J.G.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Heijer, den M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that blood lipid levels might be associated with prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and prost

  14. Evaluating Risk Awareness in Undergraduate Students Studying Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, G. S.; Balchin, K.; Mufamadi, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of risk awareness among undergraduate students studying mechanical engineering at a South African university. A questionnaire developed at the University of Liverpool was modified and used on students from the first, second and third year cohorts to assess their awareness in the areas of professional…

  15. Homocysteine and venous thrombosis : studies into risk and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Huub Pieter Jan

    2006-01-01

    Homocysteine is a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Elevated concentrations can be treated with folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The main study (chapter 9) in this thesis is a randomized placebo-controlled trial in which patients with a first event of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary emboli

  16. Psicología del ciclo vital: hacia una visión comprehensiva de la vida humana

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Dulcey Ruiz; Cecilia Uribe Valdivieso

    2002-01-01

    Se propone que la psicología del ciclo vital es más amplia que la psicología del desarrollo. Coherente con una visión integral del curso del ciclo vital esta psicología enfatiza la irrelevancia de la edad, los cambios permanentes, la multidimensionalidad, y la plasticidad, también como la importancia del contexto y la historia. Se refiere al proceso de envejecimiento, a la adultez, la vejez y la muerte en el marco del ciclo vital; enfatiza posibilidades relacionadas con el enve...

  17. Psicología del ciclo vital: hacia una visión comprehensiva de la vida humana

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Dulcey Ruiz; Cecilia Uribe Valdivieso

    2002-01-01

    Se propone que la psicología del ciclo vital es más amplia que la psicología del desarrollo. Coherente con una visión integral del curso del ciclo vital esta psicología enfatiza la irrelevancia de la edad, los cambios permanentes, la multidimensionalidad, y la plasticidad, también como la importancia del contexto y la historia. Se refiere al proceso de envejecimiento, a la adultez, la vejez y la muerte en el marco del ciclo vital; enfatiza posibilidades relacionadas con el envejecimiento exit...

  18. Influencia de las condiciones de curado en el comportamiento del hormigón sometido a ciclos hielo-deshielo

    OpenAIRE

    Al‐Assadi, Ghaida

    2009-01-01

    El efecto de los ciclos hielo-deshielo es una de las causas principales de la degradación del hormigón en las regiones frías. En Europa Central y Oriental las condiciones climáticas en el invierno son particularmente graves para el hormigón estructural. Los sucesivos ciclos de hielo-deshielo causan tanto el empeoramiento del hormigón externo como el daño interno. En una temporada de invierno habitual en estas zonas, puede haber más de 100 ciclos hielo-deshielo, con el consiguiente deterioro d...

  19. Predicting perceived risk of crime: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2011-12-01

    With a sample of Italians selected from 71 Italian counties (N = 1,868), we performed two multilevel analyses aimed at predicting the perceived risk of crime at local (i.e., in the participants' county of residence) and at societal (i.e., in the context of Italian society) levels. A significant proportion of the variation in local risk perception was at the county level. The following individual variables predicted higher levels of this variable: indirect victimization, the perception of social and physical disorder, being a woman, being poorly educated, and being an older person. Among the ecological predictors, the crime rate and unemployment rate predicted higher levels of local crime risk perception, while the immigrant rate did not. Perceived risk of crime at the societal level did not show significant variation at the county level. Education, being a man, trusting people, and adhesion to post-materialistic values predicted lower levels of societal crime risk perception, while number of sons/daughters and exposure to television news increased it. The limitations and possible development of this study are discussed. PMID:21161721

  20. Familial risk of venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... a relative risk of 3.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.80-3.39) as compared with the general population. The risk was higher for both men (SIR 3.36, 95% CI 2.96-3.82) and women (SIR 2.81, 95% CI 2.45-3.23). The risk was similar among siblings of index cases with venous thrombosis and those of index cases...... embolism born after 1952. We used the Danish National Registry of Patients covering all Danish hospitals, for the years 1977 through 2009, to identify index cases of venous thromboembolism, and assessed the incidence among their siblings. We compared standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of the observed...

  1. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  2. Nuevos Patrones de Reconocimiento Visual en el Ciclo Cardiaco New Patterns of Visual Recognize in the Cardiac Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Audelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es aplicar el análisis no lineal en el estudio del ciclo cardiaco. Se analizaron 30 series de tiempo con diferentes tipos de ritmo cardiaco (10 de sujetos en ritmo sinusal normal, 10 de sujetos con fibrilación atrial y 10 de sujetos con arritmia supraventricular, con las herramientas de análisis computacional, de la teoría del caos y la dinámica no lineal, para conocer la complejidad del sistema y encontrar patrones de reconocimiento visual. Se encontró que el ciclo cardiaco es un sistema con un comportamiento dinámico mixto (periódico-caótico y que las representaciones en el espacio-fase (atractores, obtenidas a partir de la relación entre la señal original (x(t y la primera derivada, pueden ser utilizadas como patrones de reconocimiento visual en la identificación de los tres ritmos cardiacos estudiados.Time series (30 with different heart rate were analyzed (10 of subjects in normal sinus rhythm, 10 of subjects with atrial fibrillation and 10 of subjects with supraventricular arrhythmia, with analysis computational of chaos and nonlinear dynamics theory in order to know the complexity of system and find visual recognize patterns. It was found that cardiac cycle is a mixed dynamic behavior system (periodic-chaotic and the representations (attractors in space phase obtained from the relation between the original signal (x(t and first derived, can be used like visual recognize patterns in the identification of the three studied heart rhythms.

  3. A prospective study of occupation and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Maurice P A; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-03-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall bias, have been inconsistent, or have not been confirmed satisfactory in subsequent studies. This study was conducted to investigate and confirm these important associations in a large prospective cohort study. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 58,279 men. In September 1986, the cohort members (55-69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Related job codes were clustered in professional groups. These predefined clusters were investigated in 3 time windows: 1) profession ever performed, 2) longest profession ever held, and 3) last profession held at baseline. Follow up for incident prostate cancer was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1993. A case-cohort approach was used based on 830 cases and 1525 subcohort members. To minimize false-positive results, 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated. Although moderately decreased prostate cancer risks were found for electricians, farmers, firefighters, woodworkers, textile workers, butchers, salesmen, teachers, and clerical workers, none of the relative risks (RR) were found to be statistically significant. For road transporters, metal workers, and managers, no association with prostate cancer risk was found. Although the RR for railway workers, mechanics, welders, chemists, painters, and cooks was moderately increased, these estimates were not statistically significant. For men who reported to have ever worked in the rubber industry, we found a substantially increased prostate cancer risk, but not statistically significant (RR, 4.18; 99% CI = 0.22-80.45). For policemen, we found a substantial and

  4. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  5. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel;

    2015-01-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  6. Risk perception and choice of place of birth in women with high risk pregnancies: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des

    2016-07-01

    Objective To examine the perception of risk among a group of women with high risk pregnancies who were either planning to give birth in hospital, or at home despite medical advice to the contrary. The intention was to consider differences and similarities between the groups to examine how perception of risk relates to choice of place of birth. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Setting Maternity department in a hospital in South East England. Participants Twenty-six women with high risk pregnancies, at least 32 weeks pregnant. Half were planning hospital births and half homebirths. Measurements and findings Semi-structured interviews to investigate women's understanding and assessment of risk. Results were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes emerged: understanding of situation; judgement of risk; reassuring factors; impact of risk; and coping with risk. Women from both groups had some understanding of the implications of their medical/obstetric conditions. They displayed concerns about their babies' wellbeing. Women planning homebirths assessed their risks as lower and expressed less concerns than women planning hospital births. Women planning hospital births more frequently described following professional advice. Key conclusions Risk perception is individual and subjective. Women with high risk pregnancies who plan to give birth at home perceive risk differently to women who plan hospital births. Implications for practice Healthcare professionals working with women with high risk pregnancies should be aware of the potential for differences in definitions and perceptions of risk within this group.

  7. Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodpey Sanjay P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

  8. Risk management :A probe and study on forest fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jinzhu; FENG Zhongke; JIANG Wei; YANG Xiaoqin

    2007-01-01

    The subject of risk management is attracting more and more attention around the world.The risk of forest fire disasters should be faced and dealt with for forest fires cannot be avoided.Treating forest fire disasters as a risk management issue promotes important measures and methods for fire fighters to prevent,reduce and control the risks of forest fires.In this paper,the risk concept andrisk connotation as well as the management risks for forest fire suppression are discussed clearly.Issues such as risk judgments,risk analysis,risk control and the assessment of risk,including their contents and corresponding methods are clarified.

  9. The Study of Ground Deformation Risk With Seismic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is Kown, analysis are made with various methods in studying the grounds which convey the deformation risk under the influence of any force. In the analysis which are made mostly by assumptions, each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Most methods which are applied are not sufficient alone and the decision is made according to the experience and comments of the engineer most of the time and there may exist ambiguity in these comments. As it is Kown, besides most data obtained by the seismic applications; rigidity, porosity, saturation and the layer thicKess of a ground is also determined. The data concerning the rigidity and porosity of the ground, landslide, liquefaction, consolidation, plasticity, etc. is obtained as well, moreover, a general result is achieved by evaulating all of the calculated dynamic paramaters. This study is made on two different areas in Istanbul-Esenyurt which have similar litological and morphological slopes. In the first study area, the risk factor is tried to be determined in the deformed region which has 10-25% morphological slope and in the remaining region. In the second study area the data obtained from two study areas are compared and the landslide risk of the ground having slope in the range 10- 25% is examined. As the conclusion of the study, ground deformation is examined with the seismic and dynamic data. In the landslided areas or in the areas having potential landslide risk; it is understood that the seismic reflection data are untolerably diversing from the N30 data obtained from the SPT experiments done in borehole studies. In this study, according to the results achieved by seismic applications, it is observed that the grounds which have undergone deformation depending on the litological structure have Vp/Vs ratio greater than 4 or the shear wave velocity Vs smaller than 222 m/s. In this study again, in the area which ground deformation is expected, it is observed that Vp/Vs ratio is between 4,44-8,85, shear

  10. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available `INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. In India Community Surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate for hemiplegia 200 per 1, 00, 000 population. It accounts for nearly 1.5% of all urban admissions, 4.5 % of all medical and about 20% of neurological cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Identification of risk factors and evaluation of clinical profile of acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Cases of acute stoke admitted in SGMH hospital were selected for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Brain injury cases, infective, neoplastic cases producing stroke were excluded. RESULTS: Stroke was more common in male, 58 % patients were male and 42% patients were female. It was more common in 5th and 6th decade. Most common etiology was infarction. Most common risk factor was hypertension followed by smoking. In addition to limb weakness, headache and vomiting were most common presenting symptoms followed by convulsion. These symptoms were more common in hemorrhagic stroke. Right sided hemiplegia was more common than left sided. Middle cerebral artery was involved in majority of cases in atherothrombotic stroke whereas basal ganglion was most common site of bleed in hemorrhagic stroke. Coma and mortality were more in hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: The risk factors and clinical profile of acute stroke in India are similar to that of Western countries. Common risk factors are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia

  11. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J.B.; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    . The case-crossover analysis estimated AED treatment initiation to increase the risk of suicide (odds ratio (OR): 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-2.49). Clonazepam (OR: 2.01, CI: 1.25-3.25), valproate (OR: 2.08, CI: 1.01-4.16), lamotrigine (OR: 3.15, CI: 1.35-7.34) and phenobarbital (OR: 1...... investigated possible differences in suicide risk associated with different AEDs. Methods The use of AEDs in the Danish population from 1997 to 2006 was determined by prescription claims. The risk of suicide associated with use of AEDs was estimated by case-crossover analyses, where each case serves at its own...... control during different periods. For sensitivity, the risk of suicide was estimated by a time-dependent Cox proportional-hazard analysis in AED treatment-nave patients. Results There were 6780 cases committing suicide in the 10-year study period, of which 422 received AED treatment at the time of suicide...

  12. Anybody can do Value at Risk: A Nonparametric Teaching Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Powell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR has become a benchmark methodology among investors and banks for measuring market risk. Commercially available modelling packages can be both expensive and inflexible, thereby restricting their use by academic researchers and teachers. Usingnonparametric methodology, this paper provides a step-by-step teaching study on how to use Excel to construct a VaR spreadsheet for an individual asset as well as for a portfolio. This can benefit financial modelling teachers by providing them with a readily useable teaching study on how to model VaR, as well as benefit researchers by showing them how to construct an inexpensive and flexible VaR model.

  13. Caracterización de genes rsf implicados en el control del ciclo celular en levadura

    OpenAIRE

    Queralt Badía, Ethelvina

    2003-01-01

    En S. cerevisiae, al igual que en células de mamífero, el principal control durante el ciclo celular está situado al final de la fase G1, en un punto llamado START (Cross 1995). En START se coordina el crecimiento con la división celular la célula solo entrará en un nuevo ciclo celular si ha alcanzado un tamaño crítico y las condiciones medioambientales son apropiadas. Un proceso clave en START es la activación de un programa de transcripción específico de la fase G1 tardía. Dos factores de t...

  14. Ciclo vital da família e envelhecimento: contextos e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henriqueta de Jesus Silva Figueiredo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Os focos dos cuidados de enfermagem têm vindo a apresentar configurações diferentes face às mudanças sociais que exigem novas necessidades de saúde. O ciclo vital da família caracteriza-se por padrões de regularidade funcional, associados às funções, estrutura e processos interacionais. Nesta perspectiva a compreensão destes padrões na última etapa do ciclo vital, que se caracteriza pela adaptação ao envelhecimento, permitirá interacções mais ajustadas à promoção da saúde familiar.

  15. Família e ciclo vital: a fase de aquisição

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Peterle Ronchi; Luziane Zacché Avellar

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa objetivou descrever as características da fase deaquisição, primeira fase do ciclo vital familiar, marcada pela uniãodo casal e a convivência com os filhos pequenos. O estudo foirealizado com 50 famílias de classe média, na fase de aquisição dociclo vital da família, da cidade de Vitória-ES. Os participantesresponderam ao questionário baseado na pesquisa Ciclo vital dafamília paulista, que se mostrou adequado para compreender adinâmica e os valores das famílias da cidade de Vitó...

  16. Ciclo y dinámica económica en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Vázquez, Pedro José

    1999-01-01

    RESUMEN El objeto de estudio de la tesis son los ciclos económicos, realizándose cuatro estudios empíricos utilizando técnicas de series temporales. La tesis consta de cuatro capítulos, a los que se añade un apartado final de conclusiones El objetivo del primer capítulo es determinar si el ciclo económico es un fenómeno con características similares en las principales economías de mercado, para ello se caracterizan las propiedades cíclicas de un grupo amplio de países (países del G-7 má...

  17. Estudio termoeconómico de diferentes configuraciones de ciclo combinado integrado con una planta solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Durán García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis termoeconómico de una planta de ciclo combinado integrada con una planta solar de canal parabólico, considerada como una sección de la caldera de recuperación de calor, con el objetivo de conseguir un diseño óptimo al determinar los parámetros de diseño optimizados para ambos sistemas. Se aplica una metodología empleada en trabajos previos para la optimización de ciclos combinados, pero ahora con una planta solar. Como resultado, a partir de un análisis de sensibilidad, se obtiene el desempeño de varias configuraciones bajo diferentes condiciones de radiación solar.

  18. Risk of Complications in Spine Surgery: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, José Marcus; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : Complications are the chief concern of patients and physicians when considering spine surgery. The authors seek to assess the incidence of complications in patients undergoing spine surgery and identify risk factors for their occurrence. Methods : Prospective study of patients undergoing spine surgery from 1 February 2013 to 1 February 2014. Epidemiological characteristics and complications during the surgical hospitalization were recorded and analyzed. Results : The sample comprise...

  19. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  20. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  1. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  2. Financial Risk Study of the Construction Sector SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance given to the problem of capital structure comes from the influence of debts on return on equity and the financial risk induced by debts. This paper is actually an analysis of the evolution of financial risk on the construction sector during 2001 – 2011 on a sample of 11 enterprises in the Galati County – Romania. To carry out this study were used two methods, rely on breakeven point and leverage effect. The study of aggregate data reveal a low fluctuating trend of financial risk, which shows that by the end of 2008 the effects of the economic and financial crisis still have not felt as much as is shown starting with 2009. The conclusion that emerges in this study is that the world crisis produced major effects on construction sector, but they could be seen a little bit later before the onset of it. The effects are disastrous for economy (lack of work, offs of staff etc., which is why the government began to seek solutions to relaunch this sector.

  3. Una teoría del ciclo económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolosa B. José

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este articulo es plantear un modelo de carácter explicativo referente a las fluctuaciones económicas que sea aplicable a un país con las características de la economía colombiana. Se parte de las formulaciones expuestas por Michal Kalecki en sus diversos estudios sobre el ciclo, superando sus limitantes y elaborando un modelo coherente que cumpla con los objetivos propuestos.

  4. A organização do ensino fundamental em ciclos: algumas questões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocimar Munhoz Alavarse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo son problematizados algunos de los aspectos relacionados a la organización de la educación básica en ciclos, partiéndose de iniciativas en materia de educación de redes públicas y de la literatura sobre el tema. La implantación de los ciclos, con diferencias de diversos órdenes, se ha intensificado con la Ley de Directrices y Bases de 1996 y se presenta como una alternativa a la organización de la enseñanza por grados y al fracaso escolar, especialmente por cuenta de las altas tasas de reprobación (repetición y del bajo rendimiento académico de los estudiantes brasileños, y también es acompañada por una fuerte resistencia y controversia. Desde la perspectiva de la democratización de la escuela, se enfoca los retos de la igualdad de resultados, como la profundización de la igualdad de oportunidades, lo que incluye la tensión sobre los años de estudio y la repetición de grado como expediente pedagógico, con énfasis en las metas educativas y las implicaciones pedagógicas que los ciclos impondrían. Sin embargo, si los ciclos no pueden ser asociados a la disminución de la calidad de la educación, se considera que, a pesar de su enorme potencial democrático, todavía no fueron alcanzados los objetivos propuestos con su adopción.

  5. Variabilidad del intervalo de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares con igual morfología inducidas en estudio electrofisiológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel J. Fuenmayor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La determinación de la variabilidad espontánea del intervalo de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares es fundamental para interpretar los efectos de tratamientos y para programar dispositivos anti-taquicardia. Objetivo: Estudiar la variabilidad espontánea del intervalo de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares producidas por re-entrada. Métodos: Incluimos 22 pacientes (12 varones de 52 + 18 años de edad, en quienes se indujeron 121 taquicardias ventriculares monomórficas sostenidas. Las taquicardias inducidas en un mismo paciente tenían la misma morfología y eran producidas por re-entrada. Resultados: En promedio, las taquicardias ventriculares tenían un intervalo de ciclo de 318 + 39 milisegundos (mseg. La desviación típica del promedio de los intervalos de ciclo de las taquicardias ventriculares de igual morfología inducidas en cada paciente (variación inter-taquicardia fue 10,91 + 9,63 mseg. La diferencia promedio entre el R-R máximo y el R-R mínimo (variación inter-taquicardia fue de 26,15 mseg. La variación intra-taquicardia (desviación típica de los 10 ciclos que fueron promediados fue de 5,78 + 2,40 mseg (2,58 - 15,05. El sexo, la etiología y la edad no determinaron diferencias en la frecuencia cardíaca durante e la taquicardia. Conclusión: En este grupo de pacientes, las taquicardias ventriculares de re-entrada originadas en un mismo circuito y en un mismo paciente muestran poca variación del intervalo de ciclo. Esta estabilidad relativa debe tenerse presente al considerar efectos terapéuticos, programar dispositivos anti-taquicardia y estudiar los factores relacionados con la variabilidad misma.Introduction: Th e spontaneous variability in ventricular tachycardia cycle length should be known for the proper assessment of pharmacological treatment and anti-tachycardia devices programming. Objective: To assess the ventricular tachycardia (VT rate variability of patients with re-entrant VTs induced

  6. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  7. Tecnología, ingeniería y ciclos de formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Jirón Popova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta parte de los resultados de la investigación La formación tecnológica en Colombia en el ámbito de la universidad pública, particularmente en la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, que fue una de las instituciones observadas. En este artículo se exponen los acontecimientos que se suceden desde la ins-titucionalización de la Facultad Tecnológica, con miras a ofrecer Educación Superior Tecnológica a sectores desfavorecidos de la población del Distrito Capital. Se hace especial énfasis en aspectos relacionados con las tensiones entre resistir o adaptarse a lo establecido en los dispositivos de control; coyuntura que finalmente determina que la facultad trasforme su propuesta original de Educación Tecnológica por Ciclos, hacia una de Formación de Ingenieros por Ciclos y, posteriormente, por la Formación de Ingenieros por Ciclos Propedéuticos.

  8. Effective Project Risk management in Micro Companies : Case study for Persona Optima Iceland ehf.

    OpenAIRE

    Bražinskaitė, Justina

    2011-01-01

    This study is meant to be a guide for micro companies regarding effective project risk management. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce project risk management and build a user-friendly managerial model toward effective project risk management in micro companies. The research is based on a case company Persona Optima Iceland ehf. analysis. The study investigates risk management, uncertainties and risks in projects, project risk management, its models and particularities in orde...

  9. Risk factors in pediatric asthmatic patients. Cases and control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alejandro Gómez Baute

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma constitutes the first disease among chronic diseases in children. The morbid-mortality promoted to continue being elevated in spite of the new therapies. For this reason it is a disease with high priority for investigation in pediatric ages. Method: A control and case group study was carried out. The samples was composed by 72 asthmatic children from three General Comprehensive doctor offices from Palmira health area located in Cienfuegos Province, Cuba; and a control group of 72 children apparently healthy from the same population. A questionnaire with the different risk variables was elaborated. Odds ratio technique was used to estimate the risk. Results: low weight at birth, family history of asthma, brochiolitis antecedent and the excessive usage of antibiotics in children under 1 year old were the main risks found. Conclusions: It is conclusive that the exposure to home allergen plus a genetic favorable factor, the prematurity, and brochiolitis constituted the most outstanding elements to suffer from asthma in the population studied.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  11. Resultados das técnicas de reprodução assistida em mulheres doadoras de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento Outcome of assisted reproductive technologies in women with oocyte donation in the treatment cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Cavalcante

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar os resultados de ciclos de reprodução assistida em mulheres doadoras de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento com o de mulheres não doadoras. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, as taxas de gravidez, implantação e abortamento de 50 pacientes que doaram oócitos durante o ciclo de reprodução assistida (grupo de doadoras e de 50 pacientes que não doaram oócitos (grupo de não-doadoras, em clínica privada de reprodução assistida em São Paulo, entre os anos de 2001 e 2003. Os critérios de inclusão no estudo foram os seguintes: idade menor que 35 anos; ciclos menstruais regulares; dosagem basal de FSH0,05. CONCLUSÃO: em pacientes que recuperam mais de seis oócitos, a doação de oócitos no ciclo de tratamento não prejudica os resultados dos ciclos de reprodução assistida e não eleva as taxas de abortamento.PURPOSE: to compare the outcome of treatment in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles who donated eggs during their own ART treatment with the outcome of patients undergoing ART without egg donation. METHODS: we studied retrospectively the pregnancy and implantation rates of 50 patients who donated eggs during the course of their ART treatment (donor group, and the pregnancy and implantation rates of 50 patients who underwent ART cycles and kept all their eggs (non-donor group. between the years 2001-2003. The inclusion criteria used were as follows: age 0.05. CONCLUSION: this study suggests that in patients who produce more than 6 oocytes, egg donation in the treatment cycle does not influence adversely the outcome of ART cycles and does not increase the miscarriage rate.

  12. Risk factors for psoriasis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slavenka; Raznatovic, Milena; Marinkovic, Jelena; Jankovic, Janko; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study of 110 consecutive psoriatic outpatients and 200 unmatched controls was carried out in order to analyze the association of psoriasis with smoking habits, alcohol consumption, family history of psoriasis and stressful life events. Stressful life events were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events, a semi-structured interview covering 63 life events. According to our results, the risk of psoriasis is higher in urban dwellers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-13.18), patients who were divorced (OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.26-14.34) and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.12-4.67). Alcohol consumption (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.26-5.17), family history of psoriasis (OR = 33.96; 95% CI = 14.14-81.57) and change in work conditions (OR = 8.34; 95% CI = 1.86-37.43) are also risk factors for psoriasis. Separate analyses for men and women showed that the risk of developing psoriasis was stronger in men with a family history of psoriasis (OR = 30.39; 95% CI = 6.72-137.42) than in women (OR = 16.99; 95% CI = 7.21-40.07). The effect of environmental tobacco smoke at home was found only in women (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.26-4.73). Future well-designed epidemiological studies need to be performed in order to determine whether lifestyle factors and stress could be risk factors triggering or aggravating psoriasis.

  13. Birth size and coronary heart disease risk score in young adulthood. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, LE; Oren, A; Bots, ML; Gorissen, WHM; Grobbee, DE; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2006-01-01

    Data of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study were used to investigate the association between birth size and the absolute risk for coronary heart disease in healthy young adults. The cohort study comprises 750 (46.9% men) subjects born between 1970 and 1973. Birth characteristics we

  14. Study on risk measurement about ammunition-rocket system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Xiaohui; Zhao Youshou

    2005-01-01

    Modern ammunition-rocket system is a complicated multidisciplinary system. During its development,undetermined factors will bring many risks. This paper elaborates the importance of risk analysis approach to ammunition-rocket system development and analyses various methods of risk analysis and estimation. Combined with practical situation of weapon system development, the risk measurement function with characteristics of risk preference is given provided that the risk preference characteristic of behavior maker is risk neutral of fixed constant. The development risk analysis based on risk measurement function enables effective risk decision to be made on the basis of quantified risk.Taking anti-helicopter intelligent mine warhead as an example, the paper verifies the efficiency of the method and shows that it has a scientific and practical value.

  15. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  16. Risk factors for hip fracture in European women: the MEDOS Study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnell, O; Gullberg, B; Kanis, J A; Allander, E; Elffors, L; Dequeker, J; Dilsen, G; Gennari, C; Lopes Vaz, A; Lyritis, G

    1995-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine common international risk factors for hip fracture in women aged 50 years or more. We studied women aged 50 years or more who sustained a hip fracture in 14 centers from Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, and Turkey over a 1-year period. Women aged 50 years or more selected from the neighborhood or population registers served as controls. Cases and controls were interviewed using a structured questionnaire on work, physical activity, exposure to sunlight, reproductive, history and gynecologic status, height, weight, mental score, and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, calcium, coffee, and tea. Significant risk factors identified by univariate analysis included low body mass index (BMI), short fertile period, low physical activity. lack of sunlight exposure, low milk consumption, no consumption of tea, and a poor mental score. No significant adverse effects of coffee or smoking were observed. Moderate intake of spirits was a protective factor in young adulthood, but otherwise no significant effect of alcohol intake was observed. For some risks, a threshold effect was observed. A low BMI and milk consumption were significant risks only in the lowest 50% and 10% of the population, respectively. A late menarche, poor mental score, low BMI and physical activity, low exposure to sunlight, and a low consumption of calcium and tea remained independent risk factors after multivariate analysis, accounting for 70% of hip fractures. Excluding mental score and age at menarche (not potentially reversible), the attributable risk was 56%. Thus, about half of the hip fractures could be explained on the basis of the potentially reversible risk factors sought. In contrast, the use of risk factors to "predict" hip fractures had moderate sensitivity and specificity. We conclude that variations in lifestyle factors are associated with significant differences in the risk of hip fracture, account for a large component of the total risk, and may

  17. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  18. Credit risk management: a study on risk integration in the bank lending process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, Linda Elsa Wilhelmina

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk management has been a topic much written about in the last decade. Substantial credit risk losses can undermine the stability of the bank. Both banks and national bank supervisors have realized the need to invest in credit risk management. Partly driven by regulations such as the Basel I

  19. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled wit...

  20. A prospective Swedish study on body size, body composition, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, P; Bjartell, A; Gullberg, B.; Olsson, H; Wirfält, E

    2009-01-01

    Obesity may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). According to one hypothesis, obesity could lower the risk of non-aggressive tumours, while simultaneously increasing the risk of aggressive cancer. Furthermore, central adiposity may be independently associated with PCa risk; it is also associated with diabetes, which itself may influence risk of PCa. We studied the associations between height, body composition, and fat distribution, diabetes prevalence and risk of total,...

  1. Bankruptcy Risk in IFRS Era. Case Study on BSE Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BURCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The path of international accounting convergence is, unanimously accepted by all decision makers of the international financial reporting environment, as being the best solution towards reducing differences in international accounting. The idea of core standards is embraced by our country, too, the proof being the last legislative changes in Romanian accounting framework. This study aims to highlight a small part of the economic consequences of the decision to extend the mandatory use of IFRS standards to the statutory financial statements, also. More exactly we will underline the changes registered at the level of bankruptcy risk measureson a samples of companies listed on BSE.

  2. Dentine sensitivity risk factors: A case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mafla, Ana Cristina; Lopez-Moncayo, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the clinical and psychological risk factors associated with dentine hypersensitivity (DH) in order to provide an early diagnosis and preventive therapy. Materials and Methods: A nested case–control study was design between 2011 and 2012. A total of 61 DH cases and 122 controls participated in this investigation. Cases and controls were matched for sex, group of age and socioeconomic status in a ratio of 1:2. DH to different stimuli such as cold, heat, acid, and sweet wa...

  3. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  4. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  5. Indian studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic influences on cancer development have been extensively investigated during the last decade following publication of human genome sequence. The present review summarizes case-control studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk in Indians. It is observed that the most commonly studied genes in the Indian population included members of phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Other than these genes, genetic polymorphisms for cell cycle and apoptosis-related factors, DNA repair enzymes, immune response elements, growth factors, folate metabolizing enzymes, vitamin/hormone receptors, etc., were investigated. Several studies also evidenced a stronger risk for combined genotypes rather than a single polymorphism. Gene-environment interaction was also found to be a determining factor for cancer development in some experiments. Data for single polymorphism and single cancer type, however, was insufficient to validate an association. It appears that much more experiments involving larger sample size, cross-tabulating genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors are required in order to identify genetic markers for different cancers in Indian populations.

  6. Variáveis reprodutivas e risco para doenças benignas de mama: estudo caso-controle Reproductive variables and risk of benign breast diseases: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E. Hardy

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 257 mulheres com diagnóstico de doença benigna de mama (DBM, atestado por anatomopatológico ou citologia, e um controle para cada uma delas. Foram apresentados resultados das possíveis relações entre variáveis reprodutivas e o risco para DBM. Os casos e controles foram comparados levando em conta a idade na menarca e na menopausa, o número de gravidezes, de meses em que amamentaram e de ciclos menstruais ovulatórios, e os antecedentes familiares de câncer de mama. Mostraram influência significativa, em relação às DBM, a nuliparidade, aumentando o risco enquanto a idade de 30 ou mais anos no primeiro parto o reduziu; o número de ciclos ovulatórios, que foi significativamente maior para os casos, e a média de meses de uso de pílula, menor entre as mulheres com DBM. O uso de contraceptivos orais apresentou um efeito protetor apenas quando a duração total do uso foi maior que dois anos. Os resultados não se revelaram novos ou diferentes se comparados com outros estudos, mas confirmam a relativa concordância entre os fatores de risco para DBM e para câncer de mama, ainda que as relações entre esses fatores e as DBM não sejam tão claras como o são para o câncer, e existam também algumas discrepâncias.The purpose of the study was the identification of risk factors for benign breast diseases (BBD; 257 women with BBD diagnosed through pathological anatomy or citology and a matched control for each were studied. Subjects were selected at The State University of Campinas Hospital and at a private clinic. To enter the study cases had to have a first diagnosis of BBD between October 1979 and August 1984. The following BBD were considered: dysplasia, fibroadenoma, cystic disease, papilloma and ductal ectasia. Reproductive variables were studied as risk factors, including menstrual ovulatory cycles. The date on which the BBD was diagnosed was defined as the index date. For controls, data were considered up to when

  7. Ciclos económicos y retórica administrativa. Dualidad ideológica en Colombia Ciclos económicos y retórica administrativa. Dualidad ideológica en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alexander Toro Suárez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1992, Stephen R. Barley y Gideon Kunda, profesores de la universidad deStanford y de la universidad de Tel Aviv respectivamente, publicaron un estudiotitulado: “Desing and devotion: surges of rational and normative ideologies ofcontrol in managerial discourse”* en el que encontraron que en Estados Unidos,las teorías administrativas se presentan en oleadas de retórica en correspondenciadirecta con los ciclos económicos. De esta manera, las teorías de contenido racional(dirigidas al control del trabajo sobresalen en períodos de crecimiento, y las decontenido normativo (dirigidas al control del trabajador prevalecen en contraccióneconómica. Partiendo de estos resultados, y retomando la esquematizaciónhistórica del surgimiento de las oleadas de ideología administrativa en Colombiaplanteada por el profesor Francisco López G. (1998, aquí se realizó un estudiosimilar y se encontró que el desarrollo del pensamiento administrativo en Colombiatiene igualmente relación con el ciclo económico, emerge en oleadas y presentacaracterísticas particulares.Professors Stephen R. Barley and Gideon Kunda (1992 conducted a study titled: “Design and Devotion: Surges of Rational and Normative Ideologies of Control in Managerial Discourse” in which they found that in the United States management theories are presented in waves of rhetoric which corresponded directly with economic cycles. In this way, theories with rational content (those directed at controlling work stand out in periods of growth, while those with normative content (those directed at controlling the worker prevail in times of economic shrinking. Based on these results, and returning to the historical scheme of the appearance of waves of management ideology in Colombia proposed by professor Francisco López G. (1998, a similar study was conducted in which the development of management thinking in Colombia was found to also have a relation to the economic cycle, to

  8. Dentine sensitivity risk factors: A case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, Ana Cristina; Lopez-Moncayo, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the clinical and psychological risk factors associated with dentine hypersensitivity (DH) in order to provide an early diagnosis and preventive therapy. Materials and Methods: A nested case–control study was design between 2011 and 2012. A total of 61 DH cases and 122 controls participated in this investigation. Cases and controls were matched for sex, group of age and socioeconomic status in a ratio of 1:2. DH to different stimuli such as cold, heat, acid, and sweet was asked in patient interviews, and dental examinations were used to detect DH. Clinical and psychological risk factors such as dental hygiene, periodontal disease, acid diet, alcohol consumption, psychological stress, and psychopathological symptoms were inquired. Psychological stress was measured through the PSS-10 and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated by SCL-90-R in Spanish. Descriptive and univariate binary logistic regression analysis were performed to estimate the association between clinical and psychological risk factors and the presence of DH. Results: Toothpaste abrasivity (odds ratio [OR] 1.881, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.010–3.502, P = 0.045), gingival recession (OR 2.196, 95% CI 1.020–4.728, P = 0.041), and periodontal therapy (OR 5.357, 95% CI 2.051–13.993, P < 0.001) were associated with DH. Subjects with perceived stress (OR 1.211, 95%, CI 0.518–2.833, P = 0.658), obsessive-compulsive (OR 1.266, 95%, CI 0.494–3.240, P = 0.623) and hostility (OR 1.235, 95%, CI 0.507–3.007, P = 0.642) symptoms had a clinical greater odd of DH. Conclusion: Oral hygiene products and periodontal conditions are important risk factors for DH. Individuals with perceived stress, obsessive-compulsive, and hostility symptoms may increase a clinical risk for this entity. Targeting to dental counseling focused on oral hygiene products, periodontal therapy and a psychological evaluation may be promising in DH prevention. PMID:27011732

  9. Risk factors for hip fracture in men from southern Europe: the MEDOS study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, J; Johnell, O; Gullberg, B; Allander, E; Elffors, L; Ranstam, J; Dequeker, J; Dilsen, G; Gennari, C; Vaz, A L; Lyritis, G; Mazzuoli, G; Miravet, L; Passeri, M; Perez Cano, R; Rapado, A; Ribot, C

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for hip fracture in men aged 50 years or more. We identified 730 men with hip fracture from 14 centers from Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Turkey during the course of a prospective study of hip fracture incidence and 1132 age-stratified controls selected from the neighborhood or population registers. The questionnaire examined aspects of work, physical activity past and present, diseases and drugs, height, weight, indices of co-morbidity and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, calcium, coffee and tea. Significant risk factors identified by univariate analysis included low body mass index (BMI), low sunlight exposure, a low degree of recreational physical activity, low consumption of milk and cheese, and a poor mental score. Co-morbidity including sleep disturbances, loss of weight, impaired mental status and poor appetite were also significant risk factors. Previous stroke with hemiplegia, prior fragility fractures, senile dementia, alcoholism and gastrectomy were associated with significant risk, whereas osteoarthrosis, nephrolithiasis and myocardial infarction were associated with lower risks. Taking medications was not associated with a difference in risk apart from a protective effect with the use of analgesics independent of co-existing osteoarthrosis and an increased risk with the use of anti-epileptic agents. Of the potentially 'reversible' risk factors, BMI, leisure exercise, exposure to sunlight and consumption of tea and alcohol and tobacco remained independent risk factors after multivariate analysis, accounting for 54% of hip fractures. Excluding BMI, 46% of fractures could be explained on the basis of the risk factors sought. Of the remaining factors low exposure to sunlight and decreased physical activity accounted for the highest attributable risks (14% and 9% respectively). The use of risk factors to predict hip fractures had relatively low sensitivity and specificity (59.6% and 61

  10. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Chun; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent. Methods and Findings We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl) had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63–2.99, p aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35–1.36, p = 0.281). In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03–1.08, p < 0.001). Assuming the observed association between glycemic control and TB was causal, an estimated 7.5% (95% CI 4.1%–11.5%) of incident TB in the study population could be attributed to poor glycemic control. Limitations of the study include one-time measurement of fasting glucose at baseline and voluntary participation in the health screening service. Conclusions Good glycemic control could potentially modify the risk of TB among diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent. PMID:27505150

  11. Development of cancer risk estimates from epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation risk estimates may be made for an increase in mortality from, or for an increase in incidence of, particular types of disease. For both endpoints, two numerical systems of risk expression are used: the absolute risk system (usually the excess deaths or cases per million persons per year per rad), and the relative risk system (usually excess deaths or cases per year per rad expressed as a percentage of those normally expected). Risks may be calculated for specific age groups or for a general population. An alternative in both risk systems is the estimation of cumulative of lifetime risk rather than annual risk (e.g. in excess deaths per million per rad over a specified long period including the remainder of lifespan). The derivation of both absolute and relative risks is illustrated by examples. The effects on risk estimates of latent period, follow-up time, age at exposure and age standardization within dose groups are illustrated. The dependence of the projected cumulative (lifetime) risk on the adoption of a constant absolute risk or constant relative risk is noted. The use of life-table data in the adjustment of cumulative risk for normal mortality following single or annual doses is briefly discussed

  12. The study of the risk management model of construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first analyzed the development of the risk management of construction project and the risk management processes, and then briefly introduced the risk management experience of foreign project management. From the project management by objectives point of view, the greatest risk came from the lack of clarity of the objectives in the project management, which led to the project's risk emergence. In the analysis of the principles of the project objectives identification and risk allocation, the paper set up a project management model which insurance companies involved in the whole process of the project management, and simply analyzed the roles of insurance company at last. (authors)

  13. Impact of UKPDS risk estimation added to a first subjective risk estimation on management of coronary disease risk in type 2 diabetes - An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Gorter, Kees J.; Van Den Donk, Maureen; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate the impact of the UKPDS risk engine on management of CHD risk in T2DM patients. Methods Observational study among 139 GPS. Data from 933 consecutive patients treated with a maximum of two oral glucose lowering drugs, collected at baseline and after twelve months. GPS estimated th

  14. Uso de la Evaluación de Ciclo de Vida para el Análisis de la Sostenibilidad de Sistemas de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales Urbanas: Un Estudio de Caso de la Tecnología de Tratamiento de las Aguas Residuales del Rio Bogotá / Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess the sustainability of urban wastewater treatment systems: a case study of the wastewater treatment technology of the Bogotá River

    OpenAIRE

    Chijioke Kingsley, Ogbonna

    2011-01-01

    Se utilizaron Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible (IDS) con base en la metodología del Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV) para evaluar la Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales PTAR El Salitre, ubicada en Bogotá, Colombia, en vez de la herramienta de Evaluación del Impacto Ambiental (EIA) más comúnmente empleada. Para comprender el impacto en el sentido de los múltiples efectos que cualquier sistema tecnológico tiene sobre los aspectos ambientales, económicos y socioculturales de los sistema...

  15. Study of Hip Fracture Risk using Tree Structured Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Y

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Studie wird das Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei postmenopausalen Frauen untersucht, indem die Frauen in verschiedene Subgruppen hinsichtlich dieses Risikos klassifiziert werden. Frauen in einer gemeinsamen Subgruppe haben ein ähnliches Risiko, hingegen in verschiedenen Subgruppen ein unterschiedliches Hüftfraktur-Risiko. Die Subgruppen wurden mittels der Tree Structured Survival Analysis (TSSA aus den Daten von 7.665 Frauen der SOF (Study of Osteoporosis Fracture ermittelt. Bei allen Studienteilnehmerinnen wurde die Knochenmineraldichte (BMD von Unterarm, Oberschenkelhals, Hüfte und Wirbelsäule gemessen. Die Zeit von der BMD-Messung bis zur Hüftfraktur wurde als Endpunkt notiert. Eine Stichprobe von 75% der Teilnehmerinnen wurde verwendet, um die prognostischen Subgruppen zu bilden (Trainings-Datensatz, während die anderen 25% als Bestätigung der Ergebnisse diente (Validierungs-Datensatz. Aufgrund des Trainings-Datensatzes konnten mittels TSSA 4 Subgruppen identifiziert werden, deren Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei einem Follow-up von im Mittel 6,5 Jahren bei 19%, 9%, 4% und 1% lag. Die Einteilung in die Subgruppen erfolgte aufgrund der Bewertung der BMD des Ward'schen Dreiecks sowie des Oberschenkelhalses und nach dem Alter. Diese Ergebnisse konnten mittels des Validierungs-Datensatzes reproduziert werden, was die Sinnhaftigkeit der Klassifizierungregeln in einem klinischen Setting bestätigte. Mittels TSSA war eine sinnvolle, aussagekräftige und reproduzierbare Identifikation von prognostischen Subgruppen, die auf dem Alter und den BMD-Werten beruhen, möglich. In this paper we studied the risk of hip fracture for post-menopausal women by classifying women into different subgroups based on their risk of hip fracture. The subgroups were generated such that all the women in a particular subgroup had relatively similar risk while women belonging to two different subgroups had rather different risks of hip fracture. We used the Tree Structured

  16. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring Studies: A New Study Method for Risk Management in Pharmacovigilance

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-01-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for ‘real-world’ post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the ...

  17. Study on risk analysis of supply chain enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiaohui; Zhong Xiaobing; Song Shiji; Wu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The sources of supply chain enterprise risk from different aspects including material flow, information flow, cash flow and partner relationship is analyzed. Measures for risk reduction have also been summarized from the aspects of risk sharing, information sharing, change of inventory control mode, and supply chain flexibility. Finally, problems in current research on supply chain risk management are pointed out and a discussion on future research trend is presented.

  18. Adolescent Problem Behavior in Navi Mumbai: An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A conceptual framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of five psychosocial contexts of adolescent life--individual, family, peers, school, and neighborhood--in a study of…

  19. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity: A study of prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel H. A. A. Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a serious complication of prematurity treatment and can lead to blindness unless recognized and treated early. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence of ROP in preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, to identify the risk factors which predispose to ROP, and to assess the outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A ROP prospective screening survey was performed enrolling all prematures admitted to the NICU from January 2009 to December 2010, with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less at birth and a birth weight of 1500 g or less. Infants whose gestational age was >32 weeks or birth weight was >1500 g were included if they were exposed to oxygen therapy for more than 7 days. A total of 172 infants (84 males and 88 females had retinal evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy from the fourth postnatal week and followed up periodically. Perinatal risk factors for ROP were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infants who progressed to stage 3 ROP were given laser therapy. Results: Out of the studied 172 infants, 33 infants (19.2% developed ROP in one or both eyes; 18 (54.5% cases stage 1, 9 (27.3% cases stage 2, and 6 (18.2% cases stage 3. None of the studied neonates presented ROP at stages 4 or 5. The six cases diagnosed as ROP stage 3 underwent laser ablative therapy. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of ROP and gestational age (P = 0.000, sepsis (P = 0.004, oxygen therapy (P = 0.018, and frequency of blood transfusions (P = 0.030. However, an insignificant relationship was found between the occurrence of ROP and sex, mode of delivery, birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, phototherapy, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CPAP (all P > 0.05. Gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequency of

  1. THE IMPACT OF SEVERITY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT USING FRAMINGHAM RISK SCORE - A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most common micro vascular complications of diabetes, estimated to affect approximately 100 million people worldwide, while cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in individuals with type II diabetes. There is limited Indian data reporting the association of Diabetic retinopathy and its severity with CVD. AIM : To study the relation between the severity of DR and risk of CVD in cen tral Indian subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The subjects consisted of 50 patients with Diabetes mellitus type II having varying grades of diabetic retinopathy attending eye OPD of a tertiary care hospital in central India. 10 year risk of developing CVD was estimated using the Framingham Risk Score. RESULTS : The number of subjects with an increased risk of developing CVD increased with advancing age (28.57% in 40 - 49 years to 61 .53% in > 60 years age group. The risk of CVD was slightly more in males (55. 55% compared to females (43.47%. Out of the 30 patients having sight threatening diabetic retinopathy, 13 had low risk of developing CVD while 17 had high risk of developing CVD. The prevalence of sight threatening retinopathy was more in the high risk group (56.67% when compared to the low - risk group (40%. DISCUSSION : We found that more subjects having high risk of developing CVD had sight - threatening DR compared to those having low risk. CONCLUSION : Diabetic retinopathy may contribute to CVD risk in Indian population too. A careful cardiovascular assessment and follow - up may be required in individuals with diabetic retinopathy, using a larger sample size

  2. 75 FR 7482 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) Summary: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the... Title: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). Type of Information Collection...

  3. 76 FR 3146 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) Summary: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the...: Title: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). Type of Information Collection...

  4. Empowerment: ciclo de implementação, dimensões e tipologia Empowerment: implementation cycle, dimensions and typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Heloisa Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O empowerment é uma abordagem de projeto de trabalho que objetiva a delegação de poder de decisão, autonomia e participação dos funcionários na administração das empresas. Este artigo mostra as especificidades do empowerment em termos de suas dimensões, ciclo de implementação e tipologia. Discutem-se as etapas do ciclo de implementação do empowerment com o objetivo de enfatizar sua complexidade e sua natureza estratégica. Como dimensões tratadas têm-se: a visão compartilhada, a estrutura organizacional e o gerenciamento, a responsabilidade pela gestão do conhecimento e aprendizagem, e o reconhecimento institucional dos funcionários. A diversidade do empowerment é analisada em função de dois tipos de autoridade para tomada de decisão: sobre o conteúdo do trabalho e a sobre o contexto do trabalho. Com base nesta análise, os seguintes tipos de empowerment são apresentados: nulo, estabelecimento de atividades, participativo, definição de missão e auto-gerenciamento. Estabelecem-se também relações do empowerment com as configurações organizacionais, os estágios evolutivos das áreas funcionais e a administração de recursos humanos.Empowerment is an approach of work design which aims at delegating decision power, autonomy and employees’ participation in managing the company. This paper shows the peculiarities of empowerment in terms of its dimension, implementation cycle and typology. The steps of its implementation cycle are discussed in order to highlight its complexity and strategic nature. The following dimensions are presented: shared vision, organizational structure and management, responsibility for knowledge management and learning, and employees’ institutional recognition. The diversity of empowerment is analyzed in function of two types of authority for decision-making: over job content and over job context. Based on this analysis, the following typology of empowerment is presented: no discretion

  5. Revisitando a teoria do ciclo do produto Revisiting the product cycle theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneuton Pessoa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca refletir sobre uma questão-chave que perpassa grande parte da literatura crítica à teoria do ciclo do produto: o que foi superado e o que permanece vivo nessa teoria. Após sistematizar o mecanismo básico do ciclo do produto, discutem-se algumas principais insuficiências apontadas e/ou sugeridas pela literatura. Argumenta-se que, se não mais se sustenta a hipótese de que a dinâmica das inovações e dos investimentos diretos externos responde à cronologia do ciclo de vida do produto, por outro lado, a hipótese de que as vantagens comparativas possuem um caráter dinâmico, cuja natureza e importância relativa se modificam ao longo do tempo, em resposta a mudanças nos condicionantes da produção, e conforme o estágio de desenvolvimento e complexidade do produto, permanece viva e mais atual do que nunca.This article aims to think about a key-question that involves the majority of the critic literature in respect to the product-cycle theory. What is over and what remains alive in this theory? After systematizing the basic mechanism of the product-cycle theory, it discusses some of its main insufficiencies, how it is appointed or suggested by the literature. Summarily, we argue that, if it is over the hypothesis which argues that the dynamics of innovations, and the foreign direct investments depends on the product life cycle chronology, on the other side, it remains alive and does up-to-date the hypothesis which argues that the comparative advantages have a dynamic character, which nature and relative account is modified along time in response to changes in the production conditions, in accordance to the product evolution and its complexity.

  6. Comunidades virtuales de profesionales, trayectorias y ciclos de vida: aportes a la discusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Zanotti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre comunidades virtuales se han ampliado en las dos últimas décadas, de la mano del desarrollo de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación y su difusión sobre numerosos dominios. El presente artículo problematiza algunas de las categorías conceptuales utilizadas frecuentemente en este campo, a partir de los resultados obtenidos en dos casos de estudio sobre comunidades virtuales: profesionales de la comunicación y programadores de software libre. A lo largo del artículo, comenzamos por definir a las comunidades virtuales y algunas de sus tipologías posibles. Nos referimos específicamente a comunidades de profesionales o comunidades de práctica, relacionadas con especialistas de diferentes ámbitos, dedicadas a compartir recursos, experticia y conocimiento. Junto con ello, discutimos tres nociones de ciclo de vida asociada a estos espacios, centradas en las plataformas de interacción, los participantes y los objetivos grupales. Los casos considerados nos permiten reconocer ciclos de vida con similitudes y diferencias. Estas incluyen procesos de migración y reconversión. Junto a ello observamos mudanzas en los objetivos grupales, liderazgos y recambios generacionales. Las comunidades analizadas nos permitirán así problematizar, desde un abordaje socio-técnico, la noción de ciclo de vida con vistas a reconstruir la complejidad de las trayectorias posibles.

  7. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups. PMID:22150242

  8. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups.

  9. Dança nos ciclos de escolarização: aproximações teóricas Dance in the School Cycles: Theoretical Approaches Danza en los Ciclos de Escolarización: Aproximaciones Teóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A proposta do texto é iniciar uma análise sobre o conteúdo Dança e os ciclos de escolarização, à luz de uma revisão bibliográfica. Buscaremos refletir acerca da sistematização do conhecimento a partir da referência teórica que mais bem organiza, no nosso entendimento, o trato pedagógico da Educação Física Escolar, uma proposta de Soares et al. (1992. Analisaremos, também, as propostas da dança na escola sugeridas por Marques (1999, Gehres (1996 e Xarez et al. (1992. Nosso objetivo é traçar uma reflexão acerca deste conteúdo numa abordagem que mais se aproxime da sistematização em ciclos de conhecimento, além de ampliá-la. Serão destacadas as possibilidades de conquistas e dificuldades. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Escola - Dança - Ciclos de sistematização do conhecimento. This study aims at starting an analysis about Dance and School Cycles, through a biblographical review. We will try to reflect upon this systematization from the theoretical reference that best organizes this body of knowledge, which is, in our view, the pedagocial approach of School Physical Education, which is proposed by Soares et all (1992. We also intend to analyze school dance projects suggested by Marques (1999, Gehres (1996 and Xarez et all (1992, and try to establish a reflection upon this content through an amplified approach that comes closer to the systematization in learning cycles, highlighting possibilites of achievements and overcoming of difficulties. KEY WORDS: School - Dance - Systematization of knowledge. La propuesta del texto es iniciar un análisis, sobre el contenido Danza y los ciclos de escolarización la luz de una revisión bibliográfica. Buscaremos reflexionar sobre esta sistematización a partir de la referencia teórica que mejor organice, desde nuestro punto de vista, el trato pedagógico de la Educación Física Escolar, que es la propuesta de Soares met all (1992, como también analizar propuestas de la danza en la

  10. La impulsividad en el primer ciclo de educación infantil

    OpenAIRE

    González, María Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre las relaciones sociales en el primer ciclo de Educación Infantil, centrándonos en las conductas impulsivas, las causas que las provocan y la forma de evitarlas. Tiene como finalidad mejorar las relaciones sociales en el aula, evitando y modificando las conductas impulsivas desde las edades más tempranas, ya que es en esta etapa cuando los niños y niñas están formando su personalidad. Por ello, es muy importante ayudar a los pequeños a modificar el comportamiento...

  11. Los ciclos económicos departamentales en Colombia, 1960-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Vásquez Bedoya; Sergio Iván Restrepo Ochoa; Mauricio Lopera Castaño; María Isabel Restrepo Estrada

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se estima el ciclo del PIB nacional y de algunos departamentos entre 1960 y 2011 usando el modelo de tendencia lineal local de Nelson y Plosser, así como el coeficiente de correlación entre el componente cíclico de las series del PIB departamental y nacional para clasificar sus co-movimientos. El estudio revela una diversidad de comportamientos de las fluctuaciones económicas departamentales con respecto a la nacional y, además, que las economías departamentales fuertemente pr...

  12. El estudio de las rocas y minerales en el ciclo medio de la EGB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan GONZÁLEZ CRESPO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las rocas y minerales ha sido generalmente escaso en estos niveles de EGB. La mayoría de las veces se limita a conceptos teóricos elementales y en no pocas ocasiones a contenidos ajenos a la experiencia del alumnado. Quizá esto se deba a la indudable complejidad en algunos aspectos de estas materias, dificultad terminológica que presenta en no pocas ocasiones, escasez de recursos en los centros ... Todo lo cual ha llevado a que estas materias se consideren más propias de niveles superiores y, por tanto, algo ajeno para los alumnos de este ciclo.

  13. A dislexia no Terceiro Ciclo: perspetiva dos principais intervenientes no contexto escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Martinha Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Atualmente, os professores deparam-se com a necessidade de trabalhar com turmas muito heterogéneas, nas quais estão incluídos alunos com dislexia que exigem uma atenção redobrada devido às necessidades individuais de aprendizagem. A dislexia é uma deficiência com uma incidência importante, estimando-se que de 10 a 15% dos jovens apresentam esta problemática, sendo que cerca de metade desta percentagem chega ao terceiro ciclo sem saber que as suas dificuldades de aprendizagem têm origem na ...

  14. Mapas concetuais sobre a digestão (2.º Ciclo do Ensino Básico)

    OpenAIRE

    Belindro, Joana Cristina Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Ensino do 1.º e 2.º ciclos do Ensino Básico, Escola Superior de Educação e Comunicação, Univ. do Algarve, 2013 O presente relatório foi elaborado como parte integrante da Prática de Ensino Supervisionada do Mestrado em Ensino do 1.º e 2.º CEB, com o objetivo de refletir e avaliar o meu percurso formativo e profissional, bem como as situações de aprendizagem, desafios, processos e desempenhos do quotidiano profissional experienciado. A capacidade de tira...

  15. Efecto in vitro de olomoucina en el ciclo celular de linfocitos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo M.; López C.

    2001-01-01

    La olomoucina, un derivado de purina relacionado con el ATP, ha sido reportado como uneficiente inhibidor del ciclo celular de células animales y vegetales, debido a su alta especificidadpor las ciclinas dependientes de kinasa (CDK) CDK1 y CDK2, su capacidad radica en inhibir elciclo celular en las transiciones G2/M y G1/S respectivamente. Con el objetivo de explorar lapotencial aplicación de la olomoucina en el análisis citogenético de alta resolución y estudiosde proliferación celular en cu...

  16. Impacto de un programa intervención em alunos del segundo ciclo

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Marta; Pereira, M. Graça; Silvério, Jorge Manuel Amaral

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo consistiuem avaliar um programa de intervenção junto a alunos do 2º ciclo de escolaridade nas seguintes dimensões: tomada de decisão, conhecimentos sobre sexualidade, competências sociais, assertividade e autoconceito. Metodologia: Participaram 145 alunos, distribuídos pelos grupos controle e experimental. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: TCU Decision-Making; Questionário de Conhecimentos sobre Sexualidade; Assertion Self-Statement Test- Revised; Questionário de...

  17. Incidencia de los Movimientos Oculares en el proceso lector de alumnos de Primer ciclo de Primaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejo-Ramos, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los movimientos oculares en la lectura son importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje de los niños. Este trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo, conocer la influencia de los movimientos oculares en la lectura. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio, con una muestra de 30 alumnos del Primer ciclo de Primaria, es decir, Primero y Segundo, del mismo centro educativo. Una vez que se realizaron las pruebas oportunas, se pudo comprobar cómo estaban relacionadas motricidad ocular y lectura...

  18. Estudio comparativo del autoconcepto físico a lo largo del ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    David Molero; Mar\\u00EDa Luisa Zagalaz-S\\u00E1nchez; Javier Cach\\u00F3n-Zagalaz

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación ha sido estudiar el autoconcepto físico y sus componentes a lo largo del ciclo vital, conocer si las valoraciones de cada una de las escalas están correlacionadas entre sí y comprobar la existencia de diferencias significativas a nivel estadístico en los resultados obtenidos en función de la edad y el sexo de los encuestados. La muestra está compuesta por 152 participantes distribuidos en tres grupos de edad (adolescentes, adultos y personas mayores de 50 añ...

  19. Necessidades e preocupações dos pais em diferentes etapas do ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Tarouco da Silva; Mara Regina Santos da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar as necessidades e as preocupações prioritárias, manifestadas pelos pais no desempenho do seu papel, em três etapas do ciclo vital: adolescência, idade produtiva e idade madura. Metodologia: estudo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com quatorze pais residentes em um município no extremo sul do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados entre maio e agosto de 2011, por meio de entrevista em profundidade. Através da técnica da análise textual discursiva e da matr...

  20. estudo exploratório com estudantes do 1º ciclo do ensino superior

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Maria do Rosário Queirós

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, especialização em Psicologia do Trabalho e das Organizações Este trabalho apresenta um estudo exploratório sobre as atividades de aprendizagem e as perceções de literacia no ensino superior, tendo sido concretizado com estudantes universitários do 1º ciclo de estudos (Licenciatura) em três instituições de ensino superior, públicas e privadas, do norte do país. ...

  1. O jogo no 2º ciclo do ensino básico

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Catarina Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Ensino do 1º E 2º Ciclos do Ensino Básico Este trabalho traz uma ampla visão da importância dos jogos no processo ensino-aprendizagem e na formação da personalidade da criança. A devida valorização desta temática cabe ao professor, que se torna responsável pela aprendizagem e, por isso, deve promover um crescimento integral para a criança, nomeadamente os aspetos biológicos, cognitivos, sociais e afetivos. No jogo, o professor encontra um forte aliado para a supe...

  2. Máquina de refrigeración de ciclo en cascada con un solo compresor

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Mur, Cristina; Simón León, Javier

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del presente documento ha sido obtener una nueva tecnología para un ciclo termodinámico de obtención de frío, del tipo refrigeración en cascada con un solo compresor, que puede alcanzar un amplio rango de temperaturas frías. La particularidad reside en que la tecnología utilizada permite obtener el frío de una manera más eficiente que las que ahora se utilizan, logrando un ahorro en el consumo. Se ha centrado el proyecto en una industria de alimentos congelados, con...

  3. Trastornos del ciclo de la metilación en pacientes con fenilcetonuria

    OpenAIRE

    López Suárez, Olalla Elena

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo demostramos que los pacientes con fenilcetonuria (PKU) que siguen un tratamiento dietético estricto, con escasos aportes de proteínas naturales y alto aporte de suplementos dietéticos exentos de fenilalanina y enriquecidos en vitaminas y minerales, reciben una cantidad excesiva de vitamina B12 y de ácido fólico que conlleva una alteración en el ciclo de la metilación. Así, se produce un aumento de la vía de la remetilación, que se pone de manifiesto en el des...

  4. CICLO ECONÓMICO Y MORA LEGAL EN EL SISTEMA FINANCIERO COSTARRICENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, Marlon Yong; Soto Jiménez, Max Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el comportamiento de la mora del sistema financiero costarricense durante el periodo 1999-2010, en particular, de los bancos estatales y privados en el periodo reciente de la crisis económica internacional. Para hacerlo, se utilizan modelos económicos para investigar las relaciones de causalidad entre la mora, el ciclo económico real y el financiero. Se concluye que la calidad de la cartera de crédito del sector financiero de Costa Rica se relaciona con el nivel de activ...

  5. Projecto Rodentia : etologia aplicada na sala de aula do 1º Ciclo

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, N. H.; Olosson, A.; J.B. Santos; Brosseron, F.; Pinto, A.; Ricardo, E.

    2008-01-01

    p. 275-279 O Projecto Rodentia, implementado no ano 2006/2007, visa promover a cultura científica em alunos do 1º ciclo do Ensino Básico, familiarizando-os com o Método Científico e desenvolvendo competências conceptuais, processuais e atitudinais, com base na Etologia Aplicada e na reflexão ética sobre o bem-estar animal. Foram instalados em três salas de aula habitats especialmente desenhados, contendo cada um dois ratos de laboratório. Inicialmente orien...

  6. Glándulas endocrinas, sistema nervioso y ciclo sexual masculino

    OpenAIRE

    Gnecco Mozzo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Hemos estudiado antes como tanto el sistema nervioso central como el sistema nervioso vegetativo influyen de modo decisivo enlas fases del ciclo sexual: así, vimos cómo las imágenes mentalesde recuerdos, asociaciones de ideas, sueños, etc., eran capaces porasí solas de despertar el deseo del coito y producir la erección; estasimágenes mentales, que nacen en el mismo cerebro son distintas delas sensaciones, también cerebrales, que provienen del mundo exterior y que son trasmitidas por los ógan...

  7. La teoría del consumo y de los ciclos en Thorstein Veblen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alejandro Morero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929 fue uno de los fundadores de la economía institucional norteamericana. Este artículo presenta su teoría del consumo basada en los hábitos expuesta en la Teoría de la clase ociosa, y su teoría de los ciclos económicos y las crisis expuesta en la Teoría de la empresa de negocios. Para situarlas en contexto se esboza una síntesis de su pensamiento y de sus críticas a la economía ortodoxa.

  8. Las relaciones de amor a lo largo del ciclo vital: cambios generacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Calatayud Arenes, Mari Paz

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN La investigación que sustenta esta Tesis Doctoral parte de una concepción del Desarrollo Humano propia de la Psicología Evolutiva del Ciclo Vital, y se apoya sobre tres pilares: las vinculaciones afectivas (como inicio de los estudios científicos del amor), las relaciones de amor (especialmente, las aportaciones de Robert J. Sternberg: la Teoría Triangular del Amor, y la concepción del Amor como una Historia), y la memoria autobiográfica (es decir, la capacidad de almacenar y recup...

  9. Estudio de la motivación en los ciclos formativos de administración

    OpenAIRE

    Ollo Uhalte, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    La falta de motivación no es un problema que sólo afecte a alumnos de educación obligatoria. Afecta, de la misma manera, a los estudiantes de estudios postobligatorios, como en nuestro caso particular son los distintos ciclos formativos de administración. Muchos son los factores posibles que pueden influir en el grado de motivación de un alumno y la mayoría de ellos distintos entre sí. Sin embargo, pocas son las consecuencias académicas que puede originar la falta de motivación y, entre e...

  10. ¿Cómo enseñar a dividir? Secuencia de actividades para Ciclo 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano, Jennyfer Alejandra; Gónzalez, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Esta es una experiencia de aula llevada a cabo en el ciclo 2, la cual estuvo a cargo de dos profesoras practicantes quienes promovieron la estructura multiplicativa hasta identificar los múltiplos y divisores de un número, dicha experiencia se rigió desde lo metodológico por la estructura propuesta por el grupo DECA (); a nivel conceptual por varios autores como Verganud, Maza (1991),y otros; y finalmente el marco legal por los Estándares Básicos (2007) y los Lineamientos (1998. Se realizaron...

  11. Ecodiseño de alimentos mediante análisis de ciclo de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fernández, Saioa

    2015-01-01

    246 p. La creciente demanda de producción de alimentos debida al aumento de la población mundial, ejerce una gran presión sobre los ecosistemas y el medio ambiente del planeta. Los alimentos, a lo largo de su ciclo de vida utilizan una gran cantidad de recursos (suelo, agua, energía y materiales) y emiten muchas sustancias al medio (CO2, pesticidas, etc.) que tienen un impacto directo en el medio ambiente. Con el fin de evaluar el impacto ambiental asociado a la producción comercialización...

  12. Fotólise do ácido salicílico na presença de ciclo dextrina = Photolisys of the salicylic acid in the presence of â-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Aparecido Bariccatti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, utilizou-se a espectroscopia de UV/VIS para estudar afotodegradacao por luz UV do acido salicilico em cavidade de ƒÀ-ciclo dextrina. Verificou-se uma reducao na velocidade de fotodegradacao do acido salicilico de 34,5% em pH 7 e de 17,5% em pH 4 quando se adiciona a ƒÀ-ciclo dextrina na solucao. O valor obtido para aconstante de dissociacao do complexo acido salicilico e ƒÀ-ciclo dextrina foi de 4,3}0,5 L10-3 mol/L.In this work the UV/VIS spectroscopy was used to study the photo degradation by UV light of the salicylic acid in cavity of ƒÀ-cyclodextrin. A reduction in the speed of degradation of thesalicylic acid of 34.5% in pH 7 and of 17.5% in pH 4 was observed when ƒÀ-cyclodextrin is added to the solution. The obtained value to the constant of dissociation of the salicylic acid complex and of the ƒÀ-cyclodextrin was of 4.3}0.5x10-3 mol/L.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT -A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cican Simona-Iulia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity, volatility and unpredictability of the current economic environment are a daily reminder that organizations face many risks. The traditional approach, according to which risk is a necessary evil which must be removed, is no longer sufficient and that is why companies nowadays are forced to spend significant resources to manage risks. Risk transparency is what one looks for; therefore, identification and management of risks within an organization become increasingly necessary for success and longevity. Risk approach has a major role in a company’s ability to avoid, reduce and turn risks into opportunities. Enterprise risk management is a new concept that revolutionizes the traditional approach and summarizes risk management in an integrated, comprehensive and strategic system. Studies use several synonyms for enterprise risk management such as integrated risk management, holistic risk management, global risk management and strategic risk management. Enterprise risk management implements at the end of the last century a new way to deal with risks: the holistic approach. This risks approach – i.e. interaction of several types of risks which become increasingly threatening and varied and may cause more damage than individual risk – brings forward the need of risk management and raises issues at the highest level of company management. For a proper view on company risks, each individual risk and the possibility of risk interaction must be understood. This is essential to establish a risk classification according to their impact on the company. Traditional approach on risk management, as a management function, is limited to only threats and losses, so relatively few organizations see risks as potential earning-generated opportunities. However, risk management process is not radically changed. Enterprise risk management is an improved version of the traditional risk management, created by expanding its scope. The new risk

  14. Gabinetes presidenciais, ciclos eleitorais e disciplina legislativa no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Neto Octavio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available All presidential cabinets formed in Brazil between 1985 and 1998 included politicians from more than one party and could, in principle, be defined as coalition cabinets. The article evaluates to what extent this is a valid statement as far as the legislative behavior of the cabinet parties is concerned. An indicator is proposed for measuring the rate of cabinet coalescence, based on the ratio between the percentage of ministerial posts held by each party represented in the cabinet and the percentage of legislative seats held by each of these parties. Regression analysis is used to ascertain what impact the rate of cabinet coalescence has on the legislative discipline of cabinet parties. In addition to this coalescence index, the study also tests the effect of electoral cycles and the ideological range of cabinets on legislative discipline. Results indicate that the legislative discipline of cabinet parties is only consistent with what would be expected of coalition governments in parliamentary regimes when the cabinet displays a relatively high rate of coalescence. Findings also show that the party support to president tends to decrease over the course of the president's term and that the greater the ideological distance between the president and a given party, the lower the support rate this party will display for the head of government.

  15. Psicología del ciclo vital: hacia una visión comprehensiva de la vida humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dulcey Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone que la psicología del ciclo vital es más amplia que la psicología del desarrollo. Coherente con una visión integral del curso del ciclo vital esta psicología enfatiza la irrelevancia de la edad, los cambios permanentes, la multidimensionalidad, y la plasticidad, también como la importancia del contexto y la historia. Se refiere al proceso de envejecimiento, a la adultez, la vejez y la muerte en el marco del ciclo vital; enfatiza posibilidades relacionadas con el envejecimiento exitoso, el bienestar subjetivo y la sabiduría, acordes con el punto de vista de la psicología positiva y posibles de lograr mediante el aprendizaje durante toda la vida o la educación vitalicia.

  16. Psicología del ciclo vital: hacia una visión comprehensiva de la vida humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dulcey Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone que la psicología del ciclo vital es más amplia que la psicología del desarrollo. Coherente con una visión integral del curso del ciclo vital esta psicología enfatiza la irrelevancia de la edad, los cambios permanentes, la multidimensionalidad, y la plasticidad, también como la importancia del contexto y la historia. Se refiere al proceso de envejecimiento, a la adultez, la vejez y la muerte en el marco del ciclo vital; enfatiza posibilidades relacionadas con el envejecimiento exitoso, el bienestar subjetivo y la sabiduría, acordes con el punto de vista de la psicología positiva y posibles de lograr mediante el aprendizaje durante toda la vida o la educación vitalicia.

  17. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  18. Yeh, mon. No problem : An Ethnographic Study of Risk Communication and Social Trust in Jamaica.

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsing, Fanny

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of social trust in public risk communication in St Elizabeth, Jamaica. From a cultural rationality approach is social trust assumed to affect the public’s risk perceptions and consequently their risk behavior when it comes to natural disasters. Hence, social trust is assumed to have an effect of how the citizenry of Jamaica perceives public risk communication. The risk communication carried out by the local authorities (St Elizabeth Parish Counci...

  19. Operational Risk Management in Hotel Establishments: A Study on Four and Five Star Hotels in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Elbeyi Pelit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applications of hotel establishments in the scope of operational risk. In this context, a survey was applied to the managers of four and five star hotel establishments in Ankara/Turkey. According to the factor analysis done after the literature search and questionnaire, four risks types (staff, technological, organizational and legal risks) have been found in the scope of operational risk, and their applications towards these risk types in hotel e...

  20. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  1. Ninho cheio: uma nova etapa do ciclo vital familiar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Sari Vieira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é indicar aspectos que configuram o processo de permanência do filho adulto jovem no lar parental, especificamente no que diz respeito à relação com sua família de origem. Esse estudo foi desenvolvido a partir da revisão de alguns autores a luz da abordagem ecológico-sistêmica. A questão da saída do adulto jovem da casa dos pais, momento crucial no desenvolvimento individual e familiar, vem sofrendo alterações pois observamos que atualmente está ocorrendo, em larga escala o fenômeno inverso, ou seja, a permanência do adulto jovem por mais tempo na casa dos pais. Observamos, hoje, uma variação na fase do ninho vazio, em que os pais costumavam ficar sozinhos no lar, para o “ninho cheio”, em que a família permanece toda residindo conjuntamente. Abstract This article aims to indicate aspects involved in the young adult's process of remaining at their parents' home, specifically in the relationship with this family of origin. This study was developed through the revision of some authors of the ecological-systemic approach. The question of leaving the parent´s home, that is an important moment of familiar and individual development, has been modified because nowadays we observed in large scale the inverse phenomenon, that is the young adult's process of remaining for more time at their parents' home. Today we realize a difference in the empty nest, stage that was the time that parentsremained alone at home, for the full nest stage, when the family leaves together.

  2. Meta-analysis of studies using statins as a reducer for primary liver cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guo-Chao; Liu, Yan; Ye, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Kang; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A protective effect of statins on primary liver cancer (PLC) risk has been suggested. However, issues about the dose–response relationship, the protective effect of individual statins, and PLC risk reduction among at-risk populations remain unsolved. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies providing the risk ratio (RR) on statins and PLC risk. Summary RRs were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-five studies were identified. Stain use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PLC (RR = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.69). The summary RR for every additional 50 cumulative defined daily doses per year was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83–0.91). Evidence of a non-linear dose–response relationship between statins and PLC risk was found (Pnon-linearity < 0.01). All individual statins significantly reduced PLC risk, and the risk reduction was more evident with rosuvastatin. The inverse association between statins and PLC risk remained among populations with common risk factors. Subgroup analyses revealed more significant reduction in PLC risk by statins in high- versus non-high-risk populations (Pinteraction = 0.02). Overall, these findings add to our understanding of the association between statins and PLC risk. Whether statin use is causally associated with a reduced risk of PLC should be further studied. PMID:27198922

  3. Risk assessment study on bridge foundation in deep overlying stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiangqun; Wang Jingguo; Liu Manhong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis about the hydrogeological conditions and engineering geological conditions, this paper makes analysis on the possible risks of the deep overlying stratum foundation and establishes the risk evaluation index system during the foundation operating period. Such methods as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) , Delphi method and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method are adopted to make the quantitative analysis on the risk factors and establish the risk judgment model. According to the actual engineering of Taizhou Bridge, the paper evaluates the risk of the foundation during the operating period at the condition of deep overlying stratum. The evaluation results can provide the reference for the risk management of the bridge foundation durin~ the ooerating period.

  4. Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior. A Biopsychosocial Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The price of crime is enormous. In addition to the monetary costs of the investigative process and the criminal procedure, crime often leads to health and social problems for victims and perpetrators. Approximately 5% of the population is responsible for a sizeable portion of the total amount of crime; thus, preventing high-risk individuals from developing into offenders can provide society with significant savings. To track high-risk individuals and tailor prevention programs, risk factors f...

  5. [Health risks study in a pottery environment in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraqui, C H; Caubet, A; Laraqui, O; Rahhali, A E; Curtes, J P; Verger, C

    2000-01-01

    Morocco is famous for its potteries, the largest of which are located at Rabat, Safi, Marrakech and Fes. This cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological survey was carried out over an eight-month period, from January to August 1997. The study population consisted of 290 male workers from 36 workshops. The study involved a social and medical survey (a questionnaire and medical examination for all workers, with biological assessment for a representative sample of 95 craftsmen) and an analysis of the working conditions in which atmospheric pollution at the pottery was evaluated. Atmospheric concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, chrome and lead were determined. Only lead levels were found to be significantly high and were analyzed on three occasions. This study demonstrates poor working conditions and a lack of respect for the regulations concerning specific prevention measures and the health rules applicable to establishments where personnel are routinely exposed to the risk of lead poisoning. Various pathological conditions were observed, with the following prevalences: skeletal muscle 67.6%, dermatological 8.3%, digestive 58%, respiratory 28% and neurological 35.5%. Several nonspecific, often minor, clinical signs were recorded for most of the potters but the toxicological analysis confirmed lead contamination in 74% of the exposed subjects (plasma lead concentration, CPU, ALAU). The potteries of Morocco are not subject to any protection. Special technical and medical surveillance should be introduced and the laws concerning exposure to lead should be applied.

  6. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  7. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  8. CICLO DE VIDA ORGANIZACIONAL E CONTROLE GERENCIAL: UMA ANÁLISE DOS ARTIGOS EM PERIÓDICOS INTERNACIONAIS DE CONTABILIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto da Cunha; Roberto Carlos Klann; Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os artigos sobre a abordagem do ciclo de vida organizacional em nível internacional, levantando os principais tópicos associados com os controles gerenciais. Em pesquisa a 67 periódicos, chegou-se a uma amostra inicial de 39 artigos. Após a leitura dos resumos para identificação dos artigos que relacionassem ciclo de vida organizacional com controles gerenciais, a amostra ficou em sete artigos. O periódico internacional de contabilidade que mais publicou art...

  9. ¿Están sincronizados los ciclos económicos en Latinoamérica?

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Ávila Vélez; Álvaro José Pinzón Giraldo

    2015-01-01

    Se identifican los ciclos económicos de Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, México, Perú y Venezuela, utilizando el criterio del CEPR y el algoritmo Bry-Boschan (1971), aplicado al Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) y al Índice de Producción Industrial (IPI), respectivamente. Se mide el grado de sincronización del ciclo de dichas economías por medio del indicador de Harding y Pagan (2006) y de las correlaciones cruzadas de los componentes transitorios de las variables. El periodo muestral inicia en 1...

  10. Implicaciones del estudio de inestabilidad del ciclo celular en la biología del cáncer.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Tume-Farfán

    2014-01-01

    Todas las células poseen mecanismos para mantener la integridad genómica que es vital para la supervivencia celular y la proliferación. Las células se dividen a tasas normale s durante su tiempo de vida, cuando esta tasa sobrepasa los límites normales ocurren alteraciones a nivel genético que afectan el control del ciclo celular por lo tanto estas células crecen y se dividen sin control y ya no responden a señalización extrace lular que indica la detención del ciclo y la apoptosis, estos meca...

  11. INFLUENCIA DE LA MOTRICIDAD EN LOS PROCESOS DE ESCRITURA EN NIÑOS DE 2º CICLO DE PRIMARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero-Sánchez, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad observar la motricidad general en niños de 2º Ciclo de Educación Primaria y su implicación en la escritura, y posteriormente plantear estrategias de intervención que puedan llevarse a cabo desde el área de Educación Física. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un estudio con una muestra de 59 alumnos matriculados en el 2º Ciclo de Educación Primaria. A estos niños se le administraron pruebas de motricidad gruesa y de escritura (TALE). Los resultados obtenidos de...

  12. Ciclo de vida y conducta de adultos de cinco especies de Phyllophaga Harris, 1827 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae; Melolonthinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Aragón García; Miguel Ángel Morón; Jesús Francisco López Olguín; Luis Manuel Cervantes Peredo

    2005-01-01

    Se describe el ciclo de vida de Phyllophaga ravida (Blanchard), P. macrocera Bates, P. vetula (Horn), P.ilhuicaminai Morón, y P. obsoleta (Blanchard), en condiciones de laboratorio, a partir de adultos en cópula obtenidos en localidades del estado de Puebla, México. Las larvas se mantuvieron en un cuarto de cría a temperatura de 26 ± 2 oC y humedad relativa de 70 ± 5%, dentro de recipientes con suelo y se alimentaron con rodajas de zanahoria. El ciclo de vida para las cinco especies es anual;...

  13. Niveles plasmáticos de beta-endorfina en el ciclo menstrual y en la dismenorrea

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Guisasola Campa, Francisco Javier

    1993-01-01

    Se realiza la valoración de las concentraciones plasmáticas de beta-endorfina en el ciclo menstrual y en la mujer dismenorreica, para lo que se estudian un grupo de jóvenes fértiles, todas ellas voluntarias, no estando ninguna sometida a tratamiento hormonal ni a anticoncepción. La sangre obtenida en días concretos del ciclo por punción venosa es analizada por RIA para obtener las concentraciones del opiáceo, determinándose las gonadotropinas y los esteroides ováricos por ELISA. La beta-endor...

  14. Estudio técnico-económico de una central híbrida solar-ciclo combinado (ISCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Cebrián, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es estudiar la viabilidad de una central híbrida solar-ciclo combinado (ISCC) en Argelia. La planta consiste en un ciclo combinado basado en dos turbinas de gas de 42 MW cada una y una turbina de vapor de 60 MW de los cuales 20 MW se deben al campo solar, siendo la potencia eléctrica de la planta 144 MW. El campo solar se ha dimensionado para obtener una contribución solar del 5% sobre la producción eléctrica anual de la instalación. La tecnología solar utilizada ...

  15. Modelo estocástico para planificar cadenas de suministro con productos de ciclos de vida cortos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Coronado-Hernandez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un modelo de optimización estocástica para la planificación de cadenas de suministros para productos con ciclo de vida corto, a través de la decisión de reservar la capacidad a contratar en los recursos de los proveedores antes de tener certeza del comportamiento de la demanda. Se consideran recursos alternativos, múltiples productos con lista de materiales complejas, demanda distribuida a lo largo de periodos consecutivos, ciclos de vida cortos, lead time largos y altos niveles de incertidumbre representados en forma de escenarios.

  16. TALLER DE CUENTOS PARA TRABAJAR HABILIDADES SOCIALES RELACIONADAS CON LOS SENTIMIENTOS EN EL PRIMER CICLO DE EDUCACION INFANTIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada-Bastit, Auxiliadora

    2014-01-01

    El planteamiento de esta propuesta educativa responde a una inquietud por acercar desde un planteamiento práctico, el mundo de las habilidades sociales a los niños del primer ciclo de educación infantil. Después de constatar entre profesionales del segundo ciclo una cierta carencia en sus aulas de este tipo de conductas, se plantea la posibilidad de diseñar un taller con el que fomentar la adquisición de ciertas estrategias que ayuden a los niños a comprender mejor las emociones y mejorar su ...

  17. Propuesta de cuento motor cooperativo para alumnos de 2º ciclo de Educación Infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García-Ochoa, Gema

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo de Fin de Grado “Propuesta de cuento motor cooperativo para alumnos de 2º ciclo de Educación Infantil”, tiene como finalidad la incorporación de una metodología cooperativa y globalizadora en el aula de segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil, mediante el desarrollo de un cuento motor cooperativo. En primer lugar se realiza una fundamentación teórica donde se exponen todos aquellos conceptos relativos a la cooperación en Educación Física como son los antecedentes históricos, juego coop...

  18. SEGUIMIENTO DEL CICLO DE VIDA DE WOODSIA MOLLIS (KAULF.) J. SM. (ATHYRIACEAE-PTERIDOPHYTA) EN TRES SUSTRATOS NATURALES

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Vivero-Barón; María de la Luz Arreguín-Sánchez; David Leonor Quiroz-García; Rafael Fernández-Nava; Salvador Acosta-Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Se describe el ciclo de vida de Woodsia mollis (Kaulf.) J. Sm. Los especímenes fueron colectados en un bosque mesófi lo de montaña al Sur de Coajomulco, Municipio de Huitzilac, Estado de Morelos, México. Las esporas fueron sembradas en frascos de vidrio en tres medios de cultivo (tierra de hoja, maquique y musgo). El ciclo fue isospórico con desarrollo del protalo tipo Drynaria. En la fase cordada se apreciaron gametofi tos cordados y cordados-circulares, los anteridios se formaron a los 99 d...

  19. Fibrinogen and associated risk factors in a high-risk population: urban indigenous australians, the druid Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Nirjhar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that fibrinogen and CRP are associated with coronary heart disease risk. High CRP in Indigenous Australians has been reported in previous studies including our 'Diabetes and Related diseases in Urban Indigenous population in Darwin region' (DRUID Study. We studied levels of fibrinogen and its cross-sectional relationship with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort. Methods Fibrinogen data were available from 287 males and 628 females (aged ≥ 15 years from the DRUID study. Analysis was performed for associations with the following risk factors: diabetes, HbA1c, age, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, blood pressure, heart rate, urine ACR, smoking status, alcohol abstinence. Results Fibrinogen generally increased with age in both genders; levels by age group were higher than those previously reported in other populations, including Native Americans. Fibrinogen was higher in those with than without diabetes (4.24 vs 3.56 g/L, p Conclusions Fibrinogen is associated with traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this urban Indigenous cohort and may be a useful biomarker of CVD in this high-risk population. The apparent different associations of fibrinogen with cardiovascular disease risk markers in men and women should be explored further.

  20. LA CALCULADORA CIENTIFICA Y LA OBTENCIÓN DE LA RESPUESTA CORRECTA EN EL CICLO DIVERSIFICADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel García Retana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Al comparar la Política Educativa costarricense con los Planes y Programas en Matemáticas, desarrollados en el ciclo diversificado, se muestra una discrepancia en torno a los objetivos de éstos. La Política Educativa propone un aprendizaje con comprensión sobre la base del paradigma constructivista, en tanto los Planes y Programas pretenden dotar al educando de recursos para la obtención de respuestas correctas, incluyendo para ello el uso de la calculadora científica. Esta discrepancia muestra una diferencia significativa en el éxito en la prueba de Bachillerato (conclusión del ciclo diversificado entre los ítemes "algorítmicos" (los cuales pueden ser resueltos con el apoyo de la calculadora científica, y los "conceptuales". Esta diferencia se incrementa en la Prueba de Diagnóstico que muchos estudiantes aplican antes de ingresar a la Universidad de Costa Rica, dado que en la misma no pueden utilizar la calculadora científica. El presente ensayo cuestiona un posible papel de la calculadora científica en esta situación.

  1. Quase adulta, quase velha: por que antecipar as fases do ciclo vital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel Parry Scott

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A partir de duas observações em gerações diferentes, identifica-se um fenômeno de antecipação da passagem pelas fases do ciclo vital que merece uma interpretação. Muitas jovens engravidam, casando ou não, e se tornam mães. Muitas mulheres na faixa de quarenta e cinco a cinqüenta anos ingressam em "grupos de idosos". A interpretação oferecida examina as conseqüências 1 da transição demográfica (e decorrente envelhecimento populacional em dar visibilidade especial a estas gerações examinadas, 2 do mercado de trabalho que é excludente, 3 da atuação do Estado, 4 do individualismo crescente e 5 da lógica das relações de geração e gênero em grupos domésticos. Para explicar as ações das quase adultas e das quase velhas que antecipam as fases do ciclo vital, recorre-se à conjunção destes fatores que culmina numa criação de uma condição de liminaridade geracional, própria dos ritos de passagem, e na construção de processos de desritualização e re-ritualização da sociedade contemporânea.

  2. Ciclo de vida de Pellaea ternifolia (Cav. Link subsp. ternifolia (Pteridaceae-Polypodiidae

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    Jorge Huerta-Zavala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el ciclo de vida dePellaea ternifolia(Cav. Link subsp.ternifolia. Los especímenes fueron recolectados en un bosque dePinusperturbado en San Miguel de los Alcanfores, municipio de Tlaxco, Tlaxcala, México. Las esporas fueron sembradas en vasos de unicel de 262 ml con cerámica (barro molido, piedra de río, tela de mosquitero y tres soportes de cultivo (tierra, maquique y musgo, todo previamente esterilizado y cerrado con plástico y alambre de cobre. El ciclo fue isospórico con desarrollo del protalo tipoAdiantum. En la fase cordada se apreciaron gametófitos con anteridios y arquegonio en una proporción cercana al 70% y el otro 30% fueron gametófitos apogámicos. Los esporófitos jóvenes se obtuvieron a partir de los 63 días.

  3. Important risk factors and attributable risk of vertebral fractures in the population-based Tromsø study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterloo Svanhild

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebral fractures, the most common type of osteoporotic fractures, are associated with increased risk of subsequent fracture, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of important risk factors to the variability in vertebral fracture risk. Methods Vertebral fracture was ascertained by VFA method (DXA, GE Lunar Prodigy in 2887 men and women, aged between 38 and 87 years, in the population-based Tromsø Study 2007/2008. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2 at the hip was measured by DXA. Lifestyle information was collected by questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression model, with anthropometric and lifestyle factors included, was used to assess the association between each or combined risk factors and vertebral fracture risk. Population attributable risk was estimated for combined risk factors in the final multivariable model. Results In both sexes, age (odds ratio [OR] per 5 year increase: 1.32; 95% CI 1.19-1.45 in women and 1.21; 95% CI 1.10-1.33 in men and BMD (OR per SD decrease: 1.60; 95% CI 1.34-1.90 in women and1.40; 95% CI 1.18-1.67 in men were independent risk factors for vertebral fracture. At BMD levels higher than 0.85 g/cm2, men had a greater risk of fracture than women (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.14-2.04, after adjusting for age. In women and men, respectively, approximately 46% and 33% of vertebral fracture risk was attributable to advancing age (more than 70 years and low BMD (less than 0.85 g/cm2, with the latter having a greater effect than the former. Conclusions These data confirm that age and BMD are major risk factors for vertebral fracture risk. However, in both sexes the two factors accounted for less than half of fracture risk. The identification of individuals with vertebral fracture is still a challenge.

  4. Improving interMediAte Risk management. MARK study

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    Garcia-Gil Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk functions fail to identify more than 50% of patients who develop cardiovascular disease. This is especially evident in the intermediate-risk patients in which clinical management becomes difficult. Our purpose is to analyze if ankle-brachial index (ABI, measures of arterial stiffness, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-measured blood pressure and presence of comorbidity are independently associated to incidence of vascular events and whether they can improve the predictive capacity of current risk equations in the intermediate-risk population. Methods/Design This project involves 3 groups belonging to REDIAPP (RETICS RD06/0018 from 3 Spanish regions. We will recruit a multicenter cohort of 2688 patients at intermediate risk (coronary risk between 5 and 15% or vascular death risk between 3-5% over 10 years and no history of atherosclerotic disease, selected at random. We will record socio-demographic data, information on diet, physical activity, comorbidity and intermittent claudication. We will measure ABI, pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index at rest and after a light intensity exercise. Blood pressure and anthropometric data will be also recorded. We will also quantify lipids, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a fasting blood sample and postprandial capillary glucose. Eighteen months after the recruitment, patients will be followed up to determine the incidence of vascular events (later follow-ups are planned at 5 and 10 years. We will analyze whether the new proposed risk factors contribute to improve the risk functions based on classic risk factors. Discussion Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is a priority in public health policy of developed and developing countries. The fundamental strategy consists in identifying people in a high risk situation in which preventive measures are effective and efficient. Improvement of these predictions in our country

  5. Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159804.html Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study Preliminary finding ... News) -- People who develop heart failure after a heart attack may also face a higher risk of cancer, ...

  6. The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akerblom, H K; Krischer, J; Virtanen, Virpi Susanna;

    2011-01-01

    The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study was designed to establish whether weaning to a highly hydrolysed formula in infancy subsequently reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes....

  7. The @RISK Study: Risk communication for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermans Daniëlle RM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have an increased risk to develop severe diabetes related complications, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. The risk to develop CVD can be estimated by means of risk formulas. However, patients have difficulties to understand the outcomes of these formulas. As a result, they may not recognize the importance of changing lifestyle and taking medication in time. Therefore, it is important to develop risk communication methods, that will improve the patients' understanding of risks associated with having diabetes, which enables them to make informed choices about their diabetes care. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention focussed on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk to develop CVD on risk perception, attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour in patients with T2DM. The conceptual framework of the intervention is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Self-regulation Theory. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be performed in the Diabetes Care System West-Friesland (DCS, a managed care system. Newly referred T2DM patients of the DCS, younger than 75 years will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be exposed to risk communication on CVD, on top of standard managed care of the DCS. This intervention consists of a simple explanation on the causes and consequences of CVD, and possibilities for prevention. The probabilities of CVD in 10 year will be explained in natural frequencies and visualised by a population diagram. The control group will receive standard managed care. The primary outcome is appropriateness of risk perception. Secondary outcomes are attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour and illness perception. Differences between baseline and follow-up (2 and 12 weeks between groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The study was powered on 120

  8. Study of occupation health risk assessment on Chinese coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-qing; YAN Xiang-nong

    2007-01-01

    Factors of occupation health hazard were identified and analyzed, and indexes system of occupation health risk assessment were established by applying fuzzy theory and system safety technique, the weights of index system were obtained by AHP, finally a reasonable mathematics model of occupation health risk assessment was accomplished by an example.

  9. Obesity and risk of bleeding : The SMART study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braekkan, S. K.; van der Graaf, Y.; Visseren, F. L J; Algra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Essentials: Whether obesity protects against clinically relevant bleeding is unclear. We investigated the risk of bleeding according to various measures of obesity in a cohort of 9736 patients. Obesity was not associated with a lower risk of bleeding. The procoagulant profile in obese subjects may n

  10. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vicario

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n=1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%. Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE, a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia.

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Insurance and Risk Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vylder, F; Haezendonck, J

    1986-01-01

    Canadian financial institutions have been in rapid change in the past five years. In response to these changes, the Department of Finance issued a discussion paper: The Regulation of Canadian Financial Institutions, in April 1985, and the government intends to introduce legislation in the fall. This paper studi.es the combinantion of financial institutions from the viewpoint of ruin probability. In risk theory developed to describe insurance companies [1,2,3,4,5J, the ruin probability of a company with initial reserve (capital) u is 6 1 -:;-7;;f3 u 1jJ(u) = H6 e H6 (1) Here,we assume that claims arrive as a Poisson process, and the claim amount is distributed as exponential distribution with expectation liS. 6 is the loading, i.e., premium charged is (1+6) times expected claims. Financial institutions are treated as "insurance companies": the difference between interest charged and interest paid is regarded as premiums, loan defaults are treated as claims.

  12. Relação entre Ciclo de Vida do Produto Turístico e Estratégias de Cooperação na Faixa Litorânea Urbana do Município de Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Santiago Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Com a concretização das ações estruturantes para o turismo em Natal, se expandem as ações baseadas na cooperação e a formalização de instâncias de governança. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o ciclo de vida do produto turístico ‘Litoral Urbano de Natal’ e as estratégias de cooperação em uma perspectiva histórica. A teoria está constituída de uma revisão sobre ciclo de vida, ecologia populacional, sistema de turismo, estratégias de cooperação e novas formas de gestão. Os resultados apontaram que o gráfico do ciclo de vida do produto ‘Litoral Urbano de Natal’, encontra-se migrando de uma fase de crescimento para uma fase de maturidade. As estratégias de cooperação identificadas foram o consórcio, estratégia coletiva e aglomerados, que se relacionam ao ciclo de vida do Produto Turístico através do alcance da eficiência coletiva. Palavras-chave: turismo; ciclo de vida do produto; cooperação. Abstract With the completion of tourism structuring actions, it was spread actions based on cooperation and formalization of governance institutions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the tourism product life cycle 'Coastal Range of Natal” and the cooperation strategies in a historical perspective. The theoretical support is a revision about Resort Life Cycle, Theory of Population Ecology, System of Tourism, Co-operation Strategies and Management New Forms. Results showed that the life cycle graph of product 'Coastal Range of Natal’ is moving from one stage of growth to a stage of maturity. The co-operation strategies identified were consortium, collective strategy and clusters, which are related to the life cycle of the tourism product ‘Coastal Range of Natal’ when the efficiency of collective actions is achieved. Keywords: tourism; product life cycle; co-operation.

  13. Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior? A meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Harris, Peter R; Epton, Tracy

    2014-03-01

    Several theories construe risk appraisals as key determinants of decisions and actions, and this idea has been supported in correlational studies. However, correlational data cannot answer the question, "Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior?" The present review meta-analyzed experimental evidence in order to address this issue. We identified 4 elements of risk appraisal-risk perception, anticipatory emotion, anticipated emotion, and perceived severity-and located experiments that (a) engendered a statistically significant increase in risk appraisal among treatment compared to control participants and (b) measured subsequent intention or behavior. Heightening risk appraisals had effects of d+ = .31 (k = 217) and d+ = .23 (k = 93) on intention and behavior, respectively. There was evidence that the elements of risk appraisal combined to influence outcomes. For instance, heightening risk perceptions had larger effects on outcomes when anticipatory emotions or perceived severity was also increased. Crucially, risk appraisal effects were augmented by coping appraisals: Risk appraisals had larger effects on outcomes when response efficacy and self-efficacy were enhanced or when response costs were reduced. The largest effect sizes were observed when risk appraisals, response efficacy, and self-efficacy were simultaneously heightened (d+ = .98 and .45, for intention and behavior, respectively). These findings indicate that heightening risk appraisals changes intentions and behavior. However, the direct effects of risk appraisals were generally small. Exploiting synergies among the elements of risk appraisal, and between risk appraisals and coping appraisals, should make for more effective behavior change interventions. PMID:23731175

  14. The case study of climate change : the nature of risk and the risk of nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Communication

    2000-06-01

    The science of climate change is complex, large-scale and uncertain. The challenges of communicating the risks of climate change were described with particular emphasis on working with communities to explain climate change with its complex, scientific and social realities. The greenhouse effect is a feature of the earth in which a carbon dioxide blanket absorbs the sun's heat as it radiates off the earth. The paper stated that the greenhouse effect is arguably the best accepted theory in climatology, but the question is whether the huge increase in carbon dioxide that the industrial revolution has brought forth has increased the efficiency of this blanket and set the earth on a warming trend. The ultimate question is whether the earth is warming in response to human activity. It could be claimed that apart from the risk of nuclear war, the risk of climate change is the largest scale risk facing today's society. Climate change pits the burning of fossil fuels against the climate and as a modern day risk, climate change is far removed from the historic roots of environmental risks. The paper argued, that in a world based on burning fossil fuels and where those who are involved with the supply of fossil fuels hold tremendous influence, it is difficult to accept that the burning might have to stop. This paper explored how and what people currently learn about the environment and climate change through the media. A three-step communication strategy based in the United States was then proposed. The first step is aimed at journalists with focus on improved accuracy of climate change information. The second step focuses on urban centres and has as its guiding concepts self-efficacy, reasoned action and the importance of reaching people in diverse communities. The final step is aimed at political leaders, beginning with municipalities, and relies on campaigns for alternative energy.

  15. Combination of diabetes risk factors and hepatic steatosis in Chinese: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available AIMS: Hepatic steatosis has been related to insulin resistance and increased diabetes risk. We assessed whether combination of diabetes risk factors, evaluated by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, was associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in an apparently healthy Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 1,780 men and women (18-64 y were included in the final analyses. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We created combination of diabetes risk factors score on basis of age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, physical activity at least 4 h a week, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose. The total risk score is a simple sum of the individual weights, and values range from 0 to 20. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was present 18% in the total population. In multivariate models, the odds ratios of hepatic steatosis were 1.20 (95%CI 1.15-1.25 in men and 1.25 (95%CI 1.14-1.37 in women by each unit increase in the combination of diabetes risk factors score, after adjustment for blood pressure, liver enzymes, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for hepatic steatosis was 0.78 (95%CI 0.76-0.80, 0.76 in men (95%CI 0.74-0.78 and 0.83 (95%CI 0.79-0.87 in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that combination of major diabetes risk factors was significantly related to risk of hepatic steatosis in Chinese adults.

  16. Study Of Some Maternal Risk Factors Influencing Early Neonatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Chitra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of early neonatal mortality (0-7 days amongst neonates delivered in a city hospital and its association with maternal factors. Objectives: 1. To find out the extent of early neonatal mortality amongst the neonates delivered in a city hospital of Calcutta. 2. To identify the maternal and biosocial factors influencing the early neonatal mortality. Setting :Obstetric and nursery wards of Eden Hospital of Medical college, Calcutta. Study design: Case-control study. Sample Size: 139 “case” mothers whose neonates died within 7 days of delivery and 215 “control” mothers who delivered well neonates on the same dates as those of case group. Study Variables: Maternal age, parity, literacy, place of residence, utilization of antenatal care, toxaemia of pregnancy, ante-partumhaemorrhage etc. Statistical analysis: Odds ratio and Chi-square test. Results: Overall early neonatal mortality rate was 55.33 per 1000 live births. Although there was no association of early neonatal mortality with parity and maternal age, but it was found to be significantly higher among illiterate mothers (odds ratio 3.9, those living in rural and slum areas (odds ratio 3 and 2.8 and those who did not receive complete antenatal care(odds ratio 28, The risk of early neonatal mortality was significantly high particularly in presence of two complications during pregnancy e.g. toxaemia (odds ratios 7.48 and antepartum haemorrhage (odds ratio 8.16. Conclusion: Increasing literacy status of mothers will improve their receptivity for antenatal care, which by way of ensuring proper management of pregnancy and its complications will prevent early neonatal deaths to a significant extent.

  17. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W

    1996-01-01

    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  18. Risk assessment after coronary angioplasty with SPECT myocardial perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chest pain can be use for stratifying the risk of the patients after coronary angioplasty. Nevertheless this strategy has shown to have a low accuracy in the detection of restenosis and myocardial ischemia. Aims: To establish the usefulness of the SPECT studies in the risk stratification after the coronary angioplasty. Evaluate the incidence of silent ischemia or symptomatic, and its impact on the prognosis. Method: There were included 107 patients (p) submitted to a gated SPECT between the year of the coronary angioplasty. The analysis of the images was performed according to different scores (SSS, SRS, SDS). These data was correlated with the symptoms of the patients. We define group 1 (G1) as the asymptomatic without ischemia (n 59p), group 2 (G2) as silent ischemia (n = 28p) and group 3 (G3) as symptomatic with ischemia (n = 20p). A clinical follow-up was done in search of events (target vessel revascularization, unstable angina, AMI and death). Results: Significant differences were not observed in the clinical variables between the different groups. The SSS was lower in the G1 compare with G2 and G3 (p 0.0001) and was similar between the last two, p = NS (SSS: G1: 2.2 ± 4.9; G2: 7.6 ± 5.9; G3: 9.5 ± 6.8). The SDS was greater in G3 vs. G1 and G2, p = 0.0001, and greater in G2 vs. G1, p = 0.0001 (SDS: G1: 0; G2: 4.8 ± 3.5; G3: 7.2 ± 6.5). No differences where observed in the SRS between the three groups. In the follow-up the total percentage of events was lesser when compare the G1 with the G2 and G3 (G1: 3.3%; G2 and G3: 18.7%; p 0.02). The percentage of annual events of the G3 symptomatic with ischemia (11.03%) and G2 silent ischemia (4.04%) did not present differences (p 0.7). When the events of the G2 (4.04%) were compared with the G1 (1.24%) we observed a trend to major frequency of events in the G2 (p = 0.6). Conclusions: The presence of myocardial ischemia after coronary angioplasty is a determinant of the prognosis. Nevertheless, the extension

  19. Leprosy among patient contacts: a multilevel study of risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing leprosy among the contacts of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 6,158 contacts and 1,201 leprosy patients of the cohort who were diagnosed and treated at the Leprosy Laboratory of Fiocruz from 1987 to 2007 were included. The contact variables analyzed were sex; age; educational and income levels; blood relationship, if any, to the index case; household or non-household relationship; length of time of close association with the index case; receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BGG vaccine and presence of BCG scar. Index cases variables included sex, age, educational level, family size, bacillary load, and disability grade. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercept was applied. Among the co-prevalent cases, the leprosy-related variables that remained associated with leprosy included type of household contact, [odds ratio (OR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02, 1.73] and consanguinity with the index case, (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.42-2.51. With respect to the index case variables, the factors associated with leprosy among contacts included up to 4 years of schooling and 4 to 10 years of schooling (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.54-4.79 and 2.40, 95% CI: 1.30-4.42, respectively and bacillary load, which increased the chance of leprosy among multibacillary contacts for those with a bacillary index of one to three and greater than three (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.19-2.17 and OR: 4.07-95% CI: 2.73, 6.09, respectively. Among incident cases, household exposure was associated with leprosy (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.29-2.98, compared with non-household exposure. Among the index case risk factors, an elevated bacillary load was the only variable associated with leprosy in the contacts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological and social factors appear to be associated with leprosy among co-prevalent cases, whereas the factors related to the

  20. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  1. Lifetime risk factors and arterial pulse wave velocity in adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatola, Heikki; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hulkkonen, Janne; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika

    2010-03-01

    Limited and partly controversial data are available regarding the relationship of arterial pulse wave velocity and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. We studied how risk factors identified in childhood and adulthood predict pulse wave velocity assessed in adulthood. The study cohort consisted of 1691 white adults aged 30 to 45 years who had risk factor data available since childhood. Pulse wave velocity was assessed noninvasively by whole-body impedance cardiography. The number of conventional childhood and adulthood risk factors (extreme quintiles for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking) was directly associated with pulse wave velocity in adulthood (P=0.005 and P<0.0001, respectively). In multivariable regression analysis, independent predictors of pulse wave velocity were sex (P<0.0001), age (P<0.0001), childhood systolic blood pressure (P=0.002) and glucose (P=0.02), and adulthood systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001), insulin (P=0.0009), and triglycerides (P=0.003). Reduction in the number of risk factors (P<0.0001) and a favorable change in obesity status (P=0.0002) from childhood to adulthood were associated with lower pulse wave velocity in adulthood. Conventional risk factors in childhood and adulthood predict pulse wave velocity in adulthood. Favorable changes in risk factor and obesity status from childhood to adulthood are associated with lower pulse wave velocity in adulthood. These results support efforts for a reduction of conventional risk factors both in childhood and adulthood in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:20083727

  2. [Risk factor calculator for medical underwriting of life insurers based on the PROCAM study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geritse, A; Müller, G; Trompetter, T; Schulte, H; Assmann, G

    2008-06-01

    For its electronic manual GEM, used to perform medical risk assessment in life insurance, SCOR Global Life Germany has developed an innovative and evidence-based calculator of the mortality risk depending on cardiovascular risk factors. The calculator contains several new findings regarding medical underwriting, which were gained from the analysis of the PROCAM (Prospective Cardiovascular Münster) study. For instance, in the overall consideration of all risk factors of a medically examined applicant, BMI is not an independent risk factor. Further, given sufficient information, the total extra mortality of a person no longer results from adding up the ratings for the single risk factors. In fact, this new approach of risk assessment considers the interdependencies between the different risk factors. The new calculator is expected to improve risk selection and standard acceptances will probably increase.

  3. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: CASE STUDIES IN FISH ADVISORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Handbook provides both general and specific information on how to enhance mercury risk communication activities and their associated outreach efforts. Additionally, it provides information on how to facilitate communication in areas where information is not available. Chapte...

  4. Empirical Study of the Risks in Shenzhen Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Xiao-de; GAO Wei-cun

    2001-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical research on the system risks of the Shenzhen Stock Market using Capital Asset Pricing Model. The typical composition stocks on Shenzhen Stock Market in 1998 are taken as samples.

  5. NOS3 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular disease risk: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) activity and cigarette smoking significantly influence endothelial function. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking modified the association between NOS3 polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. All 1085 incident coronary heart di...

  6. A study of risk management in cloud computing bank

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Dou El Kefel; Benyettou, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing apparently helps in reducing costs and providing the scheduling optimal level. In practice however it may confront the problem of unavailability of resources. Taking into consideration the cloud computing bank with its somehow commercial nature, the resources unavailability, such as liquidity risk, remains. In this paper, an attempt to show through a solution so far applied in economy, how would it be possible to predict such a liquidity risk in cloud computing bank. The propo...

  7. Utility and use of risk perception studies: fundamental problematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to look at the area of risk perception in terms of essential perspectives that run through the levels of inquiry, interpretation and decision-making. The author's suggestion is that there are coherent lines according to which a vertical view of the field of risk perception inquiries can be obtained. The binary scheme that is proposed is a tentative grid of trends, not a scheme of compartmentalized divisions

  8. LIFESTYLE AS RISK FACTOR FOR CANCER: EVIDENCE FROM HUMAN STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that the chances of developing cancer are significantly affected by the choice of our lifestyle. There are several uncontrollable risk factors which account for the majority of cancers, but we can modify our lifestyle to reduce enhanced threat of cancer. Healthy lifestyle behaviors for cancer risk reduction include a healthy diet, weight management, regular exercise, reduction in alcohol consumption and smoking cessation. In this article, we present evidences on...

  9. Aspectos nutricionais relacionados ao ciclo menstrual Nutritional aspects related to menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves de Carvalho SAMPAIO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente revisão é apresentar os principais tópicos discutidos na literatura quanto à associação da nutrição com o ciclo menstrual, contribuindo para a implementação do atendimento nutricional de mulheres. São revisados aspectos referentes à fisiologia da menstruação, alterações metabólicas durante o ciclo menstrual e comportamentos alimentares associados a ele. Considerando-se o ciclo menstrual dividido em duas fases, a folicular e a lútea, é nesta última que são descritas mais alterações, como retenção de água, elevação de peso, aumento de demanda energética, modificações no perfil lipídico e no metabolismo de vitamina D, cálcio, magnésio e ferro, hipersensibilidade emocional, dores generalizadas e mudança do comportamento alimentar. Em relação a este último item, podem ocorrer maior ingestão energética e o desenvolvimento de compulsões alimentares, principalmente por chocolate, doces e alimentos muito salgados. É fundamental que todos os aspectos citados sejam investigados durante a consulta nutricional, a fim de serem adotadas condutas mais específicas.The aim of the present review is to show the most important topics discussed in literature about the association between nutrition and menstrual cycle, contributing to improve the nutritional care for women. Aspects related to physiology of the menstruation, metabolic changes and feeding behavior during the menstrual cycle are reviewed. Considering the menstrual cycle divided in two phases, follicular and luteal, it is in this last one that more alterations are described, like fluid retention, weight gain, increase in caloric needs, modifications in the lipid profile and in the metabolism of vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and iron, emotional hypersensitivity, aches and changes in feeding behavior. In relation to this last item, it can occur a higher caloric intake and the development of food cravings, mainly for chocolate, candies and

  10. Mecanismos do ciclo sono-vigília Sleep-wake cycle mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alóe

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Três sub-divisões hipotalâmicas são importantes no ciclo sono-vigília: o hipotálamo anterior (núcleos gabaérgicos e núcleos supraquiasmáticos, o hipotálamo posterior (núcleo túbero-mamilar histaminérgico e o hipotálamo lateral (sistema hipocretinas. O sistema gabaérgico inibitório do núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral (VLPO do hipotálamo anterior é responsável pelo início e manutenção do sono NREM. Os neurônios supraquiasmáticos (NSQs do hipotálamo anterior são responsáveis pelo ritmo circadiano do ciclo sono-vigília. Os núcleos aminérgicos, histaminérgicos, as hipocretinas e núcleos colinérgicos do prosencéfalo basal apresentam-se ativos durante a vigília, inibindo o núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral, promovendo a vigília. O processo de inibição-estimulação é a base do modelo da interação recíproca entre os grupos de células wake-off-sleep-on e células wake-off-sleep-on reguladores do ciclo sono-vigília. O modelo da interação recíproca também se aplica aos núcleos colinérgicos (células REM-on e aminérgicos (células REM-off do tronco cerebral no controle temporal do sono REM-NREM.Neurochemically distinct systems interact regulating sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness is promoted by aminergic, acetylcholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Each of these arousal systems supports wakefulness and coordinated activity is required for alertness and EEG activation. Neurons in the pons and preoptic area control rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating systems generate behavioral states. An up-to-date understanding of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness.

  11. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  12. Computed tomography in children: multicenter cohort study design for the evaluation of cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer. Cancer risk is highest after exposure in childhood. The computed tomography is the major contributor to the average, individual radiation exposure. Until now the association has been addressed only in statistical modeling. We present the first feasible study design on childhood cancer risk after exposure to computed tomography.

  13. Putative Risk Factors in Developmental Dyslexia: A Case-Control Study of Italian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Although dyslexia runs in families, several putative risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several putative risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted…

  14. Analysis of international practice and methodical approaches to study environmental risk of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    L. Моklyachuk; A. Lishchuk; G. Matusevich

    2012-01-01

    The experience of national and international practice of methodological approaches in the study of risk research and evaluation of environmental risks of pesticide use. Determined that the basis of metho- dological approaches in evaluation environmental risks is to identify and determine the level of danger. Used system installation criteria and evaluation of the real dangers of pesticides.

  15. Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Developing Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with increased risk for developing social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, the degree of risk associated with BI has yet to be systematically examined and quantified. The goal of the present study was to quantify the association between childhood BI and risk for developing SAD. Method: A…

  16. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  17. Custo de ciclo econômico no Brasil em um modelo com restrição a crédito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Vasconcelos Boa Vista da Cunha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do impacto de ciclo econômico no bem-estar dos indivíduos de uma economia é um assunto de grande importância teórica. Ao considerarmos a economia brasileira, em que grande maioria dos indivíduos não dispõe de mecanismos de crédito, ele torna-se ainda mais relevante. Se os agentes não são capazes de suavizar consumo segundo a hipótese da renda permanente de Friedman, é de se esperar que estes sofram impactos ainda maiores diante de flutuações na renda. Utilizamos o modelo proposto por Imrohoroglu (1989 para os dados da economia brasileira a fim de mensurar a perda de bem-estar causada por um ciclo econômico. A partir de resultados que mostram o significativo custo dos ciclos econômicos, propomos a introdução do governo no modelo. Agindo no sentido de completar mercados, o governo se mostrou eficiente. Apesar de simples, nosso experimento mostrou a importância de investigarmos a ação governamental como opção para a elevação do bem-estar em economias restritas ao crédito ao longo de flutuações econômicas.This article studies the welfare cost of business cycles fluctuation in Brazil. We use a model, due to Imrohoroglu (1989, in which agents are ex-post heterogeneous with respect to employment and cannot smooth perfectly consumption as they are credit restricted. This is highly relevant as the evidence is that at least 75% of Brazilian population has no access to credit markets so that their consumption path tend to be highly sensitive to economic variability. Our simulations show that in fact welfare losses due to output fluctuations are significant in Brazil and much higher than the losses found for the US economy. We introduce in the model public policies that tend to complete markets and act as an (imperfect insurance. With a very simple tax and transfer mechanism we show that the government can increase considerably welfare.

  18. Multimodal evoked potentials and the ovarian cycle in young ovulating women Potenciais evocados nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual da mulher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO DE LIMA RESENDE

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over how hormonal conditions influence cerebral physiology. We studied pattern-shift visual evoked potentials (PS-VEP, brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP and short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEV in 20 female volunteers at different phases of the menstrual cycle (estrogen phase, ovulatory day and progesterone phase. Statistical analysis showed decreased latencies for P100 (PS-VEP, N19 and P22 (SSEV waves in the progesterone phase compared with the estrogen phase. There was no significant difference between the estrogen and the ovulation day values. Comparing the three above stages, there were no significant differences in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials. The reduction of the latencies of the potentials generated in multisynaptic circuits provides the first consistent neurophysiological basis for a tentative comprehension of human pre-menstrual syndrome.Há controvérsias sobre como variações hormonais do ciclo menstrual da mulher influenciam a neurofisiologia cerebral. Estudamos potenciais evocados de curta latência, visuais, auditivos e sômato-sensoriais, em 20 mulheres voluntárias normais, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual (fase estrogênica, fase ovulatória, fase progestacional. Comparação entre fase estrogênica e ovulatória mostrou resultados similares. Ondas I, III, V dos potenciais evocados auditivos não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as três fases do ciclo. Análise estatística dos resultados mostrou diminuição significativa das latências das ondas P100, N19 e P22 obtidas na fase progestacional, comparadas com aquelas obtidas na fase estrogênica. Como estas ondas são geradas em circuitos multissinápticos, tal redução de latências, na fase progestacional, fornece a primeira base neurofisiológica consistente para tentativa de compreensão da síndrome pré-menstrual da mulher.

  19. Indoor air assessment: A review of indoor-air-quality risk characterization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment methodologies provide a mechanism for incorporating scientific evidence and judgments into the risk management decision process. A risk characterization framework has been developed to provide a systematic approach for analysis and presentation of risk characterization study results. The framework was used as a tool to review published studies that provide quantitative risk estimates associated with exposure to indoor air pollutants. Comparisons of both the methods and the resulting risk estimates are presented. Critical assumptions concerning risk estimates and exposure estimates for each study are recorded on the framework. Fourteen risk characterization studies were reviewed include three studies for radon, six for environmental tobacco smoke, three for volatile organics, one for formaldehyde only, and one for asbestos. The quality and rigor of analysis varied greatly among the studies reviewed. Some of the studies clearly state that they are intended to be preliminary analyses or screening studies, others are reported as sensitivity analyses, and others are detailed risk assessments. Studies which are technically rigorous in some risk components (e.g., dose-response relationships) are often less rigorous in other components (e.g. exposure assessment)

  20. ¿Sincronizaron México y Estados Unidos sus ciclos económicos con el TLCAN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Rodríguez Benavides

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo investigamos, a través de un modelo estructural de series de tiempo múltiple, con una especificación generalizada de ciclo estocástico, si los ciclos económicos del PIB de México muestran una mayor sincronización con los ciclos del PIB de Estados Unidos a partir de la entrada en vigor del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN, con respecto al periodo previo. Con tal fin, probamos la hipótesis nula de un ci - clo común, como es definida en los modelos estructurales como el empleado por Carvalho, Harvey y Trimbur (2007, contra la hipótesis de un ciclo similar entre ambas economías. La existencia de un ciclo económico común entre dos economías implica que uno de ellos es proporcional al otro (Harvey 2002. Los resultados muestran que antes de la entrada en vigor del TLCAN (1960:1-1994:4 ninguna de las dos economías posee un ciclo econó - mico común. Al contrario, a partir de la firma del TLCAN (1995:1-2012:4, no es posible rechazar la hipótesis de la existencia de un ciclo económico común entre ambas economías, lo cual interpretamos como una mayor sincronización de sus productos. Observamos, sin embargo que, con respecto al periodo previo, la sincronización cíclica ocurre en un periodo de lento crecimiento donde los flujos comerciales del TLCAN con Estados Unidos decli - nan relativamente desde el año 2000. Ello cuestiona el fundamento de la sincronización, explicada en México por la apertura comercial del TLCAN. Derechos Reservados©2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  1. Risk-related disclosures practices in the annual reports of Portuguese credit institutions: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Jonas; Rodrigues, Lúcia; Craig, Russel

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the risk-related reporting practices of 190 Portuguese credit institutions based on a content analysis of their individual annual reports for 2006. Risk-related disclosures are found to lack comparability because of different maturity time bands that report exposures to credit, market and liquidity risks; different Value-at-Risk and sensitivity analysis assumptions; and different practices for reporting capital structure and adequacy. The misalignment of quantitatively bas...

  2. An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe : The EPIC study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, K; Huesing, A.; Fortner, R. T.; Tjonneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Dossus, L; Chang-Claude, J; Bergmann, M.; A. Steffen; Bamia, C.; Trichopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Mattiello, A; Agnoli, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, largely due to late diagnosis. Epidemiologic risk prediction models could help identify women at increased risk who may benefit from targeted prevention measures, such as screening or chemopreventive agents. Methods: We built an ovarian cancer risk prediction model with epidemiologic risk factors from 202 206 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Older age at menopause, longer durati...

  3. Breast cancer risk perceptions of Turkish women attending primary care: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Mehtap; Ozcakar, Nilgun; Hatipoglu, Sehnaz; Tan, Makbule Neslisah; Guldal, Azize Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Background As the risks and benefits of early detection and primary prevention strategies for breast cancer are beginning to be quantified, the risk perception of women has become increasingly important as may affect their screening behaviors. This study evaluated the women’s breast cancer risk perception and their accuracy, and determined the factors that can affect their risk perception accuracy. Methods Data was collected in a cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaire, including breast ...

  4. Determinants of Risk Management in the UK Insurance Industry: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study focuses on the rationales for risk management in the UK insurance industry, from which the top 29 companies were selected and various measurements of their risk management as measured by their risk management information in their annual reports and performance were measured. Using Logistic and OLS regression analyses the results suggest that there is no correlation between risk management scores and stock performance. However there was a clear negative correlation betw...

  5. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  6. Ciclo evolutivo do Hepatozoon triatomae (Sporozoa, Haemogregarinidae parasita de triatomíneos Evolution cycle of the Hepatozoon triatomae (Sporozoa, Haemogregarinidae, parasite of triatominea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Olavo da Rocha e Silva

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de triatomíneos e lagartos, respectivamente o Triatoma arthurneivai e Tropidurus torquatus, parasitados por uma hemogregarina semelhante a Hepatozoon triatomae (Osimani, 1942 Reichenow, 1953. São apresentados aspectos da sua morfologia e estudadas as diversas fases do seu ciclo evolutivo, este inteiramente reproduzido em laboratório.The author relates the discovery of Triatoma arthurneivai and Tropidurus torquatus, in the localities of Lavras de Cima and Santo Antonio, State of São Paulo, Brazil, infected by a hemogregarine similar to Hepatozoon triatomae (Osimani, 1942 Reichenow 1953. He presents certain aspects of its morphology and also studies the several phases of its evolution cycle, which were completed in the laboratory.

  7. La fortuna del ciclo de "Daniel en el foso de los leones" en los programas escultóricos románicos de Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moure Pena, Teresa C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the iconographic cycle of Daniel in the Lions Den within the sculptural programs of the Galician Romanesque. Analysis of the representations allows for the proposal of a series of theories concerning the connection between figuration and context, and particularly the value and signification acquired by the theme in the monastic milieu.

    El objetivo de este artículo se centra en el estudio del ciclo iconográfico de Daniel en el foso de los leones en los programas figurativos del románico gallego. El análisis de las representaciones nos permitirá proponer una serie de teorías sobre la conexión entre figuración y el contexto en el que se dispone y, especialmente el valor y significado que el tema adquiere en el ámbito monástico.

  8. Implicaciones del estudio de inestabilidad del ciclo celular en la biología del cáncer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tume-Farfán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Todas las células poseen mecanismos para mantener la integridad genómica que es vital para la supervivencia celular y la proliferación. Las células se dividen a tasas normale s durante su tiempo de vida, cuando esta tasa sobrepasa los límites normales ocurren alteraciones a nivel genético que afectan el control del ciclo celular por lo tanto estas células crecen y se dividen sin control y ya no responden a señalización extrace lular que indica la detención del ciclo y la apoptosis, estos mecanismos son los encargados de la prevención del cáncer que por lo generales se produce a través de la regulación estricta del ciclo celular por grupos de proteínas que interactúan entre sí e n una secuencia muy específica de eventos. Son estos acontecimientos los que determinan si el ciclo celular seguirá adelante o quedará estancado entre etapas. La falta de eficiencia en la replicación del ADN y el mantenimiento de esta macromolécula puede s er consecuencia de mutaciones deletéreas que conducen a la muerte celular o, en los organismos multicelulares a cáncer. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir las vías de transducción de señales conocidas que regulan la progresión del ciclo celular y los mecanismos que las células emplean para asegurar la estabilidad del ADN, así como los avances que se están alcanzando en una forma de evitar esta proliferación descontrolada en las células con tendencia a ser cancerosa

  9. Los ciclos económicos departamentales en Colombia, 1960-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Vásquez Bedoya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estima el ciclo del PIB nacional y de algunos departamentos entre 1960 y 2011 usando el modelo de tendencia lineal local de Nelson y Plosser, así como el coeficiente de correlación entre el componente cíclico de las series del PIB departamental y nacional para clasificar sus co-movimientos. El estudio revela una diversidad de comportamientos de las fluctuaciones económicas departamentales con respecto a la nacional y, además, que las economías departamentales fuertemente procíclicas son las más diversificadas y más ricas.

  10. Efecto in vitro de olomoucina en el ciclo celular de linfocitos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La olomoucina, un derivado de purina relacionado con el ATP, ha sido reportado como uneficiente inhibidor del ciclo celular de células animales y vegetales, debido a su alta especificidadpor las ciclinas dependientes de kinasa (CDK CDK1 y CDK2, su capacidad radica en inhibir elciclo celular en las transiciones G2/M y G1/S respectivamente. Con el objetivo de explorar lapotencial aplicación de la olomoucina en el análisis citogenético de alta resolución y estudiosde proliferación celular en cultivos primarios, linfocitos humanos fueron cultivados en RPMI1640 suplementado con suero bovino fetal al 5%, estimuladas durante 72 horas con PHA yposteriormente tratadas con concentraciones de 50, 100 y 200 mM durante 12 y 24 horas.

  11. Mecanismos do ciclo sono-vigília Sleep-wake cycle mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Alóe; Alexandre Pinto de Azevedo; Rosa Hasan

    2005-01-01

    Três sub-divisões hipotalâmicas são importantes no ciclo sono-vigília: o hipotálamo anterior (núcleos gabaérgicos e núcleos supraquiasmáticos), o hipotálamo posterior (núcleo túbero-mamilar histaminérgico) e o hipotálamo lateral (sistema hipocretinas). O sistema gabaérgico inibitório do núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral (VLPO) do hipotálamo anterior é responsável pelo início e manutenção do sono NREM. Os neurônios supraquiasmáticos (NSQs) do hipotálamo anterior são responsáveis pelo ritmo circ...

  12. La persistencia de la desigualdad en la última fase del ciclo vital

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alemán, Rosalía

    2011-01-01

    Desde el marco analítico de la perspectiva de género, se analiza la satisfacción en la última etapa del ciclo vital. Se parte del hecho de que las mujeres son más longevas que los varones, por lo que es factible suponer que en la tercera edad pueden acceder a una autorrealización postergada al no estar sometidas a la satisfacción de las necesidades ajenas (familiares y/o comunitarias), lo que les permitiría vivir la vejez de manera más satisfactoria que sus coetáneos. La investigación, sin...

  13. Quase adulta, quase velha: por que antecipar as fases do ciclo vital?

    OpenAIRE

    Russel Parry Scott

    2001-01-01

    A partir de duas observações em gerações diferentes, identifica-se um fenômeno de antecipação da passagem pelas fases do ciclo vital que merece uma interpretação. Muitas jovens engravidam, casando ou não, e se tornam mães. Muitas mulheres na faixa de quarenta e cinco a cinqüenta anos ingressam em "grupos de idosos". A interpretação oferecida examina as conseqüências 1) da transição demográfica (e decorrente envelhecimento populacional) em dar visibilidade especial a estas gerações examinadas,...

  14. Guías preventivas por ciclo vital individual en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Andrés Pineda

    2006-01-01

    Las guías preventivas son una condensación de las diferentes intervenciones en promoción de la salud y prevención de la enfermedad que se hacen para intervenir las poblaciones. Contienen estrategias de consejería, filtrado y medidas específicas de protección. Se menciona las características de una prueba de cribado. Se presentan las guías preventivas por cada ciclo vital individual en cuanto a medidas de consejería, protección específica y filtro. Así, se ofrece una guía concreta sobre las ...

  15. Un panorama sobre la fase recesiva del ciclo económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro D. Jacobo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este trabajo proporciona una introducción a las recesiones económicas. Con fines didácticos, se revisa y ensambla una serie de conceptos, realizando todo el esfuerzo para presentar el trabajo de manera amigable hacia quienes poseen un disgusto natural hacia esta fase poco placentera del ciclo económico.  Abstract:This paper provides an introduction for understanding the economic recessions. With didactical purposes, a bunch of concepts are revised and linked, and every effort is made to write the paper amiable for those one who have a natural dislike for this unpleasant phase of the business cycle. 

  16. Ciclo biológico de Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard (Reduviidae, Triatominae en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda V. de Argüello

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se uma avaliação estatística do ciclo de vida de Triatoma rubrovaria, com base em experimentos de laboratório. Foram computados a eclosão do ovo, o tempo de desenvolvimento da ninfa e sua mortalidade, e a longevidade dos adultos, machos e fêmeas; os resultados foram comparados com os da literatura existente.A statistical evaluation of the life cycle of Triatoma rubrovaria is based on cohort experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Egg hatching, nymphal development time and mortality, adult male and femals longevity were computed, and the results compared with information in the existing literature.

  17. La sostenibilidad en la arquitectura industrializada: cerrando el ciclo de los materiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadel, G.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of sustainability, from a physical point of view, can be defined as the closure of the material cycle. This is reached in determined systems, in the absence of residual flows, and in which resources are constantly recycled. Such systems can encounter serious obstacles in the productive model that characterises the majority of contemporary industry. The productive model, born during the Industrial Revolution, can be summarised by the following lineal sequence: extraction > manufacture > use > residue. In contrast, this research focuses on a productive model from the ecological industry, based on the example of the biosphere as a recycling machine. Requiring the elimination of the concept of residues, the system can be summarised by the following continuous cycle: recycling-manufacturing-use-recycling. The hypothesis posed is as follows: using technology presently available, represented by the lightweight modular construction that is commercialised by renting (making it possible to return the modules to the factory once their useful life is over, therefore recuperating resources, a management system capable to close the material cycle at least to 90% can be developed. (conventional building construction currently manages a recycling value of 10% of used resources.

    La condición de sostenibilidad, desde el punto de vista físico, puede ser definida como el cierre de los ciclos materiales, alcanzándose éste en un sistema determinado cuando no existen flujos de residuos sino que los recursos se reciclan constantemente. Tal condición encuentra un fuerte obstáculo en el modelo productivo que caracteriza a la mayor parte de la industria contemporánea, nacido en la revolución industrial, que puede sintetizarse en la secuencia lineal extracción > fabricación > uso > residuo. En oposición a ello, el modelo productivo en el que se centra la investigación que aquí se presenta es la ecología industrial y se basa en el

  18. Risk Assessment of Vertical Breakwaters -- A Case Study in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can Elmar BALAS; Levent KOC

    2002-01-01

    In the reliability-risk assessment, the second order reliability index (βⅡ) method and the Conditional ExpectationMonte Carlo (CEMC) simulation are interrelated as a new Level Ⅲ approach for the analysis of the safety level of theDalaman yacht harbor vertical wall breakwater in Turkey. The missing wave data of the Dalaman measurement station arehindcasted by use of muhi-layer feed-forward neural networks with the steepest descent and conjugate gradient algorithms.The structural failure probabilities of sliding and overturning failure modes are forecasted by approximation of the failure sur-face with a second-degree polynomial of an equal curvature at the design point. In the new approach, for each randomlygenerated load and tide combination, the joint failure probability reflects both the occurrence probability of loading conditionand the structural failure risk at the limit state. The approach can be applied to risk assessment of vertical breakwaters inshort CPU durations of portable computers.

  19. AMONIO-OXIDASAS BACTERIANAS Y ARQUEALES INVOLUCRADAS EN EL CICLO DEL NITRÓGENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Andrade Ochoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La nitrificación, la oxidación microbiana de amoníaco a nitrato, juega un papel crítico en el ciclo global del nitrógeno. Se ha considerado a dos grupos distintos de bacterias capaces de oxidar el amoníaco (AOB como las responsables de llevar a cabo el primer paso de la nitrificación; en esos dos grupos se encuentran las Beta-proteobacterias, que incluyen a los géneros Nitrosomonas y Nitrosospira, y las Gamma-proteobacterias, que engloban al género Nitrosococcus. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado la existencia de arqueas oxidantes de amoníaco (AOA y su contribución al ciclo del nitrógeno, siendo Nitrosopumilus maritimus la más estudiada en este proceso. La dinámica entre estos dos sistemas de oxidantes de amoníaco es compleja y los estudios se han enfocado a distintos hábitats, se ha propuesto que las contribuciones relativas de las comunidades AOA y AOB dependen de propiedades fisicoquímicas del ambiente, que afectan su abundancia y diversidad; esto dificulta establecer con exactitud el nicho ecológico en el que se desempeña cada comunidad. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir la evidencia científica que facilite el entendimiento del papel que desempeñan los microorganismos oxidantes del amoníaco.

  20. Ciclos y determinantes del crecimiento económico: Perú 1950-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jiménez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se analiza el crecimiento económico y sus fluctuacionesdurante el período 1950-1995, así como el estancamiento prolongado queempieza en los años 1975-1978, apoyados en la hipótesis de que la dinámicade este crecimiento obedece al carácter desequilibrado del proceso de industrializacióny a un comportamiento de la inversión que no estuvo sujeta alproceso sustitutivo. Con un vector de inversiones que no estimula el mercadodoméstico, el crecimiento y los ciclos son determinados por impulsos dedemanda que provienen del sector público y/o de aquellos mercados externosdonde la producción manufacturera doméstica resulta competitiva. Como elaumento de la demanda repercute en un mayor déficit externo, ei crecimientosostenido a largo plazo resulta imposible si no se resuelven los problemasestructurales del sector manufacturero. Una vez corroborada la importancia deeste sector y dadas sus correlaciones significativas con los otros sectoresdeterminados por demanda, se construye una serie de producción no primaria,para luego explicar su comportamiento en el largo plazo, sometiendo a pruebala importancia del gasto del Estado en la generación de los ciclos y tendenciadel producto, utilizando la metodología de la cointegración. Por último, seestima el valor del producto potencial no-primario que permite corroborar lahipótesis del largo estancamiento en el período de agotamiento del procesosustitutivo.

  1. Os ciclos escolares: elementos de uma trajetória School cycles: elements of a trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Siqueira de Sá Barretto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a evidenciar algumas características presentes em muitos dos ensaios de implantação dos ciclos escolares no país, bem como as justificativas para a sua adoção. Assim o faz por entender que o domínio das representações e da cultura, bem como o das fundamentações teóricas e das razões políticas que compõem as justificativas é um dos mais significativos na constituição das múltiplas determinações das reformas educacionais. São revisitados alguns textos antológicos da História da Educação Brasileira que situam a discussão em décadas passadas, bem como registradas iniciativas de adoção dos ciclos em diferentes períodos e em espaços diversos, recuperando-se inclusive dados de pesquisa sobre as propostas curriculares dos estados e de alguns municípios, vigentes entre 1985 e 1995.This article proposes to show some of the characteristics present in many of the attempts to implant school cycles in the country, as well as the justification for their adoption. It states that dominion of representation of culture, as well as of the theoretical fundamentals and political logic that comprise the justifications are the most significant points among the multiple determinants of educational reform. Some basic texts in the history of Brazilian education, which locate the discussion in the past decades, are reviewed along with recorded initiatives in adopting the cycles during different periods and in diverse locations. Data from research on curriculum proposals in some of the states and cities, in effect between 1985 and 1995 is reviewed and recovered.

  2. Developing a proactive credit risk management tool – A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanen, Juliaana

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Objective of the study is to develop and analyze an in-house credit assessment tool for a large Finnish industrial company. Identification of proactive non-financial and market information measures is considered central. This study proposes a new credit risk management framework that aims to link risk management to corporate strategy within a balanced scorecard (BSC) type of approach. The credit risk measurement technique will base on expert system. METHODOLOGY ...

  3. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Evis; Warren, Ruth M. L.; McCann, Jenny; Duffy, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas E

    1999-01-01

    Introduction: Overall, epidemiological studies [1,2,3,4] have reported no substantial association between cigarette smoking and the risk of breast cancer. Some studies [5,6,7] reported a significant increase of breast cancer risk among smokers. In recent studies that addressed the association between breast cancer and cigarette smoking, however, there was some suggestion of a decreased risk [8,9,10], especially among current smokers, ranging from approximately 10 to 30% [9,10]. Brunet et al [...

  4. Análisis del ciclo de vida y las políticas de desarrollo de los clusters de empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Capó-Vicedo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan dos aspectos muy concretos de las teorías que estudian las aglomeraciones territoriales de empresas o clusters; por una parte los factores que propician su desarrollo, estudiando de manera especial su origen y ciclo de vida y, por otra, aquellas políticas y acciones que pueden llevarse a cabo para potenciarlos. El trabajo busca obtener una visión de conjunto de los aspectos mencionados, a partir de estudios significativos realizados tanto desde el mundo académico como desde el mundo profesional. Entre las principales conclusiones del artículo destaca el hecho de que los clusters tienen siempre un ciclo de vida, sobre el cual tienen influencia tanto factores internos como externos al propio cluster. En este sentido se indican aquellos factores que pueden contribuir a que un cluster se mantenga en sus etapas de crecimiento y madurez el mayor tiempo posible, sin entrar en su fase de decadencia.In this piece, two very concrete aspects of the theories that deal with territorial agglomerations of companies (or clusters are analyzed. These are, on the one hand, the factors that cause the development of such clusters, studying their origins and life cycles in a particular way. On the other hand, we look at those policies and actions that can be carried out in order to harness these territorial agglomerations. The work aims to obtain a holistic vision of the aforementioned aspects, drawing from significant studies from both academia and the private sector. Among the main conclusions of the article, we highlight the fact that clusters always have a stressed life cycle, in which both internal and external factors influence the formation of clusters. In this sense, the factors that cause a cluster to remain in its stages of growth and maturity for as long as possible, without entering into a phase of decay, are indicated.

  5. Simulación de Plantas de Cogeneración de Ciclo Combinado usando ASPEN® Simulation of Combined Cycle Cogeneration Plants using ASPEN®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue generar una estrategia para el diseño de plantas de cogeneración de ciclo combinado, basada en el uso del simulador ASPEN®. La estrategia comprende la simulación, así como la definición de todas las variables clave del proceso. Como caso de estudio, se consideró satisfacer la demanda real de vapor y electricidad en una refinería usando un esquema de cogeneración de ciclo combinado. Aspectos relevantes de la situación actual de esta tecnología tal como el cálculo del punto de rocío ácido, para restringir la temperatura de los gases de salida, fueron considerados en el modelo. Se revisaron tres esquemas para determinar la mejor opción para el caso de estudio. Se concluye que la estrategia aplicada en este análisis puede generalizarse a otros casos y podría ser aplicada en el diseño futuro de plantas de cogeneración en MéxicoThe objective of this work was to generate a strategy for combined cycle cogeneration plant design based on the ASPEN® process simulator. The approach included process simulation as well as definition of all key variables. Satisfaction of real vapor and electricity demands in a refinery was considered as a case study, using a scheme of combined cycle cogeneration. Considered in the model were the outstanding aspects of the state of the art for this technology, such as the calculation of the dew acid point to restrict the temperature of exhaust gases. Three schemes were analyzed to determine the best option for the case under study. It was concluded that this approach could be extended to other cases and could be applied to the future design of cogeneration plants in Mexico.

  6. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2007-01-01

    counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling....... CONCLUSION: This population-based study of women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer indicates that genetic counseling can help them both to reduce their perceived risk and to achieve a more realistic view of their risk of developing breast cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  7. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  8. The Seoul Metropolitan Lifestyle Intervention Program and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Retrospective Database Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Ryu, Hosihn; Park, Mi-Suk; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Yoo Mi; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, the Seoul Metabolic Syndrome Management (SMESY) program has been employed as a community-wide, lifestyle modification intervention in Seoul, Korea. We aimed to determine if the SMESY intervention would be significantly associated with improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. This retrospective database study included data from 25,449 participants aged 30–64 years between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2013. In the SMESY program, 3 risk-stratified groups by the number of MetS factors were followed for 12 months with different intensity and timeframe of intervention. Among the high-(n = 7116) and moderate-risk groups (n = 14,762), all MetS factors (except triglycerides among the moderate-risk group) as well as MetS z-scores significantly improved over 12 months (all p < 0.05). Among the low-risk group (n = 3571), all factors aggravated significantly over 12 months (all p < 0.05). We observed temporal associations between the implementation of the SMESY program and improvements in MetS risk factors. However, such improvements differed by risk-stratified group, being most robust for the high-risk group, modest for the moderate-risk group, and aggravated for the low-risk group. Thus, more intensive interventions targeting different risk-stratified groups are needed, given a better understanding of the increase in risk factors observed in the low-risk group. PMID:27384576

  9. Import risk analysis: A case study of white shrimp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As the culture industry of black tiger shrimp in Thailand has encountered several problems causing unsuccessful shrimp culture over decades, a new non-indigenous marine species, i.e. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei was imported into Thailand as an alternation. However, imported white shrimp may carry some infectious agents which pose serious threats on aquatic species native to Thailand. Therefore, in the present study the import risk analysis (IRA was conducted to identify any hazard and estimate the risk presented by importation of white shrimp. The process involves the risk analysis steps of hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment and risk management. The risks associated with individual diseases and disease agents of white shrimp have been evaluated. Risk assessment conducted using risk evaluation matrix indicated high risk of Taura syndrome virus (TSV, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in imported white shrimp. The iterative process of risk management leads to a set of acceptable measures or strategies for each identified hazard for which the unrestricted risk is considered higher than appropriate level of protection. These measures or strategies will reduce risk to a level that is considered acceptable. Where measures or strategies that reduce the risk associated with a particular hazard to an acceptable level cannot be identified, permission to import the relevant commodity will be denied. The measures implemented in the control of white shrimp imports constitute quarantine and health certificate issued by exporting countries.

  10. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed alarmingly high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and other risk factors in postmenopausal women from rural areas.

  11. Recepción televisiva en la adolescencia: ciclo de vida y gramáticas de reconocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapuente, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Este trabajo, producto de una investigación realizada en el Instituto de Comunicación y Diseño (INCOD de la Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (UADE, se dirige a describir algunos de los procesos de producción de sentido que guían la selección y preferencia de programas en el telespectador adolescente1. Es intención avanzar aquí sobre los modos en que un ciclo de vida ejerce su influencia modalizando y condicionando el encuentro que mantiene con la televisión. Nos interesa describir especialmente el modo en que la adolescencia se convierte en una vía de aproximación al actor que se encuentra en la recepción de medios. Para ello hacemos explícito primero nuestro enfoque, circunscribimos una programación que constituye «la pantalla adolescente de la televisión de aire local de 2008» y nos detenemos en las reglas que la adolescencia activa en la recepción de sus programas. [en] This work is part of a study being conducted at the Institute of Design and Communication (INCOD at the Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (UADE. Its main objective is to describe the processes by which the adolescent selects and consumes TV programs. In this study, it is our goal to provide an understanding of how the cycle of life influences, modulates and conditions the relation that the consumer has with the television. We are particularly interested in the way the adolescent functions, as a way of approaching the consumer in the act of media reception. Our work is focused on the “adolescent screen in local television in 2008” from which we analyze the rules that teenagers activate upon the reception of some of its programs.

  12. Risk assessment for scented products: a pre-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park MVDZ; Janssen PJCM; Raaij MTM van; SIR

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the possible risks when consumers are exposed to fragrances. Fragrances are added to many consumer products, from detergents to toys. Passive room perfumes and spray perfumes represent two groups of products that are popular in use and may lead to high and long-lasting exposure

  13. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V.A. van Oort; K. Greaves-Lord; J. Ormel; F.C. Verhulst; A.C. Huizink

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  14. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano;

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges...

  15. Risk and maximum residue limits: a study of hops production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines how maximum residue limits (MRLs) affect the optimal choice by growers of chemical applications to control pests and diseases. In practice, growers who export balance both yield risk and pesticide residue uncertainty when making chemical application decisions. To address these is...

  16. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  17. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, P.; Oostenbrink, J.; Schaepkens, F.F.J.M.; Zuurbier, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the

  18. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  19. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post

  20. El análisis del ciclo de vida en la cuantificación de desechos de dos productos elaborados a partir de langosta

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Núñez, G.

    2010-01-01

    El Análisis del Ciclo de Vida (ACV) es un método para analizar y evaluar los efectos y cargas ambientales causados por un producto, proceso o actividad durante su ciclo de vida completo “de la cuna a la tumba”, constituye una herramienta integral orientada hacia el producto y analiza las consecuencias potenciales que el mismo pueda causar para el medio ambiente a lo largo de su ciclo de vida. En el trabajo se realiza, de manera preliminar, el ACV a dos productos elaborados a parti...

  1. Transferências voluntárias e ciclo político-orçamentário no federalismo fiscal brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan F. S. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo apresenta um estudo econométrico sugerindo que as transferências inter-governamentais no Brasil são significantemente influenciadas por motivações político-partidárias. Diante desse fato estilizado, desenvolve-se uma extensão do modelo de Rogoff (1990 para analisar o efeito dessas transferências politicamente motivadas sobre os equilíbrios eleitoral e fiscal subnacionais. Mostra-se que as transferências politicamente motivadas podem anular o principal aspecto positivo do ciclo político-orçamentário. De fato, essas transferências podem, por um lado, eliminar o ciclo políticoorçamentário, resolvendo o problema de risco moral, mas, por outro lado, elas podem colocar no poder um titular incompetente, gerando um problema de seleção adversa.This article presents an econometric study suggesting that intergovernmental transfers to Brazilian municipalities are strongly partisan motivated. In light of that stylized fact, it develops an extension to Rogoff (1990's model to analyze the effect of partisan motivated transfers into sub-national electoral and fiscal equilibria. The main finding is that important partisan transfers may undo the positive selection aspect of political budget cycles. Indeed, partisan transfers may, on one hand, eliminate the political budget cycle, solving a moral hazard problem, but, on the other hand, they may retain an incompetent incumbent in office, bringing about an adverse selection problem.

  2. Dairy Supply Chain Risk Management in Bangladesh: Field studies of Factors and Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain risk management (SCRM has gained wide attention among the academia and the business community in the present competitive business world. This paper aims to investigate the main risk factors associated with the dairy industry along with focuses on possible mitigation strategy to mitigate those risks. Qualitative field study has been undertaken in this research. The results of the interviews identify the different risk issues along with the possible mitigation strategies, embedded at storage, processing and distribution level in dairy industry of Bangladesh. The practical implication will contribute significantly to the dairy sector in terms of mitigating risks.

  3. The credibility of risk information about licit substances: An exploratory study of attitudes among Swedish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekendahl Mats

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Providing risk information on licit substances is a central health promotion strategy. There is, however, very little knowledge about public attitudes on this information. In this exploratory study we analyse the extent to which Swedish adults: 1 trust risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and wet snuff (“snus” provided by public authorities, 2 perceive risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and snus as consistent, and 3 have received an adequate amount of risk information from public authorities regarding these substances. The aim is also to investigate if certain characteristics among participants are related to their perceptions of such risk information.

  4. Sincronização do ciclo celular em meristema radicular de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. Sinchronization of cell cycle in root meristem of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Augusta Torres

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das dificuldades de se conduzir estudos citogenéticos em espécies vegetais nativas do cerrado é a ocorrência de baixos índices metafásicos no meristema radicular. O incremento dos índices mitótico e metafásico em células de pontas de raiz tem sido obtido em várias espécies com a sincronização do ciclo celular por meio de hidroxiuréia (HU. Neste trabalho foram determinadas as condições ótimas para a sincronização eficiente do ciclo em células meristemáticas de raízes de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de HU (0,00; 1,25; 2,50; 5,00 e 10,00 mM, três tempos de exposição das raízes (10, 15 e 20 h e dois tempos de recuperação do ciclo (5 e 10 h. As melhores respostas foram obtidas com exposição das raízes, de cerca de 1 cm, à solução de HU 3,5 mM, por 20 horas, com posterior recuperação do ciclo em água destilada por 5 horas. O índice de 45% de células em divisão representou um incremento de cerca de 5 vezes em relação à testemunha, ao passo que para células em metáfases, o índice de 22,6% foi cerca de 10 vezes superior. Portanto, o uso dessa estratégia mostrou-se bastante eficiente para a obtenção de grande quantidade de cromossomos para análise citogenética do baru.A major difficulty in cytogenetic studies of plant species from "cerrado" is the low metaphasic index in root tip cells. Cell cycle synchronization, by using hydroxyurea (HU, has been successfully used in order to obtain high mitotic and metaphasic index in several species. The goal of this work was to optimize conditions for efficient synchronization of Dipteryx alata root tip meristematic cells. Different levels of hydroxyurea (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, and 10.00 mM, periods of treatment (10, 15, and 20 h and periods of cell cycle recovery (5 and 10 h were tested. Best results were achieved by treating 10-mm long roots with 3.5 mM hydroxyurea, for 20 h and incubating for 5 h in distilled water. The

  5. Technical and environmental aspects of combined cycle power stations with integrated gasification (CCGI); Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A description is presented of the operation of the Combined Cycle Power Stations with Integrated Gasification (CCGI) where the use of solid fuels (coal, vacuum residues, petroleum coke, and biomass) or liquids is possible in a thermal power station with the efficiency and many of the own environmental benefits of the combined cycles. The gasification process is analyzed, that is a thermo-chemical process by means of which a fuel that is in solid state or liquid becomes to the gaseous state by means of a partial oxidation and the obtained gas of this process is called synthesis gas (syngas, by its abbreviations in English) that is used in Combined Cycle Power Stations as a substitute for the natural gas. Also the other components of this type of power stations are shown, such as the air separating unit, and some of the modifications that are due to make to adapt a gas turbine so that it uses syngas, and the considerations of their integration with the air separating unit to optimize the operation of the plant are detailed. A comparison of efficiency values of power stations CCGI with the conventional carbon-electric and the power stations of combined cycle that use natural gas is also shown. Finally the emissions of pollutants of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} are analyzed. The possibility of using fuels like petroleum coke and vacuum tower residues that are produced in the Cadereyta refinery is studied for the possible construction of a CCGI power station in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la descripcion del funcionamiento de las centrales ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI) donde es posible el uso de combustibles solidos (carbon, residuos de vacio, coque de petroleo, biomasa) o liquidos en una central termica con la eficiencia y muchos de los beneficios ambientales propios de los ciclos combinados. Se analiza el proceso de gasificacion, que es un proceso termoquimico mediante el cual se convierte un combustible que se encuentra en estado solido o

  6. Active Smoking, Passive Smoking, and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Kondo, Takaaki; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Nishio, Kazuko; Suzuki, Sadao; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yamamoto, Akio; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women. PMID:18403857

  7. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study. RESULTS: Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  8. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  9. A Study of Risk Factors and T- Score Variability in Romanian Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

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    Rodica TöRöK-Oance

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis risk factors and to analyse the T-score variability in spine and hip according to the associated risk factors.This is a retrospective study (2003-2007 including 177 female patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The patients were separated in seven groups according to the number of risk factors per case. The T-score was compared between this groups using unpaired t-Student test.The most frequent risk factor was early menopause (44.63%, followed by low consumption of dairy products (37.29%, coffee consumption (25.99%, sedentary lifestyle (20.9%, smoking (19.21%, delayed menarche (15.25%, low body mass index (10.71%, nulliparity (7.91%, alcohol consumption (0.56%. The maximum number of risk factors per case was six. The T-score decreased with increasing number of risk factors. T-score differences are statistically significant when comparing cases with 6 risk factors to cases with 5 risk factors (P=0.0315 in spine; P=0.0088 in hip, 4 risk factors (P=0.0076 in spine; P=0.043 in hip, 3 risk factors (P<0.0001 in spine; P=0.0205 in hip, 2 risk factors (P=0.0012 in spine; P<0.0001 in hip, a single risk factor (P<0.001 in spine and hip and no risk factor (P=0.0075 in spine; P=0.0006 in hip.Association of several risk factors leads to decrease of T-score so being able to avoid any such factors may contribute to a better bone mineral density. This could be achieved by the education of female population regarding postmenopausal osteoporosis risk factors, followed by adopting an appropriate lifestyle and diet.

  10. External Validation of the Garvan Nomograms for Predicting Absolute Fracture Risk: The Tromsø Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Luai A; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Åshild Bjørnerem; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Lone Jørgensen; Jan Størmer; Dana Bliuc; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A.; Nguyen, Tuan V; Nina Emaus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Absolute risk estimation is a preferred approach for assessing fracture risk and treatment decision making. This study aimed to evaluate and validate the predictive performance of the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator in a Norwegian cohort. METHODS: The analysis included 1637 women and 1355 aged 60+ years from the Tromsø study. All incident fragility fractures between 2001 and 2009 were registered. The predicted probabilities of non-vertebral osteoporotic and hip fractures were dete...

  11. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Mette T.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Klaus K. Andersen; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Lurie, Galina; Pamela J Thompson; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066...

  12. Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population – a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort ...

  13. HIV prevention among psychiatric inpatients: a pilot risk reduction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Cournos, F; Empfield, M; Agosin, B; Floyd, P

    1992-01-01

    An HIV prevention program was piloted on an acute inpatient admission ward. Patients who volunteered to participate had significantly higher rates of histories of substance use than non-participants, suggesting that patients participated based on rational concerns about past HIV risk behavior. The program consisted of 75 minute sessions once a week for seven weeks and was co-led by an HIV counselor and the ward's social worker. Each session focused on a specific topic and included a short presentation of informational material, viewing of an educational videotape, a discussion, and role play and other educational games. In spite of a wide range in functioning among the participants, discussion was lively and participation was good. The pilot program demonstrates that chronic mentally ill patients can engage in, and benefit from, risk reduction programs and that frank and explicit discussion of sexual issues is well tolerated. Recommendations for improvement in the program are discussed. PMID:1488461

  14. Risk of Falling and Hypnotic Drugs: Retrospective Study of Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Obayashi, Kyoko; Araki, Takuya; Nakamura, Katsunori; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; NOJIMA, YOSHIHISA; Hara, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls and related injuries remain a concern for patient safety in many hospitals and nursing care facilities. In particular, reports examining the relationship between accidents and drugs with a sedative effect have been increasing; however, the analysis of correlation between the background factors of fall accidents and the detailed therapeutic category of drugs is insufficient. Objectives Our objective was to estimate fall risk following the administration of hypnotics in inpatie...

  15. Epidemiologic studies of the risk factors of allergic rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saulyte, Jurgita

    2016-01-01

    This work consists of two parts, with the aim to identify modifiable, lifestylerelated risk factors, such as smoking and diet habits, of allergic rhinitis. Part one is a systematic review and meta-analysis on active and passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis. The objective of this metaanalysis was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking and passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic rhinitis in children and adults. The resu...

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF SURGICAL RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM. ANALYSIS OF THE MORTALITY RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Cristina Roca , 1 ,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate and immediate diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE still remains a difficult challenge for clinicians. Because of the increasing awareness of postoperative VTE, selection of patients who require adequate prophylaxis is of primary importance. Without prophylaxis, the incidence of hospital-acquired deep vein thrombosis (DVT is approximately 10-40% among surgical patients and 40-60% following major orthopedic surgery. Pulmonary embolism (APE is a life threatening disease and one of the main causes of in-hospital mortality. Aim:The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between surgical risk factors and VTE and in-hospital mortality in patients with APE. Methods: We conducted a prospective, cohort study, between January 2004 and December 2010. The patients with VTE, admitted in the Ist Medical Cardiology Clinic, in “St Spiridon” University Hospital, Iasi were included. The risk factors analised were: postoperative risk factor in orthopedic surgery, major surgery and gynecologic surgery and additional risk factors: obesity, central venous line, imobilization and neoplasia. To evaluate which risk factors were independent predictors of mortality in VTE, potential confounding variables were chosen using univariate analysis (p < 0.10, and final odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The cohort consisted of 890 subjects with VTE: 362 with EP and 528 with DVT. The mortality was 21.54% (78 subjects died. From surgical risk factors, orthopedic surgery was most common (5.8% in PE and 6.4% in DVT, followed by general surgery (2.3% in EP and 3.4%DVT and gynecologic surgery (0.82% in EP patients, 1.13% in DVT. Multivariate analysis showed that an obesity (OR=4.21, CI=2.08-8.53, p=0.0001, imobilisation (OR=3.34, CI=1.18-9.45, p=0,023 and time between admission and death (OR=0.77, CI=0.72-0.83, p<0,0001 were the only significant predictors of

  17. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  18. Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Voogd; M.K. Ikram; R.C.W. Wolfs; N.M. Jansonius; J.C.M. Witteman; A. Hofman; P.T.V.M. de Jong

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants ages >= 55 years from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG (iOAG) underwent

  19. Is Diabetes Mellitus a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, S. de; Ikram, M.K.; Wolfs. R.C.W., [No Value; Jansonius, N.M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P.T.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants ages =55 years from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG (iOAG) underwent at

  20. Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of prostate cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, B.A.J.; Cremers, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between intake of folate, and specific folate vitamers, and the risk of advanced and total prostate cancer. Methods: The association between dietary folate and prostate cancer risk was evaluated in The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLC

  1. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  2. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators.......This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators....

  3. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  4. Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis: A Case Study of the Normative Peer Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaute Wangen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to conduct risk assessments of complex incentive systems, using a case study of the normative Peer Review Process (PRP. This research centers on appliances and adaptations of the Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis (CIRA. First as an approach to Root Cause Analysis of a known incident, and then for a full assessment of the incentives in the PRP together with possible risk treatments. CIRA uses an alternative notion of risk, where risk modeling is in terms of conflicting incentives between the risk owner and the stakeholders concerning the execution of actions. Compared to traditional risk assessment approaches, CIRA provides an insight into the underlying incentives behind a risk, and not just the technical vulnerability, likelihood and consequence. The main contributions of this work are an approach to obtain insight into incentives as root causes, and an approach to detecting and analyzing risks from incentives in the normative PRP. This paper also discusses risk treatments in terms of incentives to make the PRP more robust, together with a discussion of how to approach risk analysis of incentives.

  5. Predicting Disease Risk, Identifying Stakeholders, and Informing Control Strategies: A Case Study of Anthrax in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lillian R; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases that affect wildlife and livestock are challenging to manage and can lead to large-scale die-offs, economic losses, and threats to human health. The management of infectious diseases in wildlife and livestock is made easier with knowledge of disease risk across space and identifying stakeholders associated with high-risk landscapes. This study focuses on anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, risk to wildlife and livestock in Montana. There is a history of anthrax in Montana, but the spatial extent of disease risk and subsequent wildlife species at risk are not known. Our objective was to predict the potential geographic distribution of anthrax risk across Montana, identify wildlife species at risk and their distributions, and define stakeholders. We used an ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of anthrax risk. We overlaid susceptible wildlife species distributions and land ownership delineations on our risk map. We found that there was an extensive region across Montana predicted as potential anthrax risk. These potentially risky landscapes overlapped the ranges of all 6 ungulate species considered in the analysis and livestock grazing allotments, and this overlap was on public and private land for all species. Our findings suggest that there is the potential for a multi-species anthrax outbreak on multiple landscapes across Montana. Our potential anthrax risk map can be used to prioritize landscapes for surveillance and for implementing livestock vaccination programs. PMID:27169560

  6. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  7. Una Nota sobre la Teoría Real de los Ciclos Económicos Una Nota sobre la Teoría Real de los Ciclos Económicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosende

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Una Nota sobre la Teoría Real de los Ciclos Económicos The main purpose of this note is to present in a simple way the most important aspects of the theory of real business cycles, following F. Kydland and E. Prescott path-breaking paper of 1982. The presentation is complemented by a discussion about the main criticisms made on this theory.

  8. Association between Knee Osteoarthritis, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and the Framingham Risk Score in South Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sun; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Joo-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis. Knee osteoarthritis patients were defined as participants with K-L grade ≥2 on knee X-ray regardless of knee pain. The association between major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, and smoking habits), FRS, and knee osteoarthritis was analyzed, adjusting for various covariates. Results Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in Koreans aged ≥50 years was 36.6%, and higher in women (men: 24.9%, women: 45.4%). Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in participants with hypertension was significantly higher than those without hypertension (fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.48). Knee osteoarthritis prevalence was also higher in participants with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes than those without (age, sex adjusted OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00–1.41). Also, OR values increased statistically significantly with FRS as a continuous variable (fully adjusted OR 1.007; 95% CI 1.00–1.01). Conclusions Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis was associated with hypertension and diabetes, which are major cardiovascular risk factors, and the FRS. Further studies on FRS pertaining to its relationship with osteoarthritis are warranted. PMID:27764239

  9. Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the major risk factors that can cause death in the world is also type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Turkey does not have a vehicle in the society has been formulate predicting the risk of developing DM. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of DM risk in Turkish society using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC tool. Material and Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The data has been obtained from %u201Cbehavioral risk factors for chronic diseases study%u201D that was made in the province of Yozgat, in 2011. The study population included 825 subjects between 25 to 79 years old who had measured their blood sugar before, but who were not diagnosed DM. DM risk level was calculated using FINDRISC tool. The scale score is between 0-26, %u226515 points are considered high risk (risk ratio 1/3. In analyzing the data, t-test, ANOVA and chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used. Results: Of the subjects 10 years of DM risk score%u2019s mean was 8.8 ± 4.6. When FINDRISC score low / medium and high divided into 2 groups, the proportion of those in the high risk group is 11.5%. This rate is similar to the 10-year incidence of DM calculated (11-12.4% for Turkey. In this study, all of the factors taken into FINDRISC calculations were statistically significant (p 0.05. Discussion: FINDRISC used to be in the DM risk calculations of Turkish population. One out of every ten adults are at high risk of developing DM in 10 years. To avoid this problem urgently needs to be implemented by the various programs on an individual and societal level.

  10. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  11. SATELLITE TECHNIQUES IN RISK MANAGEMENT - STUDY OF USABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarkiewicz, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    Статья представляет возможности использования спутниковых систем в кризисном управлении.The article describes possibilities of using satellite techniques in scope of risk management.

  12. Risk Management from Corporate and FM Perspectives: Two case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ünver, Kadir; Jensen, Per Anker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Risk Management (RM) is perceived and practiced in Facilities Management (FM) and corporate management and to evaluate the potential benefits of an increased application. Theory: RM is a generic management discipline, but apparently it has not achieved the attention...... company and a consulting engineering company. Findings: The research showed that RM was applied in both companies to a higher degree than initially expected, but often using other terminology. The real estate company had a much stronger focus on RM in relation to the technical aspects of real estate...

  13. Increased risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients: a nationwide population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased risk of ischemic stroke has been validated for several cancers, but limited study evaluated this risk in cervical cancer patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients. The study analyzed data from the 2003 to 2008 National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 893 cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy and 1786 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk of ischemic stroke. The 5-year cumulative risk of ischemic stroke was significantly higher for the cervical cancer group than for the control group (7.8% vs 5.1%; p <0.005). The risk of stroke was higher in younger (age <51 years) than in older (age ≥51 years) cervical cancer patients (HR = 2.73, p = 0.04; HR = 1.37, p = 0.07) and in patients with more than two comorbid risk factors (5 years cumulative stroke rate of two comorbidities: 15% compared to no comorbidities: 4%). These study demonstrated cervical cancer patients had a higher risk of ischemic stroke than the general population, especially in younger patients. Strategies to reduce this risk should be assessed

  14. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  15. Social ties and risk for cancer--a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... had an increased risk for lung cancer of borderline significance (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.02-4.60). The risks for breast cancer and colorectal cancers were not significantly increased in the same group of women. DISCUSSION: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that social network size...

  16. Dental Caries Risk Studies Revisited: Causal Approaches Needed for Future Inquiries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Holst

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of high-risk individuals and the multi-risk approach are common inquiries in caries risk epidemiology. These studies prepared the ground for future studies; specific hypotheses about causal patterns can now be formulated and tested applying advanced statistical methods designed for causal studies, such as structural equation modeling, path analysis and multilevel modeling. Causal studies should employ measurements, analyses and interpretation of findings, which are in accordance to causal aims. Examples of causal empirical studies from medical and oral research are presented.

  17. Variações do ciclo anual da temperatura da superfície do mar no pacífico tropical Annual cycle variations of sea surface temperature in the tropical pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Orrú Pedroso Gerólamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Variações do ciclo anual da Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM do Pacífico Tropical entre 20ºN e 20ºS, para o período de 1854 a 2006, foram estudadas usando análises de ondaletas. O estudo mostrou que o ciclo anual, considerando-se a variância para em torno de 1 ano, de TSM possui variabilidade interanual e interdecenal. Existem indicações de que a maior parte das variações interanuais no ciclo anual de TSM das áreas do hemisfério Norte (HN e do hemisfério Sul (HS, está relacionada ao ciclo do El Niño-Oscilação Sul (ENOS. A maioria dos picos da Média por Escalas da Potência localizada da ondaleta (MEPO para a escala entre 0,7 e 1,2 anos, para as áreas de ambos os hemisférios, coincide com extremos do ENOS. Os Espectros da Potência Global (EPGs mostraram variância máxima do ciclo anual de TSM entre 120ºE e 140ºE na faixa do HN (entre equador e 20ºN, e variância crescente da linha da data para leste com o máximo entre 100ºW e 80ºW na faixa do HS (entre equador e 20ºS. Portanto, o ciclo anual de TSM apresenta variações entre os HN e HS com a máxima variância localizando-se no hemisfério leste para o HN e no hemisfério oeste para o HS.Annual cycle variations of the sea surface temperature (SST in the Tropical Pacific Ocean between 20ºN and 20ºS for the period from 1854 to 2006 were studied using wavelet analysis. The study showed that the SST annual cycle, considered the variance around 1 year, contains interannual and interdecadal variabilities. There are indications that most of the SST annual cycle variations at Northern Hemisphere (NH and at Southern Hemisphere (SH areas is related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO cycle. Most peaks of the localized Scale Average Power (SAP for the 0.7-1.2 year scale for the areas on both hemispheres coincides with ENSO extremes. The Wavelet Power Spectra (WPS shows maximum variance of the SST annual cycle between 120ºE and 140ºE for the northern

  18. A Study of Risk Disclosures in the Annual Reports of UK and Malaysian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Hui Ying

    2011-01-01

    The research paper compares the nature and extent of risk disclosure practices between United Kingdom (UK) and Malaysian listed companies for the financial year 2010. In addition, the relationships between the level of risk disclosures and firm's characteristics such as size, industry classification, foreign listing status, country of domicile, level of risk and profitability are examined using multiple regression. Following a disclosure index study, both the UK and Malaysian companies are fo...

  19. Challenges to disaster risk reduction: a study of stakeholders’ perspectives in Imizamo Yethu, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Sofie Roth; Per Becker

    2011-01-01

    South Africa is a complex and dynamic society, with overwhelming and increasing problems with disaster risk in the vulnerable urban communities in and around its rapidly growing metropolitan centres. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the challenges for disaster risk reduction in such communities. It focuses on the case of Imizamo Yethu, in the Western Cape, in order to build theory that is grounded in the empirical realities of stakeholders involved in disaster risk...

  20. Prospective studies of hormonal and life-style related factors and risk of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wirén, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgens are important in prostate cancer development but how circulating levels of androgens affect risk of prostate cancer of different aggressiveness is not clear. Being childless has been associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, but it is not clear if this association is causal or a result of residual confounding. Fathering of dizygotic twins, a marker of high fertility, has not been studied in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Another marker of life-long hormonal ...

  1. Genetic Variants Associated with Increased Risk of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Matullo, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Simonetta; Betti, Marta; Fiorito, Giovanni; Ferrante, Daniela; Voglino, Floriana; Cadby, Gemma; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; De Rosa, Fabio; Russo, Alessia; Hirvonen, Ari; Casalone, Elisabetta; Tunesi, Sara; Padoan, Marina; Giordano, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare aggressive tumor. Nevertheless, only 5–17% of those exposed to asbestos develop MPM, suggesting the involvement of other environmental and genetic risk factors. To identify the genetic risk factors that may contribute to the development of MPM, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS; 370,000 genotyped SNPs, 5 million imputed SNPs) in Italy, among 407 MPM cases and 389 controls with a complet...

  2. Psychosocial Factors and Substance Use in High Risk Youth Living with HIV: A Multisite Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Kolmodin, Karen; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Murphy, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test relationships between psychosocial factors and alcohol and illicit drug use among high risk youth living with HIV. 186 high risk youth with HIV (defined as those with a substance use problem, sexual risk problem OR medication adherence problem) were enrolled across 5 cities (ages 16 to 24). Alcohol and illicit drug use was measured with the ASSIST and a timeline follow-back interview. Questionnaires assessed constructs from the adapted TTM including a cont...

  3. Antioxidant intake and risk of endometrial cancer: Results from the Nurses' Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the associations between antioxidant intake and risk of endometrial cancer, the authors analyzed data from the prospective Nurses’ Health Study. From 1980 to 2006, 669 invasive adenocarcinoma cases were identified over 1.3 million person-years of follow-up. Information on dietary intake was collected in 1980 and updated every 2–4 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the multivariate relative risks (RRs), controlling for total energy and potential risk fa...

  4. Risk factors for schizophrenia. Follow-up data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko; Mäki, Pirjo; Murray, Graham K; Ridler, Khanum; LAURONEN, ERIKA; Moilanen, Kristiina; Alaräisänen, Antti; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Irene; Ivleva, Elena; TAMMINGA, CAROL; McGrath, John; Koponen, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates single risk factors identified by the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study up to the end of year 2001 or age 34. Impaired performance (e.g., delayed motor or intellectual development) or adverse exposures (e.g., pregnancy and birth complications, central nervous system diseases) are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. However, upper social class girls and clever schoolboys also have an increased risk to develop schizophrenia, contraste...

  5. Por uma Didáctica de Línguas Estrangeiras no 1º Ciclo do Ensino Básico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Cruz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde da introdução no ano de 2005 das Línguas Estrangeiras no 1º Ciclo do Ensino Básico, muito se temvindo a trabalhar, no sentido de criar mais materiais didácticos e essencialmente em formar cada vez maisos nossos professores de Língua Estrangeira. No entanto, há ainda um longo caminho a percorrer no quese refere à criação duma didáctica de línguas estrangeiras no 1º Ciclo do Ensino Básico.Neste artigo, procuraremos discutir métodos e estratégias de ensino mais ligados à aprendizagem precocede línguas estrangeiras, tendo em atenção que “when learning is active, students do most of thework” (Silberman, 1996.

  6. La teoría del ciclo económico de Friedrich von Hayek: causas monetarias, efectos reales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Betancourt Rebeca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una lectura simultánea de dos textos: La Teoría monetaria y el ciclo económico (1929 y Precios y producción (1931, con el objetivo de presentar la teoría de los ciclos económicos del joven Hayek, como un conjunto teórico congruente. Ambos textos poseen una unidad temática complementaria, que representa el pensamiento del joven Hayek. Este artículo, subraya la distinción entre el rol que juegan los factores reales y los monetarios en la coherencia de su teoría. Aunque Hayek demuestre que el dinero no es neutro, ya que existe una variación de la estructura de los precios relativos, su propósito era probar su neutralidad.

  7. A study of the perception of health risks among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-06-01

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of "high risk" responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of "high health risk" rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a "high health risk" by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents' degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents' degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally lower than that of

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol drinkers have a decreased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, whereas results for myeloid neoplasms are inconsistent. However, most of these studies have used retrospective data. We examined prospectively whether alcohol consumption decreases the ris

  9. Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158906.html Pain, Epilepsy Drug Lyrica May Increase Birth Defects Risk, Study ... prescribed for a range of health problems, including epilepsy, fibromyalgia and anxiety. The new study findings should ...

  10. A cohort study on the relationship between cerebrovascular hemodynamic changing and risk of strok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭吉平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of cerebrovascular hemodynamic indexes(CVHI)changing in stroke and to provide reference for stroke prevention and risk factor study.Methods From 2003 to 2004,participants aged 40 years

  11. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.Feeding pattems of R. neglectus collected in palm trees around Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil were investigated. Precipitin tests showed 77.2% of avian blood. In view of these results, a new colony of R. neglectus established in the laboratory was fed regularly on pigeons or mice, in order to verify a possible better adaptation of this insect to the avian blood. As a control group a colony of R neglectus which has been maintained for several years in the laboratory was also observed. The results show a better development of the “new" colony in comparison with the old one, and of those bugs nourished with mice blood. Such findings suggest a poorer biological potential for triatomines maintained for long time in artificial conditions, in comparison with those living in the natural environment. As birds are the main vertebrate inhabitants of palm trees (the natural ecotope of R neglectus, the apparent feeding preference of

  12. Importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio en el ciclo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis MELERO MARCOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A lo largo del ciclo vital, los individuos experimentan una serie de acontecimientos que, sin duda, influyen en su desarrollo individual y colectivo. Tales acontecimientos parecen introducir cambios en la vida de los sujetos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar la importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio, desde la consideración de que el estudio de los mismos es consustancial con el estudio del ciclo vital. Desde este punto de partida, se ha establecido la existencia de diversos tipos de clasificaciones de acontecimientos, como la aportada por Rodrigo (1985, que plantea la existencia de tres tipos de eventos, eventos normativos relacionados con la edad, eventos normativos relacionados con el tiempo histórico, y finalmente, un tercer tipo de acontecimientos considerados como no normativos, que solamente son experimentados por algunos sujetos a lo largo de su vida. Analizaremos aquellos factores que adquieren significado en el desarrollo de los acontecimientos vitales y en la forma como los perciben los individuos que los experimentan, desde la revisión de los principales modelos explicativos, polarizados en dos grandes paradigmas, organicista y mecanicista, así como el intento de aproximación a través de modelos contextúales-dialécticos a una posición intermedia entre el paradigma organicista y el paradigma mecanicista.ABSTRACT: Throughout the vital cycle, individuals undergo experiences which no doubt exert an influence on their development. The present article analyzes the importance of vital events as change factors. We assume their inseparability. Adopting the classification established by Rodrigo (1985 we distinguish three classes of events, namely, normative events related to age, normative events related to historical time and non normative events which are not universally experienced by all subjects. We will analyze those factors which have relevant meaning in the development of vital events

  13. High lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease vs low 10-year Framingham risk score in HIV-infected subjects under ART in Spain: the Coronator study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Miralles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to the relative low age of HIV-infected patients, Framingham risk score (FRS usually estimates a low CVD risk. Lifetime risk estimations use the risk of developing CVD over the course of an individual's remaining lifetime and may be useful in communicating the risk of CVD to young patients. Our aim is to estimate the lifetime risk of CVD in a representative sample of HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy in Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in 10 HIV units across Spain, including information on demographics, HIV disease status, treatment history and cardiovascular risk factors of subject under ART. Lifetime CVD risk was calculated with the method of Berry et al, which classifies the lifetime risk in five mutually exclusive categories: 1. All risk factors are optimal; 2. At least one risk factor is not optimal; 3. At least one risk factor is elevated; 4. One major risk factor is present; and 5. Two or more major risk factors are present. Risk factors included are cholesterol level, blood pressure, diabetes and tobacco smoking. We grouped these five categories in two major groups, low-risk (groups 1+2+3 and high-risk category (groups 4+5. We calculated the prevalence of having a high lifetime risk, and its crude and aOR (adjusted by age, sex, place of origin, education level, transmission category, time since HIV diagnosis, CDC stage, current and nadir CD4 count, HCV coinfection, time on current and total ART, being on the first ART regimen, and PI vs. NNRTI regimen. Results: We included 839 subjects free of previous CVD disease: 72% men, median age 45.6y, median CD4 count 598 cells, median time since HIV diagnosis 11y, median time on ART 6.3y, 87% had undetectable VL. Estimated 10-year CVD risk was low (<5% in 78% of the patients, and intermediate (5–10% in 20%. Lifetime risk estimation shows a high risk profile for 71.4% of the population studied (≥1 major risk factors. Factors significantly and independently

  14. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors......, and to study the risk variation in a sex, age, and calendar year perspective. METHODS: The study is a nested case-control study comprising 21 169 suicides and 423 128 population controls matched for age and sex. Personal data on place of residence, socioeconomic status and psychiatric history were retrieved...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially...

  15. Lactate and risk of incident diabetes in a case-cohort of the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative capacity is decreased in type 2 diabetes. Whether decreased oxidative capacity is a cause or consequence of diabetes is unknown. Our purpose is to evaluate whether lactate, a marker of oxidative capacity, is associated with incident diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a case-cohort study in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study at year 9 of follow-up. We evaluated lactate's association with diabetes risk factors at baseline and estimated the hazard ratio for incident diabetes by quartiles of plasma lactate in 544 incident diabetic cases and 533 non-cases. Plasma lactate showed a graded positive relationship with fasting glucose and insulin (P<0.001. The relative hazard for incident diabetes increased across lactate quartiles (P-trend ≤0.001. Following adjustment for demographic factors, medical history, physical activity, adiposity, and serum lipids, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile was 2.05 times the hazard in the lowest quartile (95% CI: 1.28, 3.28. After including fasting glucose and insulin the association became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Lactate, an indicator of oxidative capacity, predicts incident diabetes independent of many other risk factors and is strongly related to markers of insulin resistance. Future studies should evaluate the temporal relationship between elevated lactate and impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance.

  16. Niveles de progesterona durante el ciclo normal y silencioso en bovinos en el trópico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Grajales L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la secuencia de cambios en los niveles de progesterona (NP durante el Ciclo Normal (CN y Ciclo Silencioso (CS. Materiales y métodos. 94 Hembras de los grupos raciales Holstein x Cebú (HC, Simmental x Cebú (SC, Romosinuano (R y Cebú (C se estudiaron desde la pubertad y durante los tres primeros ciclos estrales. Se tomaron muestras de sangre para determinar las concentraciones de progesterona mediante Radioinmunoanálisis, se determinaron 184 perfiles de progesterona para CN y 153 para CS. Para el análisis de la información se utilizó el programa estadístico SAS. Resultados. El grupo R presenta un patrón de variaciones de los NP a través de las fases del CN que tienediferencias significativas con el comportamiento de los NP en las fases del CN de los grupos SC, HC y C. Los niveles de progesterona en cada fase del CS coinciden con una fase luteal con bajos niveles de progesterona. Solo se encontraron diferencias significativas en la fase luteal tardía al comparar el CN con el CS, sin embargo se presentan diferencias numéricas en todas las fases entre estos dos tipos de ciclos. Conclusiones. Las concentraciones de progesterona tienen un marcado efecto sobre la presentación del CS, no obstante es difícil definir una concentración de progesterona que caracterice cada evento (CN o CS, sin embargo, es evidente que la progesterona influye sobre las probabilidades para que se de una respuesta reproductiva favorable o desfavorable.

  17. Risk communication at a major university : an anthrax case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, C.E. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Chess, C. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Dept. of Human Ecology

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed risk communication strategies used by Rutgers University to communicate with faculty, students, staff and community about issues concerning anthrax and mail safety. Several issues were considered in this paper, including: incident specific communication and participant responses to false alarms; general communication issues; and any recommendations that may be applicable to other institutions. A literature review guided the development of an interview protocol. Two groups of individuals were interviewed for approximately 30 minutes about their experiences with, and views on risk communication at Rutgers. Groups included information providers such as members of departments that develop and disseminate health and safety information, and information recipients, such as faculty, staff and students. Two sets of questions were developed for both general and incident-specific communications. Either one or both sets of interview questions were used. Data was analyzed using codes based on the selected risk communication concepts. Data related to specific incidents was also coded to explore the sequence of events and perceptions of those involved. Findings included information on incident specific communications; perceptions of information providers; perceptions of information recipients; and communication with the larger university community. Various recommendations were made as well as a summary of findings. Incident-specific communication recommendations included using an on-scene spokesperson to provide updated information as often as possible; determining and addressing key concerns and questions of participants; providing access to rest room facilities as well as food and water; explaining the limitations in providing information to a variety of audiences at the same time; and allowing individuals access to personal items that may be quarantined during an emergency. General communications findings were also presented, with reference to the fact

  18. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  19. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Cui; Xinxin Liu; Yalan Tian; Chen Xie; Qianwen Li; Han Cui; Changqing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990...

  20. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks.

  1. Risk/benefit considerations in nuclear medical in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the one hand are the radiation dose which varies widely among common nuclear medicine procedures, and the age of the patient and his life expectancy which may be limited because of serious illness. On the other hand are the benefits in terms of diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis, therapy control and follow-up. Although there are few quantitative data, an analysis of the nuclear medicine patient population offers information concerning the average age of patients, the type of disorder - mostly serious - which requires nuclear medicine procedures, and the indications and indication thresholds for such procedures. Quality control contributes to an improved risk/benefit ratio. This involves radioactive substances, equipment and standardization of procedures. The training of personnel, especially doctors, is of particular importance so that indications for performing a test, interpretation and calculation are established correctly. (orig./MG)

  2. CICLO DE VIDA ORGANIZACIONAL E CONTROLE GERENCIAL: UMA ANÁLISE DOS ARTIGOS EM PERIÓDICOS INTERNACIONAIS DE CONTABILIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os artigos sobre a abordagem do ciclo de vida organizacional em nível internacional, levantando os principais tópicos associados com os controles gerenciais. Em pesquisa a 67 periódicos, chegou-se a uma amostra inicial de 39 artigos. Após a leitura dos resumos para identificação dos artigos que relacionassem ciclo de vida organizacional com controles gerenciais, a amostra ficou em sete artigos. O periódico internacional de contabilidade que mais publicou artigos relacionados a ciclo de vida organizacional foi o Management Accounting Research. As publicações são recentes, dois artigos em 2005 e três artigos em 2008. Destaca-se que nos artigos publicados em 2008, todos são de autoria ou co-autoria de Hanna Silvola. O pequeno número de estudos encontrados permite que o tema possa ser objeto de mais pesquisas, contribuindo com as organizações, gestores e outros interessados a entender melhor como esses controles são utilizados e se modificam com a evolução da empresa. 

  3. Monitoramento do ciclo estral de cutias (Dasyprocta leporina Lichtenstein, 1823 através de citologia esfoliativa vaginal e ultrassonografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia B. Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar o ciclo estral em cutias (Dasyprocta leporina criadas em cativeiro no semiárido brasileiro. Durante 70 dias, cinco cutias foram diariamente submetidas a citologia esfoliativa vaginal, e o monitoramento ultrassonográfico ovariano foi realizado a cada três dias. Um total de 8 ciclos estrais foi completamente monitorado, com duração de 28,2±0,7 dias, variando de 24 a 31 dias. Pela citologia esfoliativa vaginal, houve uma predominância de células superficiais nas fases de proestro e estro (P0,05. Os folículos foram identificados durante as fases estrogênicas (proestro e estro, com diâmetro médio de 1±0,5mm. Em apenas 12,5% das fases luteais, corpos lúteos medindo 1,4±0,9mm foram identificados. Conclui-se que a associação da citologia vaginal e da ultrassonografia ovariana constitui uma alternativa viável para o monitoramento de ciclos estrais e identificação das fases estrogênicas em cutias da espécie Dasyprocta leporina

  4. ESTUDO DO PRIMEIRO CICLO PRODUTIVO DA BANANEIRA `NANICÃO' (Musa sp. DESENVOLVIDA A PARTIR DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE MUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCARPARE FILHO J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o primeiro ciclo produtivo de bananeira `Nanicão' foram utilizados 5 tipos de muda: "chifrinho" e "chifrão" (brotações laterais com folhas lanceoladas, "guarda-chuva" (brotações separadas da planta mãe, com folhas normais, pedaços de rizoma e mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliados o peso dos cachos, o número de pencas, o número de frutos por cacho e número de dias decorridos do plantio até a colheita. Os melhores desempenhos foram obtidos com as mudas "chifrinho" e "chifrão", que apresentaram maior equilíbrio das variáveis estudadas. As mudas constituidas de pedaços de rizoma, embora com uma produção alta, mostraram-se tardias no primeiro ciclo. O pior desempenho foi verificado nas mudas micropropagadas, com produções inferiores aos demais tratamentos, apresentando primeiro ciclo tardio e alta taxa de variação somaclonal.

  5. Combining Climate Scenarios and Risk Management Approach—A Finnish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Molarius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on nature and the environment have been widely discussed and studied. Traditionally, a company’s continuity management is based on risk analysis. There are also attempts to implement scenario-based methods in the risk management procedures of companies. For industrial decision makers, it is vital to acknowledge the impacts of climate change with regards to their adaptation strategies. However, a scenario-based approach is not always the most effective way to analyze these risks. This paper investigates the integration of scenario and risk-based methods for a company’s adaptation planning. It considers the uncertainties of the climate change scenarios and the recognized risks as well as suitable adaptation strategies. The paper presents the results of climate risk analysis prepared for two Finnish hydropower plants. The introduced method was first piloted in 2008 and then again in 2015. The update of the analysis pointed out that at the company level, the climate risks and other risks originating from governmental or political decisions form an intertwined wholeness where the origin of the risk is difficult to outline. It seems that, from the business point of view, the main adaptation strategies suggested by the integrated risk and scenarios approach are those that support buying “safety margins” in new investments and reducing decision time horizons. Both of these adaptation strategies provide an advantage in the circumstances where also political decisions and societal changes have a great effect on decision making.

  6. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Jesica Tamara; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio; Perales-Momparler, Sara; Ramón Porta-Sancho, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequences and using event tree modelling for risk calculation. The study area is the city of Oliva, located on the eastern coast of Spain. Results from risk modelling have been used to inform local action planning and to assess the benefits of structural and non-structural risk reduction measures. Results show the potential impact on risk reduction of flood defences and improved warning communication schemes through local action planning: societal flood risk (in terms of annual expected affected population) would be reduced up to 51 % by combining both structural and non-structural measures. In addition, the effect of seasonal population variability is analysed (annual expected affected population ranges from 82 to 107 %, compared with the current situation, depending on occupancy rates in hotels and campsites). Results highlight the need for robust and standardized methods for urban flood risk analysis replicability at regional and national scale.

  7. Identifying patient preferences for communicating risk estimates: A descriptive pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Annette M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients increasingly seek more active involvement in health care decisions, but little is known about how to communicate complex risk information to patients. The objective of this study was to elicit patient preferences for the presentation and framing of complex risk information. Method To accomplish this, eight focus group discussions and 15 one-on-one interviews were conducted, where women were presented with risk data in a variety of different graphical formats, metrics, and time horizons. Risk data were based on a hypothetical woman's risk for coronary heart disease, hip fracture, and breast cancer, with and without hormone replacement therapy. Participants' preferences were assessed using likert scales, ranking, and abstractions of focus group discussions. Results Forty peri- and postmenopausal women were recruited through hospital fliers (n = 25 and a community health fair (n = 15. Mean age was 51 years, 50% were non-Caucasian, and all had completed high school. Bar graphs were preferred by 83% of participants over line graphs, thermometer graphs, 100 representative faces, and survival curves. Lifetime risk estimates were preferred over 10 or 20-year horizons, and absolute risks were preferred over relative risks and number needed to treat. Conclusion Although there are many different formats for presenting and framing risk information, simple bar charts depicting absolute lifetime risk were rated and ranked highest overall for patient preferences for format.

  8. System of systems engineering and risk management of extreme events: concepts and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Michele; Fang, Liping; Hipel, Keith W

    2012-11-01

    The domain of risk analysis is expanded to consider strategic interactions among multiple participants in the management of extreme risk in a system of systems. These risks are fraught with complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty, which pose challenges in how participants perceive, understand, and manage risk of extreme events. In the case of extreme events affecting a system of systems, cause-and-effect relationships among initiating events and losses may be difficult to ascertain due to interactions of multiple systems and participants (complexity). Moreover, selection of threats, hazards, and consequences on which to focus may be unclear or contentious to participants within multiple interacting systems (ambiguity). Finally, all types of risk, by definition, involve potential losses due to uncertain events (uncertainty). Therefore, risk analysis of extreme events affecting a system of systems should address complex, ambiguous, and uncertain aspects of extreme risk. To accomplish this, a system of systems engineering methodology for risk analysis is proposed as a general approach to address extreme risk in a system of systems. Our contribution is an integrative and adaptive systems methodology to analyze risk such that strategic interactions among multiple participants are considered. A practical application of the system of systems engineering methodology is demonstrated in part by a case study of a maritime infrastructure system of systems interface, namely, the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. PMID:22804565

  9. Case study of residential exposure pathways: A probabilistic risk assessment using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk assessment case study presented in this paper evaluates the potential human health risk to residential receptors exposed to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene from a JP-4 fuel spill. The eight residential scenario exposure pathways quantitatively assessed for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxicological effects are: ingestion of groundwater, ingestion of soil, inhalation of volatiles (outdoors), inhalation of fugitive dust, dermal exposure to soil, dermal exposure while showering, inhalation of volatiles while showering, and ingestion of fruits and vegetables. Human health risks were calculated following EPA guidance documents which recommend determining a point estimate for potential risk in a baseline risk assessment (BRA) and a quantified uncertainty in that point estimate by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). BRAs typically use conservative estimates for exposure parameters, and consequently, the calculated risk represents an upper-bound or worst scenario that is beyond the reasonable maximum exposure (RME) without an associated quantified uncertainty. PRAs employing Monte Carlo techniques incorporate distributions for exposure parameters into the risk analysis to calculate a distribution for risk with each value in the risk distribution having a corresponding quantified uncertainty. The results of the assessment presented in this paper are examined to show the usefulness of the PRA in quantifying the uncertainty in the BRA

  10. SETIL: Italian multicentric epidemiological case–control study on risk factors for childhood leukaemia, non hodgkin lymphoma and neuroblastoma: study population and prevalence of risk factors in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Magnani, Corrado; Mattioli, Stefano; Miligi, Lucia; Ranucci, Alessandra; Rondelli, Roberto; Salvan, Alberto; Bisanti, Luigi; Masera, Giuseppe; Rizzari, Carmelo; Zambon, Paola; Cannizzaro, Santina; Gafà, Lorenzo; Luzzatto, Lia Lidia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Michelozzi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Background Aetiology of childhood leukaemia and childhood neoplasm is poorly understood. Information on the prevalence of risk factors in the childhood population is limited. SETIL is a population based case–control study on childhood leukaemia, conducted with two companion studies on non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and neuroblastoma. The study relies on questionnaire interviews and 50 Hz magnetic field (ELF-MF) indoor measurements. This paper discusses the SETIL study design and includes descript...

  11. Risk of Cerebral Infarction in Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study (MID study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunori Toida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Predictors including the preventive effects of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs on cerebral infarction (CI events have not yet been clarified in dialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of CI and preventive effects of these drugs in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Methods: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (n=1,551, median age (interquartile range, 69.0 (59.0-78.0 years; 41.5% female were enrolled in the Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study and prospectively followed-up for 3 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox's regression analyses were used to clarify the risk of CI. Results: Eighty-four patients developed CI at an incidence of 21.5/1000 patients per year. The presence of a previous history of CI, atrial fibrillation (AF, and diabetes mellitus in addition to age were also identified as predictive factors for new CI, whereas no relationship was observed between antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant usage and CI. Furthermore, no significant difference was noted in the frequency of CI events between patients with AF who received warfarin and those who did not. Conclusions: The incidence of CI was higher in dialysis patients with a previous history of CI and AF; however, the preventive effects of antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs on the development of CI were not evident.

  12. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  13. Study on the evaluation system for the coal safety management based on risk pre-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; XU Hai-xia; WANG Pei; SONG Xue-feng

    2009-01-01

    The new type of risk management is process management.First,the hazard sources are identified before coal mine accidents occur,and then the pre-control measure and information monitoring method based on classifying the hidden hazard sources are given.Lastly,the risk pre-alarm and risk control method are confirmed,the management standard and management measure are used to eliminate the hidden hazard sources.In this study,an evaluation system is built to evaluate the result of risk management.

  14. General practitioners’ use of absolute risk versus individual risk factors in cardiovascular disease prevention: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jesse; Bonner, Carissa; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Glasziou, Paul ,; Doust, Jenny; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hayen, Andrew; Turner, Robin; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand general practitioners’ (GPs) use of individual risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol levels) versus absolute risk in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management decision-making. Design Randomised experiment. Absolute risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL)) and age were systematically varied in hypothetical cases. High absolute risk was defined as 5-year risk of a cardiovascular event >15%, hig...

  15. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  16. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat

  17. Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

  18. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  19. Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Smits, K.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-adjusted magnesium intake was nonsignificantly inversely related to risk of colorectal cancer (n=2328) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer that started in 1986 (n=58 279 men and 62 573 women). Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects

  20. Analysis of risk factors of stillbirth: a hospital based study in a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Shyam

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Majority of the risk factors found in the present study were preventable. Stillbirth rate can be reduced by proper management of these risk factors during antenatal care and intrapartum care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 525-529

  1. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  2. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-

  3. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Frewer, L.J.; Chryssochoidis, G.M.; Houghton, J.R.; Korzen-Bohr, S.; Krystallis, T.; Lassen, J.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes to

  4. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  5. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  6. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  7. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Hofman, A.; Meijer, W.T.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Data on alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis are scarce. To determine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study (199

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R; Geleijnse, JM; Hofman, A; Meijer, WT; van Rooij, FJA; Grobbee, DE; Witteman, JCM

    2002-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Data on alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis are scarce. To determine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study (199

  9. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Worp, H.; Van Ark, M.; Zwerver, J.; Van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2012-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a larg

  10. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes for Enterococcus spp. Blood Stream Infections: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Billington

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the second population-based study to assess the risk factors for enterococcal BSI and compare the characteristics of infection with E. faecalis and E. faecium. Results suggest that BSI with E. faecalis and E. faecium should be regarded as two clinically different entities with unique sets of risk factors and microbiologic characteristics.

  11. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  12. Use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis: A case–control study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lai

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study does not detect a substantial association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of systematic analysis. There appears to be a discrepancy between case reports and our systematic analysis about the association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis.

  13. Ciclo de estudios de Ginebra. La industrialización de la construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre de Yraola, Fernando

    1965-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives information about the program of research developed by the Working Group of the United Nations Economic Committee for Europe (Housing Committee for Building and Planning. It includes a summary of the documents collected by the Secretariat of the above Committee. The matters that are discussed can be included under the above headings: comparison of buildings costs; effects of repetition of operations at the working site; economy and technology of building upkeep; statistics of building mechanization, and modular standardization of building units.El presente artículo es una información referente al Ciclo de Estudios realizado por el Grupo de Trabajo de la Comisión Económica para Europa, de las Naciones Unidas (Comité de la Vivienda, de la Edificación y de la Planificación, y contiene una recopilación de las ideas tomadas de los documentos del Secretariado de dicha Comisión. Los problemas tratados pueden incluirse en la siguiente temática general: Comparación de los costos de la construcción; Efectos de la repetición sobre las operaciones de construcción en obra; Economía y técnica de la conservación de edificios; Estadística de la mecanización de la industria de la edificación, y Coordinación dimensional de elementos constructivos.

  14. Envejecimiento saludable: perspectiva de género y de ciclo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Pilar Montero-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar factores bioculturales y sociales que actúan en diferentes etapas del ciclo vital, implicados en la forma de envejecer de mujeres y hombres mayores de 65 años. Material y Método: 213 personas; edad media 73.9 (std=5.8 en mujeres y 74.8 (std=6.6 en hombres. Datos recogidos en Centros Culturales y de Ocio de la Comunidad de Madrid. El envejecimiento saludable (a partir del número de enfermedades diagnosticadas, percepción de la salud, satisfacción con la vida y estado auditivo y bucal,fue considerado como variable dependiente. La edad, sexo, nivel de estudios, talla sentado, envergadura, edad de primera maternidad y número total de hijos fueron consideradas como variables independientes. Se utilizaron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para analizar la relación de estas variables con la calidad del envejecimiento. Resultados: El envejecimiento saludable se asocia negativamente con edad y directamente con talla sentado en hombres. En mujeres el envejecimiento saludable se asocia positivamente con años de educación, cuando se incluye la edad de primera maternidad,ésta es la única variable con efecto significativo. Conclusiones: Existen diferentes factores que actúan a lo largo de la vida de los hombres y de las mujeres y que afectan de manera distinta a su forma de envejecer.

  15. Revisión teórica del modelo de ciclo de vida organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Angélica Décaro Santiago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Modelos de Ciclo de Vida Organizacional (OLC, por sus siglas en inglés tienen por objetivo representar el nivel de desarrollo de la empresa a través de una serie de etapas consecutivas; diferenciadas por características propias y retos por resolver. Los autores que se han dedicado al estudio del tema consideran que un buen entendimiento sobre el nivel de desarrollo de la empresa, permite tener un visión más amplia de las características y necesidades de la misma para con ello, auxiliar a la toma de decisiones y por ende, prepararse para los retos presentes y futuros. Desde su aparición, en los años 50´s, OLC ha sido abordado por un gran número de académicos, investigadores, consultores y asesores de empresas. En la literatura se muestran tres periodos de estudio; la conceptualización, la evidencia empírica y la aplicación de nuevas metodologías de investigación; así como el estudio de sujetos y subsistemas más específicos. Así bien, este documento describe los modelos más representativos, sus adaptaciones y aplicaciones a lo largo de estos tres periodos; generando así una investigación de alcance descriptivo.

  16. Necessidades e preocupações dos pais em diferentes etapas do ciclo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Tarouco da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar as necessidades e as preocupações prioritárias, manifestadas pelos pais no desempenho do seu papel, em três etapas do ciclo vital: adolescência, idade produtiva e idade madura. Metodologia: estudo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com quatorze pais residentes em um município no extremo sul do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados entre maio e agosto de 2011, por meio de entrevista em profundidade. Através da técnica da análise textual discursiva e da matriz construída com base na teoria bioecológica de Bronfenbrenner, foram construídas três categorias: Necessidades/preocupações do pai, geradas em sua relação com o mundo do trabalho; Necessidades/preocupações que emergem da relação de cuidado com os filhos e Preocupações dos pais com relação ao futuro dos filhos. Conclusão: identificou-se que a preocupação com o futuro dos filhos foi apontada por pais de todas as faixas-etárias investigadas.

  17. Evidencias del ciclo Pampeano en el basamento del sector noroccidental de la sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Vujovich

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una edad preliminar U-Pb sobre circones de un gneis biotítico feldespático perteneciente al Complejo Nogolí aflorante en las cercanías de San Francisco del Monte de Oro, sierra de San Luis. Los resultados indican una edad de cristalización para el mismo de 554 ± 4,8 Ma, representando un interesante hallazgo del ciclo Pampeano en el marco geológico considerado. Se postula además la existencia de un proceso de pérdida episódica de Pb durante el Cretácico inferior (112 ± 23 Ma, reflejado en la intersección inferior de la recta de discordia. Esta edad inferior podría asociarse con gradientes térmicos anómalos relacionados con los procesos distensivos generalizados que afectaron al Gondwana durante la apertura del océano Atlántico Sur.

  18. A emenda da reeleição e a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal: impactos sobre ciclos políticos e performance fiscal dos Estados (1986-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yamada Nakaguma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estuda o comportamento fiscal dos Estados brasileiros no período 1986-2002, analisando, em particular, o impacto de duas mudanças institucionais recentes, a Emenda da Reeleição e a Lei de Res-ponsabilidade Fiscal, sobre os ciclos políticos orçamentários e sobre a performance fiscal dos Estados. Os resultados obtidos apontam que a Emenda da Reeleição implicou a intensificação dos ciclos políticos, estimulando manipulações oportunistas durante o período eleitoral; a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal, por sua vez, constituiu um instrumento efetivo para o controle do endividamento e para a redução das despesas de custeio dos Estados. Constatou-se também que a amplitude dos ciclos políticos tem diminuído ao longo do tempo, fato que poderia ser atribuído ao aprendizado do eleitorado e à experiência adquirida com eleições sucessivas, que contribuem para elevar o nível de controle político, reduzindo, assim, a intensidade dos ciclos.This paper studies the fiscal behavior of Brazilian Federal States in the period 1986-2002, focusing, in particular, on the effects of two recent institutional changes, the "Reelection Amendment" and the "Fiscal Responsibility Law", on political budget cycles and on fiscal performance. The results provide evidence that the Reelection Amendment caused intensification in political cycles, stimulating opportunistic manipulations during the electoral period; and the Fiscal Responsibility Law constituted an effective instrument to control indebtedness and to reduce functionalism spending in States. The evidence also shows that the magnitude of the political cycles has been decreasing in time, a fact that could be attributed to the electorate’s learning and experience in successive elections, which contribute to increase the level of political control, so reducing the intensity of the cycles.

  19. Life cycle analysis as a tool for assessing new waste water treatment systems. A case study of textile industry effluent; Analisis del ciclo de vida como herramienta de evaluacion de nuevos sistemas de depuracion de aguas residulaes. Caso practico: efluentes de la industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, A.; Novo, E.; Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.

    2001-07-01

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a technique that analyses the life cycle of a product process or activity in an attempt to identify its overall environmental impact. This approach can be of great help in strategic or operational decision-making in industry or business. This article takes as an example a comparative study of systems for treating strongly coloured industrial effluent. To this end, two well established technologies for dealing with industrial waste were examined: a) the physico-chemical treatment of effluents by coagulation-flocculation: b) a process combining physico-chemical treatment and biological aerobic activated sludge treatment. In addition, the viability of an emerging technology based on the decolouring of effluents with ligninolytic fungi was considered, although this process is still at the study stage. (Author) 13 refs.

  20. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, V; Vanacore, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Vermeulen, R.; Brayne, C.; Pearce, N.; Wark, PA; Ward, HA; P. Ferrari; Jenab, M; Andersen, PM; P. Wennberg; Wareham, N.; Katzke, V; Kaaks, R

    2016-01-01

    Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected tho...

  1. Risk Taking Behaviour And Assertiveness Behaviour Of D.T.ED., Teacher Trainees – A Study

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. LAL KUMAR; R.Muthumanickam

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the risk taking behaviour and assertiveness behaviour of D.T.Ed., Teacher Trainees. The sample of the study consisted of 400 D.T.Ed., Teacher Trainees (129 male and 271 female). The tools used in the study were the Risk Taking Behaviour Scale by Answer Yousuf and Assertiveness Inventory by Tasneem Naqvi (1988).After framing necessary objectives and hypotheses, appropriate analysis was carried out on the collected data .From this analysis ...

  2. Ischemic heart disease risk factors in lead exposed workers: research study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Aghakhani, kamran; Salimi, Ahmad; Kumar, Ranjit

    2013-01-01

    Background Review of other epidemiological studies reveal inconsistent results of relationships between high blood lead level and risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. In this study we wanted to find if there is a relationship between blood lead level and these ischemic heart disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in a battery recycling plant, and 497 male workers with the mean age of 41.7 (±6.50) years were recruited from all over the plant (...

  3. A study on the social risk-judgment for nuclear energy : development of the risk-judgment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that nuclear power has become a major energy source in Korea, the public attitude toward it shows a typical NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon. In order for designing an effective policy, it is essential to obtain reliable knowledge about how the public perceive and judge the risks and benefits of nuclear energy. A public risk judgment model was developed through both constructing the perception variables by Latent Class Analysis and quantifying the relationship between acceptance and perception variables by Logistic Regression. Two independent sets of nation-wide survey data provided the parameter estimates and the validity of the model. As a result, the perception level of risks and benefits could be quantified and National Acceptance and Local Acceptance could be modeled by the perception variables. While lay people judge the risks and benefits through the process of perception, experts have relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy and depend on the scientific facts or inferences in judgment process. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during policy formulation process. For the purpose of eliciting expert's opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. The Web provides an easy graphical user interface that enables users to complete the survey at their own convenience and answer questions in a low-overhead fashion. Using the survey system, experts' views were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public. While there were differences in the perception of risks as well as benefits between the public and expert, similar preferences on alternative policies appeared. This study is one of the first attempts to statistically examine the nexus between the perception and the acceptance of nuclear energy. The methodologies may give the basis for investigating the structure of the public attitude on new technologies and the results can be useful to design public

  4. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  5. Effect of medroxy-progesterone acetate on follicular growth and endometrial cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression during the bovine estrous cycle Efeito do acetato de medroxi-progesterona sobre o crescimento filicular e expressão endometrial de ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 durante o ciclo estral de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valério M. Portela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of medroxy-progesterone acetate (MAP with or without estradiol benzoate (EB on follicular growth during the estrous cycle in cattle. In the first experiment, Hereford cows were synchronized with a synthetic analogue of PGF2 alpha and were treated with two different doses of MAP (250 or 500 mg with or without EB for 7 days starting on day 8 of the estrous cycle. Follicular growth was inhibited (PEste estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP com ou sem benzoato de estradiol (BE sobre o crescimento folicular durante o ciclo estral bovino. No primeiro experimento, vacas da raça Hereford foram sincronizadas com um análogo sintético de PGF2á e tratadas com duas doses diferentes de MAP (250 ou 500mg, com ou sem EB, durante 7 dias, iniciando-se no oitavo dia do ciclo estral. Observou-se uma inibição do crescimento folicular (P<0,05 em todas as vacas, exceto no grupo controle e no grupo que recebeu 250mg de MAP sem BE. Os 75% dos animais não exibiu estro no momento da remoção do MAP, mas sim nos dias 21 e 22 do ciclo, demonstrando que os tratamentos não induziram cio. Para se determinar se o tratamento com BE alterou a sensibilidade endometrial à ocitocina e, assim, a cascata luteolítica, vacas multíparas pré-sincronizadas receberam 5mg de BE, seguidos, após 6 horas, de 50 UI de ocitocina (OT; n=9. Oito horas após a administração de BE, colheram-se fragmentos endometriais das vacas, nos dias 4, 13 e 17 do ciclo estral, mensurando-se a expressão gênica de COX-2 através de PCR. O BE aumentou os níveis de RNAm de COX-2 apenas no dia 17 do ciclo estral (P<0,05. Em conclusão, o MAP isolado ou associado a BE é capaz de suprimir o crescimento folicular bovino. Entretanto, o BE, na presença de MAP é ineficaz na indução da luteólise bovina, quando injetado no oitavo dia do ciclo estral.

  6. Practical study on nuclear risk communication based on the seismic- tsunami PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify useful information obtained from seismic/tsunami PRA and provide such information as a useful resource for communication not as a tool for edification. It is also intended to build a support tool of risk communication utilizing human interface (HI) technology to facilitate practical nuclear risk communication and efficient dialogues, advance the trust building for experts and find a way of developing matured nuclear risk communication. This study reports on our approach to identifying useful information obtained from seismic/tsunami PRA, and the effective utilization of such information in nuclear risk communication. Furthermore, future efforts of JNES in risk communication after the Fukushima accident are introduced. (author)

  7. KNOWLEDGE SHARING CONTRIBUTION TO PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT: A STUDY IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Martins Judice

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the aim to identify whether and how knowledge sharing contributes, through instruments and behavioral aspects, to risk management. Initially, as the literature review was carried out, it was identified, on one hand, the main instruments and behavioral aspects that facilitate knowledge sharing and, on the other hand, the different approaches to risk management in software projects. Following that, the relationship between these two themes was established. Then, based on a case study in the software industry, an analysis was carried out and applied to the development teams, aiming at understanding and perceiving what risk management activities are practiced in software projects, the behavioral factors that may favorably influence knowledge sharing on software projects risks and what instruments of knowledge sharing may contribute, at a certain degree, to risk management in projects.

  8. [Growing up under adversity in Germany : Design and methods of a developmental study on risk and protective mechanisms in families with diverse psychosocial risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Vierhaus, Marc; Eickhorst, Andreas; Sann, Alexandra; Egger, Carine; Förthner, Judith; Gerlach, Jennifer; Iwanski, Alexandra; Liel, Christoph; Podewski, Fritz; Wyrwich, Sandra; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-10-01

    Family adversity comprises many risk factors for parents and children. The German early intervention approach Frühe Hilfen aims at providing enduring, effective, and scientifically validated prevention and intervention for effective child protection against those risks. The study on risk and protective mechanisms in the development of families with diverse psychosocial risks aims at identifying those mechanisms that cause and stabilize or moderate and diminish maltreatment and neglect, as well as cognitive, social, and emotional developmental deviations in risk families, specifically in the current German social and child protection system. The study examines the development of competence and early behavior problems in a sample of infants and toddlers and the interaction quality with their caregivers by applying a longitudinal sequential-cohort design. The assessments include developmental tests, systematic observations, and questionnaire data. First results suggest stable risk group membership and moderate stability of single risk factors.

  9. A avaliação formativa por meio do feedback escrito no processo de ensino-aprendizagem de alunos de 2.º ciclo em matemática

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Relatório final apresentado para a obtenção do grau de mestre em Ensino do 1.º ciclo e do 2.º ciclo do ensino básico O presente relatório de estágio foi realizado no âmbito do Mestrado em Ensino do 1.º Ciclo e do 2.º Ciclos do Ensino Básico na Escola Superior de Educação do Instituto Politécnico de Santarém. Foca diversas experiências, trabalhos e atividades desenvolvidos nos estágios em 1.º ciclo e 2.º ciclo do ensino básico, que contribuíram para a minha formação profissional. Além disso...

  10. Serum Lipids and the Risk of Gastrointestinal Malignancies in the Swedish AMORIS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wulaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased cancer risk, but the role of dyslipidaemia in gastrointestinal malignancies is unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of oesophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancers using serum levels of lipid components. Methods. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS study, we selected 540,309 participants (> 20 years old with baseline measurements of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and glucose of whom 84,774 had baseline LDL cholesterol (LDL, HDL cholesterol (HDL, apolipoprotein B (apoB, and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess glucose and lipid components in relation to oesophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Results. An increased risk of oesophageal cancer was observed in persons with high TG (e.g. HR: 2.29 (95% CI: 1.42–3.68 for the 4th quartile compared to the 1st and low LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, log (TG/HDL, and apoB/apoA-I ratio. High glucose and TG were linked with an increased colon cancer risk, while high TC levels were associated with an increased rectal cancer risk. Conclusion. The persistent link between TC and rectal cancer risk as well as between TG and oesophageal and colon cancer risk in normoglycaemic individuals may imply their substantiality in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.

  11. Hearing loss and risk of early retirement. The HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Krokstad, Steinar; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Background: We explore the possible consequences of measured hearing impairment (HI) and perceived hearing difficulties for early retirement in a large population-based study. Furthermore, we study whether having a part-time position was associated with measured HI and perceived hearing difficulties in the same population. Methods: This study included 25 740 persons from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) aged 20–54 years at baseline in HUNT1 (1984–1986) who also participated in the follo...

  12. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Javad Zarei,1 Farahnaz Sadoughi2 1Health Information Management, Health Management and Economics Research Center, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2Health Information Management Department, School of Health Management and Information Science, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran Background: In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other countries – have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs, which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran.Materials and methods: This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts’ opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health.Results: Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals.Conclusion: Information security risk management is not followed by Iran’s hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran’s Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security

  13. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  14. Estudos sobre estrutura, ciclo de vida e comportamento de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre 22ºS e 28ºS, Brasil: 3. morfologia e histologia de ovários e escala de maturidade Studies on the structure, life cycle and behaviour of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, in the region between 22ºS and 28ºS, Brazil: 3. Morphology and histology of ovaries and maturity scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Judith Isaac-Nahum

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma melhor compreensão da dinâmica do processo reprodutivo de Sardinella brasiliensis e obtida através da associação de aspectos micro e macroscópicos das gonadas durante o ciclo sexual. O presente trabalho apresenta uma descrição das fases de desenvolvimento ovocitarias e dos estadios de maturidade dos ovarios de 119 fêmeas de S. brasiliensis, coletados na costa brasileira entre 22ºS e 28ºS. São descritas seis fases ovocitarias e duas estruturas derivadas, analisando-se as características citologicas das células germinativas durante o processo de maturação. Foram estabelecidos sete estadios: A (virgem, Bi (em início de maturação, Bf (em maturação avançada, Cf (maduro inicial, Cf (maduro desovado, D (es vaziado e R (em repouso, sendo discutida sua correspondência com outras es calas aplicadas as espécies.A better understanding of the reproductive process is obtained when histologic analysis of gonades is associated with macroscopic observations during the sexual cycles. This paper describes the developmental stages of the oocytes of the ovaries in 119 females of S. brasiliensis sampled along the Brazilian coast, between 22ºS and 28ºS. The cytologic characteristics of the germinative cells during the maturation process are given and six oocyte phases are described. Seven maturity stages are established: A (virgin, Bi (incipient maturation, Bf (advanced maturation, Ci (mature, Cf (ripe, D (spent and R (repose. These stages are compared to those presently used with respect to S. brasiliensis.

  15. Seroepidemiological Study of Brucellosis in High Risk Groups in Boyerahmad 1384

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Khosravani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that may have a major public health and economic impact in most countries. The disease appears as a Malt fever in humans and abortion in animals. This study was designed to determine the serologic titer of Brucella in high risk and non high risk people in Boyerahmad. Materials & Methods: A retrospective seroepidemiological study was performed on samples collected from 604 high risk and non high risk people using Rose Bengol test, tube standard test as a rapid test and 2 mercaptoethanol (2ME and comb's wright as a confirmatory test. The data collected were analyzed by X2 test via SPSS. Results: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in high risk people appeared to be high in the Rose Bengal and tube standard test (TST 6.62 at titer ≥1/40 whereas for non high risk it was 0%. Confirmation test in high risk people was shown with 2ME in four people. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a major cause of disease in high risk people which can be due to direct or indirect contact with diary products of the related animals.

  16. A longitudinal study of newspaper and wire service coverage of nanotechnology risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M; Egolf, Brenda P

    2011-11-01

    This study reviewed coverage of nanotechnology risks in 20 U.S. and 9 U.K. newspapers and 2 wire services from 2000 to 2009. It focused on information that citizens could come across in daily newspaper reading that could highlight the salience of these issues and alert readers to potential risks. Few articles about nanotechnology health, environmental, and societal risks were found in these publications during this period, averaging only 36.7 per year for both countries. The coverage emphasized three main narratives over time: runaway technology, science-based studies, and regulation. Health risks were covered most frequently, followed by environmental and societal risk issues. Regulation coverage was not as frequent but increased over time. The majority of the coverage focused on news events and 10 events drew modest media attention. Scientific uncertainty discussions appeared in about half of the articles, and scientists and engineers were the dominant information sources in both countries. Some significant differences between U.S. and U.K. coverage were found: U.K. coverage emphasized more societal concerns, while U.S. coverage paid more attention to environmental risks. Because the volume of coverage was not extensive and was counterbalanced by many more articles extolling nanotechnology's benefits, it is questionable whether this coverage alerted readers about potential nanotechnology risks. Coupled with citizens' minimal knowledge about nanotechnology, this type of coverage could create public distrust of nanotechnology applications should a dangerous risk event occur. PMID:22084862

  17. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  18. Maternal autoantibody profiles at risk for autoimmune congenital heart block: a prospective study in high-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Marta; Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Tison, Tiziana; del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Hoxha, Ariela; Mattia, Elena; Punzi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study aimed to identify antibody profiles characterising mothers with fetuses developing congenital heart block (CHB) by comparing their antibody frequencies and levels with those in unaffected mothers. Methods Eighty-one consecutive pregnant patients positive to anti-Ro±anti-La antibodies, at high risk of developing fetal CHB were prospectively studied. The 16 patients with fetal CHB outcome were considered the study population and the 65 patients with normal pregnancy outcomes were considered the control cohort. Anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60, anti-p200 and anti-La antibodies were assayed using home-made ELISA assays. Results The prevalence of anti-p200 antibodies was significantly higher in the fetal CHB affected patients than in the controls (p=0.03). Combinations of anti-p200 with anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies were significantly more frequent in the women with fetuses developing CHB than in the controls (p=0.03 for all combinations). The women with fetal CHB had significantly higher mean anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-p200 levels than the controls (p=0.003, p=0.0001 and p=0.04, respectively); mean anti-La/SSB level was not significantly different in the two cohorts (p=0.25). Conclusions Since anti-p200, anti-Ro52 and anti-Ro60 antibodies, especially at high level, seem to identify patients at increased risk of developing fetal CHB, their detection could recognise anti-Ro/La positive women at risk for having an infant with this rare, potentially dangerous disorder. PMID:27026811

  19. Processed food consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case-control study in a high risk area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingkun; Wang, Xiaorong; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Huang, Chengyu; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Li, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the association between consumption of processed foods and esophageal cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was designed. For the present study, 254 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with pathological diagnoses were selected from Yanting during 2008 and 2010 and 254 community-based controls were selected from the same area, individually matched with cases by age and sex. Data on demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were collected using food frequency questionnaires. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with adjustments for potential confounders. Compared to the frequency of 3 times/week of preserved vegetables had a significant association with esophageal cancer (OR = 5.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.07, 12.17). In stratified analyses, the OR of increasing intake of preserved vegetables for esophageal cancer were 2.02 in men (95% CI 1.18, 3.48), 3.15 in women (95% CI 1.28, 7.75), 2.41 (95% CI 1.45 4.01) in the persons <65 years old and 1.28 (95% CI 0.35, 4.65) in persons ≥65 years old. Consumption of pickled vegetables was not associated significantly with esophageal cancer risk. Intake of salted meat with a frequency of ≥1 time/week meant that the OR increased to 2.57 (95%CI 1.02, 6.43), but no significant trend or association in subgroup analysis was observed. Preserved vegetable consumption was associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer, while no association was found with pickled vegetables.

  20. Allergic conditions and risk of hematological malignancies in adults: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzbaum Judith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. Methods The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886–1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969–99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0–4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.5, respectively. There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.3. Conclusion In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.

  1. NIH study finds that coffee drinkers have lower risk of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,

  2. NIH study finds high cancer risk for U.S. organ transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ transplant recipients in the United States have a high risk of developing 32 different types of cancer, according to a new study of transplant recipients which fully describes the range of malignancies that occur.

  3. Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients At Greater Risk for Same Diagnosis: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161091.html Siblings of Schizophrenia Patients at Greater Risk for Same Diagnosis: Study ... People who have a brother or sister with schizophrenia are 10 times more likely to develop the ...

  4. NIH study shows increased risk for two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  5. Autoimmune diseases and severe infections as risk factors for mood disorders a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E.; Waltoft, Berit L.; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking....

  6. Ciclos orbitales jurásicos registrados en rocas sedimentarias aflorantes en la garganta de Breggia (Ticino-Suiza a partir de la suceptibilidad magnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Van Zele

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunas sucesiones estratigráficas sedimentarias se desarrollan en plataformas estables epicontinentales. Durante el Jurásico se formaron tales plataformas en el mar abierto denominado Tethys, y actualmente sus secuencias sedimentarias se localizan en Europa. A través de diferentes métodos se han reconocido ciclos orbitales en los sedimentos organogénicos precipitados en las plataformas del Mar de Tethys. Algunas de estas sucesiones registran ciclos orbitales terrestres denominados de precesión (de aproximadamente 20 ka, de oblicuidad (de aproximadamente 40 ka y de excentricidad (de aproximadamente 100 ka. En la garganta de Breggia sobre la base de la repetición rítmica (margas, calizas y lutitas también se determinaron dichos ciclos orbitales. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar si la susceptibilidad magnética de campo bajo medida en rocas jurásicas aflorantes en dicha garganta, es también un indicador de los ciclos mencionados. Para ello se compilaron 153 datos de susceptibilidad de un estudio preexistente que corresponden a las biozonas Uptonia jamesoni y Tragophyloceras ibex (aprox. 189 Ma a 187 Ma. Estas determinaciones se corrigieron debido a un incremento lineal observado, luego se calcularon los coeficientes de Fourier, el espectro de potencia y la variación del error cuadrático. De estos resultados se infiere que pueden haberse registrado los ciclos que corresponden a la precesión y oblicuidad del eje de rotación terrestre y la excentricidad de la órbita del planeta. El incremento lineal observado en la susceptibilidad podría deberse a un aumento gradual de minerales paramagnéticos y/o ferromagnéticos en la secuencia de las rocas sedimentarias analizadas. Es de destacar que en secuencias sedimentarias estudiadas en Dorset y Yorkshire (Inglaterra se reconoció un decrecimiento lineal de la relación 87Sr/86Sr para el lapso que corresponde a las biozonas Uptonia jamesoni y Tragophyloceras ibex. Este

  7. Migraine and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies based on MOOSE compliant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujuan; Wang, Minghao; Li, Shifei; Zhang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    It has long been speculated that migraine may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer; however, results from previous studies have been inconclusive. To definitively interrogate this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the correlation between these 2 diseases.Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies that had been published until October 2015. Based on a random effects model, relative risk (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the pooled risk.A total of 7 studies involving 17,776 cases and 162,954 participants were included. Our study revealed that there was an inverse relationship between migraine and total breast cancer risk, with RR (95%CI) was 0.78 (0.66, 0.92). In subgroup-analysis, such an inverse relationship was also identified in the ductal and lobular carcinoma, case-control studies, and the ER/PR breast cancer. Little evidence indicative of a publication bias was uncovered.In conclusion, our study implicates a statistically significant inverse association between migraine and the risk of breast cancer. However, larger prospective cohort studies concerning other geographic populations to assess the association between migraine and the breast cancer risk are warranted. PMID:27472675

  8. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator. PMID:16494130

  9. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  10. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  11. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H. Ross; Bachman, Victoria F.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M.; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J.; Astha, K. C.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Al Lami, Faris H.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K.; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Broday, David M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G. J.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Campuzano, Julio C.; Cantoral, Alejandra J.; Caravanos, Jack; Cardenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Classen, Thomas K. D.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E. Filipa; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graca; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Devries, Karen M.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigin, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco A.; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A. M.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Man, Howard J. Hoff; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Hubbell, Bryan J.; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jansen, Henrica A.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S. Kany; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine K.; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M. Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O.; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M. P.; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Martin, Randall V.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Arian, Dariush Mozaff; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nogueira, Jose R.; Nolla, Joan M.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A. L.; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D.; Pope, C. Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima M.; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex A.; Racape, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Juergen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schoettker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stapelberg, Nicolas J. C.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stephens, Natalie; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden J. Te; Teixeira, Carolina M.; Rojo, Martha M. Tellez; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Texcalac-Sangrador, Jose Luis; Thackway, Sarah V.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeff Rey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jeff Erson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uzun, Selen B.; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; Van Gool, Coen H.; Van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Watts, Charlotte H.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wong, John Q.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentuer, Goekalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preven

  12. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Kc, Astha; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Başara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas Kd; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S Kany; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, Km Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preve

  13. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Kc, Astha; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Başara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas Kd; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S Kany; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, Km Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preve

  14. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  15. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  16. Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    León-Muñoz, Luz M.; García-Esquinas, Esther; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence of the role of certain nutrients as risk factors for frailty. However, people eat food, rather than nutrients, and no previous study has examined the association between dietary patterns empirically derived from food consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 1,872 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60 years recruited between 2008 and 2010. At baseline, food consumption was obtained with a valid...

  17. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTENSION IN RURAL AREAS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivel Rajan; Varun Kumar; Ambika

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemic of hypertension is increasing at an alarming rate. Knowledge about the existing risk factors of hypertension helps in developing prevention programs. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objectives of identifying the prevalence of systemic hypertension in rural area, Tamil Nadu and to identify the risk factors contributing to it. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out over a period of one year from August 20007 to July 2...

  18. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Swedish Sami – a controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Edin-Liljegren, A; S. Hassler; Sjölander, P.; Daerga, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women) was constructed from national population registers. A twice as large control cohort of non-Sami was...

  19. Typology of Perceived Risk in Foreign Traveling (Case Study: Inbound Tourists who Visited Isfahan)

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Tslimi; Bahram Ranjbarian; Mohammad Ghafari

    2013-01-01

    The successful of a tourism destination is depended on reinforcement of tourist’s encouraging factors and elimination of discouraging factors. Tourist’s perception of risk is a disincentive factor that influences tourist’s intention for traveling to that tourism destination. That is why this study has focused to identify and typology the perceived risks by inbound tourists who visited Isfahan. The statistical population of the study is inbound tourists who visited Isfahan during April and Mar...

  20. Group Dynamics in a Security Risk Management Team Context: A Teaching Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barabanov, Rostyslav; Kowalski, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a correlation study performed at Stockholm University, which investigated the possible connection between the make-up of security risk management teams and their performance. Three different models were used to construct team composition profiles and were (separately) tested as the seven participating teams completed two practical security risk management tasks. The study has shown that there is a possible correlation between the teams' diversity in terms o...