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  1. Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution

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    Nirchio Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation which has led to an extensive ecological diversity and their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To increase our understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, karyotypes of one Asian, 22 African, and 30 South American cichlid species were investigated, and chromosomal data of the family was reviewed. Results Although there is extensive variation in the karyotypes of cichlid fishes (from 2n = 32 to 2n = 60 chromosomes, the modal chromosome number for South American species was 2n = 48 and the modal number for the African ones was 2n = 44. The only Asian species analyzed, Etroplus maculatus, was observed to have 46 chromosomes. The presence of one or two macro B chromosomes was detected in two African species. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA gene revealed a variable number of clusters among species varying from two to six. Conclusions The karyotype diversification of cichlids seems to have occurred through several chromosomal rearrangements involving fissions, fusions and inversions. It was possible to identify karyotype markers for the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (African and Cichlinae (American. The karyotype analyses did not clarify the phylogenetic relationship among the Cichlinae tribes. On the other hand, the two major groups of Pseudocrenilabrinae (tilapiine and haplochromine were clearly discriminated based on the characteristics of their karyotypes. The cytogenetic mapping of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA gene did not follow the chromosome diversification in the family. The dynamic evolution of the repeated units of rRNA genes generates patterns of chromosomal distribution that do not help follows the phylogenetic relationships among taxa. The presence of B chromosomes in cichlids is of particular interest because they may not be represented in

  2. The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Brawand, David; Russell, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (rec...

  3. Colour forms of Amazonian cichlid fish represent reproductively isolated species.

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    Ready, J S; Sampaio, I; Schneider, H; Vinson, C; Dos Santos, T; Turner, G F

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory mate choice experiments have confirmed species status for cichlid fish in the African Great Lakes that differ in colour and little else. Colour differences between allopatric populations of the South American cichlid genus Apistogramma are known for many species, yet the status of such populations has not been previously tested. Analysis of the genetic relationships and mate choice characteristics of populations previously described as Apistogramma caetei from eastern Amazonia indicates genetic differentiation into at least three allopatric lineages, which also show strong prezygotic isolation through female mate choice, confirming them as Biological species. If future studies confirm that this result is indicative of a general trend, the species richness of the South American cichlid fishes may presently be seriously underestimated. PMID:16780514

  4. Identification of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi using computer vision.

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    Deokjin Joo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The explosively radiating evolution of cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi has yielded an amazing number of haplochromine species estimated as many as 500 to 800 with a surprising degree of diversity not only in color and stripe pattern but also in the shape of jaw and body among them. As these morphological diversities have been a central subject of adaptive speciation and taxonomic classification, such high diversity could serve as a foundation for automation of species identification of cichlids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we demonstrate a method for automatic classification of the Lake Malawi cichlids based on computer vision and geometric morphometrics. For this end we developed a pipeline that integrates multiple image processing tools to automatically extract informative features of color and stripe patterns from a large set of photographic images of wild cichlids. The extracted information was evaluated by statistical classifiers Support Vector Machine and Random Forests. Both classifiers performed better when body shape information was added to the feature of color and stripe. Besides the coloration and stripe pattern, body shape variables boosted the accuracy of classification by about 10%. The programs were able to classify 594 live cichlid individuals belonging to 12 different classes (species and sexes with an average accuracy of 78%, contrasting to a mere 42% success rate by human eyes. The variables that contributed most to the accuracy were body height and the hue of the most frequent color. CONCLUSIONS: Computer vision showed a notable performance in extracting information from the color and stripe patterns of Lake Malawi cichlids although the information was not enough for errorless species identification. Our results indicate that there appears an unavoidable difficulty in automatic species identification of cichlid fishes, which may arise from short divergence times and gene flow between closely related species.

  5. Annotation of expressed sequence tags for the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and evolutionary analyses of cichlid ORFs

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    Braasch Ingo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cichlid fishes in general, and the exceptionally diverse East African haplochromine cichlids in particular, are famous examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Here we report the collection and annotation of more than 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from three different cDNA libraries obtained from the East African haplochromine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni and Metriaclima zebra. Results We first annotated more than 12,000 newly generated cichlid ESTs using the Gene Ontology classification system. For evolutionary analyses, we combined these ESTs with all available sequence data for haplochromine cichlids, which resulted in a total of more than 45,000 ESTs. The ESTs represent a broad range of molecular functions and biological processes. We compared the haplochromine ESTs to sequence data from those available for other fish model systems such as pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, trout, and zebrafish. We characterized genes that show a faster or slower rate of base substitutions in haplochromine cichlids compared to other fish species, as this is indicative of a relaxed or reinforced selection regime. Four of these genes showed the signature of positive selection as revealed by calculating Ka/Ks ratios. Conclusion About 22% of the surveyed ESTs were found to have cichlid specific rate differences suggesting that these genes might play a role in lineage specific characteristics of cichlids. We also conclude that the four genes with a Ka/Ks ratio greater than one appear as good candidate genes for further work on the genetic basis of evolutionary success of haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  6. Tempo and mode of diversification of lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes.

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    Julia J Day

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the causes of disparities in species diversity across taxonomic groups and regions is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology. Addressing these questions is difficult because of the need for densely sampled phylogenies and suitable empirical systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the cichlid fish radiation of Lake Tanganyika and show that per lineage diversification rates have been more than six times slower than in the species flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi. The result holds even at peak periods of diversification in Lake Tanganyika, ruling out the age of the lake as an explanation for slow average rates, and is robust to uncertainties over the calibration of cichlid radiations in geological time. Moreover, Lake Tanganyika lineages, irrespective of different biological characteristics (e.g. sexually dichromatic versus sexually monochromatic clades, have diversified at similar rates, falling within typical estimates across a range of plant and animal clades. For example, the mostly sexually dichromatic haplochromines, which have speciated explosively in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, have displayed modest rates in Lake Tanganyika (where they are called Tropheini. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that either the Lake Tanganyika environment is less conducive for cichlid speciation or the remarkable diversifying abilities of the haplochromines were inhibited by the prior occupancy of older radiations. Although the results indicate a dominant role for the environment in shaping cichlid diversification, differences in the timing of diversification among the Tanganyikan tribes indicate that biological differences were still important for the dynamics of species build-up in the lake. While we cannot resolve the timing of the radiation relative to the origin of the lake, because of the lack of robust geological date calibrations for cichlids, our results are consistent with a scenario that the

  7. Parallel evolution in Ugandan crater lakes: repeated evolution of limnetic body shapes in haplochromine cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Kautt, Andreas F; Kusche, Henrik; Meyer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background The enormous diversity found in East African cichlid fishes in terms of morphology, coloration, and behavior have made them a model for the study of speciation and adaptive evolution. In particular, haplochromine cichlids, by far the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, are a well-known textbook example for parallel evolution. Southwestern Uganda is an area of high tectonic activity, and is home to numerous crater lakes. Many Ugandan crater lakes were colonized, apparently indepe...

  8. Origin of the superflock of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa

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    Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Snoeks, Jos; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria harbors a unique species-rich flock of more than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid fishes. The origin, age, and mechanism of diversification of this extraordinary radiation are still debated. Geological evidence suggests that the lake dried out completely about 14,700 years ago.Onthe basis of phylogenetic analyses of almost 300 DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region of East African cichlids, we find that the Lake Victoria cichlid flock is derived from the geologically...

  9. The Adaptive Radiation of Cichlid Fish in Lake Tanganyika: A Morphological Perspective

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    Tetsumi Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Tanganyika is the oldest of the Great Ancient Lakes in the East Africa. This lake harbours about 250 species of cichlid fish, which are highly diverse in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology. Lake Tanganyika's cichlid diversity has evolved through explosive speciation and is treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, the rapid differentiation of a single ancestor into an array of species that differ in traits used to exploit their environments and resources. To elucidate the processes and mechanisms underlying the rapid speciation and adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species assemblage it is important to integrate evidence from several lines of research. Great efforts have been, are, and certainly will be taken to solve the mystery of how so many cichlid species evolved in so little time. In the present review, we summarize morphological studies that relate to the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlids and highlight their importance for understanding the process of adaptive radiation.

  10. Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes

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    Verheyen Erik; Mack Tanja; Salzburger Walter; Meyer Axel

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundThe adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes in East Africa are well known for their spectacular diversity and their astonishingly fast rates of speciation. About 80% of all 2,500 cichlid species in East Africa, and virtually all cichlid species from Lakes Victoria (~500 species) and Malawi (~1,000 species) are haplochromines. Here, we present the most extensive phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis so far that includes about 100 species and is based on about 2,000 bp of the mitoch...

  11. Fish & Chips: Functional Genomics of Social Plasticity in an African Cichlid Fish

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    Renn, Susan C.P.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Behaviour and physiology are regulated by both environment and social context. A central goal in the study of the social control of behaviour is to determine the underlying physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms in the brain. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni has long been used as a model system to study how social interactions regulate neural and behavioural plasticity. In this species, males are either socially dominant and reproductively active or subordinate and rep...

  12. A multi-marker perspective on the evolutionary history of East African cichlid fishes

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    Meyer, Britta Silke

    2015-01-01

    The East African cichlids, more precisely the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria and Lake Malawi, are among the most famous textbook examples of adaptive radiations. Both hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting explain the high degree of shared gene lineages within these species-flocks. Considerable effort has been put into the understanding of the relationships between and among the main lineages as this is essential to establish the phylogenetic backbone of the East Afric...

  13. The Adaptive Radiation of Cichlid Fish in Lake Tanganyika: A Morphological Perspective

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    Tetsumi Takahashi; Stephan Koblmüller

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the oldest of the Great Ancient Lakes in the East Africa. This lake harbours about 250 species of cichlid fish, which are highly diverse in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology. Lake Tanganyika's cichlid diversity has evolved through explosive speciation and is treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, the rapid differentiation of a single ancestor into an array of species that differ in traits used to exploit their environments and resources. To elucidate...

  14. Replicated evolution of trophic specializations in an endemic cichlid fish lineage from Lake Tanganyika

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    Rüber, Lukas; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The current phylogenetic hypothesis for the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes of the tribe Eretmodini is based solely on morphology and suggests that more complex trophic morphologies derived only once from a less specialized ancestral condition. A molecular phylogeny of eretmodine cichlids based on partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and control-region sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary sequence of trophic adaptations and to test alternative models of morphological di...

  15. Phenotypic plasticity and heterochrony in Cichlasoma managuense (Pisces, Cichlidae) and their implications for speciation in cichlid fishes

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    Meyer, Axel

    1987-01-01

    Cichlid fishes in African rift lakes have undergone rapid speciation, resulting in "species flocks" with more than 300 endemic species in some of the lakes. Most researchers assume that there is little phenotypic variation in cichlid fishes. I report here extensive phenotypic plasticity in a Neotropical cichlid species. I examined the influence of diet on trophic morphology during ontogeny in Cichlasonia managuense. Two groups of full siblings were fed two different diets for eight months aft...

  16. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the threadfin cichlid (Petrochromis trewavasae and the blunthead cichlid (Tropheus moorii and patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution in cichlid fishes.

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    Christoph Fischer

    Full Text Available The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes represent a model especially suited to study adaptive radiation and speciation. With several African cichlid genome projects being in progress, a promising set of closely related genomes is emerging, which is expected to serve as a valuable data base to solve questions on genotype-phenotype relations. The mitochondrial (mt genomes presented here are the first results of the assembly and annotation process for two closely related but eco-morphologically highly distinct Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Petrochromis trewavasae and Tropheus moorii. The genomic sequences comprise 16,588 bp (P. trewavasae and 16,590 bp (T. moorii, and exhibit the typical mitochondrial structure, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Analyses confirmed that the two species are very closely related with an overall sequence similarity of 96%. We analyzed the newly generated sequences in the phylogenetic context of 21 published labroid fish mitochondrial genomes. Consistent with other vertebrates, the D-loop region was found to evolve faster than protein-coding genes, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs vary greatly in the rate of sequence evolution, but on average evolve the slowest. Within the group of coding genes, ND6 evolves most rapidly. Codon usage is similar among examined cichlid tribes and labroid families; although a slight shift in usage patterns down the gene tree could be observed. Despite having a clearly different nucleotide composition, ND6 showed a similar codon usage. C-terminal ends of Cox1 exhibit variations, where the varying number of amino acids is related to the structure of the obtained phylogenetic tree. This variation may be of functional relevance for Cox1 synthesis.

  17. Origin of the superflock of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

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    Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Snoeks, Jos; Meyer, Axel

    2003-04-11

    Lake Victoria harbors a unique species-rich flock of more than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid fishes. The origin, age, and mechanism of diversification of this extraordinary radiation are still debated. Geological evidence suggests that the lake dried out completely about 14,700 years ago. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses of almost 300 DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region of East African cichlids, we find that the Lake Victoria cichlid flock is derived from the geologically older Lake Kivu. We suggest that the two seeding lineages may have already been lake-adapted when they colonized Lake Victoria. A haplotype analysis further shows that the most recent desiccation of Lake Victoria did not lead to a complete extinction of its endemic cichlid fauna and that the major lineage diversification took place about 100,000 years ago. PMID:12649486

  18. Parasitic infections in ornamental cichlid fish in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Aguinaga, Jefferson Yunis; Marcusso, Paulo Fernandes; Claudiano, Gustavo da Silva; Lima, Bruno Tadeu Marotta; Marotta, Bruno L; Sebastião, Fernanda de Alexandre; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engracia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of the main parasite species in Amazonian ornamental cichlids that affect their trade. The study was conducted from August 2007 to September 2009. We sampled 3042 specimens from 9 different species, of which 9.47% had at least one type of external parasite. 81.25% of the cases occurred in the dry season. Crenicichla anthurus (28.57%) was the most parasitized, followed by Aequidens diadema (26.32%), Pterophyllum scalare (22.69%), Cichlasoma sp. (9.52%), Apistogramma sp. (3.88%) and Symphysodon aequifasciatus (3.66%). Monogenea was the most abundant group of parasites, occurring in 66.67% of the cases, of which 96.88% occurred in the dry season. This parasite infested 95.68% of Pterophyllum scalare, 76.67% of Apistogramma sp, 33.33% of Cichlasoma sp. and 23.81% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus cases. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infested 100% of Aequidens diadema, 76.19% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, 66.67% of Cichlasoma sp, 41.67% of Crenicichla anthurus and 23.33% of Apistogramma sp cases. Myxosporidia infested 58.33% of Crenicichla anthurus. Trichodina infested 4.32% of Pterophyllum scalare. The prevalence of these parasites is related to the season, preferred habitat, fish behavior, individual susceptibility and handling of animals during transportation by fishermen. PMID:25909258

  19. Phylogeny of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid species flock and its relationship to the Central and East African haplochromine cichlid fish fauna

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    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel; Baric, Sanja; Verheyen, Erik; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the East African Great Lakes, harbors the ecologically, morphologically, and behaviorally most complex of all assemblages of cichlid Fishes, consisting of about 200 described species. The evolutionary old age of the cichlid assemblage, its extreme degree of morphological differentiation, the lack of species with intermediate morphologies, and the rapidity of lineage formation havemade evolutionary reconstruction difficult. The number and origin of seeding lineag...

  20. Social fishes and single mothers: brain evolution in African cichlids

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    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Winberg, Svante; Kolm, Niclas

    2008-01-01

    As with any organ, differences in brain size—after adequate control of allometry—are assumed to be a response to selection. With over 200 species and an astonishing diversity in niche preferences and social organization, Tanganyikan cichlids present an excellent opportunity to study brain evolution. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of sexed adults from 39 Tanganyikan cichlid species in a multiple regression framework to investigate the influence of ecology, sexual selection and paren...

  1. The interaction of sexually and naturally selected traits in the adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes.

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    Salzburger, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The question of how genetic variation translates into organismal diversity has puzzled biologists for decades. Despite recent advances in evolutionary and developmental genetics, the mechanisms that underlie adaptation, diversification and evolutionary innovation remain largely unknown. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes are textbook examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation and emerge as powerful model systems to study the genetic basis of animal diversification. East Africa's hundreds of endemic cichlid species are akin to a natural mutagenesis screen and differ greatly not only in ecologically relevant (hence naturally selected) characters such as mouth morphology and body shape, but also in sexually selected traits such as coloration. One of the most fascinating aspects of cichlid evolution is the frequent occurrence of evolutionary parallelisms, which has led to the question whether selection alone is sufficient to produce these parallel morphologies, or whether a developmental or genetic bias has influenced the direction of diversification. Here, I review fitness-relevant traits that could be responsible for the cichlids' evolutionary success and assess whether these were shaped by sexual or natural selection. I then focus on the interaction and the relative importance of sexual vs. natural selection in cichlid evolution. Finally, I discuss what is currently known about the genes underlying the morphogenesis of adaptively relevant traits and highlight the importance of the forthcoming cichlid genomes in the quest of the genetic basis of diversification in this group. PMID:18992003

  2. What, if anything, is a Tilapia? : Mitochondrial ND2 phylogeny of Tilapiines and the evolution of parental care systems in the African Cichlid Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Klett, Vera; Meyer, Axel

    2002-01-01

    We estimated a novel phylogeny of tilapiine cichlid fish (an assemblage endemic to Africa and the Near East) within the African cichlid fishes on the basis of complete mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene sequences. The ND2 (1,047 bp) gene was sequenced in 39 tilapiine cichlids (38 species and 1 subspecies) and in an additional 14 nontilapiine cichlid species in order to evaluate the traditional morphologically based hypothesis of the respective monophyly of the tilapiine and...

  3. A complex mode of aggressive mimicry in a scale-eating cichlid fish.

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    Boileau, Nicolas; Cortesi, Fabio; Egger, Bernd; Muschick, Moritz; Indermaur, Adrian; Theis, Anya; Büscher, Heinz H; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive mimicry is an adaptive tactic of parasitic or predatory species that closely resemble inoffensive models in order to increase fitness via predatory gains. Although similarity of distantly related species is often intuitively implicated with mimicry, the exact mechanisms and evolutionary causes remain elusive in many cases. Here, we report a complex aggressive mimicry strategy in Plecodus straeleni, a scale-eating cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, which imitates two other cichlid species. Employing targeted sequencing on ingested scales, we show that P. straeleni does not preferentially parasitize its models but—contrary to prevailing assumptions—targets a variety of co-occurring dissimilar looking fish species. Combined with tests for visual resemblance and visual modelling from a prey perspective, our results suggest that complex interactions among different cichlid species are involved in this mimicry system. PMID:26399975

  4. The Midas cichlid species complex : Incipient sympatric speciation in Nicaraguan cichlid fishes?

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    Barluenga, Marta; Meyer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    Sympatric speciation is a contentious concept, although theoretical models as well as empirical evidence support its relevance in evolutionary biology. The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus citrinellus, labiatus, zaliosus) from several crater lakes in Nicaragua fits several of the key characteristics of a sympatric speciation model. In particular, in A. citrinellus (i) strong assortative mating on the basis of colour polymorphism and (ii) ecological differentiation based on morpholog...

  5. Fitness correlates of male coloration in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish

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    Maan, Martine E.; van der Spoel, Michael; Jimenez, Paloma Quesada; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Sexual selection by female choice has contributed to the rapid evolution of phenotypic diversity in the cichlid fish species flocks of East Africa. Yet, very little is known about the ecological mechanisms that drive the evolution of female mating preferences. We studied fitness correlates of male n

  6. Divergent mating preferences and nuptial coloration in sibling species of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Inke van der

    2008-01-01

    Mate choice by female cichlid fish from Lake Victoria plays an important role in speciation and the maintenance of species. Females are expected to select against males that are intermediate in their phenotype during the process of speciation driven by sexual selection. To test this, we hybridized t

  7. Heritability and heterochrony of polychromatism in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish : Stepping stones for speciation?

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    Maan, ME; Haesler, MP; Seehausen, O; Van Alphen, JJM

    2006-01-01

    In many haplochromine cichlid fish, male nuptial coloration is subject to female mate choice and plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between incipient species. Intraspecific variation in male coloration may serve as a target for diversifying sexual selection and provide a

  8. The evolution of complex brains and behaviors in African cichlid fishes

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    Caroly A. Shumway

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, I explore the effects of both social organization and the physical environment, specifically habitat complexity, on the brains and behavior of highly visual African cichlid fishes, drawing on examples from primates and birds where appropriate. In closely related fishes from the monophyletic Ectodinii clade of Lake Tanganyika, both forces influence cichlid brains and behavior. Considering social influences first, visual acuity differs with respect to social organization (monogamy versus polygyny. Both the telencephalon and amygdalar homologue, area Dm, are larger in monogamous species. Monogamous species are found to have more vasotocin-immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area of the brain. Habitat complexity also influences brain and behavior in these fishes. Total brain size, telencephalic and cerebellar size are positively correlated with habitat complexity. Visual acuity and spatial memory are enhanced in cichlids living in more complex environments. However habitat complexity and social forces affect cichlid brains differently. Taken together, our field data and plasticity data suggest that some of the species-specific neural effects of habitat complexity could be the consequence of the corresponding social correlates. Environmental forces, however, exert a broader effect on brain structures than social ones do, suggesting allometric expansion of the brain structures in concert with brain size and/or co-evolution of these structures [Current Zoology 56 (1: 144–156 2010].

  9. Reproductive success and female preference in the amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823)

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    Maria do Socorro R.F Cacho; Sathyabama Chellappa; Maria Emília Yamamoto

    2006-01-01

    The angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare is a cichlid native to the Amazon Basin of Brazil and is exported as an ornamental fish. In this study the importance of the experience and previous reproductive success of males in mate selection was investigated. In order to investigate reproductive experience, six pairs of males (experienced and inexperienced) and six females were used. Males were placed in an aquarium, where one female was released. Mate selection was verified by the time spent by a fe...

  10. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

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    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr's analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in

  11. Genetic divergence, speciation and morphological stasis in a lineage of African cichlid fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Meyer, Axel

    1992-01-01

    Since their discovery at the turn of the century, the species assemblages of cichlid fishes in the East African Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika have fascinated evolutionary biologists. Many models have attempted to account for the 'explosive' evolution of several hundred species within these lakes. Here we report a case of surprisingly large genetic divergence among populations of the endemic Tropheus lineage of Lake Tanganyika. This lineage of six species contains twice as much genetic...

  12. Laboratory Class Project: Using a Cichlid Fish Display Tank to Teach Students about Complex Behavioral Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory activities serve several important functions in undergraduate science education. For neuroscience majors, an important and sometimes underemphasized tool is the use of behavioral observations to help inform us about the consequences of changes that are occurring on a neuronal level. To help address this concern, the following laboratory exercise is presented. The current project tested the prediction that the most dominant fish in a tank of cichlids will have gained the most benefi...

  13. On the age and origin of the species flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria.

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    Fryer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Recent suggestions concerning the age and origin of the flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (East Africa) are considered. These accept as proven the suggestion that Lake Victoria dried out completely in the Late Pleistocene, was dry for several thousand years, and refilled ca. 12400 years ago. Apart from the fact that other geophysical evidence contradicts this claim, its biological implications, which do likewise, have never been considered by those who have accepted it. L...

  14. Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Axel; Kocher, Thomas D.; Basasibwaki, Pereti; Wilson, Allan C.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplo-chromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus presented with a case of explosive evolution. Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock m...

  15. Know thine enemy: Intra-sexual selection and sympatric speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Peter Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Speciation by sexual selection research has traditionally concentrated on mechanisms for divergence driven via female mate choice (intersexual selection). The pivotal role of competition between members of the same sex (intrasexual selection) has been largely overlooked. In this thesis, I describe a series of experimental studies investigating the role of intrasexual selection in sympatric divergence, using Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fish as a model system. Such experiments are neede...

  16. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few experimental studies have examined these hypotheses. We investigated whether prenatal testosterone affects strength or direction of lateralization in a cichlid fish, Aequidens rivulatus. Eggs were given a ...

  17. Back to Tanganyika: a case of recent trans-species-flock dispersal in East African haplochromine cichlid fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Britta S.; Indermaur, Adrian; Ehrensperger, Xenia; Egger, Bernd; Banyankimbona, Gaspard; Snoeks, Jos; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes are the largest vertebrate adaptive radiations in the world and illustrious textbook examples of convergent evolution between independent species assemblages. Although recent studies suggest some degrees of genetic exchange between riverine taxa and the lake faunas, not a single cichlid species is known from Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria that is derived from the radiation associated with another of these lakes. Here,...

  18. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Britta S.; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We provide a new phylogeny for Lake Tanganyika cichlids using 42 nuclear makers. • Data concatenation and a Bayesian concordance analysis lead to congruent results. • Gene tree discordance hints to past hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting. • The Lamprologini are the sister-group to the ‘H-lineage’. • The Eretmodini are nested within the ‘H-lineage’. Abstract: The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and ...

  19. Evolution of genomic structural variation and genomic architecture in the adaptive radiations of African cichlid fishes

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    Shaohua eFan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available African cichlid fishes are an ideal system for studying explosive rates of speciation and the origin of diversity in adaptive radiation. Within the last few million years, more than 2000 species have evolved in the Great Lakes of East Africa, the largest adaptive radiation in vertebrates. These young species show spectacular diversity in their coloration, morphology and behavior. However, little is known about the genomic basis of this astonishing diversity. Recently, five African cichlid genomes were sequenced, including that of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, a basal and only relatively moderately diversified lineage, and the genomes of four representative endemic species of the adaptive radiations, Neolamprologus brichardi, Astatotilapia burtoni, Metriaclima zebra, and Pundamila nyererei. Using the tilapia genome as the reference genome, we generated a high-resolution genomic variation map, consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, short insertions and deletions (indels, inversions and deletions. In total, around 18.8, 17.7, 17.0 and 17.0 million SNPs, 2.3, 2.2, 1.4 and 1.9 million indels, 262, 306, 162, and 154 inversions, and 3509, 2705, 2710 and 2634 deletions were inferred to have evolved in the N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei and M. zebra respectively. Many of these variations affected the annotated gene regions in the genome. Different patterns of genetic variation were detected during the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. For SNPs, the highest rate of evolution was detected in the common ancestor of N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei and M. zebra. However, for the evolution of inversions and deletions, we found that the rates at the terminal taxa are substantially higher than the rates at the ancestral lineages. The high-resolution map provides an ideal opportunity to understand the genomic bases of the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes.

  20. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Britta S; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-01

    The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika constitute the most diverse extant adaptive radiations in vertebrates. Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the lakes, harbors the morphologically and genetically most diverse assemblage of cichlids and contains the highest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. Based on morphological grounds, the Tanganyikan cichlid species have been grouped into 12-16 distinct lineages, so-called tribes. While the monophyly of most of the tribes is well established, the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes remain largely elusive. Here, we present a new tribal level phylogenetic hypothesis for the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika that is based on the so far largest set of nuclear markers and a total alignment length of close to 18kb. Using next-generation amplicon sequencing with the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we compiled a dataset consisting of 42 nuclear loci in 45 East African cichlid species, which we subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses. We analyzed the entire concatenated dataset and each marker individually, and performed a Bayesian concordance analysis and gene tree discordance tests. Overall, we find strong support for a position of the Oreochromini, Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini and Trematocarini outside of a clade combining the substrate spawning Lamprologini and the mouthbrooding tribes of the 'H-lineage', which are both strongly supported to be monophyletic. The Eretmodini are firmly placed within the 'H-lineage', as sister-group to the most species-rich tribe of cichlids, the Haplochromini. The phylogenetic relationships at the base of the 'H-lineage' received less support, which is likely due to high speciation rates in the early phase of the radiation. Discordance among gene trees and marker sets further suggests the occurrence of past hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting in the cichlid

  1. Chromosome Evolution in African Cichlid Fish: Contributions from the Physical Mapping of Repeated DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, I.A.; Poletto, A.B.; Kocher, T.D.; Mota-Velasco, J.C.; Penman, D.J.; Martins, C.

    2010-01-01

    Cichlid fishes have been the subject of increasing scientific interest because of their rapid adaptive radiation that has led to extensive ecological diversity and because of their enormous importance to tropical and subtropical aquaculture. To further understanding of chromosome evolution among cichlid species, we have comparatively mapped the SATA satellite DNA, the transposable element ROn-1, and repeated sequences in the bacterial artificial chromosome clone BAC-C4E09 on the chromosomes of a range of African species of Cichlidae, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The SATA satellite DNA was mapped in almost all the centromeres of all tilapiine and haplochromine species studied. The maintenance and centromeric distribution of the SATA satellite DNA in African cichlids suggest that this sequence plays an important role in the organization and function of the centromere in these species. Furthermore, analysis of SATA element distribution clarifies that chromosome fusions occurred independently in Oreochromis and Tilapia genera, and led to the reduced chromosome number detected in O. karongae and T. mariae. The comparative chromosome mapping of the ROn-1 SINE-like element and BAC-C4E09 shows that the repeated sequences have been maintained among tilapiine, haplochromine and hemichromine fishes and has demonstrated the homology of the largest chromosomes among these groups. Furthermore, the mapping of ROn-1 suggested that different chromosomal rearrangements could have occurred in the origin of the largest chromosome pairs of tilapiines and non-tilapiines. PMID:20606399

  2. Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

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    Harrod Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a volcano erupts, a lake may form in the cooled crater and become an isolated aquatic ecosystem. This makes fishes in crater lakes informative for understanding sympatric evolution and ecological diversification in barren environments. From a geological and limnological perspective, such research offers insight about the process of crater lake ecosystem establishment and speciation. In the present study we use genetic and coalescence approaches to infer the colonization history of Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus that inhabit a very young crater lake in Nicaragua-the ca. 1800 year-old Lake Apoyeque. This lake holds two sympatric, endemic morphs of Midas cichlid: one with large, hypertrophied lips (~20% of the total population and another with thin lips. Here we test the associated ecological, morphological and genetic diversification of these two morphs and their potential to represent incipient speciation. Results Gene coalescence analyses [11 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences] suggest that crater lake Apoyeque was colonized in a single event from the large neighbouring great lake Managua only about 100 years ago. This founding in historic times is also reflected in the extremely low nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity in Apoyeque. We found that sympatric adult thin- and thick-lipped fishes occupy distinct ecological trophic niches. Diet, body shape, head width, pharyngeal jaw size and shape and stable isotope values all differ significantly between the two lip-morphs. The eco-morphological features pharyngeal jaw shape, body shape, stomach contents and stable isotopes (δ15N all show a bimodal distribution of traits, which is compatible with the expectations of an initial stage of ecological speciation under disruptive selection. Genetic differentiation between the thin- and thick-lipped population is weak at mtDNA sequence (FST = 0.018 and absent at nuclear

  3. Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes.

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    Laura Baldo

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales. The outgroup riverine species Astatotilapia burtoni, largely omnivorous, was also included in the study. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented the dominant components in the gut microbiota of all 30 specimens analysed according to two distinct 16S rRNA markers. All members of the Perissodini tribe showed a homogenous pattern of microbial alpha and beta diversities, with no significant qualitative differences, despite changes in diet. The recent diet shift between zooplantkon- and scale-eaters simply reflects on a significant enrichment of Clostridium taxa in scale-eaters where they might be involved in the scale metabolism. Comparison with the omnivorous species A. burtoni suggests that, with increased host phylogenetic distance and/or increasing herbivory, the gut microbiota begins differentiating also at qualitative level. The cichlids show presence of a large conserved core of taxa and a small set of core OTUs (average 13-15%, remarkably stable also in captivity, and putatively favoured by both restricted microbial transmission among related hosts (putatively enhanced by mouthbrooding behavior and common host constraints. This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation.

  4. The Role of microRNAs in the Repeated Parallel Diversification of Lineages of Midas Cichlid Fish from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Xiong, Peiwen; Fruciano, Carmelo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an ideal model system for studying biological diversification because they provide textbook examples of rapid speciation. To date, there has been little focus on the role of gene regulation during cichlid speciation. However, in recent years, gene regulation has been recognized as a powerful force linking diversification in gene function to speciation. Here, we investigated the potential role of miRNA regulation in the diversification of six cichlid species of the Midas cichlid lineage (Amphilophus spp.) inhabiting the Nicaraguan crater lakes. Using several genomic resources, we inferred 236 Midas miRNA genes that were used to predict the miRNA target sites on 8,232 Midas 3'-UTRs. Using population genomic calculations of SNP diversity, we found the miRNA genes to be more conserved than protein coding genes. In contrast to what has been observed in other cichlid fish, but similar to what has been typically found in other groups, we observed genomic signatures of purifying selection on the miRNA targets by comparing these sites with the less conserved nontarget portion of the 3'-UTRs. However, in one species pair that has putatively speciated sympatrically in crater Lake Apoyo, we recovered a different pattern of relaxed purifying selection and high genetic divergence at miRNA targets. Our results suggest that sequence evolution at miRNA binding sites could be a critical genomic mechanism contributing to the rapid phenotypic evolution of Midas cichlids. PMID:27189980

  5. Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in comparative evolutionary studies of cichlid fish

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    Mazzuchelli Juliana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of a large number of recently sequenced vertebrate genomes opens new avenues to integrate cytogenetics and genomics in comparative and evolutionary studies. Cytogenetic mapping can offer alternative means to identify conserved synteny shared by distinct genomes and also to define genome regions that are still not fine characterized even after wide-ranging nucleotide sequence efforts. An efficient way to perform comparative cytogenetic mapping is based on BAC clones mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In this report, to address the knowledge gap on the genome evolution in cichlid fishes, BAC clones of an Oreochromis niloticus library covering the linkage groups (LG 1, 3, 5, and 7 were mapped onto the chromosomes of 9 African cichlid species. The cytogenetic mapping data were also integrated with BAC-end sequences information of O. niloticus and comparatively analyzed against the genome of other fish species and vertebrates. Results The location of BACs from LG1, 3, 5, and 7 revealed a strong chromosomal conservation among the analyzed cichlid species genomes, which evidenced a synteny of the markers of each LG. Comparative in silico analysis also identified large genomic blocks that were conserved in distantly related fish groups and also in other vertebrates. Conclusions Although it has been suggested that fishes contain plastic genomes with high rates of chromosomal rearrangements and probably low rates of synteny conservation, our results evidence that large syntenic chromosome segments have been maintained conserved during evolution, at least for the considered markers. Additionally, our current cytogenetic mapping efforts integrated with genomic approaches conduct to a new perspective to address important questions involving chromosome evolution in fishes.

  6. Handed foraging behavior in scale-eating cichlid fish: its potential role in shaping morphological asymmetry.

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    Hyuk Je Lee

    Full Text Available Scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika display handed (lateralized foraging behavior, where an asymmetric 'left' mouth morph preferentially feeds on the scales of the right side of its victim fish and a 'right' morph bites the scales of the left side. This species has therefore become a textbook example of the astonishing degree of ecological specialization and negative frequency-dependent selection. We investigated the strength of handedness of foraging behavior as well as its interaction with morphological mouth laterality in P. microlepis. In wild-caught adult fish we found that mouth laterality is, as expected, a strong predictor of their preferred attack orientation. Also laboratory-reared juvenile fish exhibited a strong laterality in behavioral preference to feed on scales, even at an early age, although the initial level of mouth asymmetry appeared to be small. This suggests that pronounced mouth asymmetry is not a prerequisite for handed foraging behavior in juvenile scale-eating cichlid fish and might suggest that behavioral preference to attack a particular side of the prey plays a role in facilitating morphological asymmetry of this species.

  7. Morphology and efficiency of a specialized foraging behavior, sediment sifting, in neotropical cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Arbour, Jessica; Willis, Stuart; Watkins, Crystal; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis on a set of ecomorphological traits from 27 species of Neotropical cichlids. For most sifting taxa, feeding behavior could be effectively predicted by a linear discriminant function of ecomorphology across multiple clades of sediment sifters, and this pattern could not be explained by shared evolutionary history alone. Additionally, we tested foraging efficiency in seven Neotropical cichlid species, five of which are specialized benthic feeders with differing head morphology. Efficiency was evaluated based on the degree to which invertebrate prey could be retrieved at different depths of sediment. Feeding performance was compared both with respect to feeding mode and species using a phylogenetic ANCOVA, with substrate depth as a covariate. Benthic foraging performance was constant across sediment depths in non-sifters but declined with depth in sifters. The non-sifting Hypsophrys used sweeping motions of the body and fins to excavate large pits to uncover prey; this tactic was more efficient for consuming deeply buried invertebrates than observed among sediment sifters. Findings indicate that similar feeding performance among sediment-sifting cichlids extracting invertebrate prey from shallow sediment layers reflects constraints associated with functional morphology and, to a lesser extent, phylogeny. PMID:24603485

  8. Cichlid fishes as a model to understand normal and clinical craniofacial variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powder, Kara E; Albertson, R Craig

    2016-07-15

    We have made great strides towards understanding the etiology of craniofacial disorders, especially for 'simple' Mendelian traits. However, the facial skeleton is a complex trait, and the full spectrum of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors that contribute to its final geometry remain unresolved. Forward genetic screens are constrained with respect to complex traits due to the types of genes and alleles commonly identified, developmental pleiotropy, and limited information about the impact of environmental interactions. Here, we discuss how studies in an evolutionary model - African cichlid fishes - can complement traditional approaches to understand the genetic and developmental origins of complex shape. Cichlids exhibit an unparalleled range of natural craniofacial morphologies that model normal human variation, and in certain instances mimic human facial dysmorphologies. Moreover, the evolutionary history and genomic architecture of cichlids make them an ideal system to identify the genetic basis of these phenotypes via quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and population genomics. Given the molecular conservation of developmental genes and pathways, insights from cichlids are applicable to human facial variation and disease. We review recent work in this system, which has identified lbh as a novel regulator of neural crest cell migration, determined the Wnt and Hedgehog pathways mediate species-specific bone morphologies, and examined how plastic responses to diet modulate adult facial shapes. These studies have not only revealed new roles for existing pathways in craniofacial development, but have identified new genes and mechanisms involved in shaping the craniofacial skeleton. In all, we suggest that combining work in traditional laboratory and evolutionary models offers significant potential to provide a more complete and comprehensive picture of the myriad factors that are involved in the development of complex traits. PMID:26719128

  9. Histochemical localisation of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear of developing cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, M.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    2008-12-01

    Inner ear otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH). CAH is located in specialised, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. In the present study, for the first time the localisation of histochemically demonstrated CAH was analysed during the early larval development of a teleost, the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. CAH-reactivity was observed already in stage 7 animals (onset of otocyst development; staging follows Anken et al. [Anken, R., Kappel, T., Slenzka, K., Rahmann, H. The early morphogenetic development of the cichlid fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes, Teleostei). Zool. Anz. 231, 1-10, 1993]). Neuroblasts (from which sensory and supporting cells are derived) proved to be CAH-positive. Already at stage 12 (hatch), CAH-positive regions could be attributed to ionocyte containing regions both in the so-called meshwork and patches area of the macula (i.e., clearly before ionocytes can be identified on ultrastructural level or by employing immunocytochemistry). In contrast to the circumstances observed in mammalian species, sensory hair cells stained negative for CAH in the cichlid. With the onset of stage 16 (finray primordia in dorsal fin, yolk-sac being increasingly absorbed), CAH-reactivity was observed in the vestibular nerve. This indicates the onset of myelinisation and thus commencement of operation. The localisation of CAH in the inner ear of fish (especially the differences in comparison to mammals) is discussed on the basis of its role in otolith calcification. Since the vestibular system is a detector of acceleration and thus gravity, also aspects regarding effects of altered gravity on CAH and hence on the mineralisation of otoliths in an adaptive process are addressed.

  10. Facial Recognition in a Group-Living Cichlid Fish.

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    Masanori Kohda

    Full Text Available The theoretical underpinnings of the mechanisms of sociality, e.g. territoriality, hierarchy, and reciprocity, are based on assumptions of individual recognition. While behavioural evidence suggests individual recognition is widespread, the cues that animals use to recognise individuals are established in only a handful of systems. Here, we use digital models to demonstrate that facial features are the visual cue used for individual recognition in the social fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Focal fish were exposed to digital images showing four different combinations of familiar and unfamiliar face and body colorations. Focal fish attended to digital models with unfamiliar faces longer and from a further distance to the model than to models with familiar faces. These results strongly suggest that fish can distinguish individuals accurately using facial colour patterns. Our observations also suggest that fish are able to rapidly (≤ 0.5 sec discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals, a speed of recognition comparable to primates including humans.

  11. Lateralized kinematics of predation behavior in a Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish.

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    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway.

  12. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

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    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  13. Aggression and welfare in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Many species of fishes are aggressive when placed in small aquaria. Aggression can negatively affect the welfare of those individuals toward whom it is directed. Animals may behave aggressively in order to defend resources such as food, shelter, mates, and offspring. The decision to defend depends on the distribution of resources and on ecological factors such as number of competitors, amount of available space, and amount of habitat complexity. This study tested the effects of these factors on aggression in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus). The study found that time spent behaving aggressively was not associated with small-scale differences in group size or available space. Aggression was significantly lower in a large aquarium with a complex habitat. Aquaria of sizes typically used in the companion animal (pet) hobby did not provide optimal welfare for cichlids housed with aggressive conspecifics. The public should be aware that this and similar species require larger aquaria with complex habitat, which elicit more natural behavior. PMID:21932947

  14. The gut microbial community of Midas cichlid fish in repeatedly evolved limnetic-benthic species pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Frickey, Tancred; Jones, Julia C; Meyer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Gut bacterial communities are now known to influence a range of fitness related aspects of organisms. But how different the microbial community is in closely related species, and if these differences can be interpreted as adaptive is still unclear. In this study we compared microbial communities in two sets of closely related sympatric crater lake cichlid fish species pairs that show similar adaptations along the limnetic-benthic axis. The gut microbial community composition differs in the species pair inhabiting the older of two crater lakes. One major difference, relative to other fish, is that in these cichlids that live in hypersaline crater lakes, the microbial community is largely made up of Oceanospirillales (52.28%) which are halotolerant or halophilic bacteria. This analysis opens up further avenues to identify candidate symbiotic or co-evolved bacteria playing a role in adaptation to similar diets and life-styles or even have a role in speciation. Future functional and phylosymbiotic analyses might help to address these issues. PMID:24733403

  15. The Utility of Geometric Morphometrics to Elucidate Pathways of Cichlid Fish Evolution

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    Michaela Kerschbaumer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes of the family Cichlidae are famous for their spectacular species flocks and therefore constitute a model system for the study of the pathways of adaptive radiation. Their radiation is connected to trophic specialization, manifested in dentition, head morphology, and body shape. Geometric morphometric methods have been established as efficient tools to quantify such differences in overall body shape or in particular morphological structures and meanwhile found wide application in evolutionary biology. As a common feature, these approaches define and analyze coordinates of anatomical landmarks, rather than traditional counts or measurements. Geometric morphometric methods have several merits compared to traditional morphometrics, particularly for the distinction and analysis of closely related entities. Cichlid evolutionary research benefits from the efficiency of data acquisition, the manifold opportunities of analyses, and the potential to visualize shape changes of those landmark-based methods. This paper briefly introduces to the concepts and methods of geometric morphometrics and presents a selection of publications where those techniques have been successfully applied to various aspects of cichlid fish diversification.

  16. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

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    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  17. Facial Recognition in a Group-Living Cichlid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Masanori Kohda; Lyndon Alexander Jordan; Takashi Hotta; Naoya Kosaka; Kenji Karino; Hirokazu Tanaka; Masami Taniyama; Tomohiro Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the mechanisms of sociality, e.g. territoriality, hierarchy, and reciprocity, are based on assumptions of individual recognition. While behavioural evidence suggests individual recognition is widespread, the cues that animals use to recognise individuals are established in only a handful of systems. Here, we use digital models to demonstrate that facial features are the visual cue used for individual recognition in the social fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Focal...

  18. Morphology and efficiency of a specialized foraging behavior, sediment sifting, in neotropical cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Fernández

    Full Text Available Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis on a set of ecomorphological traits from 27 species of Neotropical cichlids. For most sifting taxa, feeding behavior could be effectively predicted by a linear discriminant function of ecomorphology across multiple clades of sediment sifters, and this pattern could not be explained by shared evolutionary history alone. Additionally, we tested foraging efficiency in seven Neotropical cichlid species, five of which are specialized benthic feeders with differing head morphology. Efficiency was evaluated based on the degree to which invertebrate prey could be retrieved at different depths of sediment. Feeding performance was compared both with respect to feeding mode and species using a phylogenetic ANCOVA, with substrate depth as a covariate. Benthic foraging performance was constant across sediment depths in non-sifters but declined with depth in sifters. The non-sifting Hypsophrys used sweeping motions of the body and fins to excavate large pits to uncover prey; this tactic was more efficient for consuming deeply buried invertebrates than observed among sediment sifters. Findings indicate that similar feeding performance among sediment-sifting cichlids extracting invertebrate prey from shallow sediment layers reflects constraints associated with functional morphology and, to a lesser extent, phylogeny.

  19. Back to Tanganyika: a case of recent trans-species-flock dispersal in East African haplochromine cichlid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Britta S.; Indermaur, Adrian; Ehrensperger, Xenia; Egger, Bernd; Banyankimbona, Gaspard; Snoeks, Jos; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes are the largest vertebrate adaptive radiations in the world and illustrious textbook examples of convergent evolution between independent species assemblages. Although recent studies suggest some degrees of genetic exchange between riverine taxa and the lake faunas, not a single cichlid species is known from Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria that is derived from the radiation associated with another of these lakes. Here, we report the discovery of a haplochromine cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika, which belongs genetically to the species flock of haplochromines of the Lake Victoria region. The new species colonized Lake Tanganyika only recently, suggesting that faunal exchange across watersheds and, hence, between isolated ichthyofaunas, is more common than previously thought. PMID:26064619

  20. Gonad development in Midas cichlids and the evolution of sex change in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Some fishes mature and function as one sex and later transform to the other sex in response to social interactions. Previous evidence suggested that a change in developmental timing may be involved in the evolution of adult sex change in fishes. The most recent support for this idea came from reports that sex in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, was determined by social conditions experienced at the juvenile stage. Differentiation as a male was reported to be dependent on large body size relative to group-mates, and thought to be mediated through aggressive interactions. Here I demonstrate that socially controlled sex determination does not occur as was originally reported. Previously, I found that sex was not associated with body size in juveniles either in nature or in captivity. Similarly, I found no association between aggressive behavior and sex in juveniles. I later demonstrated that socially controlled sex determination does not typically occur in the Midas cichlid and closely related species and supported an alternative mechanism to explain large body size in adult males. Finally, in the current study I analyze gonad histology of fish from the same population used by the original authors and lay to rest the idea of socially controlled sex determination in this species. Recent observations of socially controlled sex determination in juveniles of species that typically change sex at the adult stage are examples of phenotypic plasticity, not genetic variation. Therefore, juvenile socially controlled sex determination does not support a theory that a change in developmental timing is involved in the evolution of adult sex change in fishes. PMID:21740508

  1. Mating system of the Amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, M S R F; Yamamoto, M E; Chellappa, S

    2007-02-01

    The species, Pterophyllum scalare distinguishes itself by its breeding behavior, involving competition for territory, sexual partners, courtship and parental care. The purpose of this study was to identify the mating system adopted by this species of fish. Twenty males and twenty females were observed under semi-natural and experimental conditions to test the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Under semi-natural conditions, after the third breeding cycle, the couples changed mates. Under experimental conditions, the couples changed partners after the first breeding cycle. Under experimental conditions, mate recognition was investigated through the preference of the females, indicated by the time they spent with the males. The females were available or not for courtship from new males, depending on their aggressiveness or submission. The larger and more aggressive males obtained new mating opportunities while the submissive males were rejected by the females. The mated fish were aggressive towards intruders in the presence of the mate, protecting their pair bond. In the interval between breeding cycles, the couples did not display aggression towards intruders, confirming the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Best mate selection by the females and the opportunity of new matings for both sexes influenced the reproductive success of this species. PMID:17505764

  2. Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheyen Erik

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes in East Africa are well known for their spectacular diversity and their astonishingly fast rates of speciation. About 80% of all 2,500 cichlid species in East Africa, and virtually all cichlid species from Lakes Victoria (~500 species and Malawi (~1,000 species are haplochromines. Here, we present the most extensive phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis so far that includes about 100 species and is based on about 2,000 bp of the mitochondrial DNA. Results Our analyses revealed that all haplochromine lineages are ultimately derived from Lake Tanganyika endemics. We find that the three most ancestral lineages of the haplochromines sensu lato are relatively species poor, albeit widely distributed in Africa, whereas a fourth newly defined lineage – the 'modern haplochromines' – contains an unparalleled diversity that makes up more than 7% of the worlds' ~25,000 teleost species. The modern haplochromines' ancestor, most likely a riverine generalist, repeatedly gave rise to similar ecomorphs now found in several of the species flocks. Also, the Tanganyikan Tropheini are derived from that riverine ancestor suggesting that they successfully re-colonized Lake Tanganyika and speciated in parallel to an already established cichlid adaptive radiation. In contrast to most other known examples of adaptive radiations, these generalist ancestors were derived from highly diverse and specialized endemics from Lake Tanganyika. A reconstruction of life-history traits revealed that in an ancestral lineage leading to the modern haplochromines the characteristic egg-spots on anal fins of male individuals evolved. Conclusion We conclude that Lake Tanganyika is the geographic and genetic cradle of all haplochromine lineages. In the ancestors of the replicate adaptive radiations of the 'modern haplochromines', behavioral (maternal mouthbrooding, morphological (egg-spots and sexually selected (color

  3. On the age and origin of the species flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G

    2001-06-01

    Recent suggestions concerning the age and origin of the flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (East Africa) are considered. These accept as proven the suggestion that Lake Victoria dried out completely in the Late Pleistocene, was dry for several thousand years, and refilled ca. 12400 years ago. Apart from the fact that other geophysical evidence contradicts this claim, its biological implications, which do likewise, have never been considered by those who have accepted it. Like those of all previous authors who have seized on the presence of the haplochromine flock of perhaps more than 600 species as evidence of extremely rapid evolution since the lake allegedly refilled, the account completely overlooks the fact that any such desiccation must have eliminated not only the haplochromine cichlids but the entire biota of the lake. Nevertheless, its present fauna not only includes the haplochromines but many other endemic organisms that would not be expected, and whose presence and history demand an explanation if the lake did indeed dry out. No such explanation has been offered, nor does such seem possible. The recent interpretation of events is questioned and rejected. PMID:11375102

  4. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-11-22

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the 'stages model' of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  5. Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Kocher, T D; Basasibwaki, P; Wilson, A C

    1990-10-11

    Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplochromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus presented with a case of explosive evolution. Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic. We sequenced up to 803 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 14 representative Victorian species and 23 additional African species. The flock seems to be monophyletic, and is more akin to that from Lake Malawi than to species from Lake Tanganyika; in addition, it contains less genetic variation than does the human species, and there is virtually no sharing of mitochondrial DNA types among species. These results confirm that the founding event was recent. PMID:2215680

  6. Big fish, little divergence: phylogeography of Lake Tanganyika’s giant cichlid, Boulengerochromis microlepis

    OpenAIRE

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Elizabeth A. Odhiambo; Sinyinza, Danny; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2015-01-01

    The largely endemic cichlid species flocks of the East African Great Lakes are among the prime examples for explosive speciation and adaptive radiation. Speciation rates differ among cichlid lineages, and the propensity to radiate has been linked to intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as sexual selection and ecological opportunity. Remarkably, only one cichlid tribe—the Boulengerochromini—comprises just a single species, Boulengerochromis microlepis, a predominantly piscivorous endemic of La...

  7. An Evaluation of the Role of Sensory Drive in the Evolution of Lake Malawi Cichlid Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam R.; Moira J. van Staaden; Carleton, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the cichlids of Lake Malawi are an important model system for the study of sensory evolution and sexual selection, the evolutionary processes linking these two phenomena remain unclear. Prior works have proposed that evolutionary divergence is driven by sensory drive, particularly as it applies to the visual system. While evidence suggests that sensory drive has played a role in the speciation of Lake Victoria cichlids, the findings from several lines of research on cichlids of Lake ...

  8. Tucunarella n. Gen. and other dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from cichlid fish (Perciformes) from Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T; Rozkosná, P

    2010-06-01

    During parasitological research on cichlid fish from the tributaries of the Amazon River around Iquitos, Peru, the following gill monogenoidean species were found: Tucunarella cichlae n. gen. and n. sp. from Cichla monoculus Spix and Agassiz; Gussevia alioides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from Heros severus Heckel; Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz); Gussevia disparoides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from H. severus (all new geographical records) and Cichlasoma amazonarum Kullander (new host record); Gussevia longihaptor (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 and Gussevia undulata Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from C. monoculus ; Sciadicleithrum satanopercae Yamada, Takemoto, Bellay, and Pavanelli, 2008 from Satanoperca jurupari Heckel; and Sciadicleithrum variabilum (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from C. amazonarum (new host and geographical records). Tucunarella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate a new species, Tucunarella cichlae , which is its type and only known species in the genus. The new genus is characterized by, besides a very large body size (about 1.5 mm vs. much less than 1 mm in other ancyrocephaline genera in Amazonia), a thickened tegument, 1 pair of eyes, overlapping gonads (testis dorsal to the germarium), nonarticulated male copulatory organ (MCO) and accessory piece, a coiled (counterclockwise) MCO, a dextral vaginal aperture, a haptor armed with 2 pairs of anchors (each with broad base and subequal roots, which are marginally folded), and dorsal and ventral bars and 14 hooks with protruding blunt thumbs and 2 different shapes (slender vs. slightly expanded shanks). Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual species from different hosts are provided. The present data provide evidence of a relatively wide host specificity of gill monogenoideans parasitic in South American cichlids

  9. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Takeuchi; Michio Hori; Shinya Tada; Yoichi Oda

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL

  10. Local variation and parallel evolution: morphological and genetic diversity across a species complex of neotropical crater lake cichlid fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Kusche, Henrik; Lehtonen, Topi K; Meyer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The polychromatic and trophically polymorphic Midas cichlid fish species complex (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus) is an excellent model system for studying the mechanisms of speciation and patterns of phenotypic diversification in allopatry and in sympatry. Here, we first review research to date on the species complex and the geological history of its habitat. We analyse body shape variation from all currently described species in the complex, sampled from six crater lakes (maximally 1.2 23.9 ky...

  11. Male-male competition and nuptial-colour displacement as a diversifying force in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    OpenAIRE

    Seehausen, Ole; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for diversification of male nuptial-colour patterns in the rapidly speciating cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. Sympatric closely related species often display nuptial colours at opposite ends of the spectrum with males either blue or yellow to red. Colour polymorphisms within single populations are common too. We propose that competition between males for breeding sites promotes such colour diversification, and thereby speciation. We hypothesize that male aggression...

  12. The use of multiple sources of social information in contest behavior: testing the social cognitive abilities of a cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Takashi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Heg, Dik; Awata, Satoshi; Jordan, Lyndon A.; Kohda, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favors the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winne...

  13. Evolutionary Fate of the Androgen Receptor-Signaling Pathway in Ray-Finned Fishes with a Special Focus on Cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Thibault; Salzburger, Walter; Böhne, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of the steroid system is coupled to the evolution of multicellular animals. In vertebrates in particular, the steroid receptor repertoire has been shaped by genome duplications characteristic to this lineage. Here, we investigate for the first time the composition of the androgen receptor-signaling pathway in ray-finned fish genomes by focusing in particular on duplicates that emerged from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. We trace lineage- and species-specific duplications and gene losses for the genomic and nongenomic pathway of androgen signaling and subsequently investigate the sequence evolution of these genes. In one particular fish lineage, the cichlids, we find evidence for differing selection pressures acting on teleost-specific whole-genome duplication paralogs at a derived evolutionary stage. We then look into the expression of these duplicated genes in four cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika indicating, once more, rapid changes in expression patterns in closely related fish species. We focus on a particular case, the cichlid specific duplication of the rac1 GTPase, which shows possible signs of a neofunctionalization event. PMID:26333839

  14. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  15. What, if anything, is a Tilapia?-mitochondrial ND2 phylogeny of tilapiines and the evolution of parental care systems in the African cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Vera; Meyer, Axel

    2002-06-01

    We estimated a novel phylogeny of tilapiine cichlid fish (an assemblage endemic to Africa and the Near East) within the African cichlid fishes on the basis of complete mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene sequences. The ND2 (1,047 bp) gene was sequenced in 39 tilapiine cichlids (38 species and 1 subspecies) and in an additional 14 nontilapiine cichlid species in order to evaluate the traditional morphologically based hypothesis of the respective monophyly of the tilapiine and haplochromine cichlid fish assemblages. The analyses included many additional cichlid lineages, not only the so-called tilapiines, but also lineages from Lake Tanganyika, east Africa, the Neotropics and an out-group from Madagascar with a wide range of parental care and mating systems. Our results suggest, in contrast to the historical morphology-based hypotheses from Regan (1920, 1922 ), Trewavas (1983), and Stiassny (1991), that the tilapiines do not form a monophyletic group because there is strong evidence that the genus Tilapia is not monophyletic but divided into at least five distinct groups. In contrast to this finding, an allozyme analysis of Pouyaud and Agnèse (1995), largely based on the same samples as used here, found a clustering of the Tilapia species into only two groups. This discrepancy is likely caused by the difference in resolution power of the two marker systems used. Our data suggest that only type species Tilapia sparrmanii Smith (1840) should retain the genus name TILAPIA: One particular group of tilapiines (composed of genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis, Iranocichla, and Tristramella) is more closely related to an evolutionarily highly successful lineage, the haplochromine cichlids that compose the adaptive radiations of cichlid species flocks of east Africa. It appears that the highly adaptable biology of tilapiines is the ancestral state for all African cichlids and that the more stenotypic lifestyle of the haplochromine cichlids is derived from this

  16. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth-brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.E.REARDON; L.J.CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a) examine response (size and survival) to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers) and (b) explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced.Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations.In the laboratory,first generation (F1) broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO.Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size,egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2) offspring.The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO,and juvenile size and survival were quantified.In the field survey,across stages,embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations.In the laboratory experiment,F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother's mouth did not differ in mass,length,survival regardless of development DO environment.However,juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother's mouth,exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO.Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother's mouthsupport predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia.There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months.Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development.This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes.

  17. Efficacy of an ototoxic aminoglycoside (gentamicin) on the differentiation of the inner ear of cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönleber, J.; Anken, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, thus suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In the course of these experiments, it was shown that altered gravity both affected otolith size (and thus the provision of the proteinacious matrix) as well as the incorporation of calcium. It is hitherto unknown, as of whether sensory hair cells are involved either in the regulation of otolith growth or in the provision of otolithic material (such as protein or inorganic components) or even both. The ototoxic aminoglycoside gentamicin (GM) damages hair cells in many vertebrates (and is therefore used for the treatment of Meniere's disease in humans). The present study was thus designed to determine as of whether vestibular sensory cells are needed for otolith growth by applying GM in order to induce a (functionally relevant) loss of these cells. Developing cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were therefore immersed in 120 mg/l GM for 10 or 21 days. At the beginning and at the end of the experimental periods, the fish were incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin complexone (AC). After the experiment, otoliths were dissected and the area grown during GM-exposure (i.e., the area enclosed by the two AC labellings) was determined planimetrically. The results showed that incubating the animals in a GM-solution had no effect on otolith growth, but the development of otolith asymmetry was affected. Ultrastructural examinations of the sensory hair cells revealed that they had obviously not been affected by GM-treatment (no degenerative morphological features observed). Overall, the present results suggest that hair cells are not affected by GM concerning their possible role in (general) otolith growth, but that these cells indeed might have transitionally been impaired by GM resulting in a decreased capacity of regulating otolith symmetry.

  18. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals

  19. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil); Paumgartten, Francisco J.R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil)], E-mail: paum@ensp.fiocruz.br

    2008-03-15

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals.

  20. Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Dorelle, Luciana; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Guimarães Moreira, Renata; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2016-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As gonadotropin-stimulated sex steroids release from gonads was inhibited by ES in vitro, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of disruption of ES on gonadal steroidogenesis in C. dimerus, as well as compare the action of the active ingredient (AI) with that of currently used commercial formulations (CF). Testis and ovary fragments were incubated with ES (AI or CF) and/or steroidogenesis activators or precursors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in the incubation media. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:27235598

  1. A hybrid genetic linkage map of two ecologically and morphologically divergent Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus spp.) obtained by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ddRADSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for studying speciation and the formation of adaptive radiations because of their tremendous species richness and astonishing phenotypic diversity. Most research has focused on African rift lake fishes, although Neotropical cichlid species display much variability as well. Almost one dozen species of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) have been described so far and have formed repeated adaptive radiations in several Nicaraguan crater lakes. Here we apply double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to obtain a high-density linkage map of an interspecific cross between the benthic Amphilophus astorquii and the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus, which are sympatric species endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. A total of 755 RAD markers were genotyped in 343 F(2) hybrids. The map resolved 25 linkage groups and spans a total distance of 1427 cM with an average marker spacing distance of 1.95 cM, almost matching the total number of chromosomes (n = 24) in these species. Regions of segregation distortion were identified in five linkage groups. Based on the pedigree of parents to F(2) offspring, we calculated a genome-wide mutation rate of 6.6 × 10(-8) mutations per nucleotide per generation. This genetic map will facilitate the mapping of ecomorphologically relevant adaptive traits in the repeated phenotypes that evolved within the Midas cichlid lineage and, as the first linkage map of a Neotropical cichlid, facilitate comparative genomic analyses between African cichlids, Neotropical cichlids and other teleost fishes. PMID:23316439

  2. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved ...

  3. Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcazar, Rosa M; Becker, Lisa; Hilliard, Austin T; Kent, Kai R; Fernald, Russell D

    2016-01-01

    Male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, have been classified as dominant or subordinate, each with unique behavioral and endocrine profiles. Here we characterize two distinct subclasses of dominant males based on types of aggressive behavior: (1) males that display escalating levels of aggression and court females while they establish a territory, and (2) males that display a stable level of aggression and delay courting females until they have established a territory. To profile differences in their approach to a challenge, we used an intruder assay. In every case, there was a male-male confrontation between the resident dominant male and the intruder, with the intruder quickly taking a subordinate role. However, we found that dominant males with escalating aggression spent measurably more time attacking subordinates than did dominant males with stable aggression that instead increased their attention toward the females in their tank. There was no difference in the behavior of intruders exposed to either type of dominant male, suggesting that escalating aggression is an intrinsic characteristic of some dominant males and is not elicited by the behavior of their challengers. Male behavior during the first 15 min of establishing a territory predicts their aggressive class. These two types of dominant males also showed distinctive physiological characteristics. After the intruder assay, males with escalating aggression had elevated levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, while those with stable aggression did not. These observations show that the same stimulus can elicit different behavioral and endocrine responses among A. burtoni dominant males that characterize them as either escalating or stable aggressive types. Our ability to identify which individuals within a population have escalating levels of aggressive responses versus those which have stable levels of aggressive responses when exposed to the same stimulus

  4. The role of otolith size in hearing – Insights from cichlid fishes

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    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Otolithic end organs in fishes function as accelerometers and are involved in the senses of balance and hearing (e.g. Popper et al. 2005. Otolith mass and shape are likely decisive factors influencing otolith motion, but while it is largely unknown how different shapes affect otolith movement relative to the sensory epithelium (Popper et al. 2005, greater otolith mass is predicted to result in enhanced stimulation of sensory hair cells and improved hearing (Lychakov and Rebane 2005. What few studies exist on this topic, however, yielded contradicting results in that they did or did not find a correlation between increased otolith mass and enhanced hearing (see Kéver et al. 2014. We investigated the relationship between otolith morphology (including 3D-models of otoliths based on high-resolution microCT imaging and otolith weight and hearing abilities in cichlids while comparing three species (Etroplus maculatus, Hemichromis guttatus, Steatocranus tinanti with different swimbladder morphology and hearing abilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2014. We predicted Etroplus maculatus—the species that displays the best hearing sensitivities—to possess larger/heavier otoliths. As swimbladder extensions in this species are connected to the lagena, we further predicted to find heavier lagenar otoliths. Compared to H. guttatus and S. tinanti, E. maculatus showed the heaviest saccular otoliths, while lagenar otoliths were significantly thinner and lighter than in the former two species, apparently contradicting the hypothesis that the lagena and its otolith are primarily involved in improved hearing abilities. Our results support the idea that there is no ‘simple’ relationship between otolith weight, ancilliary auditory structures and hearing abilities. 3D-models of inner ears and otoliths may be ideally suited for future studies modeling complex otolith motion and thus, may provide a better understanding of how otolith morphology contributes to inner

  5. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation

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    Salzburger Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp. in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. Results We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. Conclusions The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated - among

  6. Evolution of opercle shape in cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika - adaptive trait interactions in extant and extinct species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura A B; Colombo, Marco; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype-environment correlations and the evolution of trait interactions in adaptive radiations have been widely studied to gain insight into the dynamics underpinning rapid species diversification. In this study we explore the phenotype-environment correlation and evolution of operculum shape in cichlid fishes using an outline-based geometric morphometric approach combined with stable isotope indicators of macrohabitat and trophic niche. We then apply our method to a sample of extinct saurichthyid fishes, a highly diverse and near globally distributed group of actinopterygians occurring throughout the Triassic, to assess the utility of extant data to inform our understanding of ecomorphological evolution in extinct species flocks. A series of comparative methods were used to analyze shape data for 54 extant species of cichlids (N = 416), and 6 extinct species of saurichthyids (N = 44). Results provide evidence for a relationship between operculum shape and feeding ecology, a concentration in shape evolution towards present along with evidence for convergence in form, and significant correlation between the major axes of shape change and measures of gut length and body elongation. The operculum is one of few features that can be compared in extant and extinct groups, enabling reconstruction of phenotype-environment interactions and modes of evolutionary diversification in deep time. PMID:26584885

  7. Parasite-mediated sexual selection and species divergence in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Van Rooijen, Anne M. C.; Van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the role of parasite-mediated sexual selection in the divergence of two species of Lake Victoria cichlids. Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei represent a common pattern of male nuptial colour divergence between haplochromine sister species: metallic grey-blue in P. pundamil

  8. Sexual conflict over breeding substrate causes female expulsion and offspring loss in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Taborsky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Females of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lamprologus callipterus exclusively breed in empty snail shells that males collect in their territories. Male-male competition for shells is severe, leading to frequent shell stealing and territory takeover. As a consequence, males have breeding females in thei

  9. Repeated parallel evolution of parental care strategies within Xenotilapia, a genus of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika.

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    Michael R Kidd

    Full Text Available The factors promoting the evolution of parental care strategies have been extensively studied in experiment and theory. However, most attempts to examine parental care in an evolutionary context have evaluated broad taxonomic categories. The explosive and recent diversifications of East African cichlid fishes offer exceptional opportunities to study the evolution of various life history traits based on species-level phylogenies. The Xenotilapia lineage within the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Ectodini comprises species that display either biparental or maternal only brood care and hence offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of distinct parental care strategies in a phylogenetic framework. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among 16 species of this lineage we scored 2,478 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs across the genome. We find that the Ectodini genus Enantiopus is embedded within the genus Xenotilapia and that during 2.5 to 3 million years of evolution within the Xenotilapia clade there have been 3-5 transitions from maternal only to biparental care. While most previous models suggest that uniparental care (maternal or paternal arose from biparental care, we conclude from our species-level analysis that the evolution of parental care strategies is not only remarkably fast, but much more labile than previously expected.

  10. Monogamy in the maternally mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Tropheus moorii

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Bernd; Obermüller, Beate; Phiri, Harris; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2006-01-01

    Supported by evidence for assortative mating and polygynandry, sexual selection through mate choice was suggested as the main force driving the evolution of colour diversity of haplochromine cichlids in Lakes Malawi and Victoria. The phylogenetically closely related tribe Tropheini of Lake Tanganyika includes the genus Tropheus, which comprises over 100 colour variants currently classified into six morphologically similar, polyphyletic species. To assess the potential for sexual selection in ...

  11. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Neotropical cichlid fish tribe Cichlasomatini (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Cichlasomatinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Říčan, Oldřich; Janko, Karel; Novák, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2008), s. 659-672. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 182/2004/B-BIO; GA UK(CZ) 139407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : molecular phylogeny * Cichlids * south America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.871, year: 2008

  12. Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae

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    William G. R. Crampton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The discus fishes of the genus Symphysodon are popular ornamental cichlids that occur in floodplain lakes and flooded forests of the lowland Amazon Basin. These habitats are characterized by extreme seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food, shelter and dissolved oxygen, and also the densities of predators and parasites. Most aspects of discus biology are influenced by these fluctuating conditions. This paper reports an autoecological study of the western Amazonian discus S. haraldi (until recently classified as S. aequifasciatus. This species feeds predominantly on algal periphyton, fine organic detritus, plant matter, and small aquatic invertebrates. At high water it forages alone or in small groups in flooded forests. At low water it forms large aggregations in fallen tree crowns along lake margins. Breeding occurs at the beginning of the flood season, ensuring that the progeny are well grown before the next low water period. Symphysodon haraldi is an iteroparous partial spawner, reaches reproductive maturity within a year, and undertakes parental care of its eggs and larvae. The timing of spawning events, and/or the rate of brood survival, may be influenced by fluctuations in the flood level, resulting in a non-unimodal distribution of size classes for the subsequent 1+ cohort.Os acarás-disco do gênero Symphysodon são peixes ornamentais comumente encontrados em lagos e florestas alagadas das planícies inundadas da Amazônia. Estes habitats são caracterizados por uma variação sazonal extrema na disponibilidade de alimento, abrigo e oxigênio dissolvido, e também pela densidade de predadores e parasitas. A maioria dos aspectos da biologia do acará-disco são influenciados por esta variabilidade de condições sazonais. Este artigo apresenta um estudo autoecológico de S. haraldi (até recentemente classificado como S. aequifasciatus da Amazônia Ocidental. Os acarás-disco alimentam-se predominantemente de perifiton, detritos

  13. Calibration and rectification research for fish-eye lens application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Cao, Zuoliang; Zong, Xiaoning; Röning, Juha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper aims to promote the application of fish-eye lens. Accurate parameters calibration and effective distortion rectification of an imaging device is of utmost importance in machine vision. Fish-eye lens produces a hemispherical field of view of an environment, which appears definite significant since its advantage of panoramic sight with a single compact visual scene. But fish-eye lens image has an unavoidable inherent severe distortion. The precise optical center is the precondition for other parameters calibration and distortion correction. Therefore, three different optical center calibration methods have been researched for diverse applications. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Spherical Equidistance Projection Algorithm (SEPA) are integrated to replace traditional rectification methods. SVM is a machine learning method based on the theory of statistics, which have good capabilities of imitating, regression and classification. In this research, SVM provides a mapping table between the fish-eye image and the standard image for human eyes. Two novel training models have been designed. SEPA has been applied to promote the rectification effect of the edge of fish-eye lens image. The validity and effectiveness of our achievements are demonstrated by processing the real images.

  14. Reproductive success and female preference in the amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro R. F. Cacho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare is a cichlid native to the Amazon Basin of Brazil and is exported as an ornamental fish. In this study the importance of the experience and previous reproductive success of males in mate selection was investigated. In order to investigate reproductive experience, six pairs of males (experienced and inexperienced and six females were used. Males were placed in an aquarium, where one female was released. Mate selection was verified by the time spent by a female near one of the males. To evaluate reproductive success, six pairs of males were tested, each pair consisting of a successful male and an unsuccessful one. Again, time spent with one of the males was considered as an indication of preference by the female. Each female was then paired with an unsuccessful male and their reproductive success was assessed. Females preferred larger, aggressive, territorial and experienced males. Correlations between male aggressiveness, aeration and egg survival were significant. During larval care, male aggressiveness was significantly related to larvae survival. Furthermore, intrabucal care and larval survival showed significant correlations with care provided by the experienced, mated and isolated fish. Survival of offspring resulted from mating with experienced and inexperienced males showed significant differences. Correlations between time spent by females with successful males during reproduction and survival rate of eggs and larvae were significant. Females assess the capacity and willingness of males in investing efforts to raise the offspring through their courtship behavior. Experienced and successful males are preferred by females and thereby achieve greater reproductive success.O acará bandeira, Pterophyllum scalareé um ciclídeo nativo da Bacia Amazônica do Brasil, eé exportado como espécie ornamental. Neste estudo foi investigada a importância da experiência dos machos e do sucesso na reprodu

  15. The use of multiple sources of social information in contest behaviour: testing the social cognitive abilities of a cichlid fish

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    Takashi eHotta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favours the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winner/loser effects, social eavesdropping and transitive inference (TI. We conducted experiments in which fish assessed the social status of rivals after either direct physical contests or observed contests. Individuals used direct information from a previous physical encounter to re-establish dominance without additional contact, but winner/loser effects were not observed. Social eavesdropping alone was ruled out, but we found that transitive reasoning was used to infer social dominance of other individuals of unknown status. Our results suggest that in stable hierarchical social groups, estimations of contest ability, based on individual recognition pathways such as TI and direct experience, are more prevalent than social eavesdropping or winner/loser effects. We suggest that advanced cognitive abilities might be widespread among highly social fishes, but have previously gone undetected.

  16. Genetic and morphological population differentiation in the rock-dwelling and specialized shrimp-feeding cichlid fish species Altolamprologus compressiceps from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Spreitzer, Maria Luise; Mautner, Selma; Makasa, Lawrence; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    With about 250 endemic species, Lake Tanganyika contains an extraordinarily diverse cichlid fish fauna, and thus represents an ideal model system for the study of pathways and processes of speciation. The Lamprologini form the most species-rich tribe in Lake Tanganyika comprising about 100 species in seven genera, most of which are endemic to the lake. They are territorial substrate-breeders and represent a monophyletic tribe. By combined analysis of population genetics and geometric morphome...

  17. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point images for a single object point are also demonstrated.

  18. On subwavelength imaging with Maxwell's fish eye lens

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a subwavelength image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point imaging for a single object point is also demonstrated.

  19. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

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    Miyuki Takeda

    Full Text Available The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  20. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SLLake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  1. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL, attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  2. The B chromosomes of the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens harbour 18S rRNA gene copies

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    Martins Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse plant and animal species have B chromosomes, also known as accessory, extra or supernumerary chromosomes. Despite being widely distributed among different taxa, the genomic nature and genetic behavior of B chromosomes are still poorly understood. Results In this study we describe the occurrence of B chromosomes in the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens. One or two large B chromosome(s occurring in 39.6% of the analyzed individuals (both male and female were identified. To better characterize the karyotype and assess the nature of the B chromosomes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was performed using probes for telomeric DNA repeats, 18S and 5S rRNA genes, SATA centromeric satellites, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs enriched in repeated DNA sequences. The B chromosomes are enriched in repeated DNAs, especially non-active 18S rRNA gene-like sequences. Conclusion Our results suggest that the B chromosome could have originated from rDNA bearing subtelo/acrocentric A chromosomes through formation of an isochromosome, or by accumulation of repeated DNAs and rRNA gene-like sequences in a small proto-B chromosome derived from the A complement.

  3. Comment on 'Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens'

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The non-magnetic loss material has been proposed (2011 New J. Phys. 13 023038) to mimic a passive perfect drain in the Maxwell's fish eye lens (MFL). In this comment, we argue that this passive medium can only be treated as a perfect absorber which can totally absorb all incident radiation without scattering by it, but it cannot mimic a delta function at the image point. As a result, this passive medium cannot help to achieve a perfect focusing in MFL.

  4. Genetic and environmental effects on the morphological asymmetry in the scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Heim, Valentin; Meyer, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika are a well-known example of an asymmetry dimorphism because the mouth/head is either left-bending or right-bending. However, how strongly its pronounced morphological laterality is affected by genetic and environmental factors remains unclear. Using quantitative assessments of mouth asymmetry, we investigated its origin by estimating narrow-sense heritability (h (2) ) using midparent-offspring regression. The heritability estimates [field estimate: h (2)  = 0.22 ± 0.06, P = 0.013; laboratory estimate: h (2)  = 0.18 ± 0.05, P = 0.004] suggest that although variation in laterality has some additive genetic component, it is strongly environmentally influenced. Family-level association analyses of a putative microsatellite marker that was claimed to be linked to gene(s) for laterality revealed no association of this locus with laterality. Moreover, the observed phenotype frequencies in offspring from parents of different phenotype combinations were not consistent with a previously suggested single-locus two-allele model, but they neither were able to reject with confidence a random asymmetry model. These results reconcile the disputed mechanisms for this textbook case of mouth asymmetry where both genetic and environmental factors contribute to this remarkable case of morphological asymmetry. PMID:26664678

  5. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes’ left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22≤SL<115mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen’s stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45mm≤SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  6. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullmann Harald

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles.

  7. Effect of hypergravity on the Ca/Sr composition of developing otoliths of larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R H; Ibsch, M; Breuer, J; Rahmann, H

    2001-02-01

    The amounts of calcium and strontium were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in saccular and utricular inner ear otoliths (sagittae and lapilli, respectively) of developing cichlid fish. These fish had been maintained for 22 days at 3-g hypergravity conditions within a centrifuge. During this time-span, the animals completed their ontogenetic development from hatch to the free-swimming stage. Neither the morphogenetic development nor the timely onset and gain of performance of the swimming behaviour was impaired by the experimental conditions. Experimental and control animals also did not differ concerning their size (total length). ICP-MS revealed that the otoliths contained significantly less calcium (in microg/otolith) after hyper-g exposure compared to parallelly raised 1-g control specimens (lapilli: 0.74+/-0.21 vs. 1.16+/-0.41; sagittae: 2.09+/-0.49 vs. 2.76+/-0.47). The content of strontium (in microg/otolith: lapilli: 0.0044+/-0.0023 vs. 0.0022+/-0.0013; sagittae: 0.0094+/-0.0026 vs. 0.0081+/-0.0016) and, consequently, the Sr/Ca ratio (Sr/Cax100) was increased (lapilli: 0.607+/-0.267 vs. 0.201+/-0.12; sagittae: 0.439+/-0.093 vs. 0.301+/-0.086). Since the calcium content can be taken as a proxy for otolith weight, and because parallelly undertaken morphometric investigations revealed smaller otoliths (maximum radius and surface area) due to hyper-g exposure, the results suggest that the growth of otoliths at hyper-g is slowed down. Since the concentration of trace elements incorporated into otoliths is likely based on the composition of the respective protein matrix, our findings suggest that the protein metabolism is affected by hypergravity. PMID:11223398

  8. On subwavelength imaging of Maxwell's fish eye lens

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens, which has been claimed recently to be able to achieve perfect imaging. We show that such a Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in the Maxwell's fish eye. If only zero order mode is excited, a subwavelength image can be achieved, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the source field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a modified fish eye bounded with perfectly electrical conductor (PEC). Explicit condition is given for achieving a subwavelength image. When this condition is not satisfied, a single line current source may give multiple image spots.

  9. Automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yuan; Yongduan Song; Xueye Wei

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents an automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera. Our system achieves wide-area automatic surveillance without a dead angle using only one camera. We propose a new human detection method to select the most adaptive classifier based on the locations of the human candidates.Human regions are detected from the fish-eye image effectively and are corrected for perspective versions.An experiment is performed on indoor video sequences with different illumination and crowded conditions,with results demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.%@@ This letter presents an automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera. Our system achieves wide-area automatic surveillance without a dead angle using only one camera. We propose a new human detection method to select the most adaptive classifier based on the locations of the human candidates. Human regions are detected from the fish-eye image effectively and are corrected for perspective versions. An experiment is performed on indoor video sequences with different illumination and crowded conditions, with results demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.

  10. Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Brian E; Lu, Jessica; Leips, Jeff; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Critical behaviours such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view objects against distinct environmental backgrounds, coexpress different pairs of opsins in an African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. This coexpression tunes the sensitivity of the retinal regions to the corresponding backgrounds and may aid in detection of dark objects, such as predators. Although intraretinal regionalization of spectral sensitivity in many animals correlates with their light environments, it is unknown whether variation in the light environment induces developmentally plastic alterations of intraretinal sensitivity regions. Here, we demonstrate with fluorescent in situ hybridization and qPCR that the spectrum and angle of environmental light both influence the development of spectral sensitivity regions by altering the distribution and level of opsins across the retina. Normally, M. zebra coexpresses LWS opsin with RH2Aα opsin in double cones of the ventral but not the dorsal retina. However, when illuminated from below throughout development, adult M. zebra coexpressed LWS and RH2Aα in double cones both dorsally and ventrally. Thus, environmental background spectra alter the spectral sensitivity pattern that develops across the retina, potentially influencing behaviours and related evolutionary processes such as courtship and speciation. PMID:26175094

  11. Morphology and Efficiency of a Specialized Foraging Behavior, Sediment Sifting, in Neotropical Cichlid Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán López-Fernández; Jessica Arbour; Stuart Willis; Crystal Watkins; Honeycutt, Rodney L.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of relationships between morphology and ecological performance can help to reveal how natural selection drives biological diversification. We investigate relationships between feeding behavior, foraging performance and morphology within a diverse group of teleost fishes, and examine the extent to which associations can be explained by evolutionary relatedness. Morphological adaptation associated with sediment sifting was examined using a phylogenetic linear discriminant analysis...

  12. The Utility of Geometric Morphometrics to Elucidate Pathways of Cichlid Fish Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Kerschbaumer; Christian Sturmbauer

    2011-01-01

    Fishes of the family Cichlidae are famous for their spectacular species flocks and therefore constitute a model system for the study of the pathways of adaptive radiation. Their radiation is connected to trophic specialization, manifested in dentition, head morphology, and body shape. Geometric morphometric methods have been established as efficient tools to quantify such differences in overall body shape or in particular morphological structures and meanwhile found wide application in evolut...

  13. Parsing parallel evolution: ecological divergence and differential gene expression in the adaptive radiations of thick-lipped Midas cichlid fishes from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Tereza; Hull, Pincelli M; Kusche, Henrik; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Franchini, Paolo; Harrod, Chris; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-02-01

    The study of parallel evolution facilitates the discovery of common rules of diversification. Here, we examine the repeated evolution of thick lips in Midas cichlid fishes (the Amphilophus citrinellus species complex)-from two Great Lakes and two crater lakes in Nicaragua-to assess whether similar changes in ecology, phenotypic trophic traits and gene expression accompany parallel trait evolution. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterize transcriptome-wide differential gene expression in the lips of wild-caught sympatric thick- and thin-lipped cichlids from all four instances of repeated thick-lip evolution. Six genes (apolipoprotein D, myelin-associated glycoprotein precursor, four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2, calpain-9, GTPase IMAP family member 8-like and one hypothetical protein) are significantly underexpressed in the thick-lipped morph across all four lakes. However, other aspects of lips' gene expression in sympatric morphs differ in a lake-specific pattern, including the magnitude of differentially expressed genes (97-510). Generally, fewer genes are differentially expressed among morphs in the younger crater lakes than in those from the older Great Lakes. Body shape, lower pharyngeal jaw size and shape, and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differ between all sympatric morphs, with the greatest differentiation in the Great Lake Nicaragua. Some ecological traits evolve in parallel (those related to foraging ecology; e.g. lip size, body and head shape) but others, somewhat surprisingly, do not (those related to diet and food processing; e.g. jaw size and shape, stable isotopes). Taken together, this case of parallelism among thick- and thin-lipped cichlids shows a mosaic pattern of parallel and nonparallel evolution. PMID:23057963

  14. Eco-morphological differentiation in Lake Magadi tilapia, an extremophile cichlid fish living in hot, alkaline and hypersaline lakes in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavembe, Geraldine D; Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Ecological diversification through divergent selection is thought to be a major force during the process of adaptive radiations. However, the large sizes and complexity of most radiations such as those of the cichlids in the African Great Lakes make it impossible to infer the exact evolutionary history of any population divergence event. The genus Alcolapia, a small cichlid lineage endemic to Lakes Magadi and Natron in East Africa, exhibits phenotypes similar to some of those found in cichlids of the radiations of the African Great Lakes. The simplicity within Alcolapia makes it an excellent model system to investigate ecological diversification and speciation. We used an integrated approach including population genomics based on RAD-seq data, geometric morphometrics and stable isotope analyses to investigate the eco-morphological diversification of tilapia in Lake Magadi and its satellite lake Little Magadi. Additionally, we reconstructed the demographic history of the species using coalescent simulations based on the joint site frequency spectrum. The population in Little Magadi has a characteristically upturned mouth-possibly an adaptation to feeding on prey from the water surface. Eco-morphological differences between populations within Lake Magadi are more subtle, but are consistent with known ecological differences between its lagoons such as high concentrations of nitrogen attributable to extensive guano deposits in Rest of Magadi relative to Fish Springs Lagoon. All populations diverged simultaneously only about 1100 generations ago. Differences in levels of gene flow between populations and the effective population sizes have likely resulted in the inferred heterogeneous patterns of genome-wide differentiation. PMID:26547282

  15. The transparent lens and cornea in the mouse and zebra fish eye

    OpenAIRE

    Greiling, Teri M.S.; Clark, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The lens and cornea combine to form a single optical element in which transparency and refraction are the fundamental biophysical characteristics required for a functional visual system. Although lens and cornea have different cellular and extracellular specializations that contribute to transparency and refraction, their development is closely related. In the embryonic mouse, the developing cornea and lens separate early. In contrast, zebra fish lens and cornea remain connected during early ...

  16. Comparative cytogenetics of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Nannacara, Ivanacara and Cleithracara) indicates evolutionary reduction of diploid chromosome numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Hodaňová,Lucie; Kalous, Lukáš; Musilová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in five species of a monophyletic clade of neotropical Cichlasomatine cichlids, namely Cleithracara maronii Steindachner, 1881, Ivanacara adoketa (Kullander & Prada-Pedreros, 1993), Nannacara anomala Regan, 1905, N. aureocephalus Allgayer, 1983 and N. taenia Regan, 1912. Karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics were revealed by CDD banding and mapped onto the phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular analyses of four genes, ...

  17. Early learning and speciation: the effects of early experience on sexual and aggressive behaviour in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette

    2008-01-01

    The great Lakes of East Africa are inhabited by a great number of haplochromine cichlid species, which form a diverse group in both ecology and nuptial coloration. The large number of sympatrically occuriring closely related species has raised questions about the underlying mechanism for reproductive isolation. In this thesis I describe experiments that test for the effects of early experience on their species assortative behaviour in the contexts of mate choice and male territorial interacti...

  18. Social cohesiveness of convict cichlid fish (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum Guenther) after irradiation of parental spermatogonia and oogonia with different doses of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of social cohesiveness were made between F1 convict cichlids derived from gonial germ cells which were exposed to 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, or 2000 R of x-rays. The cohesiveness was determined by counting the distribution of each ten fish of every F1 group among 12 equal squares within a shallow test tank measuring 80 by 60 by 20 cm. While an increase in cohesiveness was detected in F1 males, as compared to the controls after irradiation with 500 R, the cohesiveness of F1 females decreased after 750 and 2000 R. The increase in male cohesiveness may be associated with a reduction of intermale aggressiveness as found in previous studies

  19. Reply to comment on Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Minnano, Juan C; Grabovickic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    We reply to the comments on our paper Perfect Drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens (NJP 13 (2011) 023038) made by Fei Sun. We believe that Sun comments have several mistakes in theoretical concepts and simulation results.

  20. Chronic playback of boat noise does not impact hatching success or post-hatching larval growth and survival in a cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic (man-made noise has been shown to have a negative impact on the behaviour and physiology of a range of terrestrial and aquatic animals. However, direct assessments of fitness consequences are rare. Here we examine the effect of additional noise on early life stages in the model cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. Many fishes use and produce sounds, they are crucial elements of aquatic ecosystems, and there is mounting evidence that they are vulnerable to anthropogenic noise; adult N. pulcher have recently been shown to change key behaviours during playback of motor boat noise. Using a split-brood design to eliminate potential genetic effects, we exposed half of the eggs and fry from each clutch to four weeks of playbacks of noise originally recorded from small motor boats with the other half acting as a control (receiving no noise playback. There was no significant effect of additional noise on hatching success or fry survival, length or weight at the end of the exposure period. Although care should be taken not to generalize these findings on a single species from a laboratory study, our data suggest that moderate noise increases do not necessarily have direct negative impacts on early-life survival and growth. Further studies on a range of species in natural conditions are urgently needed to inform conservation efforts and policy decisions about the consequences of anthropogenic noise.

  1. Electromagnetic modes of Maxwell fish-eye lens

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    1996-01-01

    We provide an analysis of the radial structure of TE and TM modes of the Maxwell fisheye lens, by means of Maxwell equations as applied to the fisheye case. Choosing a lens of size R = 1 cm, we plot some of the modes in the infrared range.

  2. Feature matching method study for uncorrected fish-eye lens image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofeng; Jia, Yanhui; Röning, Juha; Feng, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Because of the further from the center of image the lower resolution and the severe non-linear distortion are the characteristics of uncorrected fish-eye lens image, the traditional feature matching method can't achieve good performance in the applications of fish-eye lens, which correct distortion firstly and then matches the features in image. Center-symmetric Local Binary Pattern (CS-LBP) is a kind of descriptor based on grayscale information from neighborhood, which has high ability of grayscale invariance and rotation invariance. In this paper, CS-LBP will be combined with Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) to solve the problem of feature point matching on uncorrected fish-eye image. We first extract the interest points in the pair of fish-eye images by SIFT, and then describe the corresponding regions of the interest points through CS-LBP. Finally the similarity of the regions will be evaluated using the chi-square distance to get the only pair of points. For the specified interest point, the corresponding point in another image can be found out. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a satisfying matching performance in uncorrected fish-eye lens image. The study of this article will be useful to enhance the applications of fish-eye lens in the field of 3D reconstruction and panorama restoration.

  3. Real-time distortion correction of fish-eye lens based on Bayer image signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shiming; Xiong, Zhihui; Chen, Lidong; Tan, Xin; Zhang, Maojun

    2014-03-01

    The imaging system based on a fish-eye lens generally has to correct the distortion of fish-eye images. The distortion correction based on the Bayer image signal is valuable, such as reducing the computation burden of image signal processing chips and providing a new imaging system structure of fish-eye lens. In this paper, a distortion correction method of fish-eye lens based on the Bayer image signal is proposed. Firstly, a distortion correction method that focuses on vertical straight lines and processing delay is proposed. Secondly, according to the correlation among color channels of the Bayer image, a novel Hermite interpolation method appropriate for Bayer image signal is proposed. Finally, a prototype system of fish-eye-lens-based imaging is established and the real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the proposed method is demonstrated. The experiment demonstrates that the proposed distortion correction is not only characteristic of real-time processing and the smaller computation amount, but also applicable to embedded hardware.

  4. Fish-eye lens view Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell in Lunar Module Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    A fish-eye lens view showing Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. and Edgar D. Mitchell in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission Simulator at the Kennedy Space Center during preflight training for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission. Shepard is the Apollo 14 commander; and Mitchell is the lunar module pilot.

  5. Coherent perfect absorber makes a perfect drain for Maxwell's fish-eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2012-11-01

    We design a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) that can totally absorb the converging wave. Such a CPA is of subwavelength size and can be embedded in Maxwell's fish-eye lens and serve as a drain very well. Numerical simulations were performed to verify the functionalities.

  6. Expression of arginine vasotocin in distinct preoptic regions is associated with dominant and subordinate behaviour in an African cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Anna K.; Wark, Abigail R.; Fernald, Russell D.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread modulatory effects on behaviour and physiology and are associated with phenotypic transitions in a variety of animals. Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is implicated in mediating alternative male phenotypes in teleost fish, but the direction of the association differs among species, with either higher or lower AVT related to more territorial behaviour in different fishes. To clarify the complex relationship between AVT and alternative phenotype, we evaluated AVT expressi...

  7. Genetic evidence for prevalence of alloparental care in a socially monogamous biparental cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika supports the "selfish shepherd effect" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Heim, Valentin; Meyer, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Alloparental care - care for unrelated young - is rare in animals, and its ecological or evolutionary advantages or, alternative maladaptive nature, remain unclear. We investigate alloparental care in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis from Lake Tanganyika that exhibits bi-parental care. In a genetic parentage analysis, we discovered a surprisingly high percentage of alloparental care represented by brood mixing, extra-pair paternity and extra-pair maternity in all broods that we investigated. The percentage of nondescendant juveniles of other parents, i.e., brood mixing, ranged from 5% to 57% (mean = 28%). The distribution of genetic parentage also suggests that this socially monogamous species has, in fact, polygamous mating system. The prevalence of genetically mixed broods can be best explained by two, not mutually exclusive hypotheses on farming-out and fostering behaviors. In the majority of broods, the sizes of the parents' own (descendant) offspring were significantly larger than those of the adopted (nondescendant) juveniles, supporting the 'selfish shepherd effect' hypothesis, i.e., that foster parents preferentially accept unrelated "smaller or not larger" young since this would tend to lower the predation risks for their own larger offspring. There was also a tendency for larger parents particularly mothers, more so than smaller parents, to care predominantly for their own offspring. Larger parents might be better at defending against cuckoldry and having foreign young dumped into their broods through farming-out behavior. This result might argue for maladaptive effects of allopatric care for the foster parents that only larger and possibly more experienced pairs can guard against. It needs to be determined why, apparently, the ability to recognize one's own young has not evolved in this species. PMID:27217943

  8. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. PMID:26449161

  9. Replicated divergence in cichlid radiations mirrors a major vertebrate innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Matthew D; Faircloth, Brant C; Borstein, Samuel R; Zheng, Jimmy; Darrin Hulsey, C; Wainwright, Peter C; Alfaro, Michael E

    2016-01-13

    Decoupling of the upper jaw bones--jaw kinesis--is a distinctive feature of the ray-finned fishes, but it is not clear how the innovation is related to the extraordinary diversity of feeding behaviours and feeding ecology in this group. We address this issue in a lineage of ray-finned fishes that is well known for its ecological and functional diversity--African rift lake cichlids. We sequenced ultraconserved elements to generate a phylogenomic tree of the Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi cichlid radiations. We filmed a diverse array of over 50 cichlid species capturing live prey and quantified the extent of jaw kinesis in the premaxillary and maxillary bones. Our combination of phylogenomic and kinematic data reveals a strong association between biting modes of feeding and reduced jaw kinesis, suggesting that the contrasting demands of biting and suction feeding have strongly influenced cranial evolution in both cichlid radiations. PMID:26763694

  10. Can Maxwell's Fish Eye Lens Really Give Perfect Imaging? Part II. The case with drains

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2010-01-01

    We use both FEM (finite element method) and FDTD (finite difference time domain method) to simulate the field distribution in Maxwell's fish eye lens with one or more passive drains around the image point. We use the same Maxwell's fish eye lens structure as the one used in recent microwave experiment [arXiv:1007.2530]: Maxwell's fish eye lens bounded by PEC (perfect electric conductor) is inserted between two parallel PEC plates (as a waveguide structure). Our simulation results indicate that if one uses an active coaxial cable as the object and set an array of passive drains around the image region, what one obtains is not an image of the object but only multiple spots resembling the array of passive drains. The resolution of Maxwell's fish eye is finite even with such passive drains at the image locations. We also found that the subwavelength spot around the passive drain is due to the local field enhancement of the metal tip of the drain rather than the fish eye medium or the ability of the drain in extra...

  11. Design of object surveillance system based on enhanced fish-eye lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Wu; Kuntao Yang; Qiaolian Xiang; Nanyang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the object surveillance system based on the enhanced fish-eye lens and the high speed digital signal processor (DSP). The improved fish-eye lens images an ellipse picture on the charge-coupled device (CCD) surface, which increases both the utilization rate of the 4:3 rectangular CCD and the imaging resolution, and remains the view angle of 183°. The algorithm of auto-adapted renewal background subtraction (ARBS) is also explored to extract the object from the monitoring image. The experimental result shows that the ARBS algorithm has high anti-jamming ability and high resolution, leading to excellent object detecting ability from the enhanced elliptical fish-eye image under varies en-vironments. This system has potential applications in different security monitoring fields due to its wide monitoring space, simple structure, working stability, and reliability.

  12. Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Juliane D.; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tan...

  13. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Ota; Mitsuto Aibara; Masaya Morita; Satoshi Awata; Michio Hori; Masanori Kohda

    2012-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in ...

  14. On the origin of Lake Malawi cichlid species: A population genetic analysis of divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Yong-jin; Sivasundar, Arjun; Wang, Yong; Hey, Jody

    2005-01-01

    The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi are famously diverse. However, phylogenetic and population genetic studies of their history have been difficult because of the great amount of genetic variation that is shared between species. We apply a recently developed method for fitting the “isolation with migration” divergence model to a data set of specially designed compound loci to develop portraits of cichlid species divergence. Outgroup sequences from a cichlid from Lake Tanganyika permit model par...

  15. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Sefc, Kristina M

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parenta...

  16. Visual discrimination of rotated 3D objects in Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.): a first indication for form constancy in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Kraniotakes, H; Bleckmann, H

    2014-03-01

    Fish move in a three-dimensional environment in which it is important to discriminate between stimuli varying in colour, size, and shape. It is also advantageous to be able to recognize the same structures or individuals when presented from different angles, such as back to front or front to side. This study assessed visual discrimination abilities of rotated three-dimensional objects in eight individuals of Pseudotropheus sp. using various plastic animal models. All models were displayed in two choice experiments. After successful training, fish were presented in a range of transfer tests with objects rotated in the same plane and in space by 45° and 90° to the side or to the front. In one experiment, models were additionally rotated by 180°, i.e., shown back to front. Fish showed quick associative learning and with only one exception successfully solved and finished all experimental tasks. These results provide first evidence for form constancy in this species and in fish in general. Furthermore, Pseudotropheus seemed to be able to categorize stimuli; a range of turtle and frog models were recognized independently of colour and minor shape variations. Form constancy and categorization abilities may be important for behaviours such as foraging, recognition of predators, and conspecifics as well as for orienting within habitats or territories. PMID:23982620

  17. Effect of lead nitrate on the liver of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis niloticus): a light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Bothaina M; Mekkawy, Imam A A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ohaida, Abdel Salam M I

    2012-09-15

    The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate. PMID:24205754

  18. Community Genetics Reveal Elevated Levels of Sympatric Gene Flow among Morphologically Similar but Not among Morphologically Dissimilar Species of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    M. Egas; Seehausen, O.; Mrosso, H D J; D. A. Joyce; Konijnendijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity. We found that allopatric conspecific populations were on average significantly more strongly differentiated than sympatric heterospecific populations of morphologically similar species. Allopatric h...

  19. Disturbance cues in freshwater prey fishes: Does urea function as an ‘early warning cue’in juvenile convict cichlids and rainbow trout?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E. BROWN, Christopher D. JACKSON, Patrick H. MALKA,Élisa JACQUES, Marc-Andre COUTURIER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater vertebrate and invertebrate prey species commonly rely on chemosensory information, including non-injury released disturbance cues, to assess local predation threats. We conducted laboratory studies to (1 determine if urea can function as a disturbance cue in juvenile convict cichlids and rainbow trout and (2 determine if the background level of urea influences the behavioral response to a subsequent pulse of urea (‘background noise’ hypothesis. In the first series of trials, juvenile cichlids and trout were exposed to urea at varying concentrations (0 to 0.5 mg L-1 for cichlids and 0 to 1.0 mg L-1 for trout. Our results suggest that both cichilds and trout exhibited functionally similar responses to urea and conspecific disturbance cues and that increasing the concentration of urea results in an increase intensity of antipredator behaviour. In the second series of trials, we pre-exposed cichlids or trout to intermediate or high concentrations of urea (or a distilled water control and then tested for the response to a second pulse of urea at at intermediate or high concentrations (versus a distilled water control. Our results demonstrate that pre-exposure to urea reduces or eliminates the response to a second pulse of urea, supporting the background noise hypothesis. Together, our results suggest that pulses of urea, released by disturbed or stressed individuals, may function as an early warning signal in freshwater prey species [Current Zoology 58 (2: 250–259 , 2012].

  20. Chemical communication in cichlids: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Canário, Adelino V M; Hubbard, Peter C

    2015-09-15

    The family Cichlidae is well-known for pair-formation, parental care, territoriality, elaborate courtship and social organization. Do cichlids use chemical communication to mediate any of these behaviours? Early studies suggest that parent cichlids can discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific wrigglers (but not eggs) using olfactory cues. Some species are able to discriminate between their own brood and other conspecific broods based on olfaction. The young recognise conspecific adults (although not necessarily their parents) through the odorants they release. In both scenarios, protection of the young from predation is the likely selective force. Some male cichlids use urinary pheromones during courtship and spawning to attract females and induce ovulation. Females--in their turn--may base their mate-choice in part on assessment of those self-same pheromones. The same pheromonal system may be involved in establishing and maintaining the social hierarchies in lek-breeding cichlids. Individual recognition is also mediated by chemical communication. Finally, there is ample behavioural evidence that cichlids--like ostariophysan fish--release alarm cues that alert conspecifics to predation danger. Although the effects of these cues may be similar (e.g., increased shelter use, tighter schooling), they are different substances which remain to be identified. Cichlids, then, use chemical communication associated with many different behaviours. However, given the diversity of cichlids, little is known about the mechanisms of chemical communication or the chemical identity of the cues involved. The aim of this mini-review is to persuade those working with cichlids to consider the involvement of chemical communication, and those working in chemical communication to consider using cichlids. PMID:25622908

  1. Perfect drain for the Maxwell Fish Eye lens

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Minano, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    Perfect imaging for electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell Fish Eye (MFE) requires a new concept: the perfect drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We show here that the perfect drain for the MFE can be seen as a dissipative region the diameter of which tends to zero. The complex permittivity $\\varepsilon$ of this region cannot take arbitrary values, however, since it depends on the size of the drain as well as on the frequency. This interpretation of the perfect drain connects well with central concepts of electromagnetic theory. This opens up both the modeling in computer simulations and the experimental verification of the perfect drain.

  2. Influence of season and pollution on the antioxidant defenses of the cichlid fish acará (Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilhelm Filho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The livers of Geophagus brasiliensis collected from both a non-polluted site and a polluted site were analyzed for different antioxidant defenses, O2 consumption, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS levels, and histological damage. Compared to controls (116.6 ± 26.1 nmol g-1, TBARS levels were enhanced at the polluted site (284.2 ± 25.6 nmol g-1, as also was oxygen consumption (86.6 ± 11.3 and 128.5 ± 9.8 µmol O2 min-1 g-1, respectively. With respect to enzymatic antioxidants, increased catalase activities (8.7 ± 1.3 and 29.2 ± 2.4 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively, unchanged superoxide dismutase activities (767.2 ± 113.3 and 563.3 ± 70.2 U g-1, respectively, and diminished glutathione S-transferase activities (29.0 ± 3.2 and 14.9 ± 3.2 µmol min-1 g-1, respectively were detected. Reduced glutathione (1.91 ± 0.17 and 1.37 ± 0.25 mM, respectively, oxidized glutathione (1.50 ± 0.20 and 0.73 ± 0.17 mM, respectively, and total glutathione (3.40 ± 0.26 and 2.07 ± 0.27 mM, respectively concentrations were also below control values at the polluted site. Nevertheless, the observed ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities (1.34 ± 0.11 and 16.7 ± 0.21 pmol min-1 mg-1, respectively showed enhanced values at the polluted site. The main histological damage observed in the hepatocytes from fish collected at the polluted site was characterized by heavy lipid infiltration. Fish collected at the end of spring showed higher O2 consumption, higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and higher total and oxidized glutathione concentrations compared to the beginning of autumn. No seasonal changes were observed in catalase activities, glutathione or TBARS levels. Fish chronically exposed to relatively high pollution levels seem to be unable to set up adequate antioxidant defenses, probably due to severe injury to their hepatocytes. The higher antioxidant defenses found at the end of spring are probably related to the

  3. Incipient sympatric speciation in Midas cichlid fish from the youngest and one of the smallest crater lakes in Nicaragua due to differential use of the benthic and limnetic habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Meyer, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how speciation can occur without geographic isolation remains a central objective in evolutionary biology. Generally, some form of disruptive selection and assortative mating are necessary for sympatric speciation to occur. Disruptive selection can arise from intraspecific competition for resources. If this competition leads to the differential use of habitats and variation in relevant traits is genetically determined, then assortative mating can be an automatic consequence (i.e., habitat isolation). In this study, we caught Midas cichlid fish from the limnetic (middle of the lake) and benthic (shore) habitats of Crater Lake Asososca Managua to test whether some of the necessary conditions for sympatric speciation due to intraspecific competition and habitat isolation are given. Lake As. Managua is very small (<900 m in diameter), extremely young (maximally 1245 years of age), and completely isolated. It is inhabited by, probably, only a single endemic species of Midas cichlids, Amphilophus tolteca. We found that fish from the limnetic habitat were more elongated than fish collected from the benthic habitat, as would be predicted from ecomorphological considerations. Stable isotope analyses confirmed that the former also exhibit a more limnetic lifestyle than the latter. Furthermore, split-brood design experiments in the laboratory suggest that phenotypic plasticity is unlikely to explain much of the observed differences in body elongation that we observed in the field. Yet, neutral markers (microsatellites) did not reveal any genetic clustering in the population. Interestingly, demographic inferences based on RAD-seq data suggest that the apparent lack of genetic differentiation at neutral markers could simply be due to a lack of time, as intraspecific competition may only have begun a few hundred generations ago. PMID:27551387

  4. Maxwell's fish-eye lens and the mirage of perfect imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent claims that Maxwell's fish-eye is a perfect lens, capable of providing images with deep subwavelength resolution, are examined. We show that the imaging properties of a dispersionless fish-eye are very similar to those of an ideal spherical cavity. Using this correspondence, we prove that the correct solution to Maxwell equations in the fish-eye gives image sizes that are consistent with the standard diffraction limit. Perfect focusing is an optical illusion that results from placing a time-reversed source at the position of the geometrical image which, when combined with the field due to the primary (object) source, mimics the behavior of a perfect drain. Issues of causality are briefly discussed. We also demonstrate that passive outlets are not a good alternative to time-reversed sources for broadband drain-like behavior and that, even if they were, they could not do a better job than conventional optical systems at providing high resolution

  5. Linear fitting interpolation based on FOV division for correcting wide angle fish-eye lens distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Wu, Yi-si; Chen, Chi; Zheng, Zhen-rong

    2015-09-01

    The wide angle lens, like fish eye lens, suffers great optical distortion that causes severe deformation of the real world. A method to correct the strong distortion was presented in this work. Due to the nonlinear distribution of the distortion, linear algorithms are generally not under consideration to establish the math model of distorted-to-ideal images. However, this method employed the calibration pattern that comprised of regular array of dots to divides the full field of view (FOV) to subsections, each subsection is a small FOV, the mapping parameters between the distorted image and ideal image in each small FOV can be calculated by employing the very simple linear polynomial. Thus, applying the determined parameters to their corresponding sub-FOVs, respectively, all the ideal pixel coordinates of the distorted image can be obtained. The method employed linear polynomial characterizes the geometric deformation between the distorted and ideal images directly. Therefore, it contains both of radial distortion and tangential distortion and there is no need of concerning any intrinsic or extrinsic parameters of the optical systems. So, this algorithm reliefs the computational work that employed by conventional radial models and other mathematical models. Experiments performed on off-axis optical systems which exist complicated distortion, such as the head mounted displays (HMDs), had already yielded accurate correcting results. Likewise, in this paper, the experiments refer to the fish-eye lens also verify the effectiveness and flexibility of this method, as well, high correcting accuracy is achieved.

  6. Disturbance cues in freshwater prey fishes: Does urea function as an‘early warning cue’in juvenile convict cichlids and rainbow trout?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grant E. BROWN; Christopher D. JACKSON; Patrick H. MALKA; (E)lisa JACQUES; Marc-Andre COUTURIER

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater vertebrate and invertebrate prey species commonly rely on chemosensory information,including non-injury released disturbance cues,to assess local predation threats.We conducted laboratory studies to (1) determine if urea can function as a disturbance cue in juvenile convict cichlids and rainbow trout and (2) determine if the background level of urea influences the behavioral response to a subsequent pulse of urea ('background noise' hypothesis).In the first series of trials,juvenile cichlids and trout were exposed to urea at varying concentrations (0 to 0.5 mg L-1 for cichlids and 0 to 1.0 mg L-1 for trout).Our results suggest that both cichilds and trout exhibited functionally similar responses to urea and conspecific disturbance cues and that increasing the concentration of urea results in an increase intensity of antipredator behaviour.In the second series of trials,we pre-exposed cichlids or trout to intermediate or high concentrations of urea (or a distilled water control) and then tested for the response to a second pulse of urea at at intermediate or high concentrations (versus a distilled water control).Our results demonstrate that pre-exposure to urea reduces or eliminates the response to a second pulse of urea,supporting the background noise hypothesis.Together,our results suggest that pulses of urea,released by disturbed or stressed individuals,may function as an early warning signal in freshwater prey species [Current Zoology 58 (2):250-259,2012].

  7. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhove, Maarten p. m.; Antoine Pariselle; Maarten Van Steenberge; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Hablützel, Pascal I; Céline Gillardin; Bart Hellemans; Floris C Breman; Stephan Koblmüller; Christian Sturmbauer; Jos Snoeks; Filip A M Volckaert; Tine Huyse

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the bod...

  8. The role of physiology in the divergence of two incipient cichlid species

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, P. D.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; van der Sluijs, I.; Hofmann, H. A.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection on male coloration has been implicated in the evolution of colourful species flocks of East African cichlid fish. During adaptive radiations, animals diverge in multiple phenotypic traits, but the role of physiology has received limited attention. Here, we report how divergence in physiology may contribute to the stable coexistence of two hybridizing incipient species of cichlid fish from Lake Victoria. Males of Pundamilia nyererei (males are red) tend to defeat those of Pund...

  9. Genetic, comparative genomic, and expression analyses of the Mc1r locus in the polychromatic Midas cichlid fish (Teleostei, Cichlidae Amphilophus sp.) species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Frederico; Renz, Adina Josepha; Fukamachi, Shoji; Meyer, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Natural populations of the Midas cichlid species in several different crater lakes in Nicaragua exhibit a conspicuous color polymorphism. Most individuals are dark and the remaining have a gold coloration. The color morphs mate assortatively and sympatric population differentiation has been shown based on neutral molecular data. We investigated the color polymorphism using segregation analysis and a candidate gene approach. The segregation patterns observed in a mapping cross between a gold and a dark individual were consistent with a single dominant gene as a cause of the gold phenotype. This suggests that a simple genetic architecture underlies some of the speciation events in the Midas cichlids. We compared the expression levels of several candidate color genes Mc1r, Ednrb1, Slc45a2, and Tfap1a between the color morphs. Mc1r was found to be up regulated in the gold morph. Given its widespread association in color evolution and role on melanin synthesis, the Mc1r locus was further investigated using sequences derived from a genomic library. Comparative analysis revealed conserved synteny in relation to the majority of teleosts and highlighted several previously unidentified conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in the upstream and downstream regions in the vicinity of Mc1r. The identification of the CNEs regions allowed the comparison of sequences from gold and dark specimens of natural populations. No polymorphisms were found between in the population sample and Mc1r showed no linkage to the gold phenotype in the mapping cross, demonstrating that it is not causally related to the color polymorphism in the Midas cichlid. PMID:20449580

  10. Study on warning radius of diffuse reflection laser warning based on fish-eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bolin; Zhang, Weian

    2013-09-01

    The diffuse reflection type of omni-directional laser warning based on fish-eye lens is becoming more and more important. As one of the key parameters of warning system, the warning radius should be put into investigation emphatically. The paper firstly theoretically analyzes the energy detected by single pixel of FPA detector in the system under complicated environment. Then the least energy detectable by each single pixel of the system is computed in terms of detector sensitivity, system noise, and minimum SNR. Subsequently, by comparison between the energy detected by single pixel and the least detectable energy, the warning radius is deduced from Torrance-Sparrow five-parameter semiempirical statistic model. Finally, a field experiment was developed to validate the computational results. It has been found that the warning radius has a close relationship with BRDF parameters of the irradiated target, propagation distance, angle of incidence, and detector sensitivity, etc. Furthermore, an important fact is shown that the experimental values of warning radius are always less than that of theoretical ones, due to such factors as the optical aberration of fish-eye lens, the transmissivity of narrowband filter, and the packing ratio of detector.

  11. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Sefc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay.

  12. Is the Maxwell-Shafer fish eye lens able to form super-resolved images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Miguel A.

    2015-07-01

    The imaging capabilities of a modification of the Maxwell fish eye lens proposed by Shafer in the early 1990s are studied theoretically. A wave propagator for this system is derived for a two-dimensional version of this system. This propagator is given in simple analytic terms, and its form suggests that the system has the ability to produce super-resolved images. However, a modal analysis of the system shows that this apparent behavior is an artifact resulting from the fact that the system’s input and output are collinear (or coplanar, in the three-dimensional case), and that a realistic implementation of this system would form images that obey the diffraction limit.

  13. Contrasting parasite communities among allopatric colour morphs of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Tropheus

    OpenAIRE

    Raeymaekers, Joost; Hablützel, Pascal István; Grégoir, Arnout; Bamps, Jolien; Roose, Anna; Vanhove, Maarten; Van SteenBerge, Maarten; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Snoeks, Jos; VOLCKAERT Filip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adaptation to different ecological environments is thought to drive ecological speciation. This phenomenon culminates in the radiations of cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes. Multiple characteristic traits of cichlids, targeted by natural or sexual selection, are considered among the driving factors of these radiations. Parasites and pathogens have been suggested to initiate or accelerate speciation by triggering both natural and sexual selection. Three prerequisites for pa...

  14. Maternal food provisioning in a substrate-brooding African cichlid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ota

    Full Text Available Fish demonstrate the greatest variety of parental care strategies within the animal kingdom. Fish parents seldom provision food for offspring, with some exceptions predominantly found in substrate-brooding Central American cichlids and mouth-brooding African cichlids. Here, we provide the first evidence of food provisioning in a substrate-brooding African cichlid Neolamprologus mondabu. This fish is a maternal substrate-brooding cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika, and feeds on benthic animals using unique techniques-individuals typically feed on the surface of sandy substrates, but also expose prey by digging up substrates with vigorous wriggling of their body and fins. Young also feed on benthos on the substrate surface, but only using the first technique. We observed that feeding induced by digging accounted for 30% of total feeding bouts in adult females, demonstrating that digging is an important foraging tactic. However, parental females fed less frequently after digging than non-parental females, although both females stayed in pits created by digging for approximately 30 s. Instead, young gathered in the pit and fed intensively, suggesting that parental females provision food for young by means of digging. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the feeding frequency of young before and after digging that was simulated by hand, and observed that young doubled their feeding frequency after the simulated digging. This suggests that parental females engage in digging to uncover food items that are otherwise unavailable to young, and provision food for them at the expense of their own foraging. This behavior was similar to what has been observed in Central American cichlids.

  15. Same school, different conduct: rates of multiple paternity vary within a mixed-species breeding school of semi-pelagic cichlid fish (Cyprichromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caleb; Werdenig, Alexandra; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M

    2016-01-01

    Mating system variability is known to exist between and within species, often due to environmental influences. An open question is whether, vice versa, similar environmental conditions entail congruent mating behavior, for example in terms of multiple paternity, in species or populations sharing largely comparable breeding modes. This study employed microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternity in Cyprichromis coloratus and Cyprichromis leptosoma, two sympatric, closely related, mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with similar ecological and behavioral characteristics including the formation of open-water schools. Mouthbrooding females of both species were collected from the same mixed-species breeding school at the same time, minimizing environmental variation during courtship and mating. In C. coloratus, four of 12 broods had more than one sire, with a mean of 1.33 reconstructed sires per brood. C. leptosoma exhibited multiple paternity in 18 of 22 broods, with a mean of 2.59 or 2.86 reconstructed sires per brood according to the programs gerud and colony, respectively. In addition, two broods were found to contain offspring transplanted from another brood. There was no significant difference in brood size between species, but mean sire number did differ significantly. Hence, substantial similarity in reproductive behavior along with shared environmental conditions during courtship and spawning did not lead to equal rates of polyandry or sneaking in the two species. PMID:26811772

  16. Untangling the evolutionary history of a highly polymorphic species: introgressive hybridization and high genetic structure in the desert cichlid fish Herichtys minckleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Isabel S; Ornelas-Garcıa, Claudia Patricia; Leal-Cardin, Mariana; Ramírez, Tania; Barluenga, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the origin of biodiversity requires knowledge on the evolutionary processes that drive divergence and speciation, as well as on the processes constraining it. Intraspecific polymorphisms can provide insight into the mechanisms that generate and maintain phenotypic, behavioural and life history diversification, and can help us understand not only the processes that lead to speciation but also the processes that prevent local fixation of morphs. The 'desert cichlid' Herichtys minckleyi is a highly polymorphic species endemic to a biodiversity hotspot in northern Mexico, the Cuatro Ciénegas valley. This species is polymorphic in body shape and trophic apparatus, and eco-morphotypes coexist in small spring-fed lagoons across the valley. We investigated the genetic structure of these polymorphisms and their phylogeographic history by analysing the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA and 10 nuclear microsatellite markers in several populations from different sites and morphs. We found two very divergent mitochondrial lineages that most likely predate the closing of the valley and are not associated with morphotypes or sites. One of these lineages is also found in the sister species Herichthys cyanoguttatus. Data from neutral microsatellite markers suggest that most lagoons or drainages constitute their own genetic cluster with sympatric eco-morphotypes forming panmictic populations. Alternative mechanisms such as phenotypic plasticity and a few loci controlled traits provide possible explanations for the sympatric coexistence of discrete nonoverlapping eco-morphotypes with apparent lack of barriers to gene flow within multiple lagoons and drainages. PMID:26175313

  17. Females of an African cichlid fish display male-typical social dominance behavior and elevated androgens in the absence of males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Suzy C P; Fraser, Eleanor J; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Trainor, Brian C; Hofmann, Hans A

    2012-04-01

    Social environment can affect the expression of sex-typical behavior in both males and females. Males of the African cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni have long served as a model system to study the neural, endocrine, and molecular basis of socially plastic dominance behavior. Here we show that in all-female communities of A. burtoni, some individuals acquire a male-typical dominance phenotype, including aggressive territorial defense, distinctive color patterns, and courtship behavior. Furthermore, dominant females have higher levels of circulating androgens than either subordinate females or females in mixed-sex communities. These male-typical traits do not involve sex change, nor do the social phenotypes in all-female communities differ in relative ovarian size, suggesting that factors other than gonadal physiology underlie much of the observed variation. In contrast to the well-studied situation in males, dominant and subordinate females do not differ in the rate of somatic growth. Dominant females are not any more likely than subordinates to spawn with an introduced male, although they do so sooner. These results extend the well known extraordinary behavioral plasticity of A. burtoni to the females of this species and provide a foundation for uncovering the neural and molecular basis of social dominance behavior while controlling for factors such as sex, gonadal state and growth. PMID:22285646

  18. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. PMID:26612951

  19. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration,female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke van der SLUIJS; Peter D.DIJKSTRA; Charlotte M.LINDEYER; Bertanne VISSER; Alan M.SMITH; Ton G.G.GROOTHUIS; Jacques J.M.van ALPHEN

    2013-01-01

    Both inter-and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits.Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can,in theory,lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait.Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow,while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism.Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on.We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference,male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia.We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red).Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire,indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable.We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests.There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires,but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference.Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males,whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias.There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration,possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage,which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism.

  20. Developmental basis of phenotypic integration in two Lake Malawi cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pabic, Pierre; Cooper, W. James; Schilling, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cichlid fishes from the Rift Lakes of East Africa have undergone the most spectacular adaptive radiations in vertebrate history. Eco-morphological adaptations in lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika have resulted in a vast array of skull shapes and sizes, yet primary axes of morphological variation are conserved in all three radiations, prominently including the size of the preorbital region of the skull. This conserved pattern suggests that development may constrain the trajector...

  1. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  2. Cichlid fishes in the Angolan headwaters region: molecular evidence of the ichthyofaunal contact between the Cuanza and Okavango-Zambezi systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Kalous, L.; Petrtýl, M.; Chaloupková, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013). E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : FRESH-WATER FISHES * CENTRAL-AFRICA * EVOLUTION Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  3. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required. PMID:26559654

  4. New record of a fossil haplotilapiine cichlid from Central Kenya

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    Stefanie B. R. Penk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African freshwater cichlids (Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae are well known for their exceptionally great diversity and their capability of rapid speciation as well as diverse adaptations. The extant Pseudocrenilabrinae can be grouped into 27 tribes, with more than 2000 species harbored in the Great Lakes and surrounding water bodies of the East African Rift System. However, this unique diversity is not reflected in the fossil record because fossil cichlids were predominantly reported based on isolated teeth and bones. Moreover, the few articulated specimens that are known have not been analyzed sufficiently with regard to their systematic position due to lack of comparative material. Here we present a new extraordinarily well-preserved cichlid fish fossil from the Middle Miocene (c. 12.5 Ma Lagerstaette Kabchore, which was recovered during recent fieldwork in the Tugen Hills (Baringo County, Central Kenya Rift. Based on the evidence of tricuspid teeth, the Kabchore fossil can be assigned to the subclade of the Haplotilapiines within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. The multivariate analysis of a large meristic data set, derived from 1014 extant specimens (encompassing all main lineages of Haplotilapiines and usage of available osteological data suggest that this fossil is most likely related to one of the three haplotilapiine tribes Tilapiini, Haplochromini or Oreochromini. Moreover, the fossil specimen closely resembles the extinct cichlid Oreochromis martyni (Van Couvering, 1982, previously described as species of Sarotherodon from the Middle Miocene alkaline Kapkiamu Lake in the Tugen Hills. The analysis of the greatly preserved fossil fish specimen from Kabchore definitely supplements the fragmentary fossil record of Africa’s Cichlidae and will afford new insights into its evolutionary history. We also expect that this fossil will be useful as calibration point for new divergence-time estimates.

  5. Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Albertson R Craig; Stewart Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of behaviour or morphology. One striking example of an evolved asymmetry in vertebrates comes from a group of scale-eating cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika. Members of the Perissodini tribe of cichlid fishes have evolved dental and craniofacial asymmetries in order to ...

  6. The Impact of the Geologic History and Paleoclimate on the Diversification of East African Cichlids

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    Patrick D. Danley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes are the largest extant vertebrate radiation identified to date. These lakes and their surrounding waters support over 2,000 species of cichlid fish, many of which are descended from a single common ancestor within the past 10 Ma. The extraordinary East African cichlid diversity is intricately linked to the highly variable geologic and paleoclimatic history of this region. Greater than 10 Ma, the western arm of the East African rift system began to separate, thereby creating a series of rift basins that would come to contain several water bodies, including the extremely deep Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Uplifting associated with this rifting backponded many rivers and created the extremely large, but shallow Lake Victoria. Since their creation, the size, shape, and existence of these lakes have changed dramatically which has, in turn, significantly influenced the evolutionary history of the lakes' cichlids. This paper reviews the geologic history and paleoclimate of the East African Great Lakes and the impact of these forces on the region's endemic cichlid flocks.

  7. Color changing and behavioral context in the Amazonian Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae (Perciformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Raoni Rosa Rodrigues; Lucélia Nobre Carvalho; Jansen Zuanon; Kleber Del-Claro

    2009-01-01

    Animal coloration has many functions, and fishes are noted among vertebrates for presenting a wide variety of color patterns. Although in marine fishes the relationship between body coloration and behavioral context is well documented, there's not much information about freshwater fishes. Here we describe color patterns displayed by the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae and suggest that these patterns are dependent on different social and behavioral settings. Field observations were condu...

  8. Continental cichlid radiations: functional diversity reveals the role of changing ecological opportunity in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Jessica Hilary; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2016-08-17

    Adaptive radiations have been hypothesized to contribute broadly to the diversity of organisms. Models of adaptive radiation predict that ecological opportunity and ecological release, the availability of empty ecological niches and the response by adapting lineages to occupy them, respectively, drive patterns of phenotypic and lineage diversification. Adaptive radiations driven by 'ecological opportunity' are well established in island systems; it is less clear if ecological opportunity influences continent-wide diversification. We use Neotropical cichlid fishes to test if variation in rates of functional evolution is consistent with changing ecological opportunity. Across a functional morphological axis associated with ram-suction feeding traits, evolutionary rates declined through time as lineages diversified in South America. Evolutionary rates of ram-suction functional morphology also appear to have accelerated as cichlids colonized Central America and encountered renewed opportunity. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in shaping patterns of morphological diversity of even broadly distributed lineages like Neotropical cichlids. PMID:27512144

  9. On the origin of Lake Malawi cichlid species: a population genetic analysis of divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yong-Jin; Sivasundar, Arjun; Wang, Yong; Hey, Jody

    2005-05-01

    The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi are famously diverse. However, phylogenetic and population genetic studies of their history have been difficult because of the great amount of genetic variation that is shared between species. We apply a recently developed method for fitting the "isolation with migration" divergence model to a data set of specially designed compound loci to develop portraits of cichlid species divergence. Outgroup sequences from a cichlid from Lake Tanganyika permit model parameter estimates in units of years and effective population sizes. Estimated speciation times range from 1,000 to 17,000 years for species in the genus Tropheops. These exceptionally recent dates suggest that Malawi cichlids as a group experience a very active and dynamic diversification process. Current effective population size estimates range form 2,000 to near 40,000, and to >120,000 for estimates of ancestral population sizes. It appears that very recent speciation and gene flow are among the reasons why it has been difficult to discern the phylogenetic history of Malawi cichlids. PMID:15851665

  10. Age, growth, and mortality of the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) from the southeastern Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Faunce, Craig H.; Patterson, Heather M.; Lorenz, Jerome J.

    2002-01-01

    Mayan cichlids (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) were collected monthly from March 1996 to October 1997 with hook-and-line gear at Taylor River, Florida, an area within the Crocodile Sanctuary of Everglades National Park, where human activities such as fishing are prohibited. Fish were aged by examining thin-sectioned otoliths, and past size-at-age information was generated by using back-calculation techniques. Marginal increment analysis showed that opaque growth zones were annuli deposited between ...

  11. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Juliane D; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders") was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which

  12. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor

  13. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

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    Alex O. Awiti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  14. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

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    Kazutaka Ota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis.

  15. Comparative Osteology of the Suspensorial Complex of Algal-Feeding Cichlids (Pisces, Teleostei) from Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Kosaku

    1988-01-01

    The comparative osteology of the suspensorial complex in 20 species of epilithic algal feeders from Lake Tanganyika was studied as a means of obtaining fundamental data for understanding the adaptive radiation in feeding habits of cichlid fishes in the East African lakes. Six types of suspensorial complex could be recognized within the 20 species studied. For the palatine, ectopterygoid, entopterygoid, metapterygoid, quadrate, symplectic, preoperculum and hyomandibula, 5, 2, 3, 3, 5, 2, 2 and...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep 10, 2015 Contact Lens Horror Stories: Poor Care Can Lead to Blindness Sep 09, 2015 How to Correct High Myopia Feb 27, 2015 More Eye Health News Pet Fish Fitted with Fake Eye in ...

  17. Time-place learning in the cichlid angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Morgan, Elfed

    2005-09-30

    The ability of the cichlid angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, to associate time and place to locate food, provided twice a day in two different places, was tested. Food was delivered daily in one corner of the tank in the morning and in the diagonally opposite corner in the afternoon, for a 3-week period, and the distribution of the fish in the tank was noted prior to and during feeding time. The results indicate that, in a fairly uniform environment and in the absence of external time cues, angelfish can discriminate and associate time and place to obtain a food reward. It is suggested that they do so by means of an endogenous timing mechanism. PMID:16129239

  18. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

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    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  19. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Lamprologini, the major substrate spawning lineage of cichild fishes from Lake Tanganyika in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel

    1994-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika harbors the oldest, morphologically and behaviorally most diverse flock of cichlid species. While the cichlids in Lakes Malawi and Victoria breed their eggs exclusively by buccal incubatio(termed mouthbrooding ), the Tanganyikan cichlid fauna comprise mouthbrooding and substrate-spawning lineages (fish spawn on rocks, and never orally incubate eggs or wrigglers). The substrate-spawning tribe Lamprologini appears to occupy a key position that might allow one to elucidate the o...

  20. Testing the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the polychromatic Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susan M; Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Brown, Alexandria C; McGraw, Kevin J; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments derived from their diet for coloration and immunity. The carotenoid trade-off hypothesis predicts that, under conditions of carotenoid scarcity, individuals may be forced to allocate limited carotenoids to either coloration or immunity. In polychromatic species, the pattern of allocation may differ among individuals. We tested the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, a species with two ontogenetic color morphs, barred and gold, the latter of which is the result of carotenoid expression. We performed a diet-supplementation experiment in which cichlids of both color morphs were assigned to one of two diet treatments that differed only in carotenoid content (beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). We measured integument color using spectrometry, quantified carotenoid concentrations in tissue and plasma, and assessed innate immunity using lysozyme activity and alternative complement pathway assays. In both color morphs, dietary carotenoid supplementation elevated plasma carotenoid circulation but failed to affect skin coloration. Consistent with observable differences in integument coloration, we found that gold fish sequestered more carotenoids in skin tissue than barred fish, but barred fish had higher concentrations of carotenoids in plasma than gold fish. Neither measure of innate immunity differed between gold and barred fish, or as a function of dietary carotenoid supplementation. Lysozyme activity, but not complement activity, was strongly affected by body condition. Our data show that a diet low in carotenoids is sufficient to maintain both coloration and innate immunity in Midas cichlids. Our data also suggest that the developmental transition from the barred to gold morph is not accompanied by a decrease in innate immunity in this species. PMID:20151818

  1. Tol2-mediated generation of a transgenic haplochromine cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Scott A Juntti

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes represent one of the most species-rich and rapid radiations of a vertebrate family. These ~2200 species, predominantly found in the East African Great Lakes, exhibit dramatic differences in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. However, the genetic bases for this radiation, and for the control of their divergent traits, are unknown. A flood of genomic and transcriptomic data promises to suggest mechanisms underlying the diversity, but transgenic technology will be needed to rigorously test the hypotheses generated. Here we demonstrate the successful use of the Tol2 transposon system to generate transgenic Astatotilapia burtoni, a haplochromine cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, carrying the GFP transgene under the control of the ubiquitous EF1α promoter. The transgene integrates into the genome, is successfully passed through the germline, and the widespread GFP expression pattern is stable across siblings and multiple generations. The stable inheritance and expression patterns indicate that the Tol2 system can be applied to generate A. burtoni transgenic lines. Transgenesis has proven to be a powerful technology for manipulating genes and cells in other model organisms and we anticipate that transgenic A. burtoni and other cichlids will be used to test the mechanisms underlying behavior and speciation.

  2. Genetic isolation and morphological divergence mediated by high-energy rapids in two cichlid genera from the lower Congo rapids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiassny Melanie LJ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that one of the mechanisms promoting diversification in cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes has been the well-documented pattern of philopatry along shoreline habitats leading to high levels of genetic isolation among populations. However lake habitats are not the only centers of cichlid biodiversity - certain African rivers also contain large numbers of narrowly endemic species. Patterns of isolation and divergence in these systems have tended to be overlooked and are not well understood. Results We examined genetic and morphological divergence among populations of two narrowly endemic cichlid species, Teleogramma depressum and Lamprologus tigripictilis, from a 100 km stretch of the lower Congo River using both nDNA microsatellites and mtDNA markers along with coordinate-based morphological techniques. In L. tigripictilis, the strongest genetic break was concordant with measurable phenotypic divergence but no morphological disjunction was detected for T. depressum despite significant differentiation at mtDNA and nDNA microsatellite markers. Conclusions The genetic markers revealed patterns of philopatry and estimates of genetic isolation that are among the highest reported for any African cichlid species over a comparable geographic scale. We hypothesize that the high levels of philopatry observed are generated and maintained by the extreme hydrology of the lower Congo River.

  3. Evidence for genetic monogamy and female-biased dispersal in the biparental mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus from Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Martin I.; Rico, Ciro; Balshine, Sigal

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether apparent social monogamy (where a species forms a pair bond but may participate in copulations outside the pair bond) corresponds with genetic monogamy (where individuals participate only in copulations within a pair bond) in a biparental mouthbrooding cichlid fish, Eretmodus cyanostictus, from Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Our findings suggest that E. cyanostictus is both socially and genetically monogamous and that monogamy may result from limited opportunit...

  4. Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal different evolutionary processes in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid genus Tropheus

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer Christian; Koblmüller Stephan; Egger Bernd; Sefc Kristina M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cichlid fishes are notorious for their wealth of intra- and interspecific colour pattern diversity. In Lake Tanganyika, the endemic genus Tropheus represents the most impressive example for geographic variation in the pattern and hue of integument colouration, but the taxonomy of the over 100 mostly allopatric colour morphs remains to a large degree unresolved. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA sequence data revealed polyphyly of the six nominally described species and...

  5. Changes in reproductive life-history strategies in response to nest density in a shell-brooding cichlid, Telmatochromis vittatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Kazutaka; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the appearance of a reproductively parasitic tactic varies, and how this variation affects territorial males of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Telmatochromis vittatus, we examined the reproductive ecology of territorial males in Mtondwe and compared it with that of a neighboring Wonzye population, where nest density differs from that at Mtondwe. In Wonzye, with high nest density, male tactics change with their body size from a territorial to a non-territorial parasitic ...

  6. Correlated evolution of short wavelength sensitive photoreceptor sensitivity and color pattern in Lake Malawi cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pauers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For evolutionary ecologists, the holy grail of visual ecology is to establish an unambiguous link between photoreceptor sensitivity, the spectral environment, and the perception of specific visual stimuli (e.g., mates, food, predators, etc.. Due to the bright nuptial colors of the males, and the role female mate choice plays in their evolution, the haplochromine cichlid fishes of the African great lakes are favorite research subjects for such investigations. Despite this attention, current evidence is equivocal; while distinct correlations among photoreceptor sensitivity, photic environment, and male coloration exist in Lake Victorian haplochromines, attempts to find such correlations in Lake Malawian cichlids have failed. Lake Malawi haplochromines have a wide variability in their short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, especially compared to their mid- and long-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors; these cichlids also vary in the degree to which they express one of three basic color patterns (vertical bars, horizontal stripes, and solid patches of colors, each of which is likely used in a different form of communication. Thus, we hypothesize that, in these fishes, spectral sensitivity and color pattern have evolved in a correlated fashion to maximize visual communication; specifically, ultraviolet sensitivity should be found in vertically-barred species to promote ‘private’ communication, while striped species should be less likely to have ultraviolet sensitivity, since their color pattern carries ‘public’ information. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, we found that barred species had strong sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths, but that striped species typically lacked sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Further, the only variable, even when environmental variables were simultaneously considered, that could predict ultraviolet sensitivity was color pattern. We also found that, using models of correlated evolution, color

  7. Hydrodynamic drag constrains head enlargement for mouthbrooding in cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Potes, Nuno Zavattieri; Adriaens, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Presumably as an adaptation for mouthbrooding, many cichlid fish species have evolved a prominent sexual dimorphism in the adult head. Since the head of fishes serves as a bow during locomotion, an evolutionary increase in head volume to brood more eggs can trade-off with the hydrodynamic efficiency of swimming. Here, the differences between males and females in three-dimensional shape and size of the external head surfaces and the effect thereof on drag force during locomotion was analysed for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a maternal mouthbrooder. To do so, three-dimensional body surface reconstructions from laser scans and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed. After scaling the scanned specimens to post-cranial body volume, in order to theoretically equalize propulsive power, the external volume of the head of females was 27% larger than that of males (head length + 14%; head width + 9%). These differences resulted in an approximate 15% increase in drag force. Yet, hydrodynamics imposed important constraints on the adaptation for mouthbrooding as a much more drastic drop in swimming efficiency seems avoided by mainly enlarging the head along the swimming direction. PMID:26224567

  8. Cutting the Gordian knot:Complex signaling in African cichlids is more than multimodal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moira J.VAN STAADEN; Adam R.SMITH

    2011-01-01

    The active transmission of information from sender to recelver is a fundamental component of communication,and is therefore a primary facet in evolutionary models of sexual selection.Research in several systetms has underlined the importance of multiple sensory modalities in courtship signals.However,we still tend to think of individuals as having a relatively static signal in consecutive communicative events.While this may be true for certain traits such as body size or coloration,behaviorally modulated signals can quickly violate this assumption.In this work,we explore how intraspecific variation may be an important component of interspeclfic signal divergence using cichlid fishes from Lake Maiawi.Behavloral analyses were made using six species of Malawian cichlids from two divergent genera.while interspecific differences were found between congeners based on species-level analyses of both acoustic and audiovisual signais,intraspecific variation was of a similar magnitude.Specifically,individual fishes were found to possess highiy plastic signal repertoires.This finding was ubiquitous across all species and resulted in a great deal of overlap between heterospecific individuals,despite statistically distinct species means.These results demonstrate that some aspects of courtship in Malawian cichlids are more plastic than previously proposed,and that studies must account for signal variability within individuals.We propose here that bebavioral variability in signaling is important in determining the communication landscape on which signals are perceived.We review potential complexity deriving from multimodal signaling,discuss the sources for such lability,and suggest ways in which is issue may be approached experimentally.

  9. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N = 18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika. PMID:26335652

  10. Fishing the future. A snapshot of the Chilean TURFs through the lens of fishers and key stakeholders‟ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ueyonahara, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Overfishing is not an exclusive topic of big fishing industry. Overfishing by small-scale fishers is also happening. The Territorial Use of Rights – TURFs was implemented in Chile to protect the Chilean abalone from overfishing. Through the implementation of the TURFs Chilean abalone are no longer threatened by overfishing. The challenge to protect the resource thus seems to be solved. However, while some problems are solved others persist or new ones arise. The thesis explores the discourses...

  11. Notes on electropherograms of eye-lens, muscle proteins and zymograms of muscle esterases of fish collected during the first Brazilian expedition to the Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ngan Phan

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out on electropherograms of eye-lens, muscle proteins and zymograms of muscle esterases of ten Notothenia larseni, six Notothenia nudifrons and one lanternfish, Electrona antarctica. The fish were collected by the R/V "Prof. W. Besnard" of the Institute of Oceanography, University of São Paulo, during the First Brazilian Expedition to Antarctica. Eye-lens proteins were analysed on cellulose acetate membrane, muscle proteins and esterases on gel of polyaorylamide. Eye-lens proteins showed three types of electropherograms for N. larseni, and two types for N. nudifrons. One of the electropherograms of N. larseni can be readily distinguished from those of N. nudifrons. Electropherograms of muscle proteins of N. larseni and N. nudifrons are very similar and, consist of sixteen to seventeen fractions. Electropherograms of muscle proteins of N. larseni are severely affected by the conservation of the extracts overnight under -20ºC. All N. nudifrons were of the same zymograms of esterases while those of N. larseni varied. Electropherograms of eye-lens and muscle proteins as well as zymograms of esterases of the lanternfish are different from those of nototheniids.Foi realizado um estudo preliminar sobre eletroferogramas de proteínas de cristalino e de músculo esquelético, e zimogramas de esterases de músculo esquelético de dez Notothenia larseni, seis Notothenia nudifrons e de um peixe-lanterna, Electrona antarctica. Os peixes foram coletados pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard" do Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo durante a I Expedição Brasileira à Antártica. As proteinas do cristalino foram analisadas em membranas de acetato de celulose, enquanto que as proteínas e esterases do músculo esquelético, em gel de poliacrilamida. As proteínas do cristalino apresentam três tipos distintos de eletroferogramas para N. larseni, e dois para N. nudifrons. Um dos eletroferogramas de N. larseni, pode ser

  12. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication. Both environmental changes resulted in a decline of haplochromine cichlid species and numbers during the 1980s. However, during the 1990s and 2000s, some haplochromine species recovered. With the us...

  13. Genomic islands of speciation separate cichlid ecomorphs in an East African crater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milan; Challis, Richard J; Tyers, Alexandra M; Schiffels, Stephan; Terai, Yohey; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Miska, Eric A; Durbin, Richard; Genner, Martin J; Turner, George F

    2015-12-18

    The genomic causes and effects of divergent ecological selection during speciation are still poorly understood. Here we report the discovery and detailed characterization of early-stage adaptive divergence of two cichlid fish ecomorphs in a small (700 meters in diameter) isolated crater lake in Tanzania. The ecomorphs differ in depth preference, male breeding color, body shape, diet, and trophic morphology. With whole-genome sequences of 146 fish, we identified 98 clearly demarcated genomic "islands" of high differentiation and demonstrated the association of genotypes across these islands with divergent mate preferences. The islands contain candidate adaptive genes enriched for functions in sensory perception (including rhodopsin and other twilight-vision-associated genes), hormone signaling, and morphogenesis. Our study suggests mechanisms and genomic regions that may play a role in the closely related mega-radiation of Lake Malawi. PMID:26680190

  14. Dealing with food and eggs in mouthbrooding cichlids: structural and functional trade-offs in fitness related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Tkint

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As in any vertebrate, heads of fishes are densely packed with functions. These functions often impose conflicting mechanical demands resulting in trade-offs in the species-specific phenotype. When phenotypical traits are linked to gender-specific parental behavior, we expect sexual differences in these trade-offs. This study aims to use mouthbrooding cichlids as an example to test hypotheses on evolutionary trade-offs between intricately linked traits that affect different aspects of fitness. We focused on the oral apparatus, which is not only equipped with features used to feed and breathe, but is also used for the incubation of eggs. We used this approach to study mouthbrooding as part of an integrated functional system with diverging performance requirements and to explore gender-specific selective environments within a species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because cichlids are morphologically very diverse, we hypothesize that the implications of the added constraint of mouthbrooding will primarily depend on the dominant mode of feeding of the studied species. To test this, we compared the trade-off for two maternal mouthbrooding cichlid species: a "suction feeder" (Haplochromis piceatus and a "biter" (H. fischeri. The comparison of morphology and performance of both species revealed clear interspecific and intersex differences. Our observation that females have larger heads was interpreted as a possible consequence of the fact that in both the studied species mouthbrooding is done by females only. As hypothesized, the observed sexual dimorphism in head shape is inferred as being suboptimal for some aspects of the feeding performance in each of the studied species. Our comparison also demonstrated that the suction feeding species had smaller egg clutches and more elongated eggs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between mouthbrooding and feeding performance in the two

  15. Bentho-pelagic divergence of cichlid feeding architecture was prodigious and consistent during multiple adaptive radiations within African rift-lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W James Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How particular changes in functional morphology can repeatedly promote ecological diversification is an active area of evolutionary investigation. The African rift-lake cichlids offer a calibrated time series of the most dramatic adaptive radiations of vertebrate trophic morphology yet described, and the replicate nature of these events provides a unique opportunity to test whether common changes in functional morphology have repeatedly facilitated their ecological success. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens from 87 genera of cichlid fishes endemic to Lakes Tanganyka, Malawi and Victoria were dissected in order to examine the functional morphology of cichlid feeding. We quantified shape using geometric morphometrics and compared patterns of morphological diversity using a series of analytical tests. The primary axes of divergence were conserved among all three radiations, and the most prevalent changes involved the size of the preorbital region of the skull. Even the fishes from the youngest of these lakes (Victoria, which exhibit the lowest amount of skull shape disparity, have undergone extensive preorbital evolution relative to other craniofacial traits. Such changes have large effects on feeding biomechanics, and can promote expansion into a wide array of niches along a bentho-pelagic ecomorphological axis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we show that specific changes in trophic anatomy have evolved repeatedly in the African rift lakes, and our results suggest that simple morphological alterations that have large ecological consequences are likely to constitute critical components of adaptive radiations in functional morphology. Such shifts may precede more complex shape changes as lineages diversify into unoccupied niches. The data presented here, combined with observations of other fish lineages, suggest that the preorbital region represents an evolutionary module that can respond quickly to natural selection when fishes

  16. Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from 3D orientation patterns of ciliary bundles in three cichlid species

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Plath, Martin; Metscher, Brian D.; Heß, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cichlid fishes show considerable diversity in swim bladder morphology. In members of the subfamily Etroplinae, the connection between anterior swim bladder extensions and the inner ears enhances sound transmission and translates into an improved hearing ability. We tested the hypothesis that those swim bladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology and thus compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swim bladder), Hemichromis guttatus (large swim bladder wit...

  17. Responses of the Mullet, Liza auratus and the Cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzala (Egypt) to Heterophyd Infection

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Hassan; M.F.M. Soliman; M.A. Ghobashy

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the occurrence of heterophyid infection in two well-known hosts of heterophyd in Egyptian lake (Manzala); the mullet, Liza auratus and the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Furthermore, the potential factors that possibly affect the occurrence of the infection including host sex, length, weight and seasonal variation were considered. The pathological response of the two fish host to the infection was studied. Results showed that the prevalence, abundance and inte...

  18. A robust phylogeny among major lineages of the East African cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Sota, Teiji

    2016-07-01

    The huge monophyletic group of the East African cichlid radiations (EAR) consists of thousands of species belonging to 12-14 tribes; the number of tribes differs among studies. Many studies have inferred phylogenies of EAR tribes using various genetic markers. However, these phylogenies partly contradict one another and can have weak statistic support. In this study, we conducted maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analyses using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequences and propose a new robust phylogenetic hypothesis among Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes, which cover most EAR tribes. Data matrices can vary in size and contents depending on the strategies used to process RAD sequences. Therefore, we prepared 23 data matrices with various processing strategies. The ML phylogenies inferred from 15 large matrices (2.0×10(6) to 1.1×10(7) base pairs) resolved every tribe as a monophyletic group with 100% bootstrap support and shared the same topology regarding relationships among the tribes. Most nodes among the tribes were supported by 100% bootstrap values, and the bootstrap support for the other node varied among the 15 ML trees from 70% to 100%. These robust ML trees differ partly in topology from those in earlier studies, and these phylogenetic relationships have important implications for the tribal classification of EAR. PMID:27068840

  19. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  20. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  1. Hybrid origin of a cichlid population in Lake Malawi: implications for genetic variation and species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter F; Konings, Ad; Kornfield, Irv

    2003-09-01

    The importance of species recognition to taxonomic diversity among Lake Malawi cichlids has been frequently discussed. Hybridization - the apparent breakdown of species recognition - has been observed sporadically among cichlids and has been viewed as both a constructive and a destructive force with respect to species diversity. Here we provide genetic evidence of a natural hybrid cichlid population with a unique colour phenotype and elevated levels of genetic variation. We discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of interspecific hybridization in Lake Malawi cichlids and propose that the role of hybridization in generating both genetic variability and species diversity of Lake Malawi cichlids warrants further consideration. PMID:12919487

  2. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  3. Experimental Infection of the Mayan Cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus with the Oomycete Aphanomyces invadans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Ayala, Daniel; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus to infection with the fungus Aphanomyces invadans (also known as epizootic ulcerative syndrome [EUS]). A total of 27 C. urophthalmus were exposed to the original A. Invadans 2006/86/EC strain by intramuscularly injecting the fish with 25,000 zoospores/ml or exposing the fish to a suspension of 25,000 zoospores/ml in 6-L aquaria for 30 days. To assess the infectious capacity of A. invadans, 3 golden barbs (Puntius semifasciolatus) were infected intramuscularly with 200,000 zoospores/ml. A second experiment using 100 C. urophthalmus was performed for 60 days with 50 fish in each treatment group. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic method was used; muscle and gills were the target tissues. In the first experiment, none of the exposed C. urophthalmus developed skin lesions related to A. invadans infection. However, PCR analysis revealed that infection had occurred. For the intramuscular treatment, there were significant differences between the controls and the muscle samples (Fisher's exact test; P 0.05). All golden barbs became infected, as indicated by PCR, and developed skin lesions typical of A. invadans infection. We concluded that C. urophthalmus was infected with A. invadans but was an asymptomatic carrier because skin lesions did not develop. In the second experiment, all fish were negative, suggesting that the fish had cleared the infection by the end of the experiment. PMID:25742055

  4. Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertson R Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of behaviour or morphology. One striking example of an evolved asymmetry in vertebrates comes from a group of scale-eating cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika. Members of the Perissodini tribe of cichlid fishes have evolved dental and craniofacial asymmetries in order to more effectively remove scales from the left or right flanks of prey. Here we examine the evolution and development of craniofacial morphology and laterality among Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids. Results Using both geometric and traditional morphometric methods we found that the craniofacial evolution in the Perissodini involved discrete shifts in skeletal anatomy that reflect differences in habitat preference and predation strategies. Further, we show that the evolutionary history of the Perissodini is characterized by an accentuation of craniofacial laterality such that certain taxa show elaborate sided differences in craniofacial shape consistent with the sub-partitioning of function between sides of the head during attacks. Craniofacial laterality in the scale-eating specialist Perissodus microlepis was found to be evident early in development and exhibited a unimodal distribution, which is contrary to the adult condition where jaw laterality has been described as a discrete, bimodal antisymmetry. Finally, using linkage and association analyses we identified a conserved locus for jaw handedness that segregates among East African cichlids. Conclusions We suggest that, during the evolution of the Perissodini, selection has accentuated a latent, genetically determined handedness of the craniofacial skeleton, enabling the evolution of jaw asymmetries in order to increase predation success. Continued work on the developmental genetic basis of

  5. Can convict Cichlids (Amatitlania siquia socially learn the degree of predation risk associated with novel visual cues in their environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Barks

    Full Text Available For many animals, the ability to distinguish cues indicative of predation risk from cues unrelated to predation risk is not entirely innate, but rather is learned and improved with experience. Two pathways to such learning are possible. First, an animal could initially express antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of those cues are non-threatening. Alternatively, it could initially express no antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of them are threatening. While the learned recognition of threatening cues may occur either through personal interaction with a cue (asocial learning or through observation of the behaviour of social companions toward a cue (social learning, the learned recognition of non-threatening cues seems to occur exclusively through habituation, a form of asocial learning. Here, we tested whether convict cichlid fish (Amatitlaniasiquia can socially learn to recognize visual cues in their environment as either threatening or non-threatening. We exposed juvenile convict cichlids simultaneously to a novel visual cue and one of three (visual social cues: a social cue indicative of non-risk (the sight of conspecifics that had previously been habituated to the novel cue, a social cue indicative of predation risk (the sight of conspecifics trained to fear the novel cue, or a control treatment with no social cue. The subsequent response of focal fish, when presented with the novel cue alone, was not influenced by the social cue that they had previously witnessed. We therefore did not find evidence that convict cichlids in our study could use social learning to recognize novel visual cues as either threatening or non-threatening. We consider alternative explanations for our findings.

  6. Dactylogyrids (Monogenea) parasitic on cichlids from northern Brazil, with description of two new species of Sciadicleithrum and new host and geographical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Scholz, Tomáš; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Luque, José L

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1989 are described from two cichlids from the Araguarí River, State of Amapá, northern Brazil. Sciadicleithrum edgari n. sp. from Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840) differs from all congeneric species in the morphology (hook-shaped, with middle process and distally bifurcate) of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ (MCO). Sciadiclethrum araguariensis n. sp. from Crenicichla labrina (Spix and Agassiz, 1831) can be distinguished from all other species by a Y-shaped accessory piece of MCO. In addition to the description of two new species, new host and geographical records of six dactylogyrid monogeneans from cichlid fishes are presented. PMID:26751887

  7. As clear as mud: Turbidity induces behavioral changes in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. GRAY; Laura H. McDONNELL; Fabio G. CINQUEMANI; Lauren J. CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate.One factor driving this loss is increased turbidity,an environmental stressor that can impose behavioral,morphological,and/or physiological costs on fishes.Here we describe the behavioral response of a widespread African cichlid,Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae,to turbidity.We used a split-brood rearing design to test if F1 offspring reared in turbid water,originating from river (turbid) and swamp (clear) populations,behave differently than full-sibs reared in clear water.We examined two facets of behavior:(1) behaviors of fish in full sib groups,including activity level and social dynamics collected during the rearing period; and (2) male aggressive behavior directed at potential male competitors after fish had reached maturity; this was done in an experimental set-up independent of the rearing aquaria.Regardless of population of origin,fish reared in turbid water were marginally less active and performed fewer social behaviors than those reared in clear water.On the other hand,when tested against a competitor in turbid water,males performed more aggressive behaviors,regardless of population of origin or rearing environment.Our results suggest a plastic behavioral response to turbidity that may allow P multicolor to persist over a range of turbidity levels in nature by decreasing activity and general social behaviors and intensifying reproductive behaviors to ensure reproductive success [ Current Zoology 58 (1):146-157,2012].

  8. Protective Effects of Silymarin Extract on Malthion-Induced Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is much evidence indicating that natural substances from edible and medicinal plants possess powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effect of silymarin in fish exposed to malathion. Methods: Zebra cichlid fish were allocated into five groups of which one group received normal feed and served as control. Fish from group 2 were treated with 0.1 mg.L-1 malathion. Fish from group 3 and 4 were fed with enriched diet with 1400 mg and 2100 mg silymarin per 1 kg feed, respectively. While fish from group 5 and 6 were fed with enriched diet with 1400 mg and 2100 mg silymarin per 1 kg feed, respectively and simultaneously were treated with 0.1 mg.L-1 malathion for 15 days. Activities of hepatic enzymes including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated. Oxidative stress was ascertained by measuring malondialdehyde as marker of lipid peroxidation and total cellular antioxidant capacity. Results: Exposure to malathion caused a significant increase in MDA levels and altered AST, ALT, ALP and LDH activities in liver tissues (p<0.05. The hepatic antioxidant capacity was significantly lowered in malathion treated fish as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Treatment with silymarin significantly ameliorated these changes in the malathion-treated groups. Conclusion: These finding demonstrated that silymarin have protective effects against the toxic influence of malathion on the examined biochemical parameters in liver tissue of fish.

  9. Hematological parameters of Iranian cichlid Iranocichla hormuzensis: Coad, 1982 (Perciformes in Mehran River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Daneshvar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the hematological parameters in Iranocichla hormuzensis, an Iranian freshwater cichlid important as ornamental and food fish. Forty fish were captured with seine net at Mehran river Hormozgan province, Iran. Blood was used to determine the total counts of red blood cells (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and morphometric data of erythrocytes. The Iranian fish showed lower RBC and WBC values than the other cichlids (Oreochromis niloticus, O. aureus, O. mossambicus, O. hybrid, Cichlasoma dimerus and Cichla monoculus. Hematocrit did not vary among the species, but MCV, MCH and MCHC in I. hormuzensis were higher than those for O. niloticus, O. aureus, O. hybrid, C. dimerus and C. monoculus. These differences may be related to different life habit of fish. This study suggests that I. hormuzensis is well acclimated to the environment being the first report for its hematology. It is also suggested high efficiency in oxygen transportation, and an efficient inflow of oxygen by the gills, indicating the welfare of fish on this environment.Este estudo descreve os parâmetros hematológicos em Iranocichla hormuzensis, ciclídeo iraniano de água doce, importante como peixe ornamental e como de consumo. Quarenta peixes foram capturados com rede no rio Mehran, província de Hormozgan, Irã. O sangue foi usado para determinar as contagens totais de eritrócitos (RBC e leucócitos (WBC, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio (MCV, hemoglobina corpuscular média (MCH, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (MCHC e dados morfométricos de eritrócitos. O peixe iraniano mostrou valores menores de RBC e WBC do que outros ciclídeos (Oreochromis niloticus, O. aureus, O. mossambicus, O. hybrid, Cichlasoma dimerus e Cichla monoculus. O hematócrito não variou entre as espécies, mas MCV, MCH e MCHC em I

  10. Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Scott, Steve; Lamb, David; Zimmerman, Joe E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fresnel lenses span the full range of sizes from lens a few micrometers in diameter to lens several meters in diameter. These lenses are utilized in various fields including optical communication, theatrical lighting, office equipment, video entertainment systems, solar concentrators, and scientific research instruments. These lenses function either as diffractive or refractive optical elements depending on the geometrical feature size of the lens. The basic functions of these lenses is described followed by an overview of fabrication methods. A summary of applications is then provided illustrating the rich variety of applications for which fresnel lenses may be designed to fulfill.

  11. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of...... probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind the...

  12. Occurrence of Sciadicleithrum mexicanum Kritsky, Vidal-Martinez et Rodríguez-Canul, 1994 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) in the Cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus from a flooded quarry in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    E. F. Mendoza-Franco; V. Vidal-Martínez; R. Simá-Álvarez; R. Rodríguez-Canul; C. Vivas-Rodríguez; Scholz, T

    1995-01-01

    Cichlids, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, collected in a flooded quarry in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, from January through June 1992, had high levels of infection with the ancyrocephaline Sciadicleithrum mexicanum (Monogena: Dactylogyridade) in all montlhly samples. Neither occurrence nor maturation of the worms eshibited any pronounced monthly fluctuation. The infection rate was found to be sizedependent, greater in longer fish. The worms occurred on primary lamellae of gill filaments of all ar...

  13. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    the enzyme or its membrane lipid environment is still a matter of discussion. In this study we compared the temperature dependence and Ca2+-dependence of SR Ca2+-ATPase in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), salmon (Salmo, salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma...... nigrofasciatum). The Arrhenius plot of zebra cichlid showed a break point at 20 degreesC, and the haddock Arrhenius plot was non-linear with pronounced changes in slope in the. temperature area, 6-14 degreesC. In Arrhenius plot from both salmon and rainbow trout a plateau exists with an almost constant SR Ca2......+- ATPase activity. The temperature range of the plateau was 14-21 and 18-25 degreesC in salmon and rainbow trout, respectively. Ca2+-dependence in the four different fish species investigated was very similar with half maximal activation (K-0.5) between 0.2 and 0.6 muM and half maximal inhibition (I-0...

  14. Evolutionary History of Lake Tanganyika’s Predatory Deepwater Cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchberger, Paul C; Sefc, Kristina M; Christian Sturmbauer; Stephan Koblmüller

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization among littoral cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika was inferred in several molecular phylogenetic studies. The phenomenon is generally attributed to the lake level-induced shoreline and habitat changes. These allow for allopatric divergence of geographically fragmented populations alternating with locally restricted secondary contact and introgression between incompletely isolated taxa. In contrast, the deepwater habitat is characterized by weak geographic structure and a high po...

  15. Sea Urchin as an alternative feed for fish.

    OpenAIRE

    Omolo, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    The Objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of sea urchin stuff as an alternative fish food of Oreochromis niloticus during growth. This African cichlid is widely distributed where temperature and food are suitable for ill growth and reproduction. In many Countries, it was introduced for vegetation control, pond culture, and recreational and commercial fishing because of its excellent aqua culture potential, fast growth, omnivorous feeding habits and tolerance to low wate...

  16. Experimentally increased temperature and hypoxia affect stability of social hierarchy and metabolism of the Amazonian cichlid Apistogramma agassizii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Campos, Derek Felipe; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29°C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mg·L(-1)O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26°C and 6.6mg·L(-1)O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position. PMID:26387464

  17. Symmetry perception in bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) and Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Beil, O; Weber, T; Bleckmann, H

    2014-09-01

    Several species have been shown to perceive symmetry as a measure of superior genetic quality, useful for assessing potential mates or mediating other visual activities such as the selection of food sources. The current study assessed whether Pseudotropheus sp. and Chiloscyllium griseum, two fish species from distantly related groups, possess symmetry perception. In alternative two choice experiments, individuals were tested for spontaneous preferences and trained to discriminate between abstract symmetrical and asymmetrical stimulus pairs. Pair discriminations were followed by extensive categorization experiments. Transfer tests elucidated whether bilaterally symmetrical and rotationally symmetrical stimuli could be distinguished. Sharks were also tested for the degree of dissimilarity between two symbols that could still be detected. While sharks showed both a spontaneous preference for symmetry as well as remarkable discrimination abilities by succeeding in all of the presented tasks, cichlids showed no spontaneous preference, had difficulties in discriminating between symbols and performed poorly in the categorization experiments. Sharks distinguished between bilaterally and rotationally symmetrical stimuli and easily differentiated between a four-armed cross (all arms 90° apart) and a cross where one of the arms was only 45° spaced from the one next to it. Performance did not decline when the separation was extended to 70°, but was significantly reduced at an 80° separation. Results indicate that the ability for symmetry perception varies across fish species and individuals, whereby some can detect even subtle differences in this respect. PMID:24794621

  18. Process and pattern in cichlid radiations - inferences for understanding unusually high rates of evolutionary diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, Ole

    2015-07-01

    The cichlid fish radiations in the African Great Lakes differ from all other known cases of rapid speciation in vertebrates by their spectacular trophic diversity and richness of sympatric species, comparable to the most rapid angiosperm radiations. I review factors that may have facilitated these radiations and compare these with insights from recent work on plant radiations. Work to date suggests that it was a coincidence of ecological opportunity, intrinsic ecological versatility and genomic flexibility, rapidly evolving behavioral mate choice and large amounts of standing genetic variation that permitted these spectacular fish radiations. I propose that spatially orthogonal gradients in the fit of phenotypes to the environment facilitate speciation because they allow colonization of alternative fitness peaks during clinal speciation despite local disruptive selection. Such gradients are manifold in lakes because of the interaction of water depth as an omnipresent third spatial dimension with other fitness-relevant variables. I introduce a conceptual model of adaptive radiation that integrates these elements and discuss its applicability to, and predictions for, plant radiations. PMID:25983053

  19. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  20. Species-specific patterns of nonapeptide brain gene expression relative to pair-bonding behavior in grouping and non-grouping cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Balshine, Sigal

    2016-04-01

    Comparative studies have revealed that vasopressin-oxytocin pathways are associated with both pair bonding and grouping behavior. However, the relationship between pair bonding and grouping behavior remains unclear. In this study, our aim was to identify whether two species that differ in grouping behavior display a corresponding difference in their pair bonds, and in the underlying vasopressin-oxytocin hormonal pathways. Using two species of cichlid fishes, the highly social Neolamprologus pulcher and the non-social Telmatochromis temporalis, we measured proximity of pairs during pair bond formation, and then measured social behaviors (proximity, aggression, submission, affiliation) and brain gene expression of isotocin and arginine vasotocin (the teleost homologues of oxytocin and vasopressin, respectively), as well as their receptors, after a temporary separation and subsequent reunion of the bonded pairs. Pairs of the social species spent more time in close proximity relative to the non-social species. Rates of aggression increased in both species following the separation and reunion treatment, relative to controls that were not separated. Overall, whole brain expression of isotocin was higher in the social species relative to the non-social species, and correlated with proximity, submission, and affiliation, but only in the social species. Our results suggest that both a social and a non-social cichlid species have similar behavioral responses to a temporary separation from a mate, and we found no difference in the brain gene expression of measured hormones and receptors based on our separation-reunion treatment. However, our results highlight the importance of isotocin in mediating submissive and affiliative behaviors in cichlid fishes, and demonstrate that isotocin has species-specific correlations with socially relevant behaviors. PMID:26519858

  1. Threatened fishes of the world: Coptodon walteri (Thys van den Audenaerde 1968 (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Felix Koffi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coptodon walteri Thys van den Audenaerde 1968, an endemic cichlid of Ivory Coast and Liberia, is assessed as Near Threatened due to fishing pressure and loss of habitats, and aquatic pollution as a result of extensive clandestine gold mining in the bed of the Cavally River. There is an immediate need for developing conservation and management plans for this species.

  2. Duration of memory of dominance relationships in a group living cichlid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Takashi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Jordan, Lyndon Alexander; Kohda, Masanori

    2014-09-01

    Animal contests are costly and tend to escalate when rivals have similar competitive abilities. Individuals that remember dominance relationships with rivals may avoid repeated agonistic interactions and hence avoid the costs of repeated escalation of contests. However, it can be difficult to experimentally disentangle the effects of memory from those of loser effects (losers behaving subordinately due to prior defeats). Here, we test whether loser effects or individual memory mediate contest behaviour in the African cichlid, Julidochromis transcriptus. We find that on days 3 and 5 after initial contests, losers display subordinate behaviour to contest winners but not to novel contestants. However, this effect disappears after 7 days, at which time losers do not display subordinate behaviour to either rival. These results show that (1) this fish can recall a previously dominant contestant for up to 5 days and (2) as no subordinate displays were shown to the novel contestant, there are no evidences for loser effects in this species. Such short-term memory of past interactions may have broad significance in social species with repeated interactions.

  3. Evolution of feeding specialization in Tanganyikan scale-eating cichlids: a molecular phylogenetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is still unknown. In the present study, we conducted interspecific phylogenetic analyses for all nine known species in the tribe Perissodini (seven Perissodus and two Haplotaxodon species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analyses of the nuclear DNA. On the basis of the resultant phylogenetic frameworks, the evolution of their feeding habits was traced using data from analyses of stomach contents, habitat depths, and observations of oral jaw tooth morphology. Results AFLP analyses resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the Perissodini, strongly supporting monophyly for each species. The character reconstruction of feeding ecology based on the AFLP tree suggested that scale eating evolved from general carnivorous feeding to highly specialized scale eating. Furthermore, scale eating is suggested to have evolved in deepwater habitats in the lake. Oral jaw tooth shape was also estimated to have diverged in step with specialization for scale eating. Conclusion The present evolutionary analyses of feeding ecology and morphology based on the obtained phylogenetic tree demonstrate for the first time the evolutionary process leading from generalised to highly specialized scale eating, with diversification in feeding morphology and behaviour among species.

  4. Phylogeographic Diversity of the Lower Central American Cichlid Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shawn McCafferty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well appreciated that historical and ecological processes are important determinates of freshwater biogeographic assemblages. Phylogeography can potentially lend important insights into the relative contribution of historical processes in biogeography. However, the extent that phylogeography reflects historical patterns of drainage connection may depend in large part on the dispersal capability of the species. Here, we test the hypothesis that due to their relatively greater dispersal capabilities, the neotropical cichlid species Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus will display a phylogeographic pattern that differs from previously described biogeographic assemblages in this important region. Based on an analysis of 318 individuals using mtDNA ATPase 6/8 sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism data, we found eight distinct clades that are closely associated with biogeographic patterns. The branching patterns among the clades and a Bayesian clock analysis suggest a relatively rapid colonization and diversification among drainages in the emergent Isthmus of Panama followed by the coalescing of some drainages due to historical connections. We also present evidence for extensive cross-cordillera sharing of clades in central Panama and the Canal region. Our results suggest that contemporary phylogeographic patterns and diversification in Lower Central American fishes reflect an interaction of historical drainage connections, dispersal, and demographic processes.

  5. Effect of mate size on maternal reproductive effort in the convict cichlid Amatitlania siquia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashley R. ROBART

    2012-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts individuals will increase their reproductive investment when mated to a high quality partner.In many species of fish with biparental care females prefer large males due to the males' greater ability to raise more offspring to independence.I examined the relationship between mate quality,parental care and number of offspring in a natural population of convict cichlids Amatitlania siquia.The frequency of frontal displays by females was positively correlated with male standard length.Additionally,as males increased in length relative to their mate,females increased the frequency of chases towards predators,while males decreased the number of displays towards brood predators.This trade-off in parental effort within a pair due to mate quality is a key prediction of differential allocation.The number of offspring was correlated with male,but not female,standard length.These results support the differential allocation hypothesis in that females offered more parental care to offspring of a larger male,while their mates decreased the amount of care they provided.Additionally,females benefited in terms of number of offspring by pairing with higher quality mates.Increased female investment may provide an incentive to ensure male care and maintain pair bonding,which could lead to greater reproductive success through increased offspring survival [Current Zoology 58 (1):66-72,2012].

  6. Unusual allometry for sexual size dimorphism in a cichlid where males are extremely larger than females

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kazutaka Ota; Masanori Kohda; Tetsu Sato

    2010-06-01

    When males are the larger sex, a positive allometric relationship between male and female sizes is often found across populations of a single species (i.e. Rensch’s rule). This pattern is typically explained by a sexual selection pressure on males. Here, we report that the allometric relationship was negative across populations of a shell-brooding cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus, although males are extremely larger than females. Male L. callipterus collect and defend empty snail shells in each of which a female breeds. We found that, across six populations, male and female sizes are positively correlated with not only sexual and fecundity selection indices, but also with shell sizes. Given their different reproductive behaviours, these correlations mean that males are required to be more powerful, and thus larger, to transport larger shells, while female bodies are reduced to the shell size to enable them to enter the shells. Among the three size selections (sexual selection, fecundity selection and shell size), shell size explained the allometry, suggesting that females are more strongly subject to size selection associated with shell size availability than males. However, the allometry was violated when considering an additional population where size-selection regimes of males differed from that of other populations. Therefore, sexual size allometry will be violated by body size divergence induced by multiple selection regimes.

  7. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

    2007-08-01

    Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size. PMID:17460159

  8. Evolution of brain-body allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Severine Denise; Zidar, Josefina; Løvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2016-07-01

    Brain size is strongly associated with body size in all vertebrates. This relationship has been hypothesized to be an important constraint on adaptive brain size evolution. The essential assumption behind this idea is that static (i.e., within species) brain-body allometry has low ability to evolve. However, recent studies have reported mixed support for this view. Here, we examine brain-body static allometry in Lake Tanganyika cichlids using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We found considerable variation in the static allometric intercept, which explained the majority of variation in absolute and relative brain size. In contrast, the slope of the brain-body static allometry had relatively low variation, which explained less variation in absolute and relative brain size compared to the intercept and body size. Further examination of the tempo and mode of evolution of static allometric parameters confirmed these observations. Moreover, the estimated evolutionary parameters indicate that the limited observed variation in the static allometric slope could be a result of strong stabilizing selection. Overall, our findings suggest that the brain-body static allometric slope may represent an evolutionary constraint in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. PMID:27241216

  9. Evolutionary History of Lake Tanganyika’s Predatory Deepwater Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Kirchberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization among littoral cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika was inferred in several molecular phylogenetic studies. The phenomenon is generally attributed to the lake level-induced shoreline and habitat changes. These allow for allopatric divergence of geographically fragmented populations alternating with locally restricted secondary contact and introgression between incompletely isolated taxa. In contrast, the deepwater habitat is characterized by weak geographic structure and a high potential for gene flow, which may explain the lower species richness of deepwater than littoral lineages. For the same reason, divergent deepwater lineages should have evolved strong intrinsic reproductive isolation already in the incipient stages of diversification, and, consequently, hybridization among established lineages should have been less frequent than in littoral lineages. We test this hypothesis in the endemic Lake Tanganyika deepwater cichlid tribe Bathybatini by comparing phylogenetic trees of Hemibates and Bathybates species obtained with nuclear multilocus AFLP data with a phylogeny based on mitochondrial sequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, largely congruent tree topologies and negative tests for introgression provided no evidence for introgressive hybridization between the deepwater taxa. Together, the nuclear and mitochondrial data established a well-supported phylogeny and suggested ecological segregation during speciation.

  10. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFL...

  11. Repeated trans-watershed hybridization among haplochromine cichlids (Cichlidae) was triggered by Neogene landscape evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzer, Julia; Swartz, Ernst Roelof; Vreven, Emmanuel; Snoeks, Jos; Cotterill, Fenton Peter David; Misof, Bernhard; Schliewen, Ulrich Kurt

    2012-01-01

    The megadiverse haplochromine cichlid radiations of the East African lakes, famous examples of explosive speciation and adaptive radiation, are according to recent studies, introgressed by different riverine lineages. This study is based on the first comprehensive mitochondrial and nuclear DNA dataset from extensive sampling of riverine haplochromine cichlids. It includes species from the lower River Congo and Angolan (River Kwanza) drainages. Reconstruction of phylogenetic hypotheses reveale...

  12. Species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from cichlids from Zambezi and Limpopo river basins in Zimbabwe and South Africa: evidence for unexplored species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradníčková, Petra; Barson, Maxwell; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Přikrylová, Iva

    2016-09-01

    New findings on Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising African cichlids in southern Africa are presented, comprising data from Zimbabwe and South Africa. Morphometry of opisthaptoral hard parts in combination with nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the presence of six species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832. Three new species are described from fishes in Zimbabwe: Gyrodactylus chitandiri n. sp. from the gill arches of Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger) and Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Weber); Gyrodactylus occupatus n. sp. from the fins of Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Pharyngochromis acuticeps (Steindachner) and P. philander; and Gyrodactylus parisellei n. sp. from the fins of O. niloticus, P. philander and Tilapia sp. Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973 was also identified from the gills of O. niloticus and C. rendalli collected from two localities in Zimbabwe; these findings represent new host and locality records for this parasite. Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri Vanhove, Snoeks, Volckaert & Huyse, 2011 was identified from P. philander collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe thereby providing new host and locality records for this parasite. Finally, Gyrodactylus yacatli García-Vásquez, Hansen, Christison, Bron & Shinn, 2011 was collected from the fins of O. niloticus and P. philander studied in Zimbabwe; this represents the first record of this species from the continent of Africa. Notably, this study improves upon the knowledge of Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising cichlids from these southern African regions. All species studied were recorded from at least two different cichlid host species indicating trend for a wide range of Gyrodactylus hosts in Africa. Accordingly, this supports the idea of intensive host switching in the course of their evolution. PMID:27522367

  13. Aggressive interactions between the invasive Rio Grande cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) and native bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), with notes on redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, O. Thomas; O' Connell, Martin T.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Grande cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) has been established in the Greater New Orleans Metropolitan area for at least 20 years, and its effect on native fishes is unknown. Behavioral trials were performed to determine if aggressive interactions occur between invasive H. cyanoguttatus and native bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). When defending a territory as the resident, L. macrochirus were markedly aggressive, averaging 11.6 aggressive actions per lO-min behavioral trial. In contrast, L. macrochirus were extremely passive as invaders, with 0.5 aggressive actions per trial. Herichthys cyanoguttatus were equally aggressive as residents and as invaders, averaging 4.9 and 6.0 aggressive actions per trial, respectively. Herichthys cyanoguttatus interacted aggressively with native species whether they held territory or not, indicating that this invasive species may have fundamentally different strategies of aggression compared with native L. macrochirus. These differences may explain the continued success of H. cyanoguttatus as an invasive fish in southeastern Louisiana.

  14. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  15. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Plath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  16. Color changing and behavioral context in the Amazonian Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae (Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoni Rosa Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal coloration has many functions, and fishes are noted among vertebrates for presenting a wide variety of color patterns. Although in marine fishes the relationship between body coloration and behavioral context is well documented, there's not much information about freshwater fishes. Here we describe color patterns displayed by the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae and suggest that these patterns are dependent on different social and behavioral settings. Field observations were conducted underwater in a pond in Central Amazonia, Brazil. We recorded six body coloration patterns related to seven different kinds of behavioral activities: foraging, resting, reproductive and agonistic displays, aggression (attacking and fleeing and parental care. Changes in coloration occur rapidly and take only a few seconds. Females on parental care exhibited a unique pattern that are more persistent and probably manifests more slowly. In the shallow and clear waters of the natural environment of this dwarf cichlid, color communication seems to constitute an efficient way to display information about individual mood, social status and reproductive readiness, contributing to minimize loss of energy in unnecessary interactions.Coloração animal tem diferentes funções, e os peixes se destacam entre os vertebrados por apresentarem uma grande diversidade de padrões de cores. Embora se conheça relativamente bem a relação entre coloração e contexto comportamental para peixes marinhos, pouco se sabe para os peixes de água doce. Nós descrevemos os padrões de coloração de um ciclídeo amazônico, Apistogramma hippolytae, e sugerimos como esses padrões são dependentes das características sociais e comportamentais. Realizamos observações subaquáticas utilizando mergulho livre em campo durante o dia em uma lagoa na Amazônia Central. Nós caracterizamos seis padrões de coloração associados a sete comportamentos diferentes: alimentação, repouso

  17. Lower biodiversity of native fish but only marginally altered plankton biomass in tropical lakes hosting introduced piscivorous Cichla cf. ocellaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg; Attayde, José Luiz; Lacerot, Gissell; Kosten, Sarian; Coimbra e Souza, Leonardo; S. Costa, Luciana; H. Van Nes, Egbert; Jeppesen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We compared the species richness and abundance of fish, zooplankton and phytoplankton in nine mesotrophic coastal shallow lakes (Northeastern Brazil) with and without the exotic predator cichlid tucunaré or ‘peacock bass’ (Cichla cf. ocellaris). We hypothesized that the introduction of tucunaré w...

  18. Mutational changes of intraspecific agressiveness in the convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum Guenther) after irradiation of parental spermatogonia and oogonia with different doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agonistic behavior of mated convict cichlids (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) derived from gonial germ cells which were exposed to 0 (controls), 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 R of X-rays was determined by counting the attacks delivered to subadult conspecifics during the first eight days after spawning. While no day effects and no interactions with sex and radiation dose were found, males were significantly more aggressive in the treatment groups than the corresponding females. The highest aggressivness appeared in F1 pairs derived from parental gonia irradiated with 250 R, and the lowest aggressiveness occurred in the 500-F1 group. These two treatment groups differed significantly from each other, whereas no further significant differences could be detected. F1 males derived from gonial X-irradiation with 750 R could not be mated successfully because they killed their own females. The changes of male aggressiveness reflect reversely the previously published results of changes in social cohesiveness of the individual cichlid fish. (author)

  19. Population structure and reproductive behavior of Sinaloa cichlid Cichlasoma beani (Jordan, 1889 in a tropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgen A. García-Lizárraga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The population structure and reproductive condition of the Sinaloa cichlid Cichlasoma beani from samples obtained from June 2000 to July 2001 were determined. Samples in the first week each month from the largest trader of tilapia in the Aguamilpa Reservoir in Mexico and were caught in gillnets (9.6 and 11.4 cm stretch-mesh size. Of 596 specimens, there were 427 males and 169 females; monthly sex ratio, frequency of lengths by the multinomial distribution, timing of reproduction, condition index, and size at first maturity was determined. Differences in the sex ratio and monthly totals were significant, favoring males, except for September 2000 and March 2001. From one (August 2000 to three modal groups (July 2000 and June 2001 were identified by size. There were no significant differences in standard length weight relationships by sex, which indicated that a shared model for both genders is appropriate, and isometric growth was detected. Based on the proportion of mature and partially matures fish, the main reproductive period was April through June; size at first maturity was 18.9 cm. Water temperature was not significantly related to the percentage of mature and partially matures Sinaloa cichlids or spawning. These findings provide information for regulating the Cichlasoma beani fishery in this region such minimum legal size and non-fishing period.Se determinó la estructura poblacional y condición reproductiva del cíclido de Sinaloa Cichlasoma beani desde junio de 2000 a julio de 2001. Las muestras se obtuvieron de la captura comercial de tilapia en el embalse de Aguamilpa, México durante la primera semana de cada mes. Los especímenes se capturaron con redes de enmalle (9,6 y 11,4 cm de tamaño de malla. De los 596 organismos recolectados, 427 fueron machos y 169 hembras. Se determinó la proporción de sexos mensual, grupos modales de tallas a través de una distribución multinomial, época reproductiva, índice de condición y talla

  20. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. PMID:26201370

  1. Responses of the Mullet, Liza auratus and the Cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzala (Egypt to Heterophyd Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the occurrence of heterophyid infection in two well-known hosts of heterophyd in Egyptian lake (Manzala; the mullet, Liza auratus and the cichlid, Oreochromis niloticus was investigated. Furthermore, the potential factors that possibly affect the occurrence of the infection including host sex, length, weight and seasonal variation were considered. The pathological response of the two fish host to the infection was studied. Results showed that the prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection in the two fish host greatly affected by the factor considered in contradictory way. The responses to infection and the possible effect of the interaction between all the considered factors are discussed in details. In addition, metacercarial infection caused alterations in the histological architecture of the infected tissues and in the composition of the muscle proteins as well which was more pronounced in O. niloticus and L. auratus, respectively. In conclusion, many biological and environmental factors do affect the occurrence of heterophyid infection in addition to the anthropogenic activity. L. auratus was more susceptible to the infection as compared to O. niloticus from the same habitat.

  2. The lens controls cell survival in the retina: evidence from the blind cavefish Astyanax

    OpenAIRE

    STRICKLER, Allen G.; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Jeffery, William R.

    2007-01-01

    The lens influences retinal growth and differentiation during vertebrate eye development but the mechanisms are not understood. The role of the lens in retinal growth and development was studied in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which has eyed surface-dwelling (surface fish) and blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) forms. A lens and laminated retina initially develop in cavefish embryos, but the lens dies by apoptosis. The cavefish retina is subsequently disorganized, apoptotic cells appear, the p...

  3. Sexual selection on color and behavior within and between cichlid populations: Implications for speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J.PAUERS; Jeffrey S.MCKINNON

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is widely viewed as playing a central role in hapiochromine cichlid speciation.Hypothetically,once divergent mate preferences evolve among populations of these fishes,reproductive isolation follows and the populations begin to behave as different species.Various studies have examined patterns of assortative mating among species and sometimes populations,but few have examined variation in directional preferences,especially among populations of the same species.We investigated mate choice behavior in two populations of Labeotropheus fuelleborni,a Lake Malawi endemic.We test whether mating.preferences between populations are based on the same traits and in the same direction as preferences within populations.We examine the potential contributions of two classes of trait,color patterns and behaviors,to reproductive isolation.When females chose between either two males of their own population,or two from another,female preferences were generally similar (for the female population) across the two contexts.Mate choice patterns differed between (female) populations for a measure of color,but only modestly for male behavior.In a separate experiment we simultaneously offered females a male of their own population and a male from a different population.In these trials,females consistently preferred males from their own population,which were also the males that displayed more frequently than their opponents,but not necessarily those with color traits suggested to be most attractive in the previous experiment.Thus directional preferences for chroma and related aspects of color may be important when females are presented with males of otherwise similar phenotypes,but may play little role in mediating assortative mating among populations with substantially different color patterns.A preference for male behavior could play some role in speciation if males preferentially court same-population females,as we have observed for the populations studied herein.

  4. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  5. Trace metals in water and fish (Unga species, Pungu maclareni, catfish Clarias maclareni) from Lake Barombi Mbo, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Sone, Brice Nkwelle

    2012-01-01

    Lake Barombi Mbo is an isolated oligotrophic lake situated in the volcanic range of West Cameroon and home to several endangered endemic cichlids. A fieldwork was carried out at the lake where water and fish samples were collected as part of an investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) whether studied trace metals were present at levels exceeding ambient water criteria, (ii) link uptake of trace metals in gills and liver of fish to water chemistry, (iii) ac...

  6. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Diggles, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 5 (2015), s. 1929-1932. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dracunculoidea * cichlid fish * ovary * Amazon River basin * Brazil Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  7. LensClean revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the LensClean algorithm which for a given gravitational lens model fits a source brightness distribution to interferometric radio data in a similar way as standard Clean does in the unlensed case. The lens model parameters can then be varied in order to minimize the residuals and determine the best model for the lens mass distribution. Our variant of this method is improved in order to be useful and stable even for high dynamic range systems with nearly degenerated lens model parameters. Our test case B0218+357 is dominated by two bright images but the information needed to constrain the unknown parameters is provided only by the relatively smooth and weak Einstein ring. The new variant of LensClean is able to fit lens models even in this difficult case. In order to allow the use of general mass models with LensClean, we develop the new method LenTil which inverts the lens equation much more reliably than any other method. This high reliability is essential for the use as part of LensClean. Finally...

  8. Preliminary fish survey of Lac Tseny in northwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noromalala Raminosoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the fish fauna of Lac Tseny, in the Sofia Region of northwestern Madagascar, during October 2010 by observing commercial catches and targeted netting of areas used by endemic species. We recorded seven native fish species at the lake, including three endemic cichlids, a herring and a catfish. We confirmed the continued survival of the Critically Endangered Paretroplus menarambo, as well as the presence of a Paretroplus taxon that may be new to science. The commercial fishery in the lake is sustained by introduced tilapiines and the native Savagella robusta. The three endemic cichlids (Paretroplus spp. were not targeted by commercial fishermen, but when caught in small numbers were retained for domestic consumption. Submerged trees in the west of the lake restrict fishing with nets and probably provide important habitat for P. menarambo. Priority next steps at the lake include (i additional surveys and biological studies of the endemic fish species and the Critically Endangered Madagascar big-headed turtle, Erymnochelys madagascariensis, (ii clarification of the taxonomic status of Paretroplus cf. kieneri and, should it prove a new taxon, its formal scientific description, and (iii continued engagement with fishing communities and authorities to promote practices that benefit livelihoods and the survival of threatened fish species.

  9. Changes in reproductive life-history strategies in response to nest density in a shell-brooding cichlid, Telmatochromis vittatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the appearance of a reproductively parasitic tactic varies, and how this variation affects territorial males of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Telmatochromis vittatus, we examined the reproductive ecology of territorial males in Mtondwe and compared it with that of a neighboring Wonzye population, where nest density differs from that at Mtondwe. In Wonzye, with high nest density, male tactics change with their body size from a territorial to a non-territorial parasitic tactic called piracy in which they conquer several nests defended by territorial males and take over the nests while females are spawning. These "pirate" males could decrease the costs incurred by travelling among nests by exclusively targeting aggregations of nests in close proximity while avoiding separate nests. Territorial males in Wonzye sacrifice the potential higher attractiveness offered by large nests and instead compete for nests farther from neighbors on which pirates less frequently intrude. In contrast, the Mtondwe population had lower nest density and piracy was absent. Given that the success of piracy depends on the close proximity of nests, nest density is likely responsible for the observed variation in the occurrence of piracy between the two populations. Furthermore, in Mtondwe, territorial males competed for larger nests and were smaller than the territorial males in Wonzye. Thus, this lower nest density may free territorial males from the selection pressures for increased size caused by both defense against nest piracy and the need to develop into pirates as they grow.

  10. Structure and dynamics of myxosporean parasites component communities in two freshwater Cichlids in the Chari River (Republic of Chad).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousman, Abakar; Félix, Bilong Bilong Charles; Thomas, Njiné; Abraham, Fomena

    2007-03-01

    Myxosporean parasites of two freshwater Tilapia species from the Chari River, Chad Republic, Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus, were investigated from November 2001 to October 2002. A total of 360 specimens per Cichlid species were examined. Eleven parasite species were found in both cases with different prevalences. Myxobolus agolus, M. brachysporus, M. clarii, M. cichlidarum, M. heterosporus, M. tilapiae and M. camerounensis in O. niloticus) appeared common while M. equatorialis, M. nyongana (and M. camerounensis in S. galilaeus) were secondary; lastly M. israelensis (and M. kainjiae in O. niloticus) were rare. The gills, fins, eyes and teguments were preferential locations of cysts building pathogens while the kidneys then the gall bladder were most commonly infected by myxosporean spores. In the Chari ecosystem, no significant host sex and size effects were found for the parasite cystic load. A clear seasonal occurrence was observed for most of these pathogens. In the view of pathogenic control, this study raised the necessity in a farm fish station to identify the most important myxosporean species and the period of their potential demographic explosion. PMID:19069850

  11. Len Yi Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bsod nams rgyal mtshan

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sonan Jetsun (Bsod nams rgyal mtshan) filmed this material 12-22 January 2008 in Len yi (Lianyi) Village, Sgong po (Gongbo) Township, Sde rong (Derong) County, Dkar mdzes (Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron (Sichuan) Province, PR China. The film features the Tibetan New Year, Bkra shis Temple, and ordinary people's lives in Len yi Village. Sonan Jetsun also edited the material and plans to give it to Len yi villagers on DVD/ VCD. LOCATION: Lianyi Village is 200 k...

  12. REFRACTIVE NEUTRON LENS

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, P. V.; Kolchevsky, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Compound concave refractive lenses are used for focusing neutron beam. Investigations of spectral and focusing properties of a refractive neutron lens are presented. Resolution of the imaging system on the base of refractive neutron lenses depends on material properties and parameters of neutron source. Model of refractive neutron lens are proposed. Results of calculation diffraction resolution and focal depth of refractive neutron lens are discussed.

  13. Lens regeneration in axolotl: new evidence of developmental plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetsugu-Maki Rinako

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among vertebrates lens regeneration is most pronounced in newts, which have the ability to regenerate the entire lens throughout their lives. Regeneration occurs from the dorsal iris by transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells. Interestingly, the ventral iris never contributes to regeneration. Frogs have limited lens regeneration capacity elicited from the cornea during pre-metamorphic stages. The axolotl is another salamander which, like the newt, regenerates its limbs or its tail with the spinal cord, but up until now all reports have shown that it does not regenerate the lens. Results Here we present a detailed analysis during different stages of axolotl development, and we show that despite previous beliefs the axolotl does regenerate the lens, however, only during a limited time after hatching. We have found that starting at stage 44 (forelimb bud stage lens regeneration is possible for nearly two weeks. Regeneration occurs from the iris but, in contrast to the newt, regeneration can be elicited from either the dorsal or the ventral iris and, occasionally, even from both in the same eye. Similar studies in the zebra fish concluded that lens regeneration is not possible. Conclusions Regeneration of the lens is possible in the axolotl, but differs from both frogs and newts. Thus the axolotl iris provides a novel and more plastic strategy for lens regeneration.

  14. Biochemical genetics of some Indian fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    Studies on biochemical genetics of fishes, using electrophoretic methods, are relatively of recent origin. Earlier serum and eye lens protein were used to identify marine populations. This technique showed that closely related species have...

  15. Stability versus diversity of the dentition during evolutionary radiation in cyprinine fish

    OpenAIRE

    Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Yang, Lei; Veran, Monette; Balter, Vincent; Mayden, Richard L.; Laudet, Vincent; Viriot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations, especially adaptive radiations, have been widely studied but mainly for recent events such as in cichlid fish or Anolis lizards. Here, we investigate the radiation of the subfamily Cyprininae, which includes more than 1300 species and is estimated to have originated from Southeast Asia around 55 Ma. In order to decipher a potential adaptive radiation, within a solid phylogenetic framework, we investigated the trophic apparatus, and especially the pharyngeal dentition,...

  16. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction of the Neotropical Fish, Crenicichla menezesi (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Soares de Araújo; Wallace Silva do Nascimento; Maria Emília Yamamoto; Sathyabama Chellappa

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology and the gonadal development cycle of the Neotropical cichlid fish, Crenicichla menezesi, is described. This species exhibits sexual dimorphism only during the spawning season. First sexual maturity of females is attained earlier than the males. Both macroscopic and histological investigations of ovaries and testes revealed four stages of gonadal maturation. Mean batch fecundity of females was 372 (±10,41) of mature oocytes. This species is a partial spawner, with an e...

  17. Fish species diversity in the Victoria and Kyoga lake basins: their conservation and sustainable use

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of exotic fish species especially the Nile perch Lates niloticus, is believed to be responsible for the decline of fish species diversity in lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Nabugabo.About 60% of the haplochromine cichlids are thought to have become extinct from L. Victoria due to predation by the Nile perch. However there are many lakes satelite to the lakes Victoria and Kyoga basins which still have fish fauna similar to that of the main lakes. many of the satellite lakes are separate...

  18. Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal different evolutionary processes in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid genus Tropheus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturmbauer Christian

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes are notorious for their wealth of intra- and interspecific colour pattern diversity. In Lake Tanganyika, the endemic genus Tropheus represents the most impressive example for geographic variation in the pattern and hue of integument colouration, but the taxonomy of the over 100 mostly allopatric colour morphs remains to a large degree unresolved. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA sequence data revealed polyphyly of the six nominally described species and complex phylogeographic patterns influenced by lake level fluctuations and population admixture, and suggested the parallel evolution of similar colour patterns in divergent evolutionary lineages. A gene tree of a rapidly radiating group may be subject to incomplete and stochastic lineage sorting, and to overcome this problem we used multi-locus, nuclear AFLP data in comparison with mtDNA sequences to study diversification, migration and introgression in Tropheus colour morphs in Lake Tanganyika. Results Significant incongruence between phylogenetic reconstructions from mitochondrial and AFLP data suggested incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes as well as frequent introgression between differentiated lineages. In contrast to the mitochondrial phylogeny, the AFLP phenogram was largely congruent with species classifications, colour pattern similarities, and in many cases also with the current geographic distribution of populations, and did not produce evidence of convergent colour pattern evolution. Homoplasy in the AFLP data was used to identify populations that were strongly affected by introgression. Conclusion Different evolutionary processes were distinguished by the combination of mitochondrial and AFLP data. Mitochondrial phylogeographic patterns retained signals of large-scale migration events triggered by historical, major lake level fluctuations, whereas AFLP data indicated genetic cohesion among local groups of populations resulting from

  19. Lens auto-centering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève; Tremblay, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    In a typical optical system, optical elements usually need to be precisely positioned and aligned to perform the correct optical function. This positioning and alignment involves securing the optical element in a holder or mount. Proper centering of an optical element with respect to the holder is a delicate operation that generally requires tight manufacturing tolerances or active alignment, resulting in costly optical assemblies. To optimize optical performance and minimize manufacturing cost, there is a need for a lens mounting method that could relax manufacturing tolerance, reduce assembly time and provide high centering accuracy. This paper presents a patent pending lens mounting method developed at INO that can be compared to the drop-in technique for its simplicity while providing the level of accuracy close to that achievable with techniques using a centering machine (usually innovative auto-centering method is based on the use of geometrical relationship between the lens diameter, the lens radius of curvature and the thread angle of the retaining ring. The autocentering principle and centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are presented. In addition to the low assembly time, high centering accuracy, and environmental robustness, the INO auto-centering method has the advantage of relaxing lens and barrel bore diameter tolerances as well as lens wedge tolerances. The use of this novel lens mounting method significantly reduces manufacturing and assembly costs for high performance optical systems. Large volume productions would especially benefit from this advancement in precision lens mounting, potentially providing a drastic cost reduction.

  20. Nuclear markers reveal unexpected genetic variation and a Congolese-Nilotic origin of the Lake Victoria cichlid species flock.

    OpenAIRE

    Seehausen, Ole; Koetsier, Egbert; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Chapman, Lauren J.; Colin A Chapman; Knight, Mairi E.; Turner, George F.; van Alphen, Jacques J.M; Bills, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) DNA have indicated that the cichlid species flock of the Lake Victoria region is derived from a single ancestral species found in East African rivers, closely related to the ancestor of the Lake Malawi cichlid species flock. The Lake Victoria flock contains ten times less mtDNA variation than the Lake Malawi radiation, consistent with current estimates of the ages of the lakes. We present results of a phylogenetic investigation using nuclear (...

  1. Hypoxia tolerance of two centrarchid sunfishes and an introduced cichlid from karstic Everglades wetlands of southern Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.; Loftus, W.F.; Brown, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the hypoxia tolerance of three Everglades fishes, two native centrarchids (Lepomis gulosus and Lepomis marginatus) and a recently introduced cichlid (Hemichromis letourneuxi), were documented. Aquatic surface respiration (ASR) thresholds were lowest for H. letourneuxi, followed by L. gulosus, then L. marginatus. The ASR thresholds for L. marginatus were within ranges reported for small, freshwater tropical fishes, while those for L. gulosus were similar to swamp-adapted fishes. For H. letourneuxi, ASR thresholds were some of the lowest reported. All three species showed excellent tolerance of low dissolved oxygen levels when allowed access to the surface. When denied surface access, L. marginatus lost equilibrium at a higher oxygen tension than the other species. Overall, although all species easily tolerated hypoxia, H. letourneuxi appeared to be best equipped to deal with hypoxia, followed by L. gulosus, then L. marginatus. Hemichromis letourneuxi also exhibited more aggressive behaviours than the centrarchids. These results suggest that hypoxia is not likely to prevent H. letourneuxi from exploiting the seasonally inundated wetlands of south Florida while expanding its range there.

  2. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  3. Sexual selection promotes colonial breeding in shell-brooding cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Dolores; Ocana, Sabine Wirtz; Maan, martine E.; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Colonial species breed in densely aggregated territories containing no resources other than nest sites. This behaviour is usually explained by natural selection, for instance through benefits resulting from reduced predation risk. An alternative hypothesis suggests that, as in lek breeding systems,

  4. Sexual dimorphism and population divergence in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish genus Tropheus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitteroecker Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With about 120 colour morphs currently assigned to six nominal species, the genus Tropheus is an ideal model to study evolutionary divergence of populations in allopatry. The morphology of Tropheus has been described as relatively static, but reproductive constraints are sexually dimorphic due to mouthbrooding in females. We analysed phenotypic variation in six populations of T. moorii and one population of T. polli using geometric morphometrics to assess morphological differences among sexes in relation to the differentiation of populations and species. Results The mean shapes differed significantly between sexes, populations, and species even though within-sex variation exceeded the divergence among populations. The first principal component of Procrustes shape coordinates revealed differences between populations and species in mouth position and ventral head shape. The second principal component reflected sex-specific shape differences, mainly comprising a relatively larger female viscerocranium and, in particular, a larger buccal area. While shape variation between populations and between sexes was primarily located in the cranial region, within-sex variation was relatively uniform across all landmarks. Conclusions Deviations of the between-population and between-sex pattern of shape variation from that within sex indicate that the differences in head shape likely result from both adaptations to female mouthbrooding and population-specific foraging strategies.

  5. Somatostatin and Somatostatin Receptor Gene Expression in Dominant and Subordinate Males of an African Cichlid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Brian C.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    Somatostatin is a neuropeptide best known for its inhibitory effects on growth hormone secretion and has recently been implicated in the control of social behavior. Several somatostatin receptor subtypes have been identified in vertebrates, but the functional basis for this diversity is still unclear. Here we investigate the expression levels of the somatostatin prepropeptide and two of its receptors, sstR2, and sstR3, in the brains of socially dominant and subordinate A. burtoni males using ...

  6. Social stimulation, nuptial colouration, androgens and immunocompetence in a sexual dimorphic cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Hekman, Renske; Schulz, Rudiger W.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the costs maintaining honesty of sexual signalling in inter- and intrasexual interactions remains a contentious issue. For carotenoid-based colour ornaments, it has been hypothesized that the honesty of the signal is enforced when carotenoid allocation to colour expression is traded of

  7. Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Color- and Trophic Polymorphisms in Cichlid Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    How the exuberant diversity on our planet arose is still a question of central interest in biology. Rapidly diversifying species complexes that experience adaptive radiation have always been prime study targets to infer the underlying mechanisms of divergence. Young species-rich systems that display ongoing diversification in multiple replicates are of particular relevance, because different stages of divergence are likely to be found, ranging from incipient speciation to stable species assem...

  8. Sex-specific effects of postnatal testosterone on lateralization in cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour in humans and nonhuman animals. To what extent lateralization is, in addition to genetic factors, under the influence of testosterone, which would also explain sex differences in laterality, is the topic of a long-standing debate. This debate is partly hampered by confusion between organizational and activating effects of testosterone. Here we focused on activating effects, less often studied than organizatio...

  9. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of trans-Andean cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Říčan, O.; Říčanová, Š.; Janšta, P.; Gahura, O.; Novák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2015), s. 333-350. ISSN 1864-5755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Andean uplift * Andinoacara * Mesoheros Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2014

  10. TUCUNARELLA N. GEN. AND OTHER DACTYLOGYRIDS (MONOGENOIDEA) FROM CICHLID FISH (PERCIFORMES) FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Scholz, Tomáš; Rozkošná, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2010), s. 491-498. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * PROPOSAL * GILLS * TREMATODES * TELEOSTEI Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  11. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Contact Lens Risks Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... redness blurred vision swelling pain Serious Hazards of Contact Lenses Symptoms of eye irritation can indicate a ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, ... placed on the eye can lower internal eye pressure by about 20 percent for half a year. ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over- ... lifestyle choices can directly affect your eyes. The best way to take care of your eyes during ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  17. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  18. Comparative studies on the influence of "simulated weigthlessness" on fish otolith growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, Sonja; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Li, Xiao-Yan; Hauslage, Jens; Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    Stimulus dependence is a general feature of all developing sensory systems. Concerning the vestibular organ of fish, it has been shown earlier that the growth of inner ear otoliths of developing Cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is slowed down by increased gravity (hypergravity) as an adaptation. Several studies proposed that otolith growth actively is adjusted via a feedback mechanism to produce a test mass of the appropriate physical capacity. Applying diminished gravity such as microgravity during spaceflight yielded an opposite effect, i.e., larger than normal otoliths in swordtails Xiphophorus helleri. Since there are no data on spaceflown early larval stages of the Cichlid fish and the Zebrafish available, these model organisms were subjected to simulated weightlessness using a submersed clinostat with one axis of rotation (O. mossambicus) and rotating-wall vessels (RWVs; O. mossambicus was maintained within a submersed RWV, which was recently developed at DLR, whereas D. rerio was kept within a modified RWV, developed by NASA). Developmental stages were subjected to clinorotation (60 rpm) and wall vessel rotation (Cichlid fish: 44 rpm; Zebrafish: 12.5 rpm; at these speeds, the larvae did neither sediment nor were they centrifuged away from the center of the RWVs) at a point of time when inner ear otolith mineralisation began. The experimental runs were discontinued when the animals hatched (O. mossambicus, stage 12, reached after 2-3 days at 22° C) or when they began to actively move within the devices (D. rerio, after 6 days at 28° C). After clinostat exposure, both utricular and saccular otoliths (Lapilli and Sagittae, respectively) of the Cichlids were significantly larger as compared to otoliths from the 1g controls. A similar result was obtained after wall vessel rotation for 3 and 6 days of the Zebrafish. These results support the idea that a feedback mechanism correlates the gravity level with the physical capacity

  19. Effects of simulated weightlessness on fish otolith growth: Clinostat versus Rotating-Wall Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungs, Sonja; Hauslage, Jens; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Stimulus dependence is a general feature of developing sensory systems. It has been shown earlier that the growth of inner ear heavy stones (otoliths) of late-stage Cichlid fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) and Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is slowed down by hypergravity, whereas microgravity during space flight yields an opposite effect, i.e. larger than 1 g otoliths, in Swordtail ( Xiphophorus helleri) and in Cichlid fish late-stage embryos. These and related studies proposed that otolith growth is actively adjusted via a feedback mechanism to produce a test mass of the appropriate physical capacity. Using ground-based techniques to apply simulated weightlessness, long-term clinorotation (CR; exposure on a fast-rotating Clinostat with one axis of rotation) led to larger than 1 g otoliths in late-stage Cichlid fish. Larger than normal otoliths were also found in early-staged Zebrafish embryos after short-term Wall Vessel Rotation (WVR; also regarded as a method to simulate weightlessness). These results are basically in line with the results obtained on Swordtails from space flight. Thus, the growth of fish inner ear otoliths seems to be an appropriate parameter to assess the quality of "simulated weightlessness" provided by a particular simulation device. Since CR and WVR are in worldwide use to simulate weightlessness conditions on ground using small-sized specimens, we were prompted to directly compare the effects of CR and WVR on otolith growth using developing Cichlids as model organism. Animals were simultaneously subjected to CR and WVR from a point of time when otolith primordia had begun to calcify both within the utricle (gravity perception) and the saccule (hearing); the respective otoliths are the lapilli and the sagittae. Three such runs were subsequently carried out, using three different batches of fish. The runs were discontinued when the animals began to hatch. In the course of all three runs performed, CR led to larger than normal lapilli, whereas WVR

  20. Molecular phylogeny and evidence for an adaptive radiation of geophagine cichlids from South America (Perciformes: Labroidei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial ND4 gene and the nuclear RAG2 gene were used to derive the most extensive molecular phylogeny to date for the Neotropical cichlid subfamily Geophaginae. Previous hypotheses of relationships were tested in light of these new data and a synthesis of all existing molecular information was provided. Novel phylogenetic findings included support for : (1) a 'Big Clade' containing the genera Geophagus sensu lato, Gymnogeophagus, Mikrogeophagus, Biotodoma, Crenicara, and Dicrossus; (2) a clade including the genera Satanoperca, Apistogramma, Apistogrammoides, and Taeniacara; and (3) corroboration for Kullander's clade Acarichthyini. ND4 demonstrated saturation effects at the third code position and lineage-specific rate heterogeneity, both of which influenced phylogeny reconstruction when only equal weighted parsimony was employed. Both branch lengths and internal branch tests revealed extremely short basal nodes that add support to the idea that geophagine cichlids have experienced an adaptive radiation sensu Schluter that involved ecomorphological specializations and life history diversification. PMID:15579395

  1. Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Masahito; González-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key mor...

  2. Time and Origin of Cichlid Colonization of the Lower Congo Rapids

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Schwarzer; Bernhard Misof; Ifuta, Seraphin N.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2011-01-01

    Most freshwater diversity is arguably located in networks of rivers and streams, but, in contrast to lacustrine systems riverine radiations, are largely understudied. The extensive rapids of the lower Congo River is one of the few river stretches inhabited by a locally endemic cichlid species flock as well as several species pairs, for which we provide evidence that they have radiated in situ. We use more that 2,000 AFLP markers as well as multilocus sequence datasets to reconstruct their ori...

  3. Social context may affect urinary excretion of 11-ketotestosterone in african cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Canário, Adelino V. M.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Taborsky, Michael; Oliveira, Rui Filipe

    2008-01-01

    We previously investigated the androgen responsiveness of males to simulated partner and territory intrusions in five African cichlid species (Neolamprologus pulcher, Lamprologus callipterus, Tropheus moorii, Pseudosimochromis curvifrons, Oreochromis mossambicus; Hirschenhauser et al., 2004). Here we re-analysed data on 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels in holding water to compare the free (presumably from the gills) and conjugated (presumably from urine and faeces) 11-KT frac...

  4. Morphology, molecules, and monogenean parasites: an example of an integrative approach to cichlid biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Van Steenberge

    Full Text Available The unparalleled biodiversity of Lake Tanganyika (Africa has fascinated biologists for over a century; its unique cichlid communities are a preferred model for evolutionary research. Although species delineation is, in most cases, relatively straightforward, higher-order classifications were shown not to agree with monophyletic groups. Here, traditional morphological methods meet their limitations. A typical example are the tropheine cichlids currently belonging to Simochromis and Pseudosimochromis. The affiliations of these widespread and abundant cichlids are poorly understood. Molecular work suggested that genus and species boundaries should be revised. Moreover, previous morphological results indicated that intraspecific variation should be considered to delineate species in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. We review the genera Simochromis and Pseudosimochromis using an integrative approach. Besides a morphometric study and a barcoding approach, monogenean Cichlidogyrus (Platyhelminthes: Ancyrocephalidae gill parasites, often highly species-specific, are used as complementary markers. Six new species are described. Cichlidogyrus raeymaekersi sp. nov., C. muterezii sp. nov. and C. banyankimbonai sp. nov. infect S. diagramma. Cichlidogyrus georgesmertensi sp. nov. was found on S. babaulti and S. pleurospilus, C. franswittei sp. nov. on both S. marginatus and P. curvifrons and C. frankwillemsi sp. nov. only on P. curvifrons. As relatedness between Cichlidogyrus species usually reflects relatedness between hosts, we considered Simochromis monotypic because the three Cichlidogyrus species found on S. diagramma belonged to a different morphotype than those found on the other Simochromis. The transfer of S. babaulti, S. marginatus, S. pleurospilus and S. margaretae to Pseudosimochromis was justified by the similarity of their Cichlidogyrus fauna and the intermediate morphology of S. margaretae. Finally parasite data also supported the synonymy between S

  5. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in neotropical fish of the genus Apistogramma (Perciformes : Labroidei : Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Quérouil, Sophie; Diaz, A. V.; Garcia-Davila, C.; Romer, U.; Renno, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The South American genus of Cichlid fish Apistogramma comprises over 100 species, most of which are difficult to identify. There is a need to clarify species limits and evolutionary relationships, conduct fine-scale phylogeographic revision of some species complexes, and collect information on population conservation status. In addition, recent studies suggest that female mate choice may lead to reproductive isolation and potentially to sympatric speciation in some species. Highly variable bi...

  6. Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the ...

  7. Occurrence of Sciadicleithrum mexicanum Kritsky, Vidal-Martinez et Rodríguez-Canul, 1994 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae in the Cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus from a flooded quarry in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Mendoza-Franco

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cichlids, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, collected in a flooded quarry in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, from January through June 1992, had high levels of infection with the ancyrocephaline Sciadicleithrum mexicanum (Monogena: Dactylogyridade in all montlhly samples. Neither occurrence nor maturation of the worms eshibited any pronounced monthly fluctuation. The infection rate was found to be sizedependent, greater in longer fish. The worms occurred on primary lamellae of gill filaments of all arches, with lower numbers of parasites attached to the fourth gill arch. Otherwise, there was no significant site preference of worms. Only minor histopathological changes were found at the sites of attachment, and these were restricted to the epithelial cells of the primary lamellae of thegill filaments. The lack of seasonal periodicity in this tropical monogenean is compared to seasonal cycles typical of temperate species.

  8. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  9. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Sampling genetic diversity in the sympatrically and allopatrically speciating Midas cichlid species complex over a 16 year time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunje Paul ME

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation often occurs in complex or uncertain temporal and spatial contexts. Processes such as reinforcement, allopatric divergence, and assortative mating can proceed at different rates and with different strengths as populations diverge. The Central American Midas cichlid fish species complex is an important case study for understanding the processes of speciation. Previous analyses have demonstrated that allopatric processes led to species formation among the lakes of Nicaragua as well as sympatric speciation that is occurring within at least one crater lake. However, since speciation is an ongoing process and sampling genetic diversity of such lineages can be biased by collection scheme or random factors, it is important to evaluate the robustness of conclusions drawn on individual time samples. Results In order to assess the validity and reliability of inferences based on different genetic samples, we have analyzed fish from several lakes in Nicaragua sampled at three different times over 16 years. In addition, this time series allows us to analyze the population genetic changes that have occurred between lakes, where allopatric speciation has operated, as well as between different species within lakes, some of which have originated by sympatric speciation. Focusing on commonly used genetic markers, we have analyzed both DNA sequences from the complete mitochondrial control region as well as nuclear DNA variation at ten microsatellite loci from these populations, sampled thrice in a 16 year time period, to develop a robust estimate of the population genetic history of these diversifying lineages. Conclusion The conclusions from previous work are well supported by our comprehensive analysis. In particular, we find that the genetic diversity of derived crater lake populations is lower than that of the source population regardless of when and how each population was sampled. Furthermore, changes in various estimates of

  11. Frequency selective lens antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J.; Haines, P.

    2007-01-01

    A variant of the hemispherical microwave lens antenna is reported where the ground plane region is modified through use of a frequency selective surface. This allows discrimination of frequencies by two closely spaced primary feeds. A scale model is reported operating at 12 and 30 GHz.

  12. Species Composition and Some Observations on the Littoral Fishes Based on Beach-Seining in the Kigoma Region, Eastern Coast of Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    BAYONA, John D. R.

    1991-01-01

    Fishes in the inshore waters of Lake Tanganyika were sampled in the Kigoma Region between June 1984 and May 1988, using a beach-seine. This study collected 78 fish species in 14 different families. Cichlids made up 55.1% of the identified species. All but 12 of these species were identified in the previous collections at Karago, Mkuyu and Myako by Japanese researchers. Therefore, from the combined collections, 132 species of fish (19 fluviatile, 75 littoral, 24 benthic, 8 pelagic and 6 bathyp...

  13. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour. PMID:25937344

  14. Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Husby, Arild; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zidar, Josefina; Løvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment into other costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energetic limitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test these hypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, we find that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Our results indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brain size also in ectothermic vertebrates. PMID:25346264

  15. Evidence of a specialized feeding niche in a Late Triassic ray-finned fish: evolution of multidenticulate teeth and benthic scraping in † Hemicalypterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah Z.

    2015-04-01

    Fishes have evolved to exploit multiple ecological niches. Extant fishes in both marine (e.g., rabbitfishes, surgeonfishes) and freshwater systems (e.g., haplochromine cichlids, characiforms) have evolved specialized, scoop-like, multidenticulate teeth for benthic scraping, feeding primarily on algae. Here, I report evidence of the oldest example of specialized multidenticulate dentition in a ray-finned fish, † Hemicalypterus weiri, from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of southeastern Utah (˜210-205 Ma), USA. † H. weiri is a lower actinopterygian species that is phylogenetically remote from modern fishes, and has evolved specialized teeth that converge with those of several living teleost fishes (e.g., characiforms, cichlids, acanthurids, siganids), with a likely function of these teeth being to scrape algae off a rock substrate. This finding contradicts previously held notions that fishes with multicuspid, scoop-like dentition were restricted to teleosts, and indicates that ray-finned fishes were diversifying into different trophic niches and exploring different modes of feeding earlier in their history than previously thought, fundamentally altering our perceptions of the ecological roles of fishes during the Mesozoic.

  16. Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-05-01

    Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using a combination of geometric morphometrics and a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method, we found that head morphology evolution was 43% faster in substrate guarding species than in mouthbrooding species. Furthermore, for species in which females were solely responsible for mouthbrooding the males had a higher rate of head morphology evolution than in those with bi-parental mouthbrooding. Our results support the hypothesis that adaptations resulting in functional coupling constrain phenotypic evolution. PMID:25948565

  17. Functional modular contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Angela J.; Cowan, Melissa; Lähdesmäki, Ilkka; Lingley, Andrew; Otis, Brian; Parviz, Babak A.

    2009-08-01

    Tear fluid offers a potential route for non-invasive sensing of physiological parameters. Utilization of this potential depends on the ability to manufacture sensors that can be placed on the surface of the eye. A contact lens makes a natural platform for such sensors, but contact lens polymers present a challenge for sensor fabrication. This paper describes a microfabrication process for constructing sensors that can be integrated into the structure of a functional contact lens in the future. To demonstrate the capabilities of the process, an amperometric glucose sensor was fabricated on a polymer substrate. The sensor consists of platinum working and counter electrodes, as well as a region of indium-tin oxide (ITO) for glucose oxidase immobilization. An external silver-silver chloride electrode was used as the reference electrode during the characterization experiments. Sensor operation was validated by hydrogen peroxide measurements in the 10- 20 μM range and glucose measurements in the 0.125-20 mM range.

  18. Not a simple case - A first comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the Midas cichlid complex in Nicaragua (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Amphilophus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Matthias F; McCrary, Jeffrey K; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2010-09-01

    Nicaraguan Midas cichlids from crater lakes have recently attracted attention as potential model systems for speciation research, but no attempt has been made to comprehensively reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of this highly diverse and recently evolved species complex. We present a first AFLP (2793 loci) and mtDNA based phylogenetic hypothesis including all described and several undescribed species from six crater lakes (Apoyeque, Apoyo, Asososca Leon, Masaya, Tiscapa and Xiloá), the two great Lakes Managua and Nicaragua and the San Juan River. Our analyses demonstrate that the relationships between the Midas cichlid members are complex, and that phylogenetic information from different markers and methods do not always yield congruent results. Nevertheless, monophyly support for crater lake assemblages from Lakes Apoyeque, Apoyo, A. Leon is high as compared to those from L. Xiloá indicating occurrence of sympatric speciation. Further, we demonstrate that a 'three species' concept for the Midas cichlid complex is inapplicable and consequently that an individualized and voucher based approach in speciation research of the Midas cichlid complex is necessary at least as long as there is no comprehensive revision of the species complex available. PMID:20580847

  19. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth Performance and Survival Rate of Angel Fish, Pterophyllum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milad Kasiri; Amin Farahi; Mohammad Sudagar

    2011-01-01

    The freshwater angel fish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823) is South American cichlid become very popular among aquarists. There is little information on their culture and aquarium husbandry. In this study growth performance and survival rate of angelfish subjected to different feeding frequencies were evaluated. Four groups of angel fish juveniles (0.87 ± 0.01 g; 3.98 ± 0.08 mm) were fed either four meals per day (F1), two meals per day (F2), one meal per day (F3) and every other day (F4...

  20. Silicone oil-intraocular lens interaction: which lens to use?

    OpenAIRE

    McLoone, E; Mahon, G; Archer, D.; Best, R

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine a suitable intraocular lens for implantation in patients at high risk of lens exposure to silicone oil in their lifetime.
METHODS—PMMA, AcrySof, AR40, AQUA-Sense, and Raysoft lenses were examined. Each lens was immersed for 5 minute intervals in balanced salt solution (BSS), in stained silicone oil, and again in BSS before being photographed in air and in BSS. Percentage silicone oil coverage of the lens optic was determined.
RESULTS—The mean percentage coating (MPC) for the ...

  1. Male mate preference and size-assortative mating in convict cichlids: A role for female aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, A N; Estela, V J; Leese, J M; Itzkowitz, M

    2016-09-01

    Many monogamous species demonstrate size-assortative mating patterns within natural populations. To better understand the role of intersexual selection in this process, we examined the effect of male preference for female body size in the convict cichlid (Amatitlania siquia). We provided males with a choice between females that differed in size, relative to each other and in relation to the focal male. Based on previous work, we expected males to prefer the largest available female mates across all treatments. Surprisingly, males spent more time near the smaller of two available females, but only when the other female was larger than the male. Additionally, males spent little time with either of two potential female mates when both females were larger than the male. We hypothesized that while males might prefer the largest of available females, female behavior might limit males from acting on this preference. To test this, males were force paired with a smaller or larger female. Pair formation only occurred when the female was smaller than the male, and females that were larger than their male counterparts showed significantly more aggression when compared to smaller females. Together, these data suggest that in the absence of intrasexual competition, male mate preference for large females in convict cichlids might be limited by female aggression. PMID:27444247

  2. Sensory basis for detection of benthic prey in two Lake Malawi cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive radiations of African cichlids resulted in a diversity of feeding morphologies and strategies, but the role of sensory biology in prey detection and feeding ecology remains largely unexplored. Two endemic Lake Malawi cichlid genera, Tramitichromis and Aulonocara, feed on benthic invertebrates, but differ in lateral line morphology (narrow and widened lateral line canals, respectively) and foraging strategy. The hypothesis that they use their lateral line systems differently was tested by looking at the relative contribution of the lateral line system and vision in prey detection by Tramitichromis sp. and comparing results to those from a complementary study using Aulonocara stuartgranti (Schwalbe et al., 2012). First, behavioral trials were used to assess the ability of Tramitichromis sp. to detect live (mobile) and dead (immobile) benthic prey under light and dark conditions. Second, trials were run before, immediately after, and several weeks after chemical ablation of the lateral line system to determine its role in feeding behavior. Results show that Tramitichromis sp. is a visual predator that neither locates prey in the dark nor depends on lateral line input for prey detection and is thus distinct from A. stuartgranti, which uses its lateral line or a combination of vision and lateral line to detect prey depending on light condition. Investigating how functionally distinctive differences in sensory morphology are correlated with feeding behavior in the laboratory and determining the role of sensory systems in feeding ecology will provide insights into how sensory capabilities may contribute to trophic niche segregation. PMID:24369759

  3. Dietary habits of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, in mangrove ponds of an offshore islet in Belize, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Vaslet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foraging habitats of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther, 1862, were investigated in two mangrove ponds located in Twin Cays offshore islet in Belize: Sink Hole pond (SH and Hidden Lake pond (HL. Sink Hole pond is a semiclosed body of water, whereas Hidden Lake pond is connected by a channel to adjacent seagrass beds that surround the islet. Gut contents of 21 juvenile C. urophthalmus (9.8-13.2 cm total length were analyzed, and five prey taxa were identified. In both mangrove ponds, C. urophthalmus were opportunistic carnivores and consumed primarily crustaceans. Plant material and detritus present in gut contents were most likely ingested incidentally when the fish foraged on small invertebrates. Carbon isotopic values of fish specimens from the two ponds were similar (mean ± SD of -19.2 ± 0.4‰ in SH and -19.4 ± 0.4‰ in HL, and were close to those of mangrove prey (mean ± SD = -20.2 ± 1.5‰, suggesting that this fish species forages in this habitat. Mixing models showed a higher contribution of mangrove food sources to the fish diet than seagrass food sources. This study reveals that young Mayan cichlids, inhabiting two Belize mangrove ponds, are generalists and opportunistic carnivores that forage on mangrove food sources and do not appear to move to adjacent seagrass beds to complement their diets. Understanding trophic linkages between aquatic consumers and food resources may contribute to better management of threatened coastal ecosystems.Habitats de alimentação de juvenis do ciclídeo-maia, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther, 1862, foram investigados em duas lagoas de mangue localizadas nas ilhas Twin Cays em alto mar em Belize: Sink Hole Lake (SH e Hidden Lake (HL. Sink Hole é um corpo d'água parcialmente isolado, enquanto Hidden Lake é ligada por um canal com bancos de sargaços que cercam a ilhota. O conteúdo estomacal de 21 juvenil de C. urophthalmus (9,8-13,2 cm de comprimento total foram

  4. The Optimal Gravitational Lens Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Surdej, J; Coleman, P; Dominik, M; Habraken, S; Hanot, C; Coroller, H Le; Mawet, D; Quintana, H; Sadibekova, T; Sluse, D; 10.1088/0004-6256/139/5/1935

    2010-01-01

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster,...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad-hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Sediment and Fish of Two Tropical Water Bodies Under Different Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Garro, Demián; Burgos Chan, Adriana M; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In this study we quantified and compared bioaccumulated OCPs in target fish species Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Mayan cichlid) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and sediment in two lentic systems neighboring areas with different land use (Xnoha = agricultural/Mocu = nature reserve). Fish at both sites showed the same number of pesticide compounds (17) while in sediment were 17 and 20, respectively. ∑chlordane concentrations were significantly higher in Xnoha in both fish and sediment (1.0 and 0.17 µg/g, respectively). Here higher concentrations of o,p'DDT were found in fish than in sediments, this was similarly demonstrated in Mocu but to a lesser extent. The proportion of endosulfan sulfate was lower in Xnoha (product. Detected concentrations of ∑DDT and chlordane exceed international permissible limits. Results indicate that OCPs were present in both aquatic systems regardless of the differences in land use. PMID:27209546

  6. Advances in lens implant technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kook, Daniel; Kampik, Anselm; Dexl, Alois K.; Zimmermann, Nicole; Glasser, Adrian; Baumeister, Martin; Kohnen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of imp...

  7. Connexin hemichannels in the lens

    OpenAIRE

    EricCBeyer

    2014-01-01

    The normal function and survival of cells in the avascular lens is facilitated by intercellular communication through an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly by three connexins (Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50). In expression systems, these connexins can all induce hemi-channel currents, but other lens proteins (e.g., pannexin1) can also induce similar currents. Hemichannel currents have been detected in isolated lens fiber cells. These hemichannels may make significant contributio...

  8. Connexin hemichannels in the lens

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, Eric C.; Berthoud, Viviana M.

    2014-01-01

    The normal function and survival of cells in the avascular lens is facilitated by intercellular communication through an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly by three connexins (Cx43, Cx46, and Cx50). In expression systems, these connexins can all induce hemichannel currents, but other lens proteins (e.g., pannexin1) can also induce similar currents. Hemichannel currents have been detected in isolated lens fiber cells. These hemichannels may make significant contributions t...

  9. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika. III : Cichlidogyrus infecting the world's biggest cichlid and the non-endemic tribes Haplochromini, Oreochromini and Tylochromini (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bukinga, F. M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Van Steenberge, M.; Pariselle, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the deepest and oldest African Great Lake and of economic importance. While the diversity of its endemic cichlid radiations yielded scientific interest, a number of cichlid tribes have few representatives in the lake. Some of those, namely Oreochromini (ex-Tilapiini), Haplochromini and Tylochromini, reach higher species numbers in riverine systems. Conversely, the phylogenetic position of the monospecific and endemic Boulengerochromini is unclear. The oreochromines Oreochro...

  10. Diet disparity among sympatric herbivorous cichlids in the same ecomorphs in Lake Tanganyika: amplicon pyrosequences on algal farms and stomach contents

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, Hiroki; Akifumi S Tanabe; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Toju, Hirokazu; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Background Lake Tanganyika, an ancient lake in the Great Rift Valley, is famous for the adaptive radiation of cichlids. Five tribes of the Cichlidae family have acquired herbivory, with five ecomorphs: grazers, browsers, scrapers, biters and scoopers. Sixteen species of the herbivorous cichlids coexist on a rocky littoral slope in the lake. Seven of them individually defend feeding territories against intruding herbivores to establish algal farms. We collected epiphyton from these territories...

  11. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  12. Development of lens sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszak, Jer R; Zoltoski, Rebecca K; Tiedemann, Clifford E

    2004-01-01

    Cylindrical map projections (CMPs) have been used for centuries as an effective means of plotting the features of a 3D spheroidal surfaces (e.g. the earth) on a 2D rectangular map. We have used CMPs to plot primate fiber cell organization from selected growth shells as a function of growth, development and aging. Lens structural parameters and features were derived from slit-lamp, light and transmission and scanning electron micrographs. This information was then used to create CMPs of lenses that were then correlated with azimuthal map projections (AMPs; projections that are radially symmetric around a central point [the poles]) to reveal different suture patterns during distinct time periods. In this manner, both lens fiber and suture branch locations are defined by degrees of longitude and latitude. CMPs and AMPs confirm that throughout defined periods of development, growth and ageing, increasingly complex suture patterns are formed by the precise ordering of straight and opposite end curvature fibers. However, the manner in which additional suture branches are formed anteriorly and posteriorly is not identical. Anteriorly, new branches are added between extant branches. Posteriorly, pairs of new branches are formed that progressively overlay extant branches. The advantage of using CMPs is that the shape and organization of every fiber in a growth shell can be observed in a single image. Thus, the use of CMPs to plot primate fiber cell organization has revealed more complex aspects of fiber formation that may explain, at least in part, changes in lens optical quality as a function of age and pathology. In addition, more accurate measurements of fiber length will be possible by incorporating the latitudinal and longitudinal locations of fibers. PMID:15558480

  13. Assessing the dietary sources of two cichlid species in River Nile sub-branches: Stomach contents, fatty acids and stable isotopes analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad S. Abd El-Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the importance of four different food sources as dietary components of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Nile sub-branches using stomach contents, fatty acids (FA and stable isotopes (SI analyses. Diatoms were the dominant food items, whereas sand and mud constitute a major part of the stomach contents of both cichlids in the northern ElBehery canal. FAs and SI were compared in cichlids and four potential food sources. Carbon isotopes excluded the fresh macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum and its epiphytes as a potential food source, whereas FA biomarkers indicated that M. spicatum is assimilated in cichlids’ muscles as detrital materials. FA profiles of cichlids’ muscles were highly enriched by live diatom markers whereas decayed diatoms and bacterial markers were partially present. Carbon isotope signatures of cichlids were much close to that of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM which elucidated that SPOM was the source of diatoms and bacterial detritus incorporated in cichlids muscles. Cichlids were highly enriched with nitrogen signatures which was a result of increased anthropogenic effects and incorporation of bacterial films. SI and FA analyses precisely indicated that live diatoms and bacteria, detrital macrophytes are the main sources of organic matter incorporated in cichlids muscles.

  14. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, Michael Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  15. Diffractive Alvarez lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffractive Alvarez lens is demonstrated that consists of two separate phase plates, each having complementary 16-level surface-relief profiles that contain cubic phase delays. Translation of these two components in the plane of the phase plates is shown to produce a variable astigmatic focus. Both spherical and cylindrical phase profiles are demonstrated with good accuracy, and the discrete surface-relief features are shown to cause less than λ/10 wave-front aberration in the transmitted wave front over a 40 mmx80 mm region. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  16. Studying fish social behavior and cognition: implications for fish welfare and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within vertebrates teleost fish are the most diverse and plastic taxa in terms of social behavior. With over 29,000 species described so far, one can find all different types of social organization, mating systems and parental care types. Moreover, it is relatively common to find variation of these characters within closely related species, which makes them suitable for comparative studies on the evolution of social behavior (e.g. variation in mating systems and parental care type in African cichlids. Fish are also champions of social plasticity, as can be illustrated by the flexible patterns of sexual expression, as in the case of protrandrous and protogynous sex-change, simultaneous hermaphroditism and intra-sexual variation in the form of discrete alternative male phenotypes. Complex cognitive abilities used in social interactions have also evolved in fish, such as individual recognition, transitive inference and social learning. Therefore, teleosts offer unique opportunities to study both the evolution and the function of social behavior and cognition. In this talk I will summarize the work that our lab has been doing to establish zebrafish as a model organism for the study of social behavior and cognition and I will illustrate how knowledge on this are can be applied to fish welfare and to conservation issues.

  17. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines

  18. Mammalian metabolic rates in the hottest fish on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Brix, Kevin V; De Boeck, Gudrun; Bergman, Harold L; Bianchini, Adalto; Bianchini, Lucas F; Maina, John N; Johannsson, Ora E; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Letura, Kisipan M; Ojoo, Rodi O

    2016-01-01

    The Magadi tilapia, Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish of Lake Magadi, Kenya lives in one of the most challenging aquatic environments on earth, characterized by very high alkalinity, unusual water chemistry, and extreme O2, ROS, and temperature regimes. In contrast to most fishes which live at temperatures substantially lower than the 36-40 °C of mammals and birds, an isolated population (South West Hot Springs, SWHS) of Magadi tilapia thrives in fast-flowing hotsprings with daytime highs of 43 °C and night-time lows of 32 °C. Another population (Fish Springs Lagoon, FSL) lives in a lagoon with fairly stable daily temperatures (33-36 °C). The upper critical temperatures (Ctmax) of both populations are very high; moreover the SWHS tilapia exhibit the highest Ctmax (45.6 °C) ever recorded for a fish. Routine rates of O2 consumption (MO2) measured on site, together with MO2 and swimming performance at 25, 32, and 39 °C in the laboratory, showed that the SWHS tilapia exhibited the greatest metabolic performance ever recorded in a fish. These rates were in the basal range of a small mammal of comparable size, and were all far higher than in the FSL fish. The SWHS tilapia represents a bellwether organism for global warming. PMID:27257105

  19. The origin and age of haplochromine fishes in Lake Victoria, east Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagl, S.; Tichy, H; Mayer, W.E.; Takezaki, N.; Takahata, N; Klein, J.

    2000-01-01

    According to a widely held view, the more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (LV), East Africa, originated from a single founder species in less than 12,000 years. This view, however, does not follow from the published geological and molecular evidence. The former does indeed suggest that the LV basin dried out less than 15,000 years ago, but it does not provide any information about the species that re-colonized the new lake or that remained in the rivers drain...

  20. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  1. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weadick Cameron J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a visual pigment protein (opsin in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Results Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Conclusions Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ... do point to the importance of using digital devices smartly to avoid eye strain. Pet Fish Fitted with ... Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... option. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive ... Gudgel A pet angel fish from Missouri now has a custom-painted eye, after a surgery previously ...

  4. First record of Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda : Anisakidae in fish-eating birds from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoparasites of fish-eating birds, Phalacrocorax africanus, P. carbo, Anhinga melanogaster and Ardea cinerea collected from Lake Chivero near Harare, Zimbabwe, were investigated. Adult Contracaecum spp. were found in the gastrointestinal tract (prevalence 100% in P. africanus, P. carbo and A. melanogaster; 25 % in A. cinerea. Parasite intensity was 11-24 (mean 19 in P. africanus, 4-10 (mean 7 in P. carbo, 4-56 (mean 30 in A. melanogaster and 2 (mean 0.5 in A. cinerea. The cormorants fed mainly on cichlid fishes and carp; the darters and the grey herons on cichlids. All these fishes are intermediate hosts of Contracaecum spp. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Contracaecum rudolphii infected both cormorant species and darters; C. carlislei infected only the cormorants while C. tricuspis and C. microcephalum infected only the darters. Parasites from the grey heron were not identified to species because they were still developing larvae. These parasites are recorded in Zimbabwe for the first time.

  5. The Deep Lens Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Dell'Antonio, I P; Becker, A C; Margoniner, V E; Cohen, J; Norman, D; Loomba, D; Squires, G; Wilson, G; Stubbs, C; Hennawi, J F; Spergel, D N; Boeshaar, P C; Clocchiatti, A; Hamuy, M; Bernstein, G; González, A; Guhathakurta, R; Hu, W; Seljak, U; Zaritsky, D

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Lens Survey (DLS) is a deep BVRz' imaging survey of seven 2x2 degree fields, with all data to be made public. The primary scientific driver is weak gravitational lensing, but the survey is also designed to enable a wide array of other astrophysical investigations. A unique feature of this survey is the search for transient phenomena. We subtract multiple exposures of a field, detect differences, classify, and release transients on the Web within about an hour of observation. Here we summarize the scientific goals of the DLS, field and filter selection, observing techniques and current status, data reduction, data products and release, and transient detections. Finally, we discuss some lessons which might apply to future large surveys such as LSST.

  6. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Axel; Barluenga Marta

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phy...

  7. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp. in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Axel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites. We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The

  8. Antipredator responses by native mosquitofish to non-native cichlids: An examination of the role of prey naiveté

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, Jennifer S.; Dunlop, Katherine L.; Loftus, William F.

    2009-01-01

    The strong impact of non-native predators in aquatic systems is thought to relate to the evolutionary naiveté of prey. Due to isolation and limited dispersal, this naiveté may be relatively high in freshwater systems. In this study, we tested this notion by examining the antipredator response of native mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to two non-native predators found in the Everglades, the African jewelfish,Hemichromis letourneuxi, and the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus. We manipulated prey naiveté by using two mosquitofish populations that varied in their experience with the recent invader, the African jewelfish, but had similar levels of experience with the longer-established Mayan cichlid. Specifically, we tested these predictions: (1) predator hunting modes differed between the two predators, (2) predation rates would be higher by the novel jewelfish predator, (3) particularly on the naive population living where jewelfish have not invaded yet, (4) antipredator responses would be stronger to Mayan cichlids due to greater experience and weaker and/or ineffective to jewelfish, and (5) especially weakest by the naive population. We assayed prey and predator behavior, and prey mortality in lab aquaria where both predators and prey were free-ranging. Predator hunting modes and habitat domains differed, with jewelfish being more active search predators that used slightly higher parts of the water column and less of the habitat structure relative to Mayan cichlids. In disagreement with our predictions, predation rates were similar between the two predators, antipredator responses were stronger to African jewelfish (except for predator inspections), and there was no difference in response between jewelfish-savvy and jewelfish-naive populations. These results suggest that despite the novelty of introduced predators, prey may be able to respond appropriately if non-native predator archetypes are similar enough to those of native predators, if prey rely

  9. The building-up of social relationships: behavioural types, social networks and cooperative breeding in a cichlid

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, Roger; Rothenberger, Susan; Heg, Dik

    2010-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behavioural types may not only cause variation in life-history decisions, but may also affect the choice of social partners and sociality in general. Here, we tested whether and how behavioural type influences the establishment of social ties using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher. In a habitat saturation experiment with individuals pre-tested for behavioural type, we first analysed whether behavioural type affected the likelihood...

  10. Photothermal Lens Aberration Effects in Two Laser Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bialkowski, Stephen E.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of theories describing two laser photothermal lens signals is given. The aberrant nature of this lens is accounted for in a theory which treats the propagation of a monitor laser in terms of a phase shift in this laser beam wave front. The difference between theories are discussed in terms of the predicted signal strengths and temporal behavior. The aberrant theory results in smaller theoretical signal strengths and different functional relationships between signal and analyte le...

  11. FISH PRODUCTION ESTIMATES FOR GBEDIKERE LAKE, BASSA, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olusegun Adeyemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual estimates of the fish caught by local fishermen in randomly selected fishing villages adjacent to Gbedikere Lake were determined using Catch Assessment (CAS. The studies were carried out within two seasons of low water (February and high water (September periods between 2006 to 2008. Annual fish catch varied from 537.4 mts to 576.9 mts at high water. Mean catch per boat ranged from 7.40 kg to 10.60 kg among the landing sites. A total of 12 fish species were identified belonging to ten families. The catches were dominated by the cichlids with Orechromis niloticus dominating the overall catch compositions. Production estimate was compared with the catches obtained through experimental gill-net sampling and potential fish yield estimates using Ryder’s Morpho - Edaphic Index (MEI as modified by Henderson and Welcomme (1974. Contributions of the gears in use were also done with cast nets ranking above others (29%, followed by the set net (25%, hook and lines (16.6%, traps (16.6%, clap net (8.3%. Management measures were suggested.

  12. Boldness, aggression and exploration: evidence for a behavioural syndrome in male pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey R. Bourne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A body of evidence is being accumulated on consistent individual differences in behaviour for several animal taxa. Individuals of these species exhibit different levels of risk during competition over limited resources, and the resultant behavioural types perform better under different social and physical environmental conditions. We used approach distance to a model of a piscivore predator the pike cichlid (Crenicichla saxatilis to categorize male pentamorphic livebearing fish or pentas (Poecilia parae as bold, intermediate, and shy, and then tested the hypothesis that when behaviours are correlated, individuals express different behaviour types under different contexts. Our results for the most part corroborated the six predictions generated by the aforementioned hypothesis: (1 bold pentas explored a T-maze in the shortest time, and initially approached the chamber with a living pike cichlid instead of the one with the conspecific male; (2 intermediate pentas spent more time exploring the maze and exhibited no initial interest in the predator chamber nor the conspecific one; (3 shy individuals spent the most time exploring the maze, and initially approached the predator chamber, providing only partial support for this prediction because shy males did not initially approach the conspecific chamber; (4 approach distance from the pike cichlid predator model and time to explore the maze was positively correlated; (5 bold pentas exhibit highest levels of aggression toward conspecifics; and (6 bold individuals ingested the most conspecific fry. Our results lead to the conclusion that pentas exhibited a behavioural syndrome with bold fish being more aggressive, faster explorers of novel situations, and more cannibalistic than intermediate and shy individuals of the same population. Thus, penta males fall into a behavioural syndrome formally known as the proactive-reactive axis.

  13. Male convict cichlid 11-ketotestosterone levels throughout the reproductive cycle: an exploratory profile study in laboratory and field populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie April van Breukelen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.

  14. Nuclear markers reveal unexpected genetic variation and a Congolese-Nilotic origin of the Lake Victoria cichlid species flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, Ole; Koetsier, Egbert; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Chapman, Lauren J; Chapman, Colin A; Knight, Mairi E; Turner, George F; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Bills, Roger

    2003-01-22

    Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) DNA have indicated that the cichlid species flock of the Lake Victoria region is derived from a single ancestral species found in East African rivers, closely related to the ancestor of the Lake Malawi cichlid species flock. The Lake Victoria flock contains ten times less mtDNA variation than the Lake Malawi radiation, consistent with current estimates of the ages of the lakes. We present results of a phylogenetic investigation using nuclear (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and a wider coverage of riverine haplochromines. We demonstrate that the Lake Victoria-Edward flock is derived from the morphologically and ecologically diverse cichlid genus Thoracochromis from the Congo and Nile, rather than from the phenotypically conservative East African Astatotilapia. This implies that the ability to express much of the morphological diversity found in the species flock may by far pre-date the origin of the flock. Our data indicate that the nuclear diversity of the Lake Victoria-Edward species flock is similar to that of the Lake Malawi flock, indicating that the genetic diversity is considerably older than the 15 000 years that have passed since the lake began to refill. Most of this variation is manifested in trans-species polymorphisms, indicating very recent cladogenesis from a genetically very diverse founder stock. Our data do not confirm strict monophyly of either of the species flocks, but raise the possibility that these flocks have arisen from hybrid swarms. PMID:12590750

  15. Lens design based on lens form parameters using Gaussian brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangyu; Cheng, Xuemin

    2014-11-01

    The optical power distribution and the symmetry of the lens components are two important attributes that decide the ultimate lens performance and characteristics. Lens form parameters W and S are the key criteria describing the two attributes mentioned above. Lens components with smaller W and S will have a good nature of aberration balance and perform well in providing good image quality. Applying the Gaussian brackets, the two lens form parameters and the Seidel Aberration Coefficients are reconstructed. An initial lens structure can be analytically described by simultaneous equations of Seidel Aberration Coefficients and third-order aberration theory. Adding the constraints of parameters W and S in the solving process, a solution with a proper image quality and aberration distribution is achieved. The optical properties and image quality of the system based on the parameters W and S are also analyzed in this article. In the method, the aberration distribution can be controlled to some extent in the beginning of design, so that we can reduce some workload of optimization later.

  16. Adjustable hybrid diffractive/refractive achromatic lens

    OpenAIRE

    Valley, Pouria; Savidis, Nickolaos; Schwiegerling, Jim; Dodge, Mohammad Reza; Peyman, Gholam; N. Peyghambarian

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a variable focal length achromatic lens that consists of a flat liquid crystal diffractive lens and a pressure-controlled fluidic refractive lens. The diffractive lens is composed of a flat binary Fresnel zone structure and a thin liquid crystal layer, producing high efficiency and millisecond switching times while applying a low ac voltage input. The focusing power of the diffractive lens is adjusted by electrically modifying the sub-zones and re-establishing phase wrapping po...

  17. Refractive lens for hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refractive lens for hard X-rays on the base of glass capillary is presented. The fabrication techniques for lens production are described. The model of refractive lens for hard X-ray is proposed. The model assume that the compound lens work similar one thin lens the complex refraction index of which is following: n=1-δ N + i β N. On the base of this model the parameters of focussed beam are calculated and the images of object are constructed

  18. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; P Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  19. Inverse Design of Electron Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inverae design of electron lens is reelized by two different methods in this paper. One isdamped leastsquare method and the other is the artificial neural network method. Their merits and defects are discussed accordingto our calculation results in the psper. In the condition of selecting the learning samples properly, the artificial neuralnetwork has obvious advantages in the inverse design of electron lens. It is an effective method to solve the inversedesign problem in the electron optic system.

  20. A course in lens design

    CERN Document Server

    Velzel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A Course in Lens Design is an instruction in the design of image-forming optical systems. It teaches how a satisfactory design can be obtained in a straightforward way. Theory is limited to a minimum, and used to support the practical design work. The book introduces geometrical optics, optical instruments and aberrations. It gives a description of the process of lens design and of the strategies used in this process. Half of its content is devoted to the design of sixteen types of lenses, described in detail from beginning to end. This book is different from most other books on lens design because it stresses the importance of the initial phases of the design process: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this change of accent is that in these phases much information can be obtained about the properties of the lens to be designed. This information can be used in later phases of the design. This makes A Course in Lens Design a useful self-study book, and a suitable basis for an intro...

  1. Gabor lens theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of using the space charge of an electron cloud to focus ion beams was first proposed by Gabor. Electrons are to be confined radially by means of an axial magnetic field B/sub z/ and axially by means of externally applied electric fields E/sub z/. An ion beam of charge density n/sub i/ much less than n/sub e/, the electron charge density can then be focused by the radial electric field set up by the electron cloud. The case considered here is that of a hollow cylindrical conductor charged to a potential +V with grounded rings on either side to set up the axial E/sub z/ field. A solenoid wound around the central conductor supplies the B/sub z/ field. Theoretical calculations are carried out for n/sub e/ maximum as a function of B/sub z/ due to radial confinement and V due to axial confinement and the focal length of the Gabor Lens is calculated

  2. A fibrous membrane suspends the multifocal lens in the eyes of lampreys and African lungfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Ola S E; Ekström, Peter; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2010-08-01

    The sharpness and thus information content of the retinal image in the eye depends on the optical quality of the lens and its accurate positioning in the eye. Multifocal lenses create well-focused color images and are present in the eyes of all vertebrate groups studied to date (mammals, reptiles including birds, amphibians, and ray-finned fishes) and occur even in lampreys, i.e., the most basal vertebrates with well-developed eyes. Results from photoretinoscopy obtained in this study indicate that the Dipnoi (lungfishes), i.e., the closest piscine relatives to tetrapods, also possess multifocal lenses. Suspension of the lens is complex and sophisticated in teleosts (bony fishes) and tetrapods. We studied lens suspension using light and electron microscopy in one species of lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and two species of African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens annectens). A fibrous and highly transparent membrane suspends the lens in both of these phylogenetically widely separated vertebrate groups. The membrane attaches to the lens approximately along the lens equator, from where it extends to the ora retinalis. The material forming the membrane is similar in ultrastructure to microfibrils in the zonule fibers of tetrapods. The membrane, possibly in conjunction with the cornea, iris, and vitreous body, seems suitable for keeping the lens in the correct position for well-focused imaging. Suspension of the lens by a multitude of zonule fibers in tetrapods may have evolved from a suspensory membrane similar to that in extant African lungfishes, a structure that seems to have appeared first in the lamprey-like ancestors of allextant vertebrates. PMID:20623650

  3. Cooling water of power plant creates "hot spots" for tropical fishes and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Plath, Martin; Miesen, Friedrich W; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Thermally altered water bodies can function as "hot spots" where non-native species are establishing self-sustaining populations beyond their tropical and subtropical native regions. Whereas many tropical fish species have been found in these habitats, the introduction of non-native parasites often remains undetected. Here, n = 77 convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) were sampled by electro-fishing at two sites from a thermally altered stream in Germany and examined for parasite fauna and feeding ecology. Stomach content analysis suggests an opportunistic feeding strategy of A. nigrofasciata: while plant material dominated the diet at the warm water inlet (∼30 °C), relative contributions of insects, plants, and crustaceans were balanced 3 km downstream (∼27 °C). The most abundant non-native parasite species was the tropical nematode Camallanus cotti with P = 11.90 % and P = 80.00 % at the inlet and further downstream, respectively. Additionally, nematode larvae of Anguillicoloides crassus and one specimen of the subtropical species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were isolated. A. nigrofasciata was also highly infected with the native parasite Acanthocephalus anguillae, which could be linked to high numbers of the parasite's intermediate host Asellus aquaticus. The aim of this study was to highlight the risk and consequences of the release and establishment of ornamental fish species for the introduction and spread of non-indigenous metazoan parasites using the convict cichlid as a model species. Furthermore, the spread of non-native parasites into adjacent fish communities needs to be addressed in the future as first evidence of Camallanus cotti in native fish species was also found. PMID:26374537

  4. Negative refractive perfect lens vs Spherical geodesic lens. Perfect Imaging comparative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Minano, Juan C; Grabovickic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Negative Refractive Lens (NRL) has shown that an optical system can produce images with details below the classic Abbe diffraction limit. This optical system transmits the electric field, emitted by the object surface, towards the image surface producing the same field distribution in both surfaces. In particular, a Dirac delta electric field in the object surface is focused without diffraction limit to the Dirac delta electric field in the image surface. The Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) and the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW) have been claimed to break the diffraction limit using positive refraction with a different meaning. In these cases, it has been considered the power transmission from a point source to a point receptor, which falls drastically when the receptor is displaced from the focus by a distance much smaller than the wavelength. Although these systems can detect displacements up to Wavelength/500, they cannot be compared to the NRL, since the concept of the object and image surface is not esta...

  5. Perfect drain for the Maxwell Fish Eye lens

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Lopez, Juan Carlos; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source....

  6. Mitochondrial phylogeography of rock-dwelling cichlid fishes reveals evolutionary influence of historical lake level fluctuations of Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Erik; Rüber, Lukas; Snoeks, Jos; Meyer, Axel

    1996-01-01

    The East African Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria each harbour hundreds of endemic invertebrate and vertebrate species. Inferences about the ecological and evolutionary processes responsible for the origin of these species flocks will only be possible when they are made within historical and comparative frameworks. Specifically, the relative importance of intrinsic characteristics and extrinsic factors may offer information about the processes that drive diversification and speciation in...

  7. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-01-01

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales. PMID:25283927

  8. Social odors conveying dominance and reproductive information induce rapid physiological and neuromolecular changes in a cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, José M.; Barata, Eduardo N; Harris, Rayna M.; O’Connell, Lauren A.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social plasticity is a pervasive feature of animal behavior. Animals adjust the expression of their social behavior to the daily changes in social life and to transitions between life-history stages, and this ability has an impact in their Darwinian fitness. This behavioral plasticity may be achieved either by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of the neural network underlying social behavior in response to perceived social information. Independent of the proximate mechan...

  9. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

    2015-01-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  10. Lens system for SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A powerful version of the charge-density method is applied to the study of a combined objective and emission lens, suitable for highly localized analysis of a flat sample surface. This lens can extract secondary ions of equal or opposite polarity to that of the primary particles. A computer simulation of the ion trajectories for both modes is made. The behaviour for different values of the geometric parameters and polarizations is analyzed and useful data for design such as primary beam demagnification and secondary image position are given. (author) 4 refs

  11. Broken intraocular lens during cataract surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, J N; Cook, S D

    1992-01-01

    A case of planned routine extracapsular cataract extraction is described where surgery was complicated peroperatively by fracture of the posterior chamber lens implant. The technique of lens implantation is discussed.

  12. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  13. Multispecies Outcomes of Sympatric Speciation after Admixture with the Source Population in Two Radiations of Nicaraguan Crater Lake Cichlids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautt, Andreas F.; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The formation of species in the absence of geographic barriers (i.e. sympatric speciation) remains one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. While theoretical models have shown that this most extreme case of primary divergence-with-gene-flow is possible, only a handful of accepted empirical examples exist. And even for the most convincing examples uncertainties remain; complex histories of isolation and secondary contact can make species falsely appear to have originated by sympatric speciation. This alternative scenario is notoriously difficult to rule out. Midas cichlids inhabiting small and remote crater lakes in Nicaragua are traditionally considered to be one of the best examples of sympatric speciation and lend themselves to test the different evolutionary scenarios that could lead to apparent sympatric speciation since the system is relatively small and the source populations known. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two small-scale radiations of Midas cichlids inhabiting crater lakes Apoyo and Xiloá through a comprehensive genomic data set. We find no signs of differential admixture of any of the sympatric species in the respective radiations. Together with coalescent simulations of different demographic models our results support a scenario of speciation that was initiated in sympatry and does not result from secondary contact of already partly diverged populations. Furthermore, several species seem to have diverged simultaneously, making Midas cichlids an empirical example of multispecies outcomes of sympatric speciation. Importantly, however, the demographic models strongly support an admixture event from the source population into both crater lakes shortly before the onset of the radiations within the lakes. This opens the possibility that the formation of reproductive barriers involved in sympatric speciation was facilitated by genetic variants that evolved in a period of isolation between the initial founding

  14. Otolith Growth and macular Carbonic Anhydrase Reactivity in larval Fish after Development at simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, U.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    Otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). CA is located in specialized, mitochondria-rich macular cells (ionocytes), which are involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange, and the enzyme is responsible for the provision of the pH-value necessary for otolithic calcium carbonate deposition. Since it has been shown earlier that hypergravity slows down inner ear otolith growth in developing fish via a down-regulation of CA reactivity, we were prompted to elucidate whether (simulated) microgravity would possibly yield opposite effects. Therefore, larval siblings of cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were housed in a submersed, two-dimensional clinostat (tube) during their development. Subsequently, the "physical capacity" (i.e., size) of the otoliths was measured, CA was histochemically demonstrated in ionocytes, and enzyme reactivity was determined densitometrically. The respective data will be communicated at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  15. Texture Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  16. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  17. A broadband transformation-optics metasurface lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiang; Xiang Jiang, Wei; Feng Ma, Hui; Jun Cui, Tie, E-mail: tjcui@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, School of Information Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We present a transformational metasurface Luneburg lens based on the quasi-conformal mapping method, which has weakly anisotropic constitutive parameters. We design the metasurface lens using inhomogeneous artificial structures to realize the required surface refractive indexes. The transformational metasurface Luneburg lens is fabricated and the measurement results demonstrate very good performance in controlling the radiated surface waves.

  18. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 886.1400 - Maddox lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maddox lens. 886.1400 Section 886.1400 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1400 Maddox lens. (a) Identification. A Maddox lens is a device... intended to be handheld or placed in a trial frame to evaluate eye muscle dysfunction. (b)...

  20. Diabetes and contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clare; Efron, Nathan

    2012-05-01

    The literature suggests that diabetic patients may have altered tear chemistry and tear secretion as well as structural and functional changes to the corneal epithelium, endothelium and nerves. These factors, together with a reported increased incidence of corneal infection, suggest that diabetic patients may be particularly susceptible to developing ocular complications during contact lens wear. Reports of contact lens-induced complications in diabetic patients do exist, although a number of these reports concern patients with advanced diabetic eye disease using lenses on an extended wear basis. Over the past decade or so, there have been published studies documenting the response of the diabetic eye to more modern contact lens modalities. The results of these studies suggest that contact lenses can be a viable mode of refractive correction for diabetic patients. Furthermore, new research suggests that the measurement of tear glucose concentration could, in future, be used to monitor metabolic control non-invasively in diabetic patients. This could be carried out using contact lenses manufactured from hydrogel polymers embedded with glucose-sensing agents or nanoscale digital electronic technology. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the anterior ocular manifestations of diabetes, particularly that pertaining to contact lens wear. PMID:22537249

  1. Radiation damage of the lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explained is the cataract as the lens is one of the most sensitive tissues to radiation, for considering the possible ophthalmological radiation disorder by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (2011). Radiation cataract is observed at 1-2 years after acute high dose exposure, but at low dose, it appears as the late effect. In fact, the disease related to exposure is found in as many as 25% of Chernobyl workers at >10 years post its Accident. Pathologic feature of radiation cataract has been thought to be the posterior subcapsular type. However, the cortical type is shown to be also noted by recent findings in the Chernobyl Accident, in the lens 30-45 years after radiotherapy of infants for dermovascular angioma, in astronaut, and in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Acute exposure to 0.5-1.5 Gy results in lens opacity and at >5 Gy, cataract with visual dysfunction. Higher cataract prevalence is recently reported seen in the therapeutic cardiac fluoroscopy where the medians of accumulated doses are 6.0 Sv in doctors and 1.5 Sv in nurses and radiologists. Astronauts exposed at >8 mSv have higher prevalence. Animal experiments have shown that the lens sensitivity to radiation depends on the age. Clinical experience of radiotherapy of the angioma above has suggested the higher sensitivity in young generation, which is supported by the fact that, among 114 inhabitants of 60Co-contaminated building, the dose effect is observable in 61 inhabitants of the age <20 y alone. linear threshold theory (LNT) hypothesis cannot be excluded by above evidences and there is conceivably no (or extremely low) threshold for cataract. The younger the age of exposure, the higher the risk of cataract, and thereby the lens in young generation should be carefully followed-up in Fukushima. (T.T.)

  2. Radiation-induced mutations in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray-induced mutations in teleostean fish were studied from the point of social behavior. A significant reduction in male aggression was found in the postirradiated F1 generation after the irradiation of parental oogonia and spermatogonia, with 2 x 500 R (24 hr apart) of x-rays, but did not alter the aggression of F1 females. A study on backcross generation of irradiated line fitted with a two-factor model of dominant genetic factors, high- and low-aggressive, which co-acted additively in repressing the male aggression. Social cohesiveness was compared between F1 convict cichlides (C. nigrofasciatum) exposed by 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 R of x-rays. The best response was observed in males with 500 R and in females with 750 R. While an increase in cohesiveness was observed in F1 males with 500 R, the cohesiveness of F1 females decreased with 750 and 200 R, suggesting that the increase in male was associated with a reduction of inter-male aggression. A new ''guppy male courtship activity test'' was carried out in the offsprings of irradiated guppy, maintained in seawater and in freshwater. The mean values of both the frequency and the duration of four behavioral traits of the male guppy increased in postirradiated F1 generation of the seawater substrain but were unchanged in that of freshwater's. In F2 generation the mean values of the same behavioral characters decreased in both seawater and freshwater substrains. (Nakanishi, T.)

  3. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  4. Micro-optic lens for data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Trusty, R. M.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Erwin, J. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    A new type of microlens for data storage applications that has improved off-axis performance is described. The lens consists of a micro Fresnel pattern on a curved substrate. The radius of the substrate is equal to the focal length of the lens. If the pattern and substrate are thin, the combination satisfies the Abbe sine condition. Therefore, the lens is free of coma. We analyze a 0.5 numerical aperture, 0.50 mm focal length lens in detail. A 0.16 numerical aperture lens was fabricated holographically, and results are presented.

  5. Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme of Lens in Fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kexi Ding; Yasong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The LDH isoenzyme patterns were evaluated in lens of fetus to study the metabolism in human lenses.Methods: LDH isoenzyme electrophoresis was performed in 15 lenses of human fetus aged from 4~6 months.Results: There are 5 bands of LDH in fetus lens. LDH4 lever is the highest, and LDH1 is the lowest, especially in the cortex of lens. LDH1 is higher in lens of 4 months of age than in that of 5 and 6 months of age.Conclusions: LDH isoenzyme in lens of fetus shows mainly anaerobic metabolism in development, but there is also aerobic metabolism, especially in younger fetus.

  6. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  7. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Priya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  8. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility

  9. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin [Dongshin Univ., Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility.

  10. Biomimetic accommodating lens with implementation in MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alexander L.; Baker, Brian; Fisher, Charles; Naylor, Stephen; Fettig, Doug; Harvey, Ian R.

    2012-03-01

    We describe an accommodating lens patterned after the crystalline lens of the eye. Our biomimetic MEMS design calls to mind the zonules of zinn which pull radially to stretch the crystalline lens of the eye to modify the optical path. We present initial characterization of the prototype macro-scale device constructed through traditional machining techniques and using a PDMS polymer lens. Testing of the macro-scale lens indicated a 22% change in focal length through the range of radial stretching, with degradation of the spherical lens shape but no hysteresis after low-cycle testing. We also demonstrate a MEMS implementation of the lens actuator constructed using the Sandia SUMMiT-V ™ surface micromachining process. The optical path of this system is approximately 300 microns in diameter, providing a platform to potential applications improving mobile camera optics and medical imaging.

  11. A genetic demographic analysis of Lake Malawi rock-dwelling cichlids using spatio-temporal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, Martin; Nguyen, Rachel; Ding, Baoqing; Danley, Patrick D

    2015-06-01

    We estimated the effective population sizes (Ne ) and tested for short-term temporal demographic stability of populations of two Lake Malawi cichlids: Maylandia benetos, a micro-endemic, and Maylandia zebra, a widespread species found across the lake. We sampled a total of 351 individuals, genotyped them at 13 microsatellite loci and sequenced their mitochondrial D-loop to estimate genetic diversity, population structure, demographic history and effective population sizes. At the microsatellite loci, genetic diversity was high in all populations. Yet, genetic diversity was relatively low for the sequence data. Microsatellites yielded mean Ne estimates of 481 individuals (±99 SD) for M. benetos and between 597 (±106.3 SD) and 1524 (±483.9 SD) individuals for local populations of M. zebra. The microsatellite data indicated no deviations from mutation-drift equilibrium. Maylandia zebra was further found to be in migration-drift equilibrium. Temporal fluctuations in allele frequencies were limited across the sampling period for both species. Bayesian Skyline analyses suggested a recent expansion of M. zebra populations in line with lake-level fluctuations, whereas the demographic history of M. benetos could only be estimated for the very recent past. Divergence time estimates placed the origin of M. benetos within the last 100 ka after the refilling of the lake and suggested that it split off the sympatric M. zebra population. Overall, our data indicate that micro-endemics and populations in less favourable habitats have smaller Ne , indicating that drift may play an important role driving their divergence. Yet, despite small population sizes, high genetic variation can be maintained. PMID:25891855

  12. Modularity of the Oral Jaws Is Linked to Repeated Changes in the Craniofacial Shape of African Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Parsons

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cichlids of the East-African rift-lakes provide one of the most dramatic examples of adaptive radiation known. It has long been thought that functional decoupling of the oral and pharyngeal jaws in cichlids has facilitated their explosive evolution. Recent research has also shown that craniofacial evolution from radiations in lakes Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika has occurred along a shared primary axis of shape divergence, whereby the preorbital region of the skull changes in a manner that is, relatively independent from other head regions. We predicted that the preorbital region would comprise a variational module and used an extensive dataset from each lake that allowed us to test this prediction using a model selection approach. Our findings supported the presence of a preorbital module across all lakes, within each lake, and for Malawi, within sand and rock-dwelling clades. However, while a preorbital module was consistently present, notable differences were also observed among groups. Of particular interest, a negative association between patterns of variational modularity was observed between the sand and rock-dwelling clades, a patter consistent with character displacement. These findings provide the basis for further experimental research involving the determination of the developmental and genetic bases of these patterns of modularity.

  13. Designer Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  14. Variation in the visual habitat may mediate the maintenance of color polymorphism in a poeciliid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Hurtado-Gonzales

    Full Text Available The conspicuousness of animal signals is influenced by their contrast against the background. As such, signal conspicuousness will tend to vary in nature because habitats are composed of a mosaic of backgrounds. Variation in attractiveness could result in variation in conspecific mate choice and risk of predation, which, in turn, may create opportunities for balancing selection to maintain distinct polymorphisms. We quantified male coloration, the absorbance spectrum of visual pigments and the photic environment of Poecilia parae, a fish species with five distinct male color morphs: a drab (i.e., grey, a striped, and three colorful (i.e., blue, red and yellow morphs. Then, using physiological models, we assessed how male color patterns can be perceived in their natural visual habitats by conspecific females and a common cichlid predator, Aequidens tetramerus. Our estimates of chromatic and luminance contrasts suggest that the three most colorful morphs were consistently the most conspicuous across all habitats. However, variation in the visual background resulted in variation in which morph was the most conspicuous to females at each locality. Likewise, the most colorful morphs were the most conspicuous morphs to cichlid predators. If females are able to discriminate between conspicuous prospective mates and those preferred males are also more vulnerable to predation, variable visual habitats could influence the direction and strength of natural and sexual selection, thereby allowing for the persistence of color polymorphisms in natural environments.

  15. Charting paths through gravity's lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of gravitational lenses are described, together with several examples of seemingly identical celestial objects which were later proved to be the same object. The first evidence was concerned with the object 0957+561, which featured two quasars 6 arcsec apart that displayed equal redshifts, magnitudes, and recession velocities, while the northern component exhibited 30 percent weaker emission and absorption. It was suggested that a galaxy interposed between the earth and a quasar was deflecting its emissions and causing it to be viewed as two distinct objects, i.e., a gravitational lens existed. Later evidence for the intervening galaxy was found, and also permitted attributing the anomalous redshift observed to a contribution from the galaxy. The light bending effect is predicted by the General Theory of Relativity, and is illustated in terms of a point mass, convex lens, and a galaxy

  16. Lens transglutaminase and cataract formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, L.; Hsu, L K; Siefring, G E; Rafferty, N S

    1981-01-01

    A protein polymer characteristically present in human cataract was shown to contain significant amounts of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine isopeptides. It is proposed that these crosslinks are produced by the action of transglutaminase (R-glutaminyl-peptide:amine-gamma-glutamyl-yltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13), which is all the more plausible because lens contains the enzyme and endogenous protein substrates for it. The enzyme is similar to that obtained from liver and is Ca2+ dependent. Highest app...

  17. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  18. Fresnel Lens with Embedded Vortices

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Vyas; Rakesh Kumar Singh; Devinder Pal Ghai; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vortices of different charges are embedded in a wavefront that has quadratic phase variation, and the intensity distribution near the focal plane is studied. This method may be useful in realizing complicated beam profiles. We have experimentally demonstrated the generation of vortex arrays having integer as well as fractional topological charges that produce different intensity profiles at the focal plane. The phase variation realized on a spatial light modulator (SLM) acts as a Fresnel lens...

  19. Evidence of elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in commonly consumed fish from Eleyele Reservoir, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution of water, which is a source of cheap and affordable protein in the form of fish on which the population depends on, is of great concern globally. The present study assesses the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in sediments and six commonly consumed cichlid species from Eleyele Reservoir, Southwestern Nigeria. The results indicate that the concentrations of heavier PCB congeners are higher than the lighter congeners in both sediment and fish tissue. The predominant PCB congeners in the sediment samples from this site were PCBs 8, 44, 114, 101, 189, 196, 206 and 209. The concentration of PCB congeners increased with increasing molecular weight from hepta-PCB to deca-PCB in all fish species. The trend in accumulation of total PCBs in fish was as follows: Tilapia guineensis (2,531.1 ± 74.6 ng/g) > Sarotherodon galilaeus (1178.7 ± 68.5 ng/g) > Oreochromis niloticus > (891.8 ± 49.6 ng/g) > Tilapia zillii (832.8 ± 38.2 ng/g) > Hemichromis fasciatus (475.7 ± 28.5 ng/g) > Sarotherodon melanotheron (333.2 ± 26.1 ng/g). In summary, data from this study shows that the levels of PCBs in cichlid species from Eleyele Reservoir are higher than the threshold level of 0.023-0.047 ng g(-1) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Such elevated PCB levels present significant health implications for human consumers and a threat to the resident fish communities. PMID:23859942

  20. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [3H]NaBH4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  1. Aging Changes of Lens Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryavtseva Y.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to assess aging changes of lens physical properties. Materials and Methods. There have been examined the patients aged 57—90 years. 73 lens nuclei with cataract of different maturity degree taken by means of extracapsular cataract extraction have been studied. Before the operation there has been determined relative echodensity of lens according to an original technique and assessed the lens colour and nuclear mass. Results. Brown colour of the lens nucleus is slightly increasing with years (r=0.4; р<0.05. Mean value of relative lens echodensity is 0.59±0.01. An average mass of lens nucleus is 98.3±1.0 mg, and its average density is 1312.0±12.0 mg/m2. Mature cataract is revealed to be not always hard (r=0.4; р<0.05, i.e. in this case the relation is inverse. When lens density increases, mechanical hardness of its nucleus grows up (r=0.4, р<0.05. At the same time mechanical density of lens nucleus increases with the increase of years (r=0.74, р<0.05. Age is stated not to be a controlling factor in cataract occurring and progressing. Conclusion. Lens mechanical characteristics depend on its chemical composition, and in aging brown colour of the lens increases, mechanical density of lens nucleus grows up, and vision can change slightly. Cataract maturation and the increase of lens density are chemically different processes and independent of each other.

  2. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  3. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this...

  5. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this...

  6. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and...

  7. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    OpenAIRE

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish provide substantial benefits to both humans and ocean food webs, but these benefits may be in conflict unless there are effective policies governing human activities, such as fishing. Collapses of forage fish induce widespread ecological effects on dependent predators, but attributing collapses to fishing has been difficult because of natural fluctuations of these stocks. We implicate fishing in forage fish stock collapses by showing that high fishing rates are maintained when sto...

  8. Facial Recognition in a Discus Fish (Cichlidae): Experimental Approach Using Digital Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Shun; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kohda, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    A number of mammals and birds are known to be capable of visually discriminating between familiar and unfamiliar individuals, depending on facial patterns in some species. Many fish also visually recognize other conspecifics individually, and previous studies report that facial color patterns can be an initial signal for individual recognition. For example, a cichlid fish and a damselfish will use individual-specific color patterns that develop only in the facial area. However, it remains to be determined whether the facial area is an especially favorable site for visual signals in fish, and if so why? The monogamous discus fish, Symphysopdon aequifasciatus (Cichlidae), is capable of visually distinguishing its pair-partner from other conspecifics. Discus fish have individual-specific coloration patterns on entire body including the facial area, frontal head, trunk and vertical fins. If the facial area is an inherently important site for the visual cues, this species will use facial patterns for individual recognition, but otherwise they will use patterns on other body parts as well. We used modified digital models to examine whether discus fish use only facial coloration for individual recognition. Digital models of four different combinations of familiar and unfamiliar fish faces and bodies were displayed in frontal and lateral views. Focal fish frequently performed partner-specific displays towards partner-face models, and did aggressive displays towards models of non-partner’s faces. We conclude that to identify individuals this fish does not depend on frontal color patterns but does on lateral facial color patterns, although they have unique color patterns on the other parts of body. We discuss the significance of facial coloration for individual recognition in fish compared with birds and mammals. PMID:27191162

  9. Cold-stable eye lens crystallins of the Antarctic nototheniid toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni Norman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andor J; Mirarefi, Amir Y; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Zukoski, Charles F; Devries, Arthur L; Cheng, Chi-Hing C

    2004-12-01

    The eye lenses of the Antarctic nototheniid fishes that inhabit the perennially freezing Antarctic seawater are transparent at -2 degrees C, whereas the cold-sensitive mammalian and tropical fish lenses display cold-induced cataract at 20 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. No cold-cataract occurs in the giant Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni lens when cooled to temperatures as low as -12 degrees C, indicating highly cold-stable lens proteins. To investigate this cold stability, we characterised the lens crystallin proteins of the Antarctic toothfish, in parallel with those of the sub-tropical bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus and the endothermic cow Bos taurus, representing three disparate thermal climes (-2 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively). Sizing chromatography resolved their lens crystallins into three groups, alpha/betaH, beta and gamma, with gamma crystallins being the most abundant (>40%) lens proteins in fish, in contrast to the cow lens where they comprise only 19%. The upper thermal stability of these crystallin components correlated with the body temperature of the species. In vitro chaperone assays showed that fish alpha crystallin can protect same-species gamma crystallins from heat denaturation, as well as lysozyme from DTT-induced unfolding, and therefore are small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSP) like their mammalian counterparts. Dynamic light scattering measured an increase in size of alphagamma crystallin mixtures upon heating, which supports formation of the alphagamma complex as an integral part of the chaperone process. Surprisingly, in cross-species chaperone assays, tuna alpha crystallins only partly protected toothfish gamma crystallins, while cow alpha crystallins completely failed to protect, indicating partial and no alphagamma interaction, respectively. Toothfish gamma was likely to be the component that failed to interact, as the supernatant from a cow alpha plus toothfish gamma incubation could chaperone cow

  10. Adaptive liquid lens driven by elastomer actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Boya; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Zhou, Zuowei; Zhang, Guoqing; Lee, Gi-Bbeum; Ren, Hongwen; Nah, Changwoon

    2016-01-01

    When a liquid droplet is filled in the hole of a dielectric elastomer (DE) film, a liquid lens is prepared. By applying a DC voltage to the DE film, the liquid lens can be actuated. As a comparison, two liquid lenses, one in a millimeter scale and the other in a submillimeter scale, are demonstrated. In a relaxed state, the focal length of each liquid lens is the longest. In an actuated state, the diameter of each lens is reduced. As a result, their focal length is tuned. Here, the DE film functions as an actuator. Due to the biconvex shape and smooth liquid surface, each liquid lens can provide good optical performance. They also possess the merits of simple fabrication, compact structure, and easy operation. In contrast to the bigger liquid lens, the smaller one can present a better mechanical stability without the concern of the gravitational effect.

  11. Laser differential confocal lens thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the property that the absolute zero of an axial intensity curve exactly corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal system (DCS), a new laser differential confocal lens thickness measurement is proposed to achieve the high-precision non-contact measurement of lens thickness. The proposed approach uses the absolute zero of DCS axial response curve to precisely identify the vertexes of the test lens, obtains the central optical thickness of the test lens, and then uses the radius of curvature and refractive index of the test lens and the ray tracing facet iterative calculation to obtain the central geometrical thickness of the test lens. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experiments indicate that the measurement accuracy is better than 0.03%. (paper)

  12. Eye model with controllable lens scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Paeglis, R; Ozolinsh, M; Cikmacs, P; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    A model of human eye for experiments in vision research has been developed using PLZT ceramics. This ``artificial eye{''} allows to simulate light scattering caused by cataract in the eye lens. Light scattering of a composite eye lens of the model depends on the electric field applied to a transparent electrooptic PLZT ceramics plate that is attached directly to the lens. The image degradation in such a model eye at various degrees of scattering is studied observing and recording the ...

  13. The lens and source of the optical Einstein ring gravitational lens ER 0047-2808

    OpenAIRE

    Wayth, Randall B.; Warren, Stephen J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Hewett, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    (Abridged) We perform a detailed analysis of the optical gravitational lens ER 0047-2808 imaged with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. Using software specifically designed for the analysis of resolved gravitational lens systems, we focus on how the image alone can constrain the mass distribution in the lens galaxy. We find the data are of sufficient quality to strongly constrain the lens model with no a priori assumptions about the source. Using a variety of mass models, we find statistica...

  14. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  15. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5−/−), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0+/−; homozygous KO: AQP0−/−; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0+/− lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  16. Double-mirror peripheral vitrectomy lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohji, M; Tano, Y

    1995-11-01

    Many surgeons use prism lenses to see the periphery of the fundus during vitrectomy; however, chromatic aberrations in higher-power prismatic lenses cause blurring of the peripheral image. For better visualization of the periphery of the fundus, we developed a new contact lens, the double-mirror peripheral vitrectomy lens. The new lens is a quartz cylinder with two mirrors, and it provides a crisp, clear, upright image of much more of the peripheral fundus than is visible through conventional prism lenses. The new lens also provides a wider area of view than conventional prism lenses. PMID:7487611

  17. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Wei, Lei; Poelma, René H; Vollebregt, Sten; Wei, Jia; Urbach, Hendrik Paul; Sarro, Pasqualina M; Zhang, Guo Qi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material combines the excellent optical absorption properties of the CNT with the transparency and stretchability of the PDMS. By stretching the elastomeric composite in radial direction, the lens focal length is tuned. Good focusing response is demonstrated and a large focus change (≥24%) was achieved by stretching lenses up to 11.4%. PMID:27139747

  18. A Magnification Lens for Interactive Volume Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    Volume visualization of large data sets suffers from the same problem that many other visualization modalities suffer from: either one can visualize the entire data set and lose small details or visualize a small region and lose the context. In this paper, they present a magnification lens technique for volume visualization. While the notion of a magnification-lens is not new, and other techniques attempt to simulate the physical properties of a magnifying lens, their contribution is in developing a magnification lens that is fast, can be implemented using a fairly small software overhead, and has a natural, intuitive appearance. The issue with magnification lens is the border, or transition, region. The lens center and exterior have a constant zoom factor, and are simple to render. It is the border region that blends between the external and interior magnification, and has a non-constant magnification. They use the perspective-correct textures capability, available in most current graphics systems, to produce a lens with a tessellated border region that approximates linear compression with respect to the radius of the magnification lens. They discuss how a cubic border can mitigate the discontinuities resulting from the use of a linear function, without significant performance loss. They discuss various issues concerning development of a three-dimensional magnification lens.

  19. Using eye lens diameter as age indicator of young Lithognathus mormyrus and Diplodus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Conides, A.J.; Al-Hassan, L.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Eye lens diameter was analyzed in two sparid fish species, Lithognathus mormyrus and Diplodus vulgaris, in order to determine the possibility of using these data for age determination. The results showed that the technique could be adopted for determining the age of the two species when the specimens are very young. The method is especially useful for age determination when otolith or scale rings are not visible or when false rings may give erroneous readings.

  20. Flat lens for seismic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brule, Stephane; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    A prerequisite for achieving seismic invisibility is to demonstrate the ability of civil engineers to control seismic waves with artificially structured soils. We carry out large-scale field tests with a structured soil made of a grid consisting of cylindrical and vertical holes in the ground and a low frequency artificial source (< 10 Hz). This allows the identification of a distribution of energy inside the grid, which can be interpreted as the consequence of an effective negative refraction index. Such a flat lens reminiscent of what Veselago and Pendry envisioned for light opens avenues in seismic metamaterials to counteract the most devastating components of seismic signals.

  1. Fish Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can harm the brain of your unborn baby even before he or she is conceived. Yet many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  2. Spatial segregation of freshwater fish in an intermittent Cuban stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ponce de León

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial segregation of fish species is related to the use of available resources in every river or lake segment. In this work the spatial distribution of four endemic and one introduced freshwater fish species from the Govea stream, in Havana Province, Cuba was studied between june and november of 2005. Both, the effect of sun incidence and the segregation in the water column were analyzed. Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 feeds on invertebrates, mainly on the surface zone, while herbivores like Girardinus metallicus Poey, 1854 are found in the intermediate zone more frequently. The detritivores like Limia vittata Guichenot, 1853 and Plecostomus commersoni Valenciennes, 1836, and the omnivorous cichlid Nandopsis tetracanthus (Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1831, were found mostly at the bottom. Differences in the mean number of individuals were found for most species in same-depth transects except for N. tetracanthus. In zones exposed to direct sunlight G. metallicus, L. vittata and P. commersoni were found more abundant, whereas G. punctata was mainly noticed in shade areas.

  3. Protection of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limit of radiation exposure for eye lens is going to decrease dramatically from 150 to 20 mSv as a transposition into the French law of a CIPR (International Commission for Radiation Protection) directive. Sanitary studies have shown that radiologists are more likely by a factor of 3.8 to get eye lens opacities than the rest of the population. The wearing of protective glasses is recommended and in order to get a better monitoring of the radiation dose new dosimeters have been designed, they can be worn on the glass frame of directly stuck on the skin near the eyes. A study has shown that veterinary surgeons that are accustomed to stay near animals to keep them quiet during radiological exams are prone to receive high doses as well as physicians that use hypnosis to decrease the level of anxiety of their patients during radiological exams. Radiation exposure of radiologists can be mitigated through: the use of protective shields and equipment and the optimization of the dose delivered to the patient. (A.C.)

  4. Terminal lens for an FN tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrostatic quadrupole triplet (ELQT) will be installed in the terminal of the Argonne FN tandem accelerator. The lens will be used in conjunction with foil stripping to maximize the transmission of heavy ions through the high-energy accelerator tube. The lens has steering capability and is controlled by a microcomputer located in the terminal

  5. Color corrected Fresnel lens for solar concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new linear convex Fresnel lens with its groove side down is described. The design philosophy is similar to the highly concentrating two focal Fresnel lens but including a correction for chromatic aberration. A solar concentration ratio as high as 80 is achieved. For wide acceptance angles the concentration nears the theoretical maximum. (author)

  6. Contact lens sensors in ocular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farandos, Nicholas M; Yetisen, Ali K; Monteiro, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher R; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-04-22

    Contact lenses as a minimally invasive platform for diagnostics and drug delivery have emerged in recent years. Contact lens sensors have been developed for analyzing the glucose composition of tears as a surrogate for blood glucose monitoring and for the diagnosis of glaucoma by measuring intraocular pressure. However, the eye offers a wider diagnostic potential as a sensing site and therefore contact lens sensors have the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases and conditions. With advances in polymer synthesis, electronics and micro/nanofabrication, contact lens sensors can be produced to quantify the concentrations of many biomolecules in ocular fluids. Non- or minimally invasive contact lens sensors can be used directly in a clinical or point-of-care setting to monitor a disease state continuously. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in contact lens sensor fabrication, their detection, wireless powering, and readout mechanisms, and integration with mobile devices and smartphones. High-volume manufacturing considerations of contact lenses are also covered and a case study of an intraocular pressure contact lens sensor is provided as an example of a successful product. This Review further analyzes the contact lens market and the FDA regulatory requirements for commercialization of contact lens sensors. PMID:25400274

  7. Optimization of Zoom Lens with Discrete State of Liquid Lens Elements by Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to employ liquid lens elements to design a lens with zoom function by using the genetic algorithm (GA optimization. The liquid lens elements used in the proposal can apply voltage adjustment to generate the electrical field that induces the liquid with electric conductivity to vary the surface curvature between two different kinds of liquids. According to the voltage level, the liquid lens element makes the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness realize the zoom function without moving the lens groups so that the overall length can be reduced. However, it is difficult to design the zoom lens under the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness in the liquid lens elements and the mechanical space that is constantly limited. The GA offers a flexible way for lens optimization. We regarded the spot size as the fitness function to look for the optimum curvatures, thickness, and the corresponding statuses of liquid lens elements for the zoom lens. As a result, the zoom lens with constant space can be realized by running the selection, crossover, and mutation operation in the GA optimization.

  8. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  9. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  10. The asymmetrical growth of otoliths in fish is affected by hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R. H.; Kappel, T.; Rahmann, H.

    1999-12-01

    Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish were determined after a long-term stay at moderate hypergravity conditions (3 g; centrifuge), in the course of which the animals completed their ontogenetic development from hatch to freely swimming. Both the normal morphogenetic development as well as the timely onset and gain of performance of the swimming behaviour was not impaired by the experimental conditions. However, both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper- g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1 g control specimens. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was pronouncedly decreased in comparison to the 1 g controls. These findings suggest, that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector.

  11. The role of the Yala swamp lakes in conservation of Lake Victoria region haplochromine cichlids: evidence from molecular genetic and trophic ecology studies

    OpenAIRE

    Abila, R.; Salzburger, W; Ndonga, M.F.; Owiti, D.O.; Barluenga, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Kanyaboli (Kenya), a satellite lake of Lake Victoria, has been suggested as a potential refugium for haplochromine cichlids that have gone extinct in Lake Victoria. We employed mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite DNA molecular markers as well as feeding ecology studies to re- evaluate the evolutionary and ecological significance of Lake Kanyaboli haplochromines. The mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers revealed high genetic diversity in the endangered Xystichromis phytophagus an...

  12. Bentho-Pelagic Divergence of Cichlid Feeding Architecture Was Prodigious and Consistent during Multiple Adaptive Radiations within African Rift-Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    W. James Cooper; Kevin Parsons; Alyssa McIntyre; Brittany Kern; Alana McGee-Moore; R. Craig Albertson

    2010-01-01

    Background How particular changes in functional morphology can repeatedly promote ecological diversification is an active area of evolutionary investigation. The African rift-lake cichlids offer a calibrated time series of the most dramatic adaptive radiations of vertebrate trophic morphology yet described, and the replicate nature of these events provides a unique opportunity to test whether common changes in functional morphology have repeatedly facilitated their ecological success. ...

  13. All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul R; Stewart, James L; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Shkunov, Vladimir V; Strohkendl, Friedrich; Zakharenkov, Yuri A; Dodds, Robert K; Byren, Robert

    2014-10-20

    We have proposed, designed, manufactured and tested low loss dielectric micro-lenses for infrared (IR) radiation based on a dielectric metamaterial layer. This metamaterial layer was created by patterning a dielectric surface and etching to sub-micron depths. For a proof-of-concept lens demonstration, we have chosen a fine patterned array of nano-pillars with variable diameters. Gradient index (GRIN) properties were achieved by engineering the nano-pattern characteristics across the lens, so that the effective optical density of the dielectric metamaterial layer peaks around the lens center, and gradually drops at the lens periphery. A set of lens designs with reduced reflection and tailorable phase gradients have been developed and tested, demonstrating focal distances of a few hundred microns, beam area contraction ratio up to three, and insertion losses as low as 11%. PMID:25401653

  14. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  15. Sustainable Development Commission response to the review of Food Standard Agency’s advice on fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2009-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission's response to the Food Standards Agency's review of its advice on fish consumption uses sustainable development as a lens through which to examine how the Agency can align its advice on fish consumption for health with evidence on sustainable sourcing.

  16. Investigation of lens morphology and mechanical characteristics of lens capsule and lens nucleus in patients with agerelated and diabetic cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tishkova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the influence of carbohydrate metabolism on the structure and mechanical properties of the lens capsule and nucleus.Methods: Human lens pathology was studied in different forms of cataract. 220 patients with a cataract (220 eyes were included in this study. Morphological, immunohystological and immunocytochemical investigations of lens substance (antibodies to a- (a-А and a-В, b-, g- crystallines, spectroscopic analyses of smears and morphometric analyses of slices, investigation of lens morphology and mechanical caracteristics of lens capsule and lens nucleus were performed.Results: The capsule of the lens in patients with senile cataract contains more Na+, Cl-. The capsule of the lens in patients with senile cataract contains more Ca2+, O. Mechanical strength of the capsule in the case of diabetes mellitus was lower comparatively with senile cataract in the same age groups. More significant expression of a-В and b-crystallines was found in patients with diabetes mellitus comparatively with patients with age-related cataract. Morphological features were founded in patients with cortical and nuclear forms of senile cataract and the diabetic cataract.Conclusion: During surgery (ultrasonic microcoaxial phacoemulsification the equivalent of ultrasound was recorded. Lower density of the lens nucleus of patients with diabetes mellitus made it possible to use lower energy parameters. Using the torsion ultrasound in those cases allowed us to decrease the influence of ultrasound on eye tissues and reduce the time of achieving the maximum BCVA in the postsurgical period.

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  18. Conjugate metamaterials and the perfect lens

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show how transformation optics makes it possible to design what we call conjugate metamaterials. We show that these materials can also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens. The so-called "perfect lens", which is a lens that could focus all components of light (including propagating and evanescent waves), can be regarded as a limiting case, in which the respective conjugate metamaterials approach the characteristics of left-handed metamaterials, which have a negative refractive index.

  19. Accelerating convergence in automatic lens design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various factors that slow lens optimization-insufficient performance targets, the absence of a unique solution, false local minima, a poorly scaled change vector, failure to find the optimum damping number, and failure to equalize the parameter gradients-the importance of parameter gradient equalization has been insufficiently recognized. Gradients can be approximately equalized by scaling the lens to a suitable size while it is being optimized. For best results, the size of the damping number should also be optimized during each iteration. If these two procedures are followed, scaling the change vector is usually not crucial. To illustrate the importance of parameter equalization, a lens optimization is analyzed

  20. Fresnel lens solar beam convergence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minshuang; Tian, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Use the law of refraction of light for theoretical analysis of sunlight incident Fresnel lens, summary of the relationship between Fresnel lens solar light beam convergence characteristics and beam incident angle,beam incident position.Through the analysis of the calculation and experimental, to obtain a variety of incident angle lens center and best gathering focal spot the size of the data.Discuss the incident angle, incident location,the relationship between convergence center and focal spot size.For the sun acquisition system of the light from the sun and optical fiber coupling design do sufficient theory design basis.

  1. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  2. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  3. 21 CFR 886.1390 - Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. 886.1390 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1390 Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. (a) Identification. A flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens is a device that is a very thin lens which...

  4. 16 CFR 315.6 - Expiration of contact lens prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration of contact lens prescriptions... CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.6 Expiration of contact lens prescriptions. (a) In general. A contact lens... Commission, its employees, and its representatives. (3) No prescriber shall include an expiration date on...

  5. Luneburg and flat lens based on graded photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiaohong; Gao, Minglei; Wang, Shuai

    2016-04-01

    Square-lattice graded photonic crystals employed for designing Luneburg and Flat Lens is presented. Comparable simulation of the Luneburg lens with TE and TM polarizations predicts that TM lens possesses of enlarged transmission bandwidth and strengthened focusing ability, in comparison with TE lens. As a typical simplified counterpart, the evolution of focusing intensity and numerical aperture of the flat lens is achieved. What is more, those Luneburg and Flat Lens can withstand imperfect gradients in structure design. This will provide a guidance to produce a high quality focusing lens with small size, short focal length and large numerical aperture applied in the integrated photonic devices.

  6. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  7. RISK FACTORS FOR CONTACT LENS INDUCED PAPILLARY CONJUNCTIVITIS ASSOCIATED WITH SILICONE HYDROGEL CONTACT LENS WEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Angela; Love, Thomas E.; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Contact lens induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) continues to be a major cause of dropout during contact lens extended wear. This retrospective study explores risk factors for the development of CLPC during silicone hydrogel lens extended wear. METHODS Data from 205 subjects enrolled in the Longitudinal Analysis of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens (LASH) study wearing lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses for up to 30 days of continuous wear were used to determine risk factors for CLPC in this secondary analysis of the main cohort. The main covariates of interest included substantial lens-associated bacterial bioburden, and topographically determined lens base curve-to-cornea fitting relationships. Additional covariates of interest included history of prior adverse events, time of year, race, education level, gender and other subject demographics. Statistical analyses included univariate logistic regression to assess the impact of potential risk factors on the binary CLPC outcome, and Cox proportional hazards regression to describe the impact of those factors on time-to-CLPC diagnosis. RESULTS Across 12 months of follow-up, 52 subjects (25%) experienced CLPC. No associations were found between CLPC development and the presence of bacterial bioburden, lens-to-cornea fitting relationships, history of prior adverse events, gender or race. CLPC development followed the same seasonal trends as the local peaks in environmental allergans. CONCLUSIONS Lens fit and biodeposits, in the form of lens associated bacterial bioburden, were not associated with the development of CLPC during extended wear with lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses. PMID:24681609

  8. Measurement of Crystalline Lens Volume During Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussich, Lauren; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Yao, Yue; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the lens volume changes during accommodation. Methods The study used data acquired on 36 cynomolgus monkey lenses that were stretched in a stepwise fashion to simulate disaccommodation. At each step, stretching force and dioptric power were measured and a cross-sectional image of the lens was acquired using an optical coherence tomography system. Images were corrected for refractive distortions and lens volume was calculated assuming rotational symmetry. The average change in lens volume was calculated and the relation between volume change and power change, and between volume change and stretching force, were quantified. Linear regressions of volume-power and volume-force plots were calculated. Results The mean (±SD) volume in the unstretched (accommodated) state was 97 ± 8 mm3. On average, there was a small but statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase in measured lens volume with stretching. The mean change in lens volume was +0.8 ± 1.3 mm3. The mean volume-power and volume-load slopes were −0.018 ± 0.058 mm3/D and +0.16 ± 0.40 mm3/g. Conclusions Lens volume remains effectively constant during accommodation, with changes that are less than 1% on average. This result supports a hypothesis that the change in lens shape with accommodation is accompanied by a redistribution of tissue within the capsular bag without significant compression of the lens contents or fluid exchange through the capsule. PMID:26161985

  9. Minus Piggyback Lens Overlaying ReSTOR® Multifocal Lens in High Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Isha; Oakey, Zack; Stagg, Brian C; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2013-01-01

    Background We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient treated with implantation of the Acrysof® IQ ReSTOR® lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, Tex., USA) with overlaying Acrysof EXpand® minus piggyback lens (Alcon). Methods The patient had high myopia and was diagnosed with presbyopia and bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. She desired to be spectacle-free and opted to undergo bilateral placement of the ReSTOR multifocal lens. The necessary intraocular lens (IOL) power was +3.5 in the righ...

  10. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  11. Characteristics of soft X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft X-lens was devised with waveguide X-ray optics of total external reflection (TER). The lens consists of a stack of 1 387 TER waveguides with inner diameter of 0.45 mm and outer diameter of 0.60 mm. With the help of plasma sources of soft X-ray radiation, high density of pure soft X-ray radiation (without plasma expansion fragments) with broad-band spectral range can be obtained at the focus of the lens. As laser-plasma is considered, the radiation density of 1.3 x 105 W/cm2 is obtained, the transmission coefficient is 18.6%, the ratio of the density at the focus with and without the lens is 1000 and the radiation capture is 28.9 degree. The density of 0.5 TW/cm2 can be obtained as far as Qiang-Guang I facility is considered. (authors)

  12. Adaptive lens using liquid crystal concentration redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongwen; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2006-05-01

    An adaptive lens using electrically induced liquid crystal (LC)/monomer concentration redistribution is demonstrated. In the absence of an electric field, the LC/monomer mixture is homogeneously distributed. Application of an inhomogeneous electric field causes the LC molecules to diffuse towards the high field region and the liquid monomer towards the low field region. On the other hand, the LC molecules tend to diffuse from high to low concentration direction in order to balance the concentration change. A gradient LC concentration is thus obtained. Using the gradient LC concentration, we demonstrate a tunable-focus lens. Compared with a conventional LC lens, our lens has advantages in small astigmatism and without light scattering, but its response time is slower.

  13. Methane Detector With Plastic Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Laser detector for natural gas leaks modified by substitution of molded plastic lens for spherical mirror. By measuring relative attenuation at two wavelengths, detector used to check for methane escaping from pipelines above or below ground and from landfill.

  14. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu Kumari, S; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G; Menon, Anil G; Mathias, Richard T; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5(-/-)), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0(+/-); homozygous KO: AQP0(-/-); all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0(+/-) lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  15. Autophagy and mitophagy participate in ocular lens organelle degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, M Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A.; Basu, Subharsee; Chauss, Daniel; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O.; Johnsen, Sönke; Menko, Sue; Kantorow, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The eye lens consists of a layer of epithelial cells that overlay a series of differentiating fiber cells that upon maturation lose their mitochondria, nuclei and other organelles. Lens transparency relies on the metabolic function of mitochondria contained in the lens epithelial cells and in the immature fiber cells and the programmed degradation of mitochondria and other organelles occurring upon lens fiber cell maturation. Loss of lens mitochondrial function in the epithelium or failure to...

  16. A Spectrometer Based on Diffractive Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Daoyi; YAN Yingbai; JIN Guofan; WU Minxian

    2001-01-01

    A novel spectrometer is designed based on diffractive lens. It is essentially a flat field spectrometer. All the focal points are along the optical axis. Besides, all the asymmetrical aberrations vanish in our mounting. Thus low aberration can be obtained. In this article a diffractive lens is modeled as a special grating and analyzed by using a grating-based method. And a stigmatic point is introduced to reduce the aberrations.

  17. Veselago lens by photonic hyper-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zun

    2014-01-01

    An imaging system functioning as a Veselago lens has been proposed based on the novel concept of photonic "hyper-crystal" -- an artificial optical medium synthesizing the properties of hyperbolic materials and photonic crystals. This Veselago lens shows a nearly constant negative refractive index and substantially reduced image aberrations. It can find potential applications in photolithography and hot-spots detection of silicon-based integrated circuits.

  18. In vivo human crystalline lens topography

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Ortiz; Pablo P\\xe9rez-Merino; Enrique Gambra; Alberto de Castro; Susana de Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo. The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising and segmentation of the images, as well as for fan (scanning) and optical (refraction) distortion correction, to provide fully quantitative images of the anterior and posterior crystalline lens surfaces. The method was tested on an artificial eye ...

  19. Periocular migration of an intraocular lens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, C.

    1992-01-01

    A woman presented with a painful eye 6 weeks after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. In the past she had had a sector iridectomy for iris bombé caused by chronic anterior uveitis. On examination the three central corneal sutures were absent, whilst the medial and lateral sutures had broken and were protruding from the section. The eye was quiet and the section intact. Combined clinical and ultrasound examination failed to locate the intraocular lens. Four months postopera...

  20. Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vernon L

    2013-01-01

    Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

  1. Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshida H; Kadota Y; Suto C; Ohta T; Murakami A

    2012-01-01

    Hiroshi Toshida1,2, Yoshiaki Kadota3, Chikako Suto2, Toshihiko Ohta1, Akira Murakami21Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Shizuoka, 2Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, 3Bausch & Lomb Japan Co, Ltd, Research and Development, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan.Methods: The subjects were 1000 men and ...

  2. Fresnel Lens Sidewall Design for Imaging Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T.; Goulet, A.; Hattori, K.; Konno, K.; Tanaka, A.; Bosmans, R.; Sawada, M.; Yazawa, H.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a ray tracing simulation tool for imaging systems including a Fresnel lens with a quasi-arbitrary sidewall structure. One issue with Fresnel lens is that noise in the image plane can appear from rays passing through or reflected at its sidewalls. One way to reduce it is to modify the orientation of the sidewalls so that rays will not reach the image plane. To find the best sidewall orientations, we developed a method where locally, a sidewall can freely be oriented. We could then derive the best modulation scheme for each Fresnel lens sidewall. In the case of a single imaging Fresnel lens, relative parasite noise intensity could mostly be prevented. To experimentally check our method, snapshot images were taken with single Fresnel lenses and a single spherical lens. No noticeable differences in image quality could be observed using a standard C-MOS camera. However, parasite noise could experimentally be detected with a Fresnel lens prototype when using a very! high-dynamic range C-MOS camera.

  3. Acoustic lens for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with traditional piezoelectric transducers in therapeutic ultrasound applications. In this paper we have designed, fabricated and developed an acoustic lens formed on the CMUT to mechanically focus ultrasound. The acoustic lens was designed based on the paraxial theory and made of silicone rubber for acoustic impedance matching and encapsulation. The CMUT was fabricated based on the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and fusion-bonding. The fabricated CMUT was verified to behave like an electromechanical resonator in air and exhibited wideband response with a center frequency of 2.2 MHz in immersion. The fabrication for the acoustic lens contained two consecutive mold castings and directly formed on the surface of the CMUT. Applied with ac burst input voltages at the center frequency, the CMUT with the acoustic lens generated an output pressure of 1.89 MPa (peak-to-peak) at the focal point with an effective focal gain of 3.43 in immersion. Compared to the same CMUT without a lens, the CMUT with the acoustic lens demonstrated the ability to successfully focus ultrasound and provided a viable solution to the miniaturization of the multi-modality forward-looking endoscopes without electrical focusing. (paper)

  4. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  5. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  6. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  7. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  8. Decentration of a spectacle lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Janina

    1998-10-01

    The correct placing of the lenses plays an important role in the ophthalmological practice. Centering errors cause disadvantageous prismatic effects and worsen image quality. The optical axes of the spectacles should pass by rotation centers of the eyes. An often met error consists in a faulty center distance, in a wrong positioning of the lenses axis or their placing too high, too low, or in the inclining without lowering. The errors reach some millimeters and some degrees of arc. In technical optics acceptable errors are fractions or hundredths of millimeters and minutes or seconds of arc. Therefore only first powers of decentration are taken into account. In the spectacle optics one cannot omit the second powers of decentration vector. An astigmatism proportional to the square of decentration arises in the center of the field. The off axis aberrations are a quadratic function of the decentration with linear term. The aberrations are calculated by admitting a virtual diaphragm in the point of intersection of the lens axis with the eye's view axis. This method can be applied also to the lenses with aspheric surface and to astigmatic lenses, if the decentration vector lies in one of the principal sections of toroidal surface.

  9. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  10. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  11. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  12. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  13. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift c

  14. Rapid radiation, ancient incomplete lineage sorting and ancient hybridization in the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Egger, Bernd; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2010-04-01

    The evolutionary history of the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini, the sister group of the species flocks of Lake Malawi and the Lake Victoria region, was reconstructed from 2009 bp DNA sequence of two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and control region) and from 1293 AFLP markers. A period of rapid cladogenesis at the onset of the diversification of the Tropheini produced a multitude of specialized, predominantly rock-dwelling aufwuchs-feeders that now dominate in Lake Tanganyika's shallow habitat. Nested within the stenotopic rock-dwellers is a monophyletic group of species, which also utilize more sediment-rich habitat. Most of the extant species date back to at least 0.7 million years ago. Several instances of disagreement between AFLP and mtDNA tree topology are attributed to ancient incomplete lineage sorting, introgression and hybridization. A large degree of correspondence between AFLP clustering and trophic types indicated fewer cases of parallel evolution of trophic ecomorphology than previously inferred from mitochondrial data. PMID:19853055

  15. Social status-dependent nest choice of territorial males under reproductive parasitism in a Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis vittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, K; Kohda, M

    2011-03-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine how territorial males of a Lake Tanganyika cichlid Telmatochromis vittatus balance the conflicting demands on nest choice between occupying large nests with more females and avoiding reproductive parasitism (nest piracy, which is adopted by the largest males in the population). Pirates less frequently intruded the nests farther from neighbours, perhaps due to the costs associated with travelling between nests. The field experiment showed that territorial male T. vittatus sacrificed the fitness benefits that large nests offer and instead prioritized occupying the nests farther from neighbours on which fewer pirates intruded. The field observations suggested that they adopt different strategies for nest choice according to their relative competitive ability to pirates; the large territorial males, who are size-matched to pirates and can defend their nests against them, compete for larger nests among the more-isolated nests, whereas subordinate territorial males, which are smaller than pirates and thus inferior to them, compete for the more-isolated nests among the less-isolated nests. These findings suggest that the territorial male T. vittatus chooses the more-isolated nests to avoid pirate males at the expense of occupying large nests. PMID:21366567

  16. Mechanisms of species divergence through visual adaptation and sexual selection:Perspectives from a cichlid model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine E. MAAN, Ole SEEHAUSEN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of ecological speciation suggests that assortative mating evolves most easily when mating preferences are directly linked to ecological traits that are subject to divergent selection. Sensory adaptation can play a major role in this process, because selective mating is often mediated by sexual signals: bright colours, complex song, pheromone blends and so on. When divergent sensory adaptation affects the perception of such signals, mating patterns may change as an immediate consequence. Alternatively, mating preferences can diverge as a result of indirect effects: assortative mating may be promoted by selection against intermediate phenotypes that are maladapted to their (sensory environment. For Lake Victoria cichlids, the visual environment constitutes an important selective force that is heterogeneous across geographical and water depth gradients. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of this heterogeneity on the evolution of female preferences for alternative male nuptial colours (red and blue in the genus Pundamilia. Here, we review the current evidence for divergent sensory drive in this system, extract general principles, and discuss future perspectives [Current Zoology 56 (3: 285–299, 2010].

  17. Super-resolution Properties of the Maxwell Fish-Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Grabovičkić, Dejan; Gonzalez Lopez, Juan Carlos; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis that shows the Maxwell Fish Eye (MFE) only has super-resolution property for some particular frequencies (for other frequencies, the MFE behaves as conventional imaging lens). These frequencies are directly connected with the Schumann resonance frequencies of spherical symmetric systems. The analysis have been done using a thin spherical waveguide (two concentric spheres with constant index between them), which is a dual form of the MFE (the ele...

  18. Monogeneans of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, E F; Scholz, T; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Vargas-Vázquez, J

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the parasites of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula the following species of monogeneans were found on cichlid, pimelodid, characid and poeciliid fishes: Sciadicleithrum mexicanum Kritsky, Vidal-Martinez et Rodriguez-Canul, 1994 from Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) (type host), Cichlasoma friedrichsthali (Heckel), Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan), and Cichlasoma synspilum Hubbs, all new host records; Sciadicleithrum meekii Mendoza-Franco, Scholz et Vidal-Martínez, 1997 from Cichlasoma meeki (Brind); Urocleidoides chavarriai (Price, 1938) and Urocleidoides travassosi (Price, 1938) from Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther); Urocleidoides costaricensis (Price et Bussing, 1967), Urocleidoides heteroancistrium (Price et Bussing, 1968), Urocleidoides anops Kritsky et Thatcher, 1974, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle Kritsky et Fritts, 1970, and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis Kritsky et Fritts, 1970 from Astyanax fasciatus; and Gyrodactylus sp. from Gambusia yucatana Regan. Urocleidoides chavarriai, U. travassosi, U. costaricensis, U. heteroancistrium, U. anops, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis are reported from North America (Mexico) for the first time. These findings support the idea about the dispersion of freshwater fishes and their monogenean parasites from South America through Central America to southeastern Mexico, following the emergence of the Panamanian isthmus between 2 and 5 million years ago. PMID:10730199

  19. Inner Ear Otolith Growth in larval Fish after Development at simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, U.; Hilbig, R.; Anken, R.

    It has been shown earlier that hypergravity slows down inner ear otolith growth in developing fish via a down-regulation of carbonic anhydrase reactivity as an adaptation towards altered environmental gravity We were thus prompted to elucidate whether clinorotation would possibly yield opposite effects Therefore larval siblings of cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were housed in a submersed two-dimensional clinostat Two tubes with different diameters were used 10 5 mm large tube LT and 3 5 mm small tube ST experimental time-span 10 and 7 days respectively After the experiments otoliths were dissected and their size area grown during the experiments was determined planimetrically In case of the LT-clinorotated fish both utricular and saccular otoliths lapilli and sagittae respectively were significantly smaller than those of the 1g-controls In contrast ST-maintenance resulted in significantly larger otoliths lapilli only no statistical significant difference regarding sagittae observed The results from LT-clinorotation therefore indicate that the animals had in fact received hypergravity whereas the ST-data are to be interpreted as being effected by simulated microgravity conditions In conclusion otolith growth is affected by the gravitational vector in a dose-dependent manner Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center DLR FKZ 50 WB 9997

  20. Vesicular bodies in fish maculae are artifacts not contributing to otolith growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsch, M; Anken, R H; Vöhringer, P; Rahmann, H

    2001-03-01

    The presence, morphology and possible origin of vesicle-like bodies (VBs) within the inner ear macular otolithic membrane of developmental stages of cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and neonate (i.e. functionally fully developed except the reproductive organs) swordtail fish Xiphophorus helleri were analyzed by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively) employing various fixation procedures. Some authors believe that these VBs are involved in the formation of the organic phase of inner ear otoliths (or statoliths in birds and mammals). Decreasing the osmolarity of the fixation medium from a value rather close to that of native fresh water fish tissue (i.e. 250 mOsm and 290--300 mOsm, respectively) to a value of fixatives mostly employed in TEM studies (ca. 190 mOsm), the amount of VBs increased and the components of sensory inner ear tissue increasingly dilated. Whilst a conventional prefixation with aldehydes followed by osmium tetroxide postfixation yielded numerous VBs, only few of them were observed when the tissue was fixed with aldehydes and osmium tetroxide simultaneously. Therefore, the results demonstrate that inner ear sensory epithelia are extremely sensitive to altering fixation media. On this background it must be concluded that VBs are fixative (i.e. glutaraldehyde) induced artificial structures, so-called membrane blisters. Thus, the protein matrix of otoliths (and possibly that of statoliths in higher vertebrates) is rather provided by secretion processes than by the release of vesicles. PMID:11223298

  1. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  2. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  3. Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from cenote fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Moravec, F

    1996-10-01

    The cestode Bothriocephalus pearsei n. sp. is described from the intestine of the cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) from cenote (= sinkhole) Zaci near Valladolid, Yucatan, Mexico. The pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis Günther, which also harbored conspecific cestodes, seems to represent accidental or postcyclic host of B. pearsei. The new species differs from congeners mainly by the morphology of the scolex, which is clavate, with the maximum width in its middle part, has a distinct but weakly muscular apical disc; 2 short and wide bothria distinctly demarcated in their anterior part, becoming indistinct posteriorly in the middle part of the scolex, and 2 elongate, lateral grooves. In addition to the scolex morphology, the new species can be differentiated from Bothriocephalus species parasitizing North American freshwater fishes as follows: B. claviceps (Goeze, 1782), a specific parasite of eels in the Holarctic, B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, occurring mostly in perciform fishes in North America, B. musculosus Baer, 1937 found in the cichlid Cichlasoma biocellata (Regan) (= C. octofasciatum (Regan)), and B. texomensis Self, 1954, described from Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), are much larger, with strobilae consisting of relatively short and very wide proglottids versus small-sized strobila (length 26-32 mm) composed of about 70 proglottids, which are only slightly wider than they are long (ratio 1:1-3), rectangular, or even longer than wide in the last proglottids in B. pearsei. Bothriocephalus formosus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932, described from Percopsis omiscomaycus (Walbaum) in the USA, can be distinguished from B. pearsei, besides the different shape of the scolex, by the distribution of vitelline follicles, which are not separated into 2 lateral fields and are present along the midline of proglottids in the former species. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, a widely distributed parasite of fishes of many families, in particular of cyprinids

  4. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  5. The origin and age of haplochromine fishes in Lake Victoria, east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, S; Tichy, H; Mayer, W E; Takezaki, N; Takahata, N; Klein, J

    2000-05-22

    According to a widely held view, the more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (LV), East Africa, originated from a single founder species in less than 12,000 years. This view, however, does not follow from the published geological and molecular evidence. The former does indeed suggest that the LV basin dried out less than 15,000 years ago, but it does not provide any information about the species that re-colonized the new lake or that remained in the rivers draining the area. The molecular evidence is inconclusive with respect to the origin of the LV haplochromines because cichlids from critical regions around LV were not adequately sampled; and as far as the age of the LV haplochromines is concerned, it in fact led to an estimate of 250,000-750,000 years old. In the present study, mitochondrial DNA (control region) variation was determined by heteroduplex and sequencing analyses of more than 670 specimens collected at widely distributed East African riverine and lacustrine localities. The analyses revealed the existence of seven haplogroups (I-VII) distinguishable by characteristic substitutions. All endemic LV samples tested fell into one of these haplogroups (V) which, however, was also found to be present at various other localities, both riverine and lacustrine, outside LV. Within this haplogroup, four subgroups (VA through VD) could be distinguished, two of which (VB and VC) were represented in LV and at other localities. The great majority of the LV haplochromine species could be classified as belonging to the VC subgroup, which was found only in LV and in the rivers draining into it. Hence, while the endemic haplochromine species of LV could not have originated from a single founding population, the lake does harbour a large species flock which probably arose in situ. PMID:10874756

  6. Models of the Cosmic Horseshoe Gravitational Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Simon; Belokurov, V; Warren, S J; Hewett, P

    2008-01-01

    We model the extremely massive and luminous lens galaxy in the Cosmic Horseshoe Einstein ring system, recently discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use the semi-linear method of Warren & Dye (2003), which pixelises the source surface brightness distribution, to invert the Einstein ring for sets of parameterised lens models. Here, the method is refined by exploiting Bayesian inference to optimise adaptive pixelisation of the source plane and to choose between three differently parameterised models: a singular isothermal ellipsoid, a power law model and a NFW profile. The most probable lens model is the power law with a volume mass density that scales as r^(-1.96+/-0.02) and an axis ratio of ~0.8. The mass within the Einstein ring (i.e., within a cylinder with projected distance of ~30 kpc from the centre of the lens galaxy) is (5.02+/-0.09)*10^12 M_solar, and the mass-to-light ratio is ~30. Even though the lens lies in a group of galaxies, the preferred value of the external shear is almost zero....

  7. Parametric modeling of zoom lens barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles W.

    2001-12-01

    Today's customer requires zoom lens designs that are compact, inexpensive, and at six-sigma quality levels. While incorporating these customer requirements, a design team must often work within compressed design cycles and minimal product development budgets. These customer and project constraints, coupled with the inherent complexity of a zoom lens module, force the design team to try new and innovative techniques to deliver their products. This paper presents the methods used to develop lens barrels for several zoom lens module projects at Eastman Kodak Company. The lens barrel, a critical interface between the mechanical and optical systems, presented a technical barrier from both an engineering analysis and manufacturing perspective. The method used to overcome these barriers consisted of identifying several key functional parameters, creating a parameter-driven 3-D solid model in a commercially available CAD system, and then using the model to make iterative, data-driven design decisions while leveraging the model to create engineering drawings and the necessary prototypes and production tooling. As a result, the designs were able to meet their size, cost, and design cycle time requirements while realizing a better than anticipated first pass yield and quality level.

  8. Power stations and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the interactions of the CEGB's activities with aquatic life are outlined, and current research is highlighted. Fish impingement and entrainment, their significance, and the possible benefits of reducing fish ingress are discussed. The effect on fish of thermal discharges and the use of heated effluents for fish culture are considered. (author)

  9. Hyper-hemispheric lens distortion model for 3D-imaging SPAD-array-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernechele, Claudio; Villa, Federica A.

    2015-09-01

    Panoramic omnidirectional lenses have the typical draw-back effect to obscure the frontal view, producing the classic "donut-shape" image in the focal plane. We realized a panoramic lens in which the frontal field is make available to be imaged in the focal plane together with the panoramic field, producing a FoV of 360° in azimuth and 270° in elevation; it have then the capabilities of a fish eye plus those of a panoramic lens: we call it hyper-hemispheric lens. We built and test an all-spherical hyper-hemispheric lens. The all-spherical configuration suffer for the typical issues of all ultra wide angle lenses: there is a large distortion at high view angles. The fundamental origin of the optical problems resides on the fact that chief rays angles on the object side are not preserved passing through the optics preceding the aperture stop (fore-optics). This effect produce an image distortion on the focal plane, with the focal length changing along the elevation angles. Moreover, the entrance pupil is shifting at large angle, where the paraxial approximation is not more valid, and tracing the rays appropriately require some effort to the optical designer. It has to be noted here as the distortion is not a source-point-aberrations: it is present also in well corrected optical lenses. Image distortion may be partially corrected using aspheric surface. We describe here how we correct it for our original hyper-hemispheric lens by designing an aspheric surface within the optical train and optimized for a Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array-based imaging applications.

  10. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  11. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  12. Fish barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to literature reviews laboratory experiments with both strobe light and different kinds of sound stimuli were carried out. In the experiments silver eel, brown trout, arctic char and salmon smolts were tested. The experiments showed that in darkness silver eel avoided strobe light with intensities between 0.4 and 8.7 lux with 80-90% avoidance in 8.7 lux. The avoidance reactions decreased when background light was raised to 9 lux. Brown trout did not show as strong avoidance reactions possibly due to aggressive behaviour between different individuals of brown trout. The avoidance reaction was however more pronounced in dim background lift with an intensity of 5 lux than in darkness. The experiments also showed that the avoidance reactions started within a few seconds after exposure to strobe light. The frequencies 6.0 and 15 Hz were more effective as triggers of avoidance reactions than were the frequencies 2.1 and 160 Hz. Arctic char did not show any avoidance reactions to strobe light. It was actually attracted to strobe light with the frequency 160 Hz in total darkness and indifferent in dim background light 10 lux. Experiments in running water also showed that salmon smolts could be diverted from an area exposed to strobe light with the frequency 15.0 Hz. The effect was more pronounced in darkness than in dim background light and also more pronounced when water current was 20 cm/s than when it was 40 or 60 cm/s. Experiments to test the avoidance reactions to sound was also performed. The evaluation of these results where however complicated by the fact that the fishes swam rapidly to and fro in the experimental chamber and thus by pure chance very frequently were close to the sound generator

  13. Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quanlong; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xueqian; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2014-10-20

    Metamaterials offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of amplitude, polarization and phase of the light beam at a subwavelength scale. A gradient metasurface consists of a class of anisotropic subwavelength metamaterial resonators that offer abrupt amplitude and phase changes, thus enabling new applications in optical device design such as ultrathin flat lenses. We propose a highly efficient gradient metasurface lens based on a metal-dielectric-metal structure that operates in the terahertz regime. The proposed structure consists of slotted metallic resonator arrays on two sides of a thin dielectric spacer. By varying the geometrical parameters, the metasurface lens efficiently manipulates the spatial distribution of the terahertz field and focuses the beam to a spot size on the order of a wavelength. The proposed flat metasurface lens design is polarization insensitive and works efficiently even at wide angles of incidence. PMID:25401626

  14. Freeform micromachining of an infrared Alvarez lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Lineberger, Jennifer L.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    In 1967, Luis Alvarez introduced a novel concept for a focusing lens whereby two transmitting elements with cubic polynomial surfaces yield a composite lens of variable focal length with small lateral shifts. Computer simulations have demonstrated the behavior of these devices, but fabricating the refractive cubic surfaces of the types needed with adequate precision and depth modulation has proven to be challenging using standard methods, and, to the authors' knowledge, Alvarez lens elements have not been previously machined in infrared materials. Recent developments in freeform diamond machining capability have enabled the fabrication of such devices. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of freeform refractive Alvarez elements in germanium using diamond micro-milling on a five-axis Moore Nanotech® 350FG Freeform Generator. Machining approaches are discussed, and measurements of surface figure and finish are presented. Initial experimental tests of optical performance are also discussed.

  15. The Frontier Fields Lens Modeling Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Coe, D; Contini, E; De Lucia, G; Giocoli, C; Acebron, A; Borgani, S; Bradac, M; Diego, J M; Hoag, A; Ishigaki, M; Johnson, T L; Jullo, E; Kawamata, R; Lam, D; Limousin, M; Liesenborgs, J; Oguri, M; Sebesta, K; Sharon, K; Williams, L L R; Zitrin, A

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies offers a powerful probe of their structure and mass distribution. Deriving a lens magnification map for a galaxy cluster is a classic inversion problem and many methods have been developed over the past two decades to solve it. Several research groups have developed techniques independently to map the predominantly dark matter distribution in cluster lenses. While these methods have all provided remarkably high precision mass maps, particularly with exquisite imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the reconstructions themselves have never been directly compared. In this paper, we report the results of comparing various independent lens modeling techniques employed by individual research groups in the community. Here we present for the first time a detailed and robust comparison of methodologies for fidelity, accuracy and precision. For this collaborative exercise, the lens modeling community was provided simulated cluster images -- of two clusters Are...

  16. Radiation dose to the eye lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Christina; Falch Braas, Kirsten; D. Nielsen, Kamilla;

    2015-01-01

    field in oncology patients undergoing eyes-to-thighs PET/CT must always include the base of the scull according to department guidelines. The eye lens is sensitive to radiation exposure and if possible it should be avoided to scan the eye. If the patient’s head is kipped backwards during the scan one...... might avoid including the eye in the CT scan without losing sufficient visualization of the scull base. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the radiation dose to the eye lens, simply by changing the head position, when doing the PET/CT scan from the base of the scull...... the skull base. Conclusion: These results indicate that it is possible to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens without loss of diagnostic information in the scan by optimizing positioning of the head....

  17. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input and output (object and image). The generalized Snell's law in three dimensional space and the normal of a surface in fundamental differential geometry are applied. Based on the Lagrange method equations for a single surface system are derived which can perfectly image a point object.

  18. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  19. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed

  20. Laser light scattering in eye lens model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, Nadezhda L.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2000-11-01

    Theoretical investigations of laser light radiation scattered by eye lens model as a system of spheres with various parameters were performed on the base of Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering by a single sphere. The calculations were performed for systems of particles whose coordinates were specifically realized in random fashion according to the specified probabilities defined by the approximation of hard spheres. The modeling of lens biotissue was carried out by using of medical data about internal structure of lens of human and some animals. In general the researchable model presents the system of homogeneous spherical particles those are randomly distributed in the layer of thickness. We study the optical properties such as scattering effective cross-section and function of correlation in different models.

  1. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, S; Delgado Soler, C; Ginjaume, M; Beltran Vilagrasa, M; Rovira Escutia, J J; Duch, M A

    2015-07-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y(-1), averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y(-1). This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y(-1). Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y(-1). It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. PMID:25809107

  2. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  3. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y-1 , averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y-1 . This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y-1. Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y-1. It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. (authors)

  4. Sterilization potential of contact lens solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic field of Contact Lens Solutions maintenance of high standards of anti-microbial activity is a must Resterilization Activity Time′ is a universally accepted yardstick for such an evaluation. In this study eight brands of indigenous popular solutions alongwith two FDA approved solutions were tested for their sterilization efficacy: Standardized suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the purpose. It was observed that the contact lens solutions available ir, the domestic market were not upto the mark Suggestions for improvement have also been made.

  5. Near field imaging from multilayer lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Li, Jensen; Tam, H L; Chan, C T; Cheah, K W

    2011-12-01

    Multilayer superlens has been reported that it had advantages over the single metal layer superlens. In this work, single silver layer and Ag-SiO2 multilayer superlens devices working at wavelength of 365 nm were fabricated using standard photolithography method. Grating objects with line/space (190 nm/190 nm) resolution could be resolved through both kinds of lens structures with working distance up to 128 nm. However, Ag-SiO2 multilayer lens shows higher transmittance and image contrast than the single silver layer device, the experimental result proves the theoretical calculation. PMID:22408982

  6. Fabrication of an unusual mosaic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design philosophy and the construction techniques to make a novel mosaic lens to collect Cerenkow radiation are described. The lens blanks were rough cut into segments by a water jet. The segments were cut to the final inner and outer diameters by ultrasonically assisted machining, an unusual new technique developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The technology will soon be available to the public through Sonic Mill, Inc., 3820 Academy Parkway North, NE, Albuquerque, N.M. 87109. The advantage of ultrasonically assisted machining lies in rapid, accurate shaping of brittle materials such as ceramics and glass, which can by this technique, be shaped about as fast as aluminum

  7. Pulse transformer for the AA lithium lens

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The antiprotons emanating from the target were initially focused by a magnetic horn. Later on, a Li-lens was used during operation for the SPS collider, until 1992. A Li-rod (130 mm long, 34 mm in diameter) constituted the secondary of a 1:23 pulse-transformer. The half-sine pulse rose to 1000 kA in 900 microsec. The angular acceptance was 95 mrad. In operation after 1992, for LEAR only, a more modest Li-lens was used (155 mm long, diameter 20 mm, 480 kA, risetime 240 microsec, angular acceptance 75 mrad).

  8. Rotman lens for mm-wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard T.; Hansen, Hedley J.; Abbott, Derek

    2002-11-01

    The 77 GHz band has been reserved for intelligent cruise control in luxury cars and some public transport services in America and the United Kingdom. The Rotman lens offers a cheap and compact means to extend the single beam systems generally used, to fully functional beam staring arrangements. Rotman lenses have been built for microwave frequencies with limited success. The flexibility of microstrip transmission lines and the advent of fast accurate simulation packages allow practical Rotman lenses to be designed at mm-wavelengths. This paper discusses the limitations of the conventional design approach and predicts the performance of a new Rotman lens designed at 77 GHz.

  9. An "ESA-affordable" Laue-lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    rapidly. Telescopes based on Laue diffraction of gamma-rays from crystals appear as one promising route, although the practical difficulties of realizing a large scale Laue lens are certainly not small. In this paper I have attempted to develop an optimized lens design considering the size and mass......With ESA's INTEGRAL mission gamma-ray astronomy has advanced to the point where major scientific advances must be expected from detailed studies of the many new point sources. The interest in developing focusing telescopes operating in the soft gamma-ray regime up to 1 MeV is therefore mounting...

  10. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  11. Growth of the eye lens: II. Allometric studies

    OpenAIRE

    Augusteyn, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the ontogeny and phylogeny of lens growth in a variety of species using allometry. Methods Data on the accumulation of wet and/or dry lens weight as a function of bodyweight were obtained for 40 species and subjected to allometric analysis to examine ontogenic growth and compaction. Allometric analysis was also used to compare the maximum adult lens weights for 147 species with the maximum adult bodyweight and to compare lens volumes calculated...

  12. Floating anterior lens capsule: an unusual case of true exfoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Riffle, John

    2010-01-01

    A rare case of delamination and replication of the anterior lens capsule into prominent floating folds in the anterior chamber approximately 55 years after a penetrating injury to the eye and anterior lens capsule is reported. Classically, true exfoliation of the anterior lens capsule has been reported in individuals who have been exposed to intense heat over a prolonged period. However, more recently cases of true exfoliation of the anterior lens capsule have been reported in patients who ha...

  13. Superior Lens Coloboma with Superior Rectus Palsy and Congenital Ptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jethani, Jitendra; Vishal R. Sharma; Marwah, Kenshuk

    2009-01-01

    A lens coloboma is characterized by the lens tissue's notching at the equator. It is usually inferior-nasal else it is called an atypical coloboma. We report a young male who presented with a superior lens coloboma, an elevation deficit and moderate ptosis, left eye. As superior rectus and levator muscles are derived from the neural crest cell we propose, genetically, there may be an association between the lens coloboma and the superior rectus/levator muscle underaction via an anomalous home...

  14. Achromatic Fresnel Lens with Improved Efficiency for PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mario González Montes; Juan Carlos Martínez-Antón; Daniel Vázquez Moliní; Antonio Álvarez Fernandez-Balbuena; Bernabeu, E.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed to design and evaluate different achromatic Fresnel lens solutions capable of operating as concentrators aimed at photovoltaic cells systems. Throughout this study, the theoretical parametric design of the achromatic lens will be shown together with a series of simulations to verify the performance of each lens topology. The results will be compared with a standard Fresnel lens to ascertain the validity and effectiveness of the obtained design. Finally, a novel kind of hybr...

  15. Male mating preferences pre-date the origin of a female trait polymorphism in an incipient species complex of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, M E R; Seehausen, O

    2007-01-01

    Disruptive sexual selection on colour patterns has been suggested as a major cause of diversification in the cichlid species flock of Lake Victoria. In Neochromis omnicaeruleus, a colour and sex determination polymorphism is associated with a polymorphism in male and female mating preferences. Theoretical work on this incipient species complex found conditions for rapid sympatric speciation by selection on sex determination and sexual selection on male and female colour patterns, under restrictive assumptions. Here we test the biological plausibility of a key assumption of such models, namely, the existence of a male preference against a novel female colour morph before its appearance in the population. We show that most males in a population that lacks the colour polymorphism exhibit a strong mating preference against the novel female colour morph and that reinforcement is not a likely explanation for the origin of such male preferences. Our results show that a specific condition required for the combined action of selection on sex determination and sexual selection to drive sympatric speciation is biologically justified. Finally, we suggest that Lake Victoria cichlids might share an ancestral female recognition scheme, predisposing colour monomorphic populations/species to similar evolutionary pathways leading to divergence of colour morphs in sympatry. PMID:17210017

  16. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section... lens. (a) Identification. A rigid gas permeable contact lens is a device intended to be worn directly against the cornea of the eye to correct vision conditions. The device is made of various materials,...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device intended to be inserted into the eye during surgery to direct... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric...

  20. Once-punctured tori and knots in lens spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    We determine the non-null homologous knots in lens spaces whose exteriors contain properly embedded once-punctured tori. All such knots arise as surgeries on the Whitehead link and are grid number 1 in their lens spaces. As a corollary, we classify once-punctured torus bundles that admit a lens space filling.