WorldWideScience

Sample records for ci type carbonaceous

  1. Comets as parent bodies of CI1 carbonaceous meteorites and possible habitats of ice-microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra; Wickramasinghe, Janaki T.; Wallis, Jamie; Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies of comets and cometary dust have confirmed the presence of biologically relevant organic molecules along with clay minerals and water ice. It is also now well established by deuterium/hydrogen ratios that the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites contain indigenous extraterrestrial water. The evidence of extensive aqueous alteration of the minerals in these meteorites led to the hypothesis that water-bearing asteroids or comets represent the parent bodies of the CI1 (and perhaps CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. These meteorites have also been shown to possess a diverse array of complex organics and chiral and morphological biomarkers. Stable isotope studies by numerous independent investigators have conclusively established that the complex organics found in these meteorites are both indigenous and extraterrestrial in nature. Although the origin of these organics is still unknown, some researchers have suggested that they originated by unknown abiotic mechanisms and may have played a role in the delivery of chiral biomolecules and the origin of life on Early Earth. In this paper we review these results and investigate the thermal history of comets. We show that permanent as well as transient domains of liquid water can be maintained on a comet under a plausible set of assumptions. With each perihelion passage of a comet volatiles are preferentially released, and during millions of such passages the comet could shed crustal debris that may survive transit through the Earth's atmosphere as a carbonaceous meteorite. We review the current state of knowledge of comets and carbonaceous meteorites. We also present the results of recent studies on the long-term viability of terrestrial ice-microbiota encased in ancient glacial ice and permafrost. We suggest that the conditions which have been observed to prevail on many comets do not preclude either survivability (or even the active metabolism and growth) of many types of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial

  2. Comets as Parent Bodies of CI1 Carbonaceous Meteorites and Possible Habitats of Ice-Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra; Wallis, Daryl H.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of comets and cometary dust have confirmed the presence of biologically relevant organic molecules along with clay minerals and water ice. It is also now well established by deuterium/hydrogen ratios that the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites contain indigenous extraterrestrial water. The evidence of extensive aqueous alteration of the minerals in these meteorites led to the hypothesis that water-bearing asteroids or comets represent the parent bodies of the CI1 (and perhaps CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. These meteorites have also been shown to possess a diverse array of complex organics and chiral and morphological biomarkers. Stable isotope studies by numerous independent investigators have conclusively established that the complex organics found in these meteorites are both indigenous and extraterrestrial in nature. Although the origin of these organics is still unknown, some researchers have suggested that they originated by unknown abiotic mechanisms and may have played a role in the delivery of chiral biomolecules and the origin of life on Early Earth. In this paper we review these results and investigate the thermal history of comets. We show that permanent as well as transient domains of liquid water can be maintained on a comet under a plausible set of assumptions. With each perihelion passage of a comet volatiles are preferentially released, and during millions of such passages the comet could shed crustal debris that may survive transit through the Earth s atmosphere as a carbonaceous meteorite. We review the current state of knowledge of comets and carbonaceous meteorites. We also present the results of recent studies on the long-term viability of terrestrial ice-microbiota encased in ancient glacial ice and permafrost. We suggest that the conditions which have been observed to prevail on many comets do not preclude either survivability (or even the active metabolism and growth) of many types of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial

  3. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 1. CI chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Mann, P.

    2011-03-01

    Existing reflectance spectra of CI chondrites (18 spectra of 3 CIs) have been augmented with new (18 spectra of 2 CIs) reflectance spectra to ascertain the spectral variability of this meteorite class and provide insights into their spectral properties as a function of grain size, composition, particle packing, and viewing geometry. Particle packing and viewing geometry effects have not previously been examined for CI chondrites. The current analysis is focused on the 0.3-2.5 μm interval, as this region is available for the largest number of CI spectra. Reflectance spectra of powdered CI1 chondrites are uniformly dark (IOM), as no other CI opaque phase appears able to produce concurrent darkening and bluing. Magnetite can also explain the presence of an absorption feature near 1 μm in some CI spectra. The most blue-sloped spectra are generally associated with the larger grain size samples. For incidence and emission angles <60°, increasing phase angle results in darker and redder spectra, particularly below ∼1 μm. At high incidence angles (60°), increasing emission angle results in brighter and redder spectra. More densely packed samples and underdense (fluffed) samples show lower overall reflectance than normally packed and flat-surface powdered samples. Some B-class asteroids exhibit selected spectral properties consistent with CI chondrites, although perfect spectral matches have not been found. Because many CI chondrite spectra exhibit absorption features that can be related to specific mineral phases, the search for CI parent bodies can fruitfully be conducted using such parameters.

  4. Uranium band types in carbonaceous sediments with different diagenesis levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borstel, D. von.

    1984-01-01

    Uraniferous peats, lignites and coals were studied by chemical and geological methods in order to determine the influence of carbonaceous substances with different diagenesis levels on uranium enrichment in sediments. It was found that the main factor of deposit genesis is not the chemical bending of uranium to the organic substance but rather the reduction from mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV) in the course of diagenesis to epigenesis. (orig./PW) [de

  5. Ore-forming environment and ore-forming system of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng; Zhang Zilong; Li Zhixing; He Zhongbo; Wang Wenquan

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that there are four types of ore-forming systems about carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China based on systematic study on structural environment and distribution regularity of uraniferous construction of marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock in China: continental margin rift valley ore-forming systems, continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore-forming systems, landmass boundary borderland basin ore-forming systems and epicontinental mobile belt downfaulted aulacogen ore-forming systems. It is propounded definitely that it is controlled by margin rift valley ore-forming systems and continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore-forming systems for large-scale uranium mineralization of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China, which is also controlled by uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction made up of silicalite, siliceous phosphorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock, which settled down accompany with submarine backwash and sub marine volcanic eruption in margin rift valley and continental margin rifting mineralizing environment. Continental mar gin rift valley and continental margin rifting thermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentation is the mechanism of forming large-scale uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction Early Palaeozoic Era in China or large-scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  6. Effects of day-of-week trends and vehicle types on PM{sub 2.5}-bounded carbonaceous compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt, E-mail: pongpiajun@gmail.com [NIDA Center for Research & Development of Disaster Prevention & Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), 118 Moo 3, Sereethai Road, Klong-Chan, Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS), Xi' an 710075 (China); Kositanont, Charnwit [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Palakun, Jittree [Faculty of Education, Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University under the Royal Patronage (VRU), No.1 Moo 20, Phaholyothin Road, Klong luang, Pathumthani 13180 (Thailand); Liu, Suixin; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji [SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS), Xi' an 710075 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Carbonaceous compositions of PM{sub 2.5} were measured in the heart of Bangkok from 17th November 2010 to 19th January 2012, and a data set of 94 samples was constructed. Effects of day-of-week trends and vehicle types on PM{sub 2.5}-bound TC, OC, and EC were carefully investigated. In this study, OC was the most important contributor to the total PM{sub 2.5} mass concentration. The average PM{sub 2.5}-bound OC content measured at CHAOS (18.8 ± 9.18 μg m{sup −3}) was approximately 11 times higher than at Chaumont, Switzerland (1.7 μg m{sup −3}), but approximately five times lower than at Xi'an, China (93.0 μg m{sup −3}). The application of diagnostic binary ratios of OC/EC and estimations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) coupled with autocorrelation plots (Box and Jenkins) highlight the enhanced impacts of traffic emissions, especially from diesel vehicles, on PM{sub 2.5}-bound carbonaceous compositions on weekdays relative to weekends. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) underline the importance of diesel emissions as the primary contributors of carbonaceous aerosols, particularly during weekdays. - Highlights: • Traffic emissions play an important role in governing OC and EC during weekdays. • Time series analysis shows the existence of day-of-week trends of OC and EC. • Diesel vehicles are the main contributors of carbonaceous compositions.

  7. Ore-controlling mechanism of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposits with down-faulted red basins in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zilong; Qi Fucheng; He Zhongbo; Li Zhixing; Wang Wenquan; Yu Jinshui

    2012-01-01

    One of the important ore-concentrated areas of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposits is the Southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate. Sedimentary-exogenously transformed type and sedimentary- hydrothermal superimposed transformed type uranium deposits are always distributed at or near the edge of down-faulted red ba sins. In this paper, the distributions of the deposits are analyzed with the relation to down-faulted red basins. The connective effect and ore-controlling mechanism are proposed of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposits with marginal fractures of red basins. (authors)

  8. Effect of Inhomogeneous Mixture Properties on CI Combustion in a Schnurle-Type Gasoline DI Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Woo; Moriyoshi, Yasuo

    The authors have performed experiments on compression-ignition (CI) for a single-cylinder Schnurle-type two-stroke gasoline direct injection (DI) engine which employs a variable exhaust port, area, and deduced two presumptions from the experimental results. Firstly, the spatial distributions of fuel concentration and in-cylinder gas temperature are indispensable to enable CI operation under stratified charge conditions, because CI operation is not possible in a DI system although the necessary conditions of the scavenging efficiency and the in-cylinder gas temperature for the initiation of CI in homogeneous charge conditions are satisfied. Secondly, it is possible that flame propagation occurs in stratified charge CI conditions, because the combustion period in the later stage after 80% mass burned becomes longer than that with homogeneous charge CI combustion. In this report, in order to verify the above two presumptions deduced from experiments, the gas exchange process and mixture formation process were numerically analyzed, and the initiation conditions of CI were estimated using a CHEMKIN application. As a result, in case of CI with a late injection timing in DI system, it was found that CI was possible because high temperature but no fuel region and low temperature but rich fuel region exist in the cylinder due to inhomogeneous spatial distributions of fuel and temperature. Also, in case of CI with a late injection timing, the flame propagation was possible in the low-temperature and diluted rich region. Thereby, the two presumptions deduced from the experimental results were validated from the numerical analysis results.

  9. An review on geology study of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China and the strategy for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fengmin

    2009-01-01

    Carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit was founded by Chinese uranium geologist, it refers to the uranium deposit hosted by non or light metamophosed carbonate,siliceous rock, pelitic rock and their intermediates. It is one of the important types uranium deposit in China. A lot of this type deposits have been discovered in China and their temporal-spatial distribution pattern and mineralization features have been basically identified, and the rich experience have layed a good foundation for the future exploration. Although the ore of this type is not favourable economically, it is still available. Because carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit has great resource potential, metallogenic study and exploration efforts should be projected differentially according to their economic profit so as to meet the uranium resource demand of nuclear power development in China. (authors)

  10. Carbonaceous materials in the acid residue from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2006-04-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) dominates the HF/HCl residue of the Orgueil (CI) carbonaceous chondrite meteorite. The IOM is composed primarily of two C-rich particle types. The first has a fluffy texture similar to crumpled tissue paper, and the second type occurs as solid or hollow nanospheres. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of the fluffy material show it is poorly ordered, with small, irregularly shaped regions having fringes with 0.34-0.38 nm spacings and locally 0.21 nm cross-fringes. Nanodiamonds occur in the fluffy material. The rounded C-rich particles are common in the residue and their HRTEM images show neither fringes nor nanodiamonds. Both types of carbonaceous materials have a high aromatic component, as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), with up to 10 at% substitution by S, N, and O. The average compositions of the fluffy material and nanospheres are C100S1.9N3.7O4.9 and C100S2.4N5.0O3.9, respectively. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of the carbonaceous materials may represent material from multiple sources.

  11. Fluctuations of Wigner-type random matrices associated with symmetric spaces of class DIII and CI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Wigner-type randomizations of the tangent spaces of classical symmetric spaces can be thought of as ordinary Wigner matrices on which additional symmetries have been imposed. In particular, they fall within the scope of a framework, due to Schenker and Schulz-Baldes, for the study of fluctuations of Wigner matrices with additional dependencies among their entries. In this contribution, we complement the results of these authors by explicit calculations of the asymptotic covariances for symmetry classes DIII and CI and thus obtain explicit CLTs for these classes. On the technical level, the present work is an exercise in controlling the cumulative effect of systematically occurring sign factors in an involved sum of products by setting up a suitable combinatorial model for the summands. This aspect may be of independent interest. Research supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via SFB 878.

  12. Ci PERMIT

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations at Geneva recalls that only the spouses and children of members of personnel resident in Switzerland and in possession of a legitimation card of types 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are entitled to benefit from a Ci Permit.The 'demande d'attestation de permis Ci' (request for a Ci permit attestation) can be sent to the Mission only through Personnel Division (Administrative Services, Office 33/1-025).Additional information on access by family members of CERN officials to the Swiss labour market are available to you on the Web site of the Relations with the Host States Service (cf. document entitled 'Employment in Switzerland for spouses and children of CERN officials' dated March 1996).Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  13. Organic matter in primitive meteorites: a study of the hydrogen isotopic distribution in CM-type carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, L.; Yurimoto, H.; Remusat, L.; Gonzales, A.; Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Chondrite meteorites are fragments of rocks coming from small bodies of the asteroid belt and constitute witnesses of the volatile-rich reservoirs present in the inner protoplanetary disk. Among these meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites contain the largest quantity of water and organic matter and are one of the most probable candidates for the delivery of water and molecular origin of life to Earth. Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites is intimately mixed with hydrated minerals challenging its in situ characterization and the determination of its H-isotope composition (Le Guillou et al., GCA 131, 2014). Organic matter occurs as soluble components (in water or organic solvents) and an insoluble macromolecule. The insoluble organic matter (IOM) is efficiently isolated after acid leaching of the chondrite minerals. IOM has thus been investigated by a large set of analytical techniques allowing its structural organization, chemical composition and isotopic composition to be determined at several scales (e.g. Derenne and Robert, MAPS 45, 2010). In the soluble counterpart (SOM), targeted studies have shown large ranges of D/H ratios in the different classes of soluble organic compounds (i.e. carboxylic acids, ketones and aldehydes, amino-acids etc.) (Remusat, Planetary Mineralogy 15, 2015 and references therein). This D/H distribution indicates a complex and probably multiple-stage synthesis of this organic compounds occurring at different stages of the disk evolution. Nevertheless, inventories of the known C-bearing species in carbonaceous chondrites (carbonates, SOM and IOM) show that about 40-50 % of the carbon is hidden within the matrix (Alexander et al., MAPS 50, 2015). In this study, we perform in situ hydrogen isotope analyses at the micrometer scale by secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the distribution of organic matter in primitive chondrites without the use of any chemical treatment. Correlated analyses of the D/H and C/H ratios allow us to

  14. Carbonaceous deposits on naptha reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwan, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous deposits on naphtha reforming catalysts play a decisive role in limiting process performance. The deposits negatively after catalyst activity, selectivity and the production cycle of a semi regenerative reformer. The magnitude of negative effect of those deposits is directly proportional to their amounts and complexity. Investigations on used reforming catalysts samples reveal that the amount and type (complexity of the chemical nature) of carbonaceous deposits are directly proportional to the catalysts life on stream and the severity of operating conditions. In addition, the combustibility behavior of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst samples taken from different reformers are found to be different. Optimal carbon removal, for in situ catalyst regeneration, requires the specific conditions be developed, based on the results of well designed and properly performed investigations of the amount and type of carbonaceous deposits. (author)

  15. CI Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of tools available for organizations wishing to measure and subsequently develop Continuous Improvement (CI). In this article, we review and evaluate a well-accepted CI development model, namely the CI Maturity Model (Bessant and Caffyn, 1997), against data collected from the 2nd...... Continuous Improvement Network Survey and a number of empirical cases described in the literature. While the CI Maturity Model suggests that CI maturation ought to be a linear process, the findings in this article suggest that there are feasible alternatives for companies to develop CI capability....

  16. SNOW COVER OF THE CENTRAL ANTARCTICA (VOSTOK STATION AS AN IDEAL NATURAL TABLET FOR COSMIC DUST COLLECTION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF MICROMETEORITES OF CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITE TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Bulat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2010/11 season nearby the Vostok station the 56th Russian Antarctic Expedition has collected surface snow in a big amount from a 3 m deep pit using 15 220 L vol. containers (about 70 kg snow each. Snow melting and processing by ultra-centrifugation was performed in a clean (class 10 000 and 100 laboratory. Total dust concentrations were not exceeded 37.4 mkg per liter with particle dispersal mode around 2.5 mkm. To analyze the elemental composition of fine dust particles aimed to reveal Antarctic micrometeorites (AMM two electron microscopy devices equipped with different micro-beams were implemented. As a preliminary result, three particles (of 107 analyzed featured by Mg content clearly dominated over Al along with Si and Fe as major elements (a feature of carbonaceous chondrites were observed. By this the Vostok AMM CS11 collection was established. The occurrence of given particles was averaged 2.8% – the factual value obtained for the first time for chondritic type AMM at Vostok which should be considered as the lowest estimate for all other families of AMM. Given the reference profile of total dust content in East Antarctic snow during Holocene (18 mkg/kg the MM deposition in Antarctica was quantified for the first time – 14 tons per day for carbonaceous chondrites for the Vostok AMM CS11 collection and up to 245 tons per day for all MM types for the Concordia AMM DC02 collection. The results obtained allowed to prove that snow cover (ice sheet in total of Central East Antarctica is the best spot (most clean of other natural locations and always below 0 ºC for collecting native MM deposited on the Earth during the last million years and could be useful in deciphering the origin and evolution of solid matter in our Solar System and its effects on Earth-bound biogeochemical and geophysical processes including the life origin. The farther analyses of the Vostok AMMs are in a progress.

  17. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  18. Ukaegbe, CI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ukaegbe, CI. Vol 11, No 1-2 (2012) - Articles Postpartum Depression Among Igbo Women In An Urban Mission Hospital, South East Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1597-1260. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  19. Study of the type of gamma radioactivity in platform carbonaceous rocks: analyses and environmental, diagenetic and geodynamical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddadi, Mohamed-Chaker

    2004-01-01

    In well-logging, values of gamma-activity are measured by scintillometry. A conventional paradigm is to link high γ-activity to Potassium (K) and Thorium (Th) isotopes present in clays and to Uranium isotopes present either in detrital sediments (typically in zircon or monazite minerals) or to sediments rich in organic matter. In shallow-water carbonates platforms, high γ-activities are interpreted in the same way. However, in a first γ-scintillometer survey of the Gorges du Nan section (sub-alpine Vercors massif), we found inconsistencies between lithologies and their expected γ-responses: the highest radioactive beds do not correspond to high argillaceous or detrital limestones and marls, but to some low content argillaceous or 'pure' limestones beds. The aim of this study was to identify the radioactive isotopes associated to different types of carbonates, their localisation, their abundance and their respective contribution to the total gamma response in order to propose a new method for the interpretation of gamma-ray logs in shallow-water carbonates. This study was focused on two intervals: - The first one corresponds to the Ba3 depositional sequence (Upper Barremian) which is composed essentially of limestones. This sequence was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble and in the Swiss Jura near Neuchatel; - The second one corresponds to the 'Lower Oritolina marls' interval. This interval was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble, in Spain (Organya basin) and in central Tunisia near Kairouan. We carried out detailed sedimentological, diagenetic and isotopic studies of all these sections. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes analyses allowed us to establish some large scale correlations between sections in the French Alps, in the Pyrenees and in central Tunisia. The good correlation between Oxygen and Carbon stable isotopes curves of the Lower Orbitolina marls in all the

  20. Carbonaceous material treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevor, S R

    1939-05-04

    To separate and collect for use the component parts of carbonaceous materials, they are fed to superimposed connected vertical or substantially vertical chambers, located over a furnace, the flue gases from which pass to space or spaces of a casing surrounding the superimposed chambers. Pipes are provided so that part or whole of the gases may be passed through the chambers. Take-off pipes are connected to expansion chambers, through which the gases pass to condenser coils and separating tanks.

  1. Treating carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R L; Corbett, E G

    1939-03-21

    A process is given for the production of aliphatic compounds by heat treatment of carbonaceous material. The latter are impregnated with a dilute solution of a catalyst, such as chromium copper or nickel acetate or nitrate, or ammonium or urea acetate and subjected to destructive distillation in a retort in the presence of a reducing gas and steam, at a pressure not greater than fifteen atmospheres.

  2. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, C A

    1924-04-15

    In apparatus of the kind set forth for distilling solid carbonaceous materials, a rotary retort in the form of a tubular, hollow cylindrical, or other similar hollow body, of small diameter, having a thin wall is provided to which the heat is applied externally, with means operative within it adapted, not only for cleaning the internal wall of the retort but also for distributing the heat throughout the mass of materials under treatment, substantially as described.

  3. A Mudball Model for the Evolution of Carbonaceous Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, B. J.; Bland, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    We simulation the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies from initially unconsolidated aggregations of rock grains and ice crystals. Application of the numerical model MAGHNUM to evolution of CM type planetesimals and Ceres is described.

  4. Treating carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-08-26

    To separate the constituents or conversion products, which are liquid or which liquefy when heated, from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales, or other bituminous substances, the initial materials are subjected to a destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzines is substantially avoided, after which the material is subjected to an extraction treatment with solvents. The constituents of high boiling point range, suitable for the production of lubricating oils and solid paraffins, obtained by the said destructive hydrogenation are separated off before or/and after the said extraction treatment.

  5. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-06-29

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal, oil shale, peat, or wood are destructively distilled while being subjected to the action of superheated steam and hydrogen, the latter being provided by dissociating a part of the superheated steam. The materials are charged into a retort heated by a burner and superheated steam and hydrogen are passed in by a pipe and nozzles. The distillates enter a dust extractor through openings and escape through openings shielded by cones into an outlet pipe leading to condensers. The dust which settles in the bottom of the apparatus is periodically removed.

  6. The Thermal Properties of CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.; Opeil, C.

    2017-12-01

    The physical properties of asteroid exploration targets are fundamental parameters for developing models, planning observations, mission operations, reducing operational risk, and interpreting mission results. Until we have returned samples, meteorites represent our "ground truth" for the geological material we expect to interact with, sample, and interpret on the surfaces of asteroids. The physical properties of the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CI, C2, CM, and CR groups) are of particular interest because of their high resource potential. We have measured the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion of five CM carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison, Murray, Cold Bokkeveld, NWA 7309, Jbilet Winselwan) at low temperatures (5-300 K) to mimic the conditions in the asteroid belt. The mineralogy of these meteorites are dominated by abundant hydrous phyllosilicates, but also contain anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene found in chondrules. The thermal expansion measurements for all these CMs indicate a substantial increase in meteorite volume as temperature decreases from 230 - 210 K followed by linear contraction below 210 K. Such transitions were unexpected and are not typical for anhydrous carbonaceous chondrites or ordinary chondrites. Our thermal diffusivity results compare well with previous estimates for similar meteorites, where conductivity was derived from diffusivity measurements and modeled heat capacities; our new values are of a higher precision and cover a wider range of temperatures.

  7. Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites - New opportunities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    An account is given of the types of carbonaceous meteorites available in the Antarctic collections of the U.S. and Japan. In the case of the collection for Victoria Land and Queen Maud Land, all known classes for meteorites except C1 are present; available pairing data, though limited, are indicative of the presence of many different falls. Thus far, attention has been focused on the largest meteorites. Most samples, however, are small.

  8. Treating carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, T D

    1927-07-29

    Coal, lignite, shale, peat, or like carbonaceous material is heated at 70 to 300/sup 0/C with an alkaline solution of sodium, potassium, or ammonium oleate and aluminum sulfate is added in order to solidify the oleate. The solid material is separated and molded or shaped or disintegrated for use as a pigment or mixed with rubber or similar compounds such as solidified, oxidized or polymerized oils in making building blocks or tiles, tires, footwear, or other resilient material. It may be distilled with water or steam in a retort to make gas, or in porous condition can be burnt. The liquid products may be subjected to fractional distillation or mixed with bitumen, resin or oils or materials such as clay, red oxide, or barytes to give colour or body in the manufacture of waterproof heatproof dressings which may be made quick-drying by the addition of ammonia, or for mixing with or spreading over stones or on roads or concrete.

  9. TESTING OF CARBONACEOUS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water. Relevant direction for improving of quality of potable water is application of active carbons at various stages of water treatments. This work includes complex research dealing with testing of a broad spectrum of carbonaceous adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide and nitrite ions from water. The role of the surface functional groups of carbonaceous adsorbents, their acid-basic properties, and the influence of the type of impregnated heteroatom (N, O, or metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, on removal of hydrogen sulfide species and nitrite ions have been researched. The efficiency of the catalyst obtained from peach stones by impregnation with Cu2+ ions of oxidized active carbon was established, being recommended for practical purposes to remove the hydrogen sulfide species from the sulfurous ground waters. Comparative analysis of carbonaceous adsorbents reveals the importance of surface chemistry for oxidation of nitrite ions.

  10. Amino Acid Chemistry as a Link Between Small Solar System Bodies and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishing chemical links between meteorites and small solar system bodies, such as comets and asteroids, provides a tool for investigating the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system. Carbonaceous meteorites are of particular interest, since they may have seeded the early Earth with a variety of prebiotic organic compounds including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, which are thought to be necessary for the origin of life. Here we report the results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analyses of the acid-hydrolyzed hot water extracts from pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna and the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray. We found that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna contained high abundances of beta-alanine and glycine, while only traces of other amino acids like alanine, alpha-amino-n-butryic acid (ABA) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were detected in these meteorites. Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine in Orgueil by gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry clearly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these amino acids. The amino acid composition of Orgueil and Ivuna was strikingly different from the CM chondrites Murchison and Murray. The most notable difference was the high relative abundance of B-alanine in Orgueil and Ivuna compared to Murchison and Murray. Furthermore, AIB, which is one of the most abundant amino acids found in Murchison and Murray, was present in only trace amounts in Orgueil and Ivuna. Our amino acid data strongly suggest that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna came from a different type of parent body than the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray, possibly from an extinct comet. It is generally thought that carbonaceous meteorites are fragments of larger asteroidal bodies delivered via near Earth objects (NEO). Orbital and dynamic studies suggest that both fragments of main belt asteroids

  11. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    the change processes in which we are engaged?” Without a clear picture of the types of competencies required to implement CI, it is impossible for companies to make informed decisions regarding recruitment, hiring, and training of their workforce. The objective of this paper is therefore to define...... and characterize the types of competencies necessary for persons involved change implementation. Data collection involved interviews and observations in three longitudinal studies in five companies based in Denmark. From these data, a list of competencies that appeared to facilitate CI implementation was compiled...... challenging in organizations involved in change processes such as Continuous Improvement (CI), as the technical skills traditionally valued are no longer adequate. These companies are faced with the question: “What competencies should our employees possess in order to contribute to our success, given...

  12. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  13. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  14. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  15. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J R

    1921-04-16

    To obtain an increased yield of by-products such as oils, ammonia, and gas from coal, oil shale, wood, peat, and the like by low and medium temperature processes, the requisite quantity of hot producer gas from a gas producer, is caused to travel, without ignition, through the material as it passes in a continuous manner through the retort so that the sensible heat of the producer gas is utilized to produce distillation of the carbonaceous material, the gases passing to a condenser, absorption apparatus, and an ammonia absorber respectively. In a two-stage method of treatment of materials such as peat or the like, separate supplies of producer gas are utilized for a preliminary drying operation and for the distillation of the material, the drying receptacle and the retort being joined together to render the process continuous. The gas from the drying receptacle may be mixed with the combined producer and retort gas from the retort, after the hydrocarbon oils have deen removed therefrom.

  16. Distillation of carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J W.H.

    1936-10-03

    To recover hydrocarbon products by distillation of carbonaceous material in a plurality of horizontal zones maintained at different temperatures, a retort has a plurality of superimposed (3) retort chambers, the uppermost being in communication at one end with a hopper and at the other end through coupled junction not shown with one end of the next lower chamber, whose opposite end communicates with lowermost chamber, the other end of which has a sealed discharge passage, tank, and conveyor not shown. Each retort chamber has stirring and conveying means consisting of helical blades (2) attached to radial arms on shaft mounted in water cooled bearings and driven through suitably mounted sprocket wheels and chains not shown. Each retort chamber has a gas dome, with pyrometer tube, and off-take connected to a common main opening into a dust eliminator which in turn connects with a plurality of vertical condensation towers of known construction, maintained at different temperatures by means of steam from a superheater not shown situated in one retort chamber. The retort heating gases pass from the furnace via zig-zag, (three) baffles under and around each retort chamber to a flue not shown.

  17. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, T G

    1921-09-01

    In the distillation of carbonaceous material such as shale, coal, lignite, wood or liquid hydrocarbons, the material is mixed with a heated granular substance such as sand which supplies the necessary heat. The shale or the like, which may be preheated, is fed from a hopper by a worm conveyer to a tube leading into a retort, and the heated granular material such as sand is supplied from a jacketed container through a tube. On the lower end of a rotary shaft are radial arms to which are fixed angularly disposed blades which serve to mix the shale and hot sand and deliver the residue to a central discharge pipe closed at the bottom by a conical valve which opens when the weight of the superimposed material is sufficient. The distillates are taken off by an outlet. Steam vapor or gas may be supplied to the retort, preferably through a hollow shaft leading to hollow stirrers perforated to permit of the gas passing into the material. The retort may be externally heated by hot gases in the space surrounding the retort, and the latter may be divided by horizontal floors so that the material is caused to funnel from the periphery to the center of the floor, then through a central opening on to the floor next below, and from the center to the periphery of this floor, and so on.

  18. Carbonaceous electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Long; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-26

    Supercapacitors have been widely studied around the world in recent years, due to their excellent power density and long cycle life. As the most frequently used electrode materials for supercapacitors, carbonaceous materials attract more and more attention. However, their relatively low energy density still holds back the widespread application. Up to now, various strategies have been developed to figure out this problem. This research news summarizes the recent advances in improving the supercapacitor performance of carbonaceous materials, including the incorporation of heteroatoms and the pore size effect (subnanopores' contribution). In addition, a new class of carbonaceous materials, porous organic networks (PONs) has been managed into the supercapacitor field, which promises great potential in not only improving the supercapacitor performances, but also unraveling the related mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  20. Preg-robbing of Gold by Carbonaceous Materials Encountered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing of gold from refractory ores containing carbonaceous materials (CM) poses challenges due to the ability of the CM to preg-rob dissolved gold. Depending on the type and maturity of CM encountered, preg-robbing of aurocyanide ion can lead to reduction in gold recovery ranging from a few percentages to more ...

  1. Retorts for distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H E

    1921-09-12

    A retort for distilling carbonaceous material is described in which a mass of such material is retained in a pocket formed between an outer wall and an internal wall which is perforated to permit the free escape of distilled products, the retorts having heating means that directly heat the retort but are so related to the pocket that the material therein is heated indirectly and simultaneously from all sides entirely by heat conducted thereto by the walls.

  2. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  3. Distillation of carbonaceous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulliner, H H; Kent, A T

    1918-03-21

    In carbonizing in a vertical retort of the continuous or semi-continuous type, the material is fed at the top and superheated steam or gas is supplied at the bottom of the retort, the vapors and coal gas being drawn off at the top. The charge is maintained at a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/C at the bottom and the temperature at the top is maintained sufficiently high to prevent condensation of steam and vapors within the retort.

  4. The Distinct Genetics of Carbonaceous and Non-Carbonaceous Meteorites Inferred from Molybdenum Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, G.; Burkhardt, C.; Kleine, T.

    2017-07-01

    Mo isotope systematics manifest a fundamental dichotomy in the genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites. We discuss its implications in light of the most recent literature data and new isotope data for primitive achondrites.

  5. Carbonaceous matter in the Pomozhan deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatek, G

    1979-01-01

    Carbonaceous matter (CM), encountered in the Pomozhan deposit, is coordinate to dolomitic-illitic clay, filling caverns in ore-bearing dolomites. The CM represents a disperse mass with particle sizes up to 2 mm, having a color from dark brown to black. The reflectivity (0.35-0.42%) and classification assignment of the CM to macerals of the vitrinite or dopplerinite group were determined by micropetrographic methods. CM belonging to the type of humic coals, transitional from brown to bituminous coals is an epigenetic formation. Its accumulation in the regions of the Ol'kush ore deposits occurred in the Triassic-Cretaceous or Cenozoic interval. Liassic coal of the Zavertse region or Helvetian coal of Khomentuv and Tarnobzheg could be the source of the CM.

  6. Hydrocarbon oils from carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J

    1943-01-28

    Carbonaceous material is subjected to gradually increasing temperature in a retort and the gases and vapours are drawn off through four pipes according to their temperature and are passed respectively to a separate bubble tower or a fractionation column. The condensate and overhead from each bubble tower are refluxed in the bubble tower into which the gases and vapours of the next succeeding higher temperature are passed and the condensates and overheads from the bubble tower into which gases and vapours at the highest of the lower temperatures are passed are refluxed in the fractionation column. The waste products of combustion pass to a boiler for generating steam for the fractional plant.

  7. Process of treating carbonaceous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-12-16

    A process is described of removing halogens or halogen compounds (or both) from the products which form when carbonaceous substances are treated thermally in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of passing the reaction products at the same temperature with a substance able to fix halogens or acid halides through an apparatus included between the receiver and the heat exchanger, which contains, in a relatively restricted space, internal elements obliquely disposed in relation to the direction of the flow, stretched in this direction and constituted preferably of helicoidal passages.

  8. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  9. Raman characterization of carbonaceous matter in CONCORDIA Antarctic micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobricǎ, E.; Engrand, C.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.; Duprat, J.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- We report a multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of carbonaceous matter in 38 Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) from the 2006 CONCORDIA collection. The particles were selected as a function of their degree of thermal alteration developed during the deceleration in the atmosphere. These samples range from unmelted (fine-grained—Fg; ultracarbonaceous—UCAMMs) to partially melted AMMs (scorias—Sc) and completely melted particles (cosmic spherules—CS). More than half of the analyzed AMMs contain a substantial amount of polyaromatic carbonaceous matter with a high degree of disorder. The proportion of particles where carbon is not detected increase from the Fg to the Fg-Sc and to the Sc-AMMs, and no carbon is detected in CS. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the G and D bands of the carbonaceous matter in Sc-AMMs plot apart from the trend formed by the data from Fg-AMMs and UCAMMs. These results suggest that oxidation processes occurred during the deceleration of the particles in the atmosphere. In Fg-AMMs and UCAMMs, the spectral characteristics of the G and D bands reveal the high degree of disorder of the carbonaceous matter, precluding a long duration thermal metamorphism on the parent body and suggesting that AMMs have a connection with C1-C2 chondrites. The Raman parameters of the deuterium-rich carbonaceous matter of UCAMMs do not differ from that of Fg-AMMs. Using a 244 nm excitation, we detected the cyanide (-CN) functional group for the first time in a UCAMM, reinforcing the likely cometary origin of this type of micrometeorites.

  10. First Results of the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” Experiment: Beyond Current Standards for PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costabile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2017 the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” experiment was carried out in downtown Rome to address the following specific questions: what is the color, size, composition, and toxicity of the carbonaceous aerosol in the Mediterranean urban background area of Rome? The motivation of this experiment is the lack of understanding of what aerosol types are responsible for the severe risks to human health posed by particulate matter (PM pollution, and how carbonaceous aerosols influence radiative balance. Physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous aerosol were characterised, and relevant toxicological variables assessed. The aerosol characterisation includes: (i measurements with high time resolution (min to 1–2 h at a fixed location of black carbon (eBC, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, particle number size distribution (0.008–10 μ m, major non refractory PM1 components, elemental composition, wavelength-dependent optical properties, and atmospheric turbulence; (ii 24-h measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble OC and brown carbon (BrC, and levoglucosan; (iii mobile measurements of eBC and size distribution around the study area, with computational fluid dynamics modeling; (iv characterisation of road dust emissions and their EC and OC content. The toxicological assessment includes: (i preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of ultrafine particles on lung epithelia cells (cultured at the air liquid interface and directly exposed to particles; (ii assessment of the oxidative stress induced by carbonaceous aerosols; (iii assessment of particle size dependent number doses deposited in different regions of the human body; (iv PAHs biomonitoring (from the participants into the mobile measurements. The first experimental results of the CARE experiment are presented in this paper. The objective here is to provide baseline levels of carbonaceous aerosols for Rome, and to address

  11. High resolution TEM of chondritic carbonaceous matter: Metamorphic evolution and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël.; Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Derenne, Sylvie; Remusat, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    The insoluble carbonaceous matter from 12 chondrites (CI, CM, CO, CV, EH, and UOC), was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Besides ubiquitous nanoglobules, the insoluble organic matter from petrologic type 1 and 2 chondrites and Semarkona (LL 3.0) is composed of a highly disordered polyaromatic component. No structural differences were observed between these IOMs, in agreement with the limited thermal metamorphism they all experienced. In chondrites of petrologic type >3.0, the evolution of the IOM is controlled by the extent of thermal metamorphism. The polyaromatic layers, shorter than 1 nm in petrologic type ≤3.0 chondrites, grow up to sizes between 5 and 10 nm in petrologic type >3.6 chondrites, contributing to the increase of the degree of structural order. In addition, we find rare, but ubiquitous onion-like carbons, which may be the product of nanodiamond graphitization. The insoluble carbonaceous matter of the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH 3) is different from the other meteorites studied here. It is more heterogeneous and displays a high abundance of graphitized particles. This may be the result of a mixture between (1) the disordered carbon located in the matrix, and (2) catalytic graphitized phases associated with metal, potentially originating from partial melting events. The structural and nanostructural evolution are similar in all IOMs. This suggests that the structure of the accreted precursors and the parent body conditions of their secondary thermal modifications (temperature, duration, and pressure) were similar. The limited degree of organization of the most metamorphosed IOMs compared with terrestrial rocks submitted to similar temperature suggests that the conditions are not favorable to graphitization processes, due to the chemical nature of the precursor or the lack of confinement pressure.

  12. Ciência global?

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Armando Trigo de

    2000-01-01

    No fim do séc. XX, poucas actividades podem reclamar um passado de universalidade tão longo e tão paradigmático como a ciência. Se eliminarmos ocasionais e limitados acessos de nacionalismo ou ideologismo mais destemperado que levaram à procura da ciência proletária ou da filosofia portuguesa, a história da ciência é uma história comum. Portugal está excepcionalmente bem situado para compreender esta característica da ciência universal. Três exemplos, apenas, podem ilustrar esta condição:...

  13. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  14. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites Z. Martins (1), O. Botta (2), M. L. Fogel (3), M. A. Sephton (4), D. P. Glavin (2), J. S. Watson (5), J. P. Dworkin (2), A. W. Schwartz (6) and P. Ehrenfreund (1,6). (1) Astrobiology Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands, (2) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Greenbelt, MD, USA, (3) GL, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC, USA, (4) Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, London, UK, (5) Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK, (6) Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E-mail: z.martins@chem.leidenuniv.nl/Phone:+31715274440 Nucleobases are crucial compounds in terrestrial biochemistry, because they are key components of DNA and RNA. Carbonaceous meteorites have been analyzed for nucleobases by different research groups [1-5]. However, significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed, leading to the controversial about the origin of these nucleobases. In order to establish the origin of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites and to assess the plausibility of their exogenous delivery to the early Earth, we have performed formic acid extraction of samples of the Murchison meteorite [6], followed by an extensive purification procedure, analysis and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results were qualitatively consistent with previous results [3, 4], but showed significant quantitative differences. Compound specific carbon isotope values were obtained, using gas chromatography-combustion- isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A soil sample collected in the proximity of the Murchison meteorite fall site was subjected to the same extraction, purification and analysis procedure

  15. Organic Chemistry of Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Chiral and carbon-isotopic analyses of isovaline have been carried out on numerous samples of the Murchison and one sample of the Murray carbonaceous chondrite. The isovaline was found to be heterogeneous with regard to enantiomeric excess (ee) both between samples and within a single Murchison sample. L-Excesses ranging from 0 to 15% were observed. The isovaline delta(sup 13) C was found to be about +18%. No evidence was obtained suggesting terrestrial contamination in the more abundant L-enantiomer. A correlation was observed between isovaline (also alpha - aminoisobutyric acid) concentration and PCP content of five CM chondrites. It is suggested that isovaline, along with other meteoritic a-methyl amino acids with ee, are of presolar origin. The possible formation of ee in extraterrestrial amino acids by exposure to circularly polarized light or by magnetochiral photochemistry is discussed. Key words: Murchison meteorite, Murray meteorite, amino acids, isovaline, chirality, carbon isotopes, PCP.

  16. Distillation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, C D

    1918-08-31

    A method of distilling carbonaceous material at low or moderate temperatures is described in which the main supply of gases for heating the material under treatment is generated in a combustion chamber located externally of the retort chamber from which combustion chamber the gases are withdrawn and passed under control through hollow elements located within the retort chamber in such manner as to insure the production of the desired temperature gradient along the length of the retort, the said elements being so constructed that they serve to bring the heating gases into indirect contact with the material undergoing treatment while also moving the material progressively through the retort in the opposite direction to that in which the heating gases flow.

  17. Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Almahata Sitta Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Q.-Z.; Sanborn, M. E.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show that solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NCC)-like, with minimal mixing between them attributed to a gap opened in the propoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests that there should be a particular time in the disk history when this gap is breached and ensuring a subsequent large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids (inner solar system and outer solar system materials), an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-(epsilon)54Cr isotope systematics.

  18. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  19. Characterization of carbonaceous solids by oxygen chemisorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.; Duguay, D.G.; McConnell, D.G.; Henson, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Oxygen chemisorption of high and low carbon carbonaceous solids was measured in an electro-microbalance at 200 degrees C in air. A linear correlation between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and H/C ratio as well as aromaticity was established for the high carbon solids. For the low carbon solids a linear correlation was established between the amount of chemisorbed oxygen and the content of organic matter. Experimental observations are discussed in terms of structural aspects of the solids. Oxygen chemisorption is a suitable technique for a rapid characterization of carbonaceous solids including coal. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Carbonaceous Components in the Comet Halley Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary grains containing large amounts of carbon and/or organic matter (CHON) were discovered by in situ measurements of comet Halley dust composition during VEGA and GIOTTO flyby missions. In this paper, we report the classification of these cometary, grains by means of cluster analysis, discuss the resulting compositional groups, and compare them with substances observed or hypothesized in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and the interstellar medium. Grains dominated by carbon and/or organic matter (CHON grains) represent approx. 22% of the total population of measured cometary dust particles. They, usually contain a minor abundance of rock-forming elements as well. Grains having organic material are relatively more abundant in the vicinity of the nucleus than in the outer regions of the coma, which suggests decomposition of the organics in the coma environment. The majority of comet Halley organic particles are multicomponent mixtures of carbon phases and organic compounds. Possibly, the cometary CHON grains may be related to kerogen material of an interstellar origin in carbonaceous meteorites. Pure carbon grains, hydrocarbons and polymers of cyanopolyynes, and multi-carbon monoxides are present in cometary dust as compositionally simple and distinctive components among a variety of others. There is no clear evidence of significant presence of pure formaldehyde or HCN polymers in Halley dust particles. The diversity of types of cometary organic compounds is consistent with the inter-stellar dust model of comets and probably reflects differences in composition of precursor dust. Preservation of this heterogeneity among submicron particles suggest the gentle formation of cometary, nucleus by aggregation of interstellar dust in the protosolar nebula without complete mixing or chemical homogenization at the submicron level.

  1. Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO{sub 3} semiconductor catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Hayat, K. [Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Yamani, Z.H. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hooshani, K. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-30

    Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO{sub 3} semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), and potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants.

  2. Abodes for life in carbonaceous asteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2011-05-01

    Thermal evolution models for carbonaceous asteroids that use new data for permeability, pore volume, and water circulation as input parameters provide a window into what are arguably the earliest habitable environments in the Solar System. Plausible models of the Murchison meteorite (CM) parent body show that to first-order, conditions suitable for the stability of liquid water, and thus pre- or post-biotic chemistry, could have persisted within these asteroids for tens of Myr. In particular, our modeling results indicate that a 200-km carbonaceous asteroid with a 40% initial ice content takes almost 60 Myr to cool completely, with habitable temperatures being maintained for ˜24 Myr in the center. Yet, there are a number of indications that even with the requisite liquid water, thermal energy sources to drive chemical gradients, and abundant organic "building blocks" deemed necessary criteria for life, carbonaceous asteroids were intrinsically unfavorable sites for biopoesis. These controls include different degrees of exothermal mineral hydration reactions that boost internal warming but effectively remove liquid water from the system, rapid (1-10 mm yr -1) inward migration of internal habitable volumes in most models, and limitations imposed by low permeabilities and small pore sizes in primitive undifferentiated carbonaceous asteroids. Our results do not preclude the existence of habitable conditions on larger, possibly differentiated objects such as Ceres and the Themis family asteroids due to presumed longer, more intense heating and possible long-lived water reservoirs.

  3. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.

    1990-10-01

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m -1 (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m -3 (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m -3 (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m -3 (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC)

  4. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  5. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  6. Thermal alteration in carbonaceous chondrites and implications for sublimation in rock comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.; Steckloff, Jordan K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock comets are small solar system bodies in Sun-skirting orbits (perihelion q CO2, etc.). B-class asteroid (3200) Phaethon, considered to be the parent body of the Geminid meteor shower, is the only rock comet currently known to periodically eject dust and form a coma. Thermal fracturing or thermal decomposition of surface materials may be driving Phaethon’s cometary activity (Li & Jewitt, 2013). Phaethon-like asteroids have dynamically unstable orbits, and their perihelia can change rapidly over their ~10 Myr lifetimes (de León et al., 2010), raising the possibility that other asteroids may have been rock comets in the past. Here, we propose using spectroscopic observations of mercury (Hg) as a tracer of an asteroid’s thermal metamorphic history, and therefore as a constraint on its minimum achieved perihelion distance.B-class asteroids such as Phaethon have an initial composition similar to aqueously altered primitive meteorites such as CI- or CM-type meteorites (Clark et al., 2010). Laboratory heating experiments of ~mm sized samples of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites from 300K to 1200K at a rate of 15K/minute show mobilization and volatilization of various labile elements at temperatures that could be reached by Mercury-crossing asteroids. Samples became rapidly depleted in labile elements and, in particular, lost ~75% of their Hg content when heated from ~500-700 K, which corresponds to heliocentric distances of ~0.15-0.3 au, consistent with our thermal models. Mercury has strong emission lines in the UV (~ 185 nm) and thus its presence (or absence) relative to carbonaceous chondrite abundances would indicate if these bodies had perihelia in their dynamical histories inside of 0.15 AU, and therefore may have previously been Phaethon-like rock comets. Future space telescopes or balloon-borne observing platforms equipped with a UV spectrometer could potentially detect the presence or absence of strong ultraviolet mercury lines on rock comets or rock

  7. Pressure hydrogenation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Kroenig, W

    1942-09-28

    A process is described for the continuous pressure hydrogenation of solid, nonfusible carbonaceous material, such as coal, oil shale, or peat, in a pasted condition, characterized in that the charge is heated in a known way under pressure, together with water, nearly to the reaction temperature, then it is led into a pressure vessel, whose volume amounts to 20 to 40% of the usual reaction space without any change at the same temperature, and the charge then goes through the reaction vessel, after which its temperature is raised to the reaction height.

  8. Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous material, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-30

    A process is described for the destructive hydrogenation of solid distillable carbonaceous material, consisting of mixing the raw material in a paste by means of a mixture practically free from asphalt, from an oil obtained initially from the products coming out of the reaction space as vapor, particularly heavy oil, and oils obtained by pushing just to the state of pitch or coke the distillation of all the products which come out of the reaction space in any state but the vapor and which restrain some of the raw material intact and part of the products.

  9. Separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W W

    1915-10-19

    A process is set forth for the separation of volatile products from solid carbonaceous materials, in which the vapors produced from the carbonaceous material at higher temperatures and withdrawn into the separate vapor chamber are led in succession through the lower temperature vapors as continuously to deposit their condensible ingredients in the chamber by the action of the successive cooler vapors.

  10. Radiocarbon: nature's tracer for carbonaceous pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.; Klouda, G.A.; Gerlach, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in radiocarbon dating techniques have made it feasible to determine 14 C/ 12 C ratios in samples containing milligram or even microgram quantities of carbon. As a result, it has become practicable to apply these techniques to the study of trace gases and particles in the atmosphere, as a means of resolving anthropogenic from natural source components. Interpretation of 14 C data is straightforward: biospheric carbon (such as vegetation) is alive with a 14 C/ 12 C ratio of about 1.5 x 10 -12 , whereas fossil carbon is dead. Beyond this dichotomous classification it becomes very interesting to combine the isotopic data with concurrent chemical data, as well as spatial and temporal distributions, in order to infer the strengths of specific sources of carbonaceous pollutants. A brief review will be presented of our program on atmospheric gases and carbonaceous particles. For the latter, we have assayed individual chemical and size fractions, and samples collected in urban, rural, and remote locales. The biogenic carbon fraction - presumably from wood-burning - ranged from 10% to 100% for the urban samples analyzed

  11. Aqueous processing of organic compounds in carbonaceous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep Maria; Rimola, Albert; Martins, Zita

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence pointing towards a prebiotic synthesis of complex organic species in water-rich undifferentiated bodies. For instance, clays have been found to be associated with complex organic compounds (Pearson et al. 2002; Garvie & Buseck 2007; Arteaga et al. 2010), whereas theoretical calculations have studied the interaction between the organic species and surface minerals (Rimola et al., 2013) as well as surface-induced reactions (Rimola at al. 2007). Now, we are using more detailed analytical techniques to study the possible processing of organic molecules associated with the mild aqueous alteration in CR, CM and CI chondrites. To learn more about these processes we are studying carbonaceous chondrites at Ultra High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (UHR-TEM). We are particularly interested in the relationship between organics and clay minerals in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) matrixes (Trigo-Rodríguez et al. 2014, 2015).We want to address two goals: i) identifying the chemical steps in which the organic molecules could have increased their complexity (i.e., surface interaction and catalysis); and ii) studying if the organic matter present in CCs experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals at the time in which these planetary bodies experienced aqueous alteration. Here, these two points are preliminarily explored combing experimental results with theoretical calculations based on accurate quantum mechanical methods. References Arteaga O, Canillas A, Crusats J, El-Hachemi Z, Jellison GE, Llorca J, Ribó JM (2010) Chiral biases in solids by effect of shear gradients: a speculation on the deterministic origin of biological homochirality. Orig Life Evol Biosph 40:27-40. Garvie LAJ, Buseck PR (2007) Prebiotic carbon in clays from Orgueil and Ivuna (CI) and Tagish lake (C2 ungrouped) meteorites. Meteorit Planet Sci 42:2111-2117. Pearson VK, Sephton MA, Kearsley AT, Bland AP, Franchi IA, Gilmour

  12. Global cloud condensation nuclei influenced by carbonaceous combustion aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon in carbonaceous combustion aerosol warms the climate by absorbing solar radiation, meaning reductions in black carbon emissions are often perceived as an attractive global warming mitigation option. However, carbonaceous combustion aerosol can also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN so they also cool the climate by increasing cloud albedo. The net radiative effect of carbonaceous combustion aerosol is uncertain because their contribution to CCN has not been evaluated on the global scale. By combining extensive observations of CCN concentrations with the GLOMAP global aerosol model, we find that the model is biased low (normalised mean bias = −77 % unless carbonaceous combustion aerosol act as CCN. We show that carbonaceous combustion aerosol accounts for more than half (52–64 % of global CCN with the range due to uncertainty in the emitted size distribution of carbonaceous combustion particles. The model predicts that wildfire and pollution (fossil fuel and biofuel carbonaceous combustion aerosol causes a global mean cloud albedo aerosol indirect effect of −0.34 W m−2, with stronger cooling if we assume smaller particle emission size. We calculate that carbonaceous combustion aerosol from pollution sources cause a global mean aerosol indirect effect of −0.23 W m−2. The small size of carbonaceous combustion particles from fossil fuel sources means that whilst pollution sources account for only one-third of the emitted mass they cause two-thirds of the cloud albedo aerosol indirect effect that is due to carbonaceous combustion aerosol. This cooling effect must be accounted for, along with other cloud effects not studied here, to ensure that black carbon emissions controls that reduce the high number concentrations of fossil fuel particles have the desired net effect on climate.

  13. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  14. Carbonaceous content of atmospheric aerosols in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Fátima; Oliveira, C.; Martins, N.; Pio, C.; Caseiro, A.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Oliveira, C.; Oliveira, J.; Camões, F.; Matos, M.; Silva, H.

    2010-05-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. The town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants. It is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Atmospheric aerosols are known to have in their structure significant amounts of carbonaceous material. The knowledge of the aerosols carbon content, particularly on their several carbon forms (as TC, EC and OC, meaning respectively Total, Elemental and Organic carbon) is often required to provide information for source attribution. In order to assess the vehicles PM input, two sampling campaigns (summer and winter periods) were carried out in 2008 in Lisbon in two contrasting sites, a roadside and an urban background site. Particulate matter was collected in two fractions on quartz fibre filters using Hi-Vol samplers (coarse fraction, 2.5µmwork was performed under Project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere - PTDC/AMB/65699/2006) financed by "Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia" - FCT. Fátima Mirante acknowledges FCT her PhD grant (SFRH/BD/45473/2008).

  15. Cloud albedo increase from carbonaceous aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Leaitch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements from two consecutive days, analysed with the aid of an aerosol-adiabatic cloud parcel model, are used to study the effect of carbonaceous aerosol particles on the reflectivity of sunlight by water clouds. The measurements, including aerosol chemistry, aerosol microphysics, cloud microphysics, cloud gust velocities and cloud light extinction, were made below, in and above stratocumulus over the northwest Atlantic Ocean. On the first day, the history of the below-cloud fine particle aerosol was marine and the fine particle sulphate and organic carbon mass concentrations measured at cloud base were 2.4 μg m−3 and 0.9 μg m−3 respectively. On the second day, the below-cloud aerosol was continentally influenced and the fine particle sulphate and organic carbon mass concentrations were 2.3 μg m−3 and 2.6 μg m−3 respectively. Over the range 0.06–0.8 μm diameter, the shapes of the below-cloud size distributions were similar on both days and the number concentrations were approximately a factor of two higher on the second day. The cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC on the second day were approximately three times higher than the CDNC measured on the first day. Using the parcel model to separate the influence of the differences in gust velocities, we estimate from the vertically integrated cloud light scattering measurements a 6% increase in the cloud albedo principally due to the increase in the carbonaceous components on the second day. Assuming no additional absorption by this aerosol, a 6% albedo increase translates to a local daytime radiative cooling of ∼12 W m−2. This result provides observational evidence that the role of anthropogenic carbonaceous components in the cloud albedo effect can be much larger than that of anthropogenic sulphate, as some global simulations have indicated.

  16. Fermentation, gasification and pyrolysis of carbonaceous residues towards usage in fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, C.A.C.; Brito, P.S.D.; Mota, A.F.; Carvalho, J.L.; Rodrigues, L.F.F.T.T.G.; Santos, D.M.F.; Barrio, D.B.; Justo, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the technologies of fermentation, gasification and pyrolysis of carbonaceous residues for the production of biohydrogen and other gaseous, liquid or solid fuels, are analysed. The energetic, economic and environmental advantages of linking these energy areas with the fuel cell engines are stressed. In addition, the current status of fuel cell technologies, namely their historic trends, basic electrode mechanisms, cell types, market drivers and leading issues, are reviewed

  17. Ciência no globo-ciência

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça,Otávio Machado Lopes de

    1996-01-01

    O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi verificar as áreas de conhecimento científico que se fizeram presentes na programação do Globo-Ciência, veiculada pela Rede Globo de Televisão,verificando também as estratégias usadas e o material empregado como recursos didáticos. O material utilizado foi o catálogo da programação do Globo-Ciência-10 anos (1984-1994). Os resultados mostram que as Ciências Exatas e da Terra foi a mais apresentada no programa com 49,65%,havendo pouco espaço para as outras, v...

  18. Crystallography of Magnetite Plaquettes and their Significance as Asymmetric Catalysts for the Synthesis of Chiral Organics in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously observed the magnetite plaquettes in carbonaceous chondrites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, examined the crystal orientation of the polished surfaces of magnetite plaquettes in CI Orgueil using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and concluded that these magnetite plaquettes are likely naturally asymmetric materials. In this study, we expanded our EBSD observation to other magnetite plaquettes in Orgueil, and further examined the internal structure of these remarkable crystals with the use of X-ray computed microtomography.

  19. Reactions on carbonaceous materials with hydrogenating gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Simon, W; Kronig, W

    1933-02-08

    A process is given for the production of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of distillable carbonaceous materials with added hydrogenating gases under pressure in contact with catalysts. The process comprises adding to the initial materials before or during the said treatment organic sulphonic acids together with metals of groups 4 to 8 of the periodic system or compounds thereof, or free organic carboxylic acids which when inorganic salts are simultaneously present do not combine therewith to form complex ansolvo acids, or acid salts of strong acids or acid salts of heavy metals, lithium, magnesium, and aluminum, with the exception of aluminum hydrosilicates, or inorganic oxygen containing acids of sulfur or nitrogen or the anhydrides of said inorganic oxygen-containing acids.

  20. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  1. Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-02-15

    A process is described for the destructive hydrogenation continuously of solid and infusible carbonaceous substances, consisting of heating the charge to the same temperature as the added hydrogen, under a pressure essentially equal to that of the reaction, from the first to at least 300/sup 0/C, but not more than 440/sup 0/C, while passing the heated charge through a zone the contents of which are equal to about 20 per cent to 40 per cent of that of the reaction space, maintaining the charge for a certain time at the temperature without sensible change in the pressure, then reheating the charge to at least the temperature to prime the reaction and finally to introduce the charge into the reaction space.

  2. Distilling peat and other carbonaceous matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stones, W B

    1850-03-07

    Improvements in treating peat and other carbonaceous and ligneous matters, so as to obtain products therefrom are disclosed. These improvements consist, first, of a machine for compressing and partially drying peat. The unpressed peat is put into boxes and these into frames which are passed through between the bowls of a machine resembling a pair of squeezers. Secondly, consists in distilling, at a temperature of, say 700/sup 0/F, the compressed peat, with or without the addition of tar or fatty matter in retorts, and condensing the vapors in a series of vessels, arranged after the manner of Wolfe's bottles. The resulting charcoal may be extinguished by passing carbonic acid through it while in an air-tight box or chamber, and it may then be compressed into bricks, and used for locomotives and other purposes.

  3. Photolytic process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenty, S.

    1979-01-01

    Process and apparatus are disclosed for converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by subjecting the carbon dioxide to radiation in the presence of carbonaceous material such as coal to form carbon monoxide. The preferred form of radiation is solar energy, and the process is preferably carried out in an atmosphere essentially free of oxygen. The invention also includes subjecting carbon monoxide to radiation to form purified carbon and useful heat energy. The two procedures can be combined into a single process for converting solar or other energy into useful thermal energy with the production of useful products. The reactor apparatus is specifically designed to carry out the radiation-induced conversions. Coal can be desulfurized and its caking characteristics altered by solar radiation in the presence of suitable gases. 3 figures

  4. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  5. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-01-01

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO 2 substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ∼90 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection. (paper)

  6. On thermodynamics of methane+carbonaceous materials adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical frameworks for the thermodynamic quantities namely the heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy for the adsorption of methane onto various carbonaceous materials. The proposed theoretical

  7. Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbonaceous Asteroid Volatile Recovery (CAVoR) system produces water and hydrogen-rich syngas for propellant production, life support consumables, and...

  8. Fuel cells for electricity generation from carbonaceous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K; Formanski, V; Roes, J [Gerhard-Mercator- Universitaet - Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Fachbereich Maschinenbau/Fachgebiet Energietechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Heinzel, A [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Fuel cells, which are electrochemical systems converting chemical energy directly into electrical energy with water and heat as by-products, are of interest as a means of generating electricity which is environmentally friendly, clean and highly efficient. They are classified according to the electrolyte used. The main types of cell in order of operating temperature are described. These are: alkaline fuel cells, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC); the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC); the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Applications depend on the type of cell and may range from power generation on a large scale to mobile application in cars or portable systems. One of the most promising options is the PEM-fuel cell stack where there has been significant improvement in power density in recent years. The production from carbonaceous fuels and purification of the cell fuel, hydrogen, is considered. Of the purification methods available, hydrogen separation by means of palladium alloy membranes seems particular effective in reducing CO concentrations to the low levels required for PEM cells. (UK)

  9. Carbonaceous aerosols in Norwegian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by volatile and semivolatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan.

    Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10 or even higher (for PM2.5 than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m−3. This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM

  10. The CI:Marketing interface

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    The potential for CI to inform and influence marketing decisions is increasing and this combination can deliver an enviable competitive advantage. Simply knowing more about competitors is not enough. It is what the firm does with that information and how it weaves it into its decision making process which makes the difference. In a large number of organisations, private or public, it is the Marketing Department which carries the responsibility for critical activities such as customer manageme...

  11. A dual origin for water in carbonaceous asteroids revealed by CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, Laurette; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Remusat, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Carbonaceous asteroids represent the principal source of water in the inner Solar System and might correspond to the main contributors for the delivery of water to Earth. Hydrogen isotopes in water-bearing primitive meteorites, for example carbonaceous chondrites, constitute a unique tool for deciphering the sources of water reservoirs at the time of asteroid formation. However, fine-scale isotopic measurements are required to unravel the effects of parent-body processes on the pre-accretion isotopic distributions. Here, we report in situ micrometre-scale analyses of hydrogen isotopes in six CM-type carbonaceous chondrites, revealing a dominant deuterium-poor water component (δD = -350 ± 40‰) mixed with deuterium-rich organic matter. We suggest that this deuterium-poor water corresponds to a ubiquitous water reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk. A deuterium-rich water signature has been preserved in the least altered part of the Paris chondrite (δDParis ≥ -69 ± 163‰) in hydrated phases possibly present in the CM rock before alteration. The presence of the deuterium-enriched water signature in Paris might indicate that transfers of ice from the outer to the inner Solar System were significant within the first million years of the history of the Solar System.

  12. Carbonaceous species emitted from handheld two-stroke engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckens, John; Olson, David A.; Hays, Michael D.

    Small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work (e.g., string trimmers, leaf blowers, etc.) can emit a variety of potentially toxic carbonaceous air pollutants. Yet, the emissions effluents from these machines go largely uncharacterized, constraining the proper development of human exposure estimates, emissions inventories, and climate and air quality models. This study samples and evaluates chemical pollutant emissions from the dynamometer testing of six small, handheld spark-ignition engines—model years 1998-2002. Four oil-gas blends were tested in each engine in duplicate. Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and gas-phase hydrocarbons were predominant, and the PM emitted was organic matter primarily. An ANOVA model determined that engine type and control tier contributed significantly to emissions variations across all identified compound classes; whereas fuel blend was an insignificant variable accounting for engines were generally intermediate in magnitude compared with other gasoline-powered engines, numerous compounds traditionally viewed as motor vehicle markers are also present in small engine emissions in similar relative proportions. Given that small, handheld two-stroke engines used for lawn and garden work account for 5-10% of total US emissions of CO, CO 2, NO x, HC, and PM 2.5, source apportionment models and human exposure studies need to consider the effect of these small engines on ambient concentrations in air polluted environments.

  13. Carbonaceous species in atmospheric aerosols from the Krakow area (Malopolska District: carbonaceous species dry deposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szramowiat Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and elemental carbon content in PM10 was studied at three sites in Malopolska District representing the city centre (Krakow, rural/residential (Bialka and residential/industrial environments (Krakow. The PM10 samples were collected during the winter time study. The highest concentrations of carbonaceous species were observed in Skawina (36.9 μg·m-3 of OC and 9.6 μg·m-3 of EC. The lowest OC and EC concentrations were reported in Krakow (15.2 μg·m-3 and 3.9 μg·m-3, respectively. The highest concentration of carbonaceous species and the highest wind velocities in Skawina influenced the highest values of the dry deposition fluxes. Correlations between OC, EC and chemical constituents and meteorological parameters suggest that a Krakow was influenced by local emission sources and temperature inversion occurrence; b Bialka was under the influence of local emission sources and long-range transport of particles; c Skawina was impacted by local emission sources.

  14. VELoCiRaPTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, J.; Esham, B.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Glebov, V.

    2007-11-01

    The Venting and Exhausting of Low Level Air Contaminants in the Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (VELoCiRaPTORS) system is constructed to transport radioactive materials quickly and safely at the NIF. A radioactive sample will be placed inside a carrier that is transported via an airflow system produced by controlled differential pressure. Midway through the transportation process, the carrier will be stopped and vented by a powered exhaust blower which will remove radioactive gases within the transport carrier. A Geiger counter will monitor the activity of the exhaust gas to ensure that it is below acceptable levels. If the radiation level is sufficient, the carrier will pass through the remainder of the system, pneumatically braking at the counting station. The complete design will run manually or automatically with control software. Tests were performed using an inactive carrier to determine possible transportation problems. The system underwent many consecutive trials without failure. VELoCiRaPTORS is a prototype of a system that could be installed at both the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL.

  15. Ultraviolet spectral reflectance of carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Daniel M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Pitman, Karly M.; Roush, Ted L.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Lucey, Paul G.

    2018-06-01

    A number of planetary spacecraft missions have carried instruments with sensors covering the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. However, there exists a general lack of relevant UV reflectance laboratory data to compare against these planetary surface remote sensing observations in order to make confident material identifications. To address this need, we have systematically analyzed reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials in the 200-500 nm spectral range, and found spectral-compositional-structural relationships that suggest this wavelength region could distinguish between otherwise difficult-to-identify carbon phases. In particular (and by analogy with the infrared spectral region), large changes over short wavelength intervals in the refractive indices associated with the trigonal sp2π-π* transition of carbon can lead to Fresnel peaks and Christiansen-like features in reflectance. Previous studies extending to shorter wavelengths also show that anomalous dispersion caused by the σ-σ* transition associated with both the trigonal sp2 and tetrahedral sp3 sites causes these features below λ = 200 nm. The peak wavelength positions and shapes of π-π* and σ-σ* features contain information on sp3/sp2, structure, crystallinity, and powder grain size. A brief comparison with existing observational data indicates that the carbon fraction of the surface of Mercury is likely amorphous and submicroscopic, as is that on the surface of the martian satellites Phobos and Deimos, and possibly comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while further coordinated observations and laboratory experiments should refine these feature assignments and compositional hypotheses. The new laboratory diffuse reflectance data reported here provide an important new resource for interpreting UV reflectance measurements from planetary surfaces throughout the solar system, and confirm that the UV can be rich in important spectral information.

  16. The carbonaceous concrete based on sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELOUSOVA Elena Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today there are many requirements for strength, ecology and economy of produced concretes. The authors of the paper study attenuation of electromagnetic radiation of carbonaceous powders in the concrete composition. Carbon black was selected as a carbon powder for addition in concrete composition. Carbon black is a nanomaterial with disoriented structure of particles (average size is about 50 nm. The composition of the carbon black contains at least 90 wt.% amorphous carbon, more than 5 wt. % chemisorbed oxygen and about 4 wt.% of impurities. Materials with the addition of carbon black have electrical conductivity due to the high content of carbon. These materials are able to absorb electromagnetic radiation. For cement composition with addition of carbon black (more than 30 wt. % and water transmission coefficient of electromagnetic radiation is about –10 dB, for cement composition with 20 wt. % of carbon black the reflection coefficient is –8 dB in the frequency range 8–12 GHz. The concretes with a saturated aqueous solution of calcium chloride and 10% of carbon black possess minimal reflection coefficient (–14... –8 dB. Electromagnetic radiation shielding of concrete with the addition of sawdust was investigated. The concrete with sawdust (40 wt. % impregnated with an aqueous solution with carbon black has the reflection coefficient less than –8 dB and transmission coefficient –40 dB in the frequency range 8–12 GHz. These concretes can be used for creation of a shielded room with the technical equipment for information processing to prevent data leakage through the compromising emanations and crosstalk.

  17. Improved process for heating finely divided carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-01

    A process for heating finely divided carbonaceous particles by burning a proportion of the carbon consists of passing the carbonaceous material at a temperature above 800/sup 0/F into an upwardly disposed, slender, combustion zone, suspending the particles in an upwardly-moving gas containing free oxygen so that the suspension has a density from 0.1 to 5.0 lb/cu. ft., passing the suspension upwardly through the combustion zone at a velocity of from 5 to 100 ft./sec., and injecting at least one stream of a second gas containing free oxygen at a point in the combustion zone such that at least 50% of the oxygen in the first gas has been consumed by the time the suspension reaches this point. The total quantity of oxygen is chosen so that the finely divided carbonaceous material is heated to a temperature of not less than 1,050/sup 0/F.

  18. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben

    2018-01-01

    Background: Semen quality parameters are potentially affected by nanomaterials in several ways: Inhaled nanosized particles are potent inducers of pulmonary inflammation, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. Small amounts of particles may translocate from the lungs into the lung...... inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous...... nanomaterials were investigated by intratracheally instilling sexually mature male NMRI mice with four different carbonaceous nanomaterials dispersed in nanopure water: graphene oxide (18 mu g/mouse/i.t.), Flammruss 101, Printex 90 and SRM1650b (0.1 mg/mouse/i.t. each) weekly for seven consecutive weeks...

  19. Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-04-01

    Many carbonaceous chondrites contain alteration products from water-rock interactions at low temperature and organic compounds. A fascinating fact known for decades is the presence in some of them of an assortment of organic compounds, including amino acids, sometimes called the building blocks of life. Murchison and other CM carbonaceous chondrites contain hundreds of amino acids. Early measurements indicated that the amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites had equal proportions of L- and D-structures, a situation called racemic. This was in sharp contrast to life on Earth, which heavily favors L- forms. However, beginning in 1997, John Cronin and Sandra Pizzarello (Arizona State University) found L- excesses in isovaline and several other amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. In 2009, Daniel Glavin and Jason Dworkin (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center) reported the first independent confirmation of L-isovaline excesses in Murchison using a different analytical technique than employed by Cronin and Pizzarello. Inspired by this work, Daniel Glavin, Michael Callahan, Jason Dworkin, and Jamie Elsila (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center), have done an extensive study of the abundance and symmetry of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites that experienced a range of alteration by water in their parent asteroids. The results show that amino acids are more abundant in the less altered meteorites, implying that aqueous processing changes the mix of amino acids. They also confirmed the enrichment in L-structures of some amino acids, especially isovaline, confirming earlier work. The authors suggest that aqueously-altered planetesimals might have seeded the early Earth with nonracemic amino acids, perhaps explaining why life from microorganisms to people use only L- forms to make proteins. The initial imbalance caused by non-biologic processes in wet asteroids might have been amplified by life on Earth. Alternatively

  20. Quenched carbonaceous composite (QCC): a likely candidate for interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, A.; Wada, S.; Tanabe, T.; Onaka, T.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have recently reported that a carbonaceous composite synthesized from a hydrocarbon plasma shows an extinction property quite resembling the observed average interstellar extinction curve around the 220 nm hump. This composite is synthesized by quenching the excited gas ejecting from a plasma of methane gas, so it is called 'quenched carbonaceous composite' or 'QCC'. A recent study of QCC in the infrared region has shown that QCC can also account for some of the unidentified bands in the infrared region detected in several celestial objects. These results suggest that most of the pronounced features of the interstellar grains originate from substances whose major constituent is carbon. (author)

  1. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Smoke aerosol and background aerosol particles were collected from the controlled burning of boreal forest where vegetation species and relative mass distributions are known. Chemical mass balances were constructed for the total mass of carbonaceous aerosol particles emitted during the prescribed burn. In addition, a carbonaceous species inventory was developed for aerosol particles presnt under background, smoldering, and full-fire conditions; the production of organic carbon and elemental carbon particles is noted for these two fire regimes. Distributions of the solvent-soluble organic components of the sampled aerosols were generated to identify molecular properties that can be traced to unburned and pyrolyzed materials present in the boreal forest fuels

  2. Modeling and analytical simulation of a smouldering carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and analytical simulation of a smouldering carbonaceous rod. A.A. Mohammed, R.O. Olayiwola, M Eseyin, A.A. Wachin. Abstract. Modeling of pyrolysis and combustion in a smouldering fuel bed requires the solution of flow, heat and mass transfer through porous media. This paper presents an analytical method ...

  3. Fungal-Transformation of Surrogate Sulphides and Carbonaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recovery of gold from refractory gold ores, pretreatment is required to decompose sulphides and liberate occluded gold before cyanidation, and to deactivate carbonaceous matter and prevent it from adsorbing dissolved gold. Until the past three decades, most commercial pretreatment processes had been by abiotic ...

  4. Ordered mixed-layer structures in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix has revealed the presence of a new mixed layer structure material. This mixed-layer material consists of an ordered arrangement of serpentine-type (S) and brucite-type (B) layers in the sequence SBBSBB. Electron diffraction and imaging techniques show that the basal periodicity is approximately 17 A. Discrete crystals of SBB-type material are typically curved, of small size (less than 1 micron) and show structural variations similar to the serpentine group minerals. Mixed-layer material also occurs in association with planar serpentine. Characteristics of SBB-type material are not consistent with known terrestrial mixed-layer clay minerals. Evidence for formation by a condensation event or by subsequent alteration of pre-existing material is not yet apparent.

  5. The Hemiptera type-material housed in the "Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul" of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Tatiana Petersen; Guidoti, Marcus; Barcellos, Aline

    2013-01-01

    We provide a commented and referenced list on the type material deposited in the "Museu de Ciencias Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul", Porto Alegre, Brazil. Geographic coordinates are available on a digital repository for free access. High-resolution images of the specimens are available under request.

  6. Nature and origin of the resistant carbonaceous polymorphs involved the fossilization of biogenic soil-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, M.-A.

    2012-04-01

    The rare occurrence of organic-rich surface horizons in soil archives is widely accepted to resulting from their rapid degradation. We intend here to further elucidate how pedogenic signatures that initially formed at the soil surface could resist over long timescales to burial processes. We focus on the structural evolution of the biogenic soil aggregates that is controlled by the complex interaction of bioturbation, root colonization, microbial decomposition, chemical weathering and physical processes. The nature and origin of carbonaceous components that could possibly contribute to the long term preservation of biogenic soil-aggregates is particularly examined. The study is based on the comparison of pedogenic aggregated microfacies from present-day situations and the ones encountered in soil archives from contrasting edaphic conditions: Arctic Holocene soils from Spitsbergen, hyper-arid soils from the Moche valley (Peru), Holocene semi-arid Mediterranean soils from Northern Syria, late Pleistocene paleosols from lake Mungo (South Wales Australia) and late Pleistocene paleosols from the Ardeche valley (France). The assemblage and composition of biogenic soil-aggregated horizons has been characterized under the binocular microscope and in thin sections. The basic components have been separated by water sieving. A typology of carbonaceous polymorphs and associated composite materials has been established under the binocular. They have been characterized by SEM-EDS, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and TEM. The comparative study shows that all the biogenic soil-aggregates from the soil archives contain a high amount of similar exotic components that contrast from the parent materials by their fresh aspect and their hydrophobic properties. This exotic assemblage comprises various types of aliphatic carbonaceous polymorphs (filaments, agglutinates, spherules) and aromatic ones (vitrous char, graphite), carbon cenospheres, fine grained sandstones and rock clasts

  7. Origin and abundance of water in carbonaceous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Bekaert, David V.; Piani, Laurette

    2018-01-01

    The origin and abundance of water accreted by carbonaceous asteroids remains underconstrained, but would provide important information on the dynamic of the protoplanetary disk. Here we report the in situ oxygen isotopic compositions of aqueously formed fayalite grains in the Kaba and Mokoia CV chondrites. CV chondrite bulk, matrix and fayalite O-isotopic compositions define the mass-independent continuous trend (δ17O = 0.84 ± 0.03 × δ18O - 4.25 ± 0.1), which shows that the main process controlling the O-isotopic composition of the CV chondrite parent body is related to isotopic exchange between 16O-rich anhydrous silicates and 17O- and 18O-rich fluid. Similar isotopic behaviors observed in CM, CR and CO chondrites demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of O-isotopic exchange as the main physical process in establishing the O-isotopic features of carbonaceous chondrites, regardless of their alteration degree. Based on these results, we developed a new approach to estimate the abundance of water accreted by carbonaceous chondrites (quantified by the water/rock ratio) with CM (0.3-0.4) ≥ CR (0.1-0.4) ≥ CV (0.1-0.2) > CO (0.01-0.10). The low water/rock ratios and the O-isotopic characteristics of secondary minerals in carbonaceous chondrites indicate they (i) formed in the main asteroid belt and (ii) accreted a locally derived (inner Solar System) water formed near the snowline by condensation from the gas phase. Such results imply low influx of D- and 17O- and 18O-rich water ice grains from the outer part of the Solar System. The latter is likely due to the presence of a Jupiter-induced gap in the protoplanetary disk that limited the inward drift of outer Solar System material at the exception of particles with size lower than 150 μm such as presolar grains. Among carbonaceous chondrites, CV chondrites show O-isotopic features suggesting potential contribution of 17-18O-rich water that may be related to their older accretion relative to other hydrated

  8. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben

    2018-01-01

    . Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI...... inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous...... flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA.Results: Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed...

  9. Treating distillable carbonaceous materials with hydrocarbon gases, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-12-04

    A process is described for the treatment of distillable carbonaceous materials with hydrogen gases in the presence of hydrogen halides to recover valuable hydrocarbon products, characterized by the stable halide forming the treating medium for the hot-test gasesous product of this treatment with hydrogen gases in combination with an alkaline metal or alkaline earth, able to be decomposed by an inorganic acid soluble in water, capable of driving off hydrogen halide from their salts and also with salts of ammonia of the mentioned inorganic acids, the halide being converted into halide of ammonia and halogen, and the ammonia halide or hydrogen halide being returned to the process alone or together with the feed of carbonaceous materials with which it began.

  10. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  11. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  12. Evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies: Insights into cometary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that cometary samples will comprise the most primitive materials that are able to be sampled. Although parent body alteration of such samples would not necessarily detract from scientists' interest in them, the possibility exists that modification processes may have affected cometary nuclei. Inferences about the kinds of modifications that might be encountered can be drawn from data on the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Observations suggest that, of all the classes of chondrites, these meteorites are most applicable to the study of comets. If the proportion of possible internal heat sources such as Al-26 in cometary materials are similar to those in chondrites, and if the time scale of comet accretion was fast enough to permit incorporation of live radionuclides, comets might have had early thermal histories somewhat like those of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

  13. Origin and nature of carbonaceous material in the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F; Wickramasinghe, N C [University Coll. of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff (UK)

    1977-12-22

    It is stated that astronomers generally believe that the carbonaceous material emerging from stars must be in the form of graphite, the most stable condensed form of carbon, and that such emergence must be confined to situations where the C/O ratio exceeds unity, such as in the atmospheres of carbon stars. It is argued here, however, that whilst this state of affairs remains valid for mass flows from stars of sufficiently low surface temperatures, it is not correct for low density flows from stars with colour temperatures approximately > 4,000 K (or for oscillatory stars with colour temperatures that go above 4,000 K for a portion of their cycle). In the latter case it is shown that carbonaceous material comprised mainly of polysaccharides will be able to condense. Implications for the origin of life on the Earth are discussed.

  14. Characterization of baking behaviour of carbonaceous materials by dilatation investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M.; Seichter, A.; Starke, S.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in volume can be observed in carbonaceous materials during baking which is assumed to be the reason for strains and crack formation. It occurs most pronouncedly within a temperature range from 100 to 200{degree}C. The causes of such phenomena in products pressed at different temperatures are analyzed by means of a gas pressure model and a relaxation model. The factors influencing dilatation are subject to thermal analysis. 15 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Processes for liquefying carbonaceous feedstocks and related compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonnell, Frederick M.; Dennis, Brian H.; Billo, Richard E.; Priest, John W.

    2017-02-28

    Methods for the conversion of lignites, subbituminous coals and other carbonaceous feedstocks into synthetic oils, including oils with properties similar to light weight sweet crude oil using a solvent derived from hydrogenating oil produced by pyrolyzing lignite are set forth herein. Such methods may be conducted, for example, under mild operating conditions with a low cost stoichiometric co-reagent and/or a disposable conversion agent.

  16. Microporous carbonaceous adsorbents for CO2 separation via selective adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Selective adsorption of CO2 has important implications for many energy and environment-related processes, which require the separation of CO2 from other gases (e.g. N2 and CH4) with high uptakes and selectivity. The development of high-performance adsorbents is one of the most promising solutions to the success of these processes. The present review is focused on the state-of-the-art of carbon-based (carbonaceous) adsorbents, covering microporous inorganic carbons and microporous organic polymers, with emphasis on the correlation between their textural and compositional properties and their CO2 adsorption/separation performance. Special attention is given to the most recently developed materials that were not covered in previous reviews. We summarize various effective strategies (N-doping, surface functionalization, extra-framework ions, molecular design, and pore size engineering) for enhancing the CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity of carbonaceous adsorbents. Our discussion focuses on CO2/N2 separation and CO2/CH4 separation, while including an introduction to the methods and criteria used for evaluating the performance of the adsorbents. Critical issues and challenges regarding the development of high-performance adsorbents as well as some overlooked facts and misconceptions are also discussed, with the aim of providing important insights into the design of novel carbonaceous porous materials for various selective adsorption based applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Carbonaceous Aerosol Characterization during 2016 KOR-US 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, B.; Santos, G. M.; Sanchez, D.; Jeong, D.; Czimczik, C. I.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine particulate matter and assume important roles in Earth's climate and human health. Because atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols exist as a continuum ranging from small, light-scattering organic carbon (OC), to highly-condensed, light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) they have contrasting effects on interaction with incoming and outgoing radiation, cloud formation, and snow/ice albedo. By strengthening our understanding of the relative contribution and sources of OC and EC we will be able to further describe aerosol formation and mixing at the regional level. To understand the relative anthropogenic and biogenic contributions to carbonaceous aerosol, 12 PM10 aerosols samples were collected on quartz fiber filters at the Mt. Taewha Research Forest in South Korea during the KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign over periods of 24-48 hours with a high-volume air sampler. Analysis of bulk C and N concentrations and absorption properties of filter extracts interspersed with HYSPLIT model results indicated that continental outflow across the Yellow Sea in enriched in bulk nitrogen loading and enhanced bulk absorptive properties of the aerosols. Bulk radiocarbon analysis also indicated enriched values in all samples indicating contamination from a nuclear power plant or the combustion of biomedical waste nearby. Here, we aim to investigate further the chemical characterization of VOCs adsorbed unto the aerosol through TD-GC-TOFMS. With this dataset we aim to determine the relative contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic aerosols by utilizing specific chemical tracers for source apportionment.

  18. Indigenous Carbonaceous Matter in the Nakhla Mars Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Le, L.; Wentworth, S. J.; Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed microanalysis of the Martian meteorite Nakhla has shown there are morphologically distinct carbonaceous features spatially associated with low-T aqueous alteration phases including salts and id-dingsite. A comprehensive suite of analytical instrumentation including optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), two-step laser mass spectrometry (mu-L(sup 2)MS), laser mu-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) are being used to characterize the carbonaceous matter and host mineralogy. The search for carbonaceous matter on Mars has proved challenging. Viking Landers failed to unambiguously detect simple organics at either of the two landing sites although the Martian surface is estimated to have acquired at least 10(exp15) kg of C as a consequence of meteoritic accretion over the last several Ga. The dearth of organics at the Martian surface has been attributed to various oxidative processes including UV photolysis and peroxide activity. Consequently, investigations of Martian organics need to be focused on the sub-surface regolith where such surface processes are either severely attenuated or absent. Fortuitously since Martian meteorites are derived from buried regolith materials they provide a unique opportunity to study Martian organic geochemistry.

  19. Biomass-derived carbonaceous materials as components in wood briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, S.; Koch, C.; Stadlbauer, E.A.; Scheer, J. [Univ. of Applied Sciences, THM Campus Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Weber, B. [Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Coyoacan (Mexico); Strohal, U.; Fey, J. [Strohal Anlagenbau, Staufenberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The present paper describes a briquette composed of a substantial amount of wooden biomass and up to 35% of carbonaceous materials derived from biogenic residues. The cellulosic component may be a mixture of any wooden residue. Suitable substrates for the carbonaceous fraction are vegetation wastes from land management or agriculture. Depending on physical and chemical nature of the substrate, Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC) or Low Temperature Conversion (LTC) may be used to produce the carbonaceous part of the briquette. HTC turns wet biomass at temperatures around 200 deg C in an autoclave into lignite whereas LTC treatment at 400 deg C and atmospheric pressure produces black coal. This is manifested by a molar ratio of 0.1 {<=} H/C (LTC) {<=} 0.7; 0.05{<=} O/C (LTC) {<=} 0.4 and 0.7 < H/C (HTC) <1.5 ; 0.2< O/C (HTC) < 0.5. Solid state {sup 13}C-NMR confirms these findings showing a strong absorption band for sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms at chemical shifts of 100 ppm und 165 ppm for LTC biochar. Depending on the substrate, HTC gives rise to an increase in the specific calorific value (MJ/kg) by a factor of {Psi} {approx} 1.2 - 1.4; LTC by 1.5 - 1.8. In addition ash melting points are significantly increased; in case of wheat straw by about 200 deg C. Compacted products may have a cylindrical or rectangular profile.

  20. Carbon Paste Electrodes Made from Different Carbonaceous Materials: Application in the Study of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Constantin; Apetrei, Irina Mirela; De Saja, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez-Mendez, Maria Luz

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the sensing properties of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) prepared from three different types of carbonaceous materials: graphite, carbon microspheres and carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical responses towards antioxidants including vanillic acid, catechol, gallic acid, l-ascorbic acid and l-glutathione have been analyzed and compared. It has been demonstrated that the electrodes based on carbon microspheres show the best performances in terms of kinetics and stability, whereas G-CPEs presented the smallest detection limit for all the antioxidants analyzed. An array of electrodes has been constructed using the three types of electrodes. As demonstrated by means of Principal Component Analysis, the system is able to discriminate among antioxidants as a function of their chemical structure and reactivity. PMID:22319354

  1. In situ observation of D-rich carbonaceous globules embedded in NWA 801 CR2 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Kobayashi, Sachio; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2013-12-01

    Eighty-five D-rich carbonaceous particles were identified in the matrix of the NWA 801 CR2 chondrite using isotope microscopy. The occurrence of 67 D-rich carbonaceous particles was characterized using secondary electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental mapping. The close association of H and C, and D-enrichment suggests that the D-rich carbonaceous particles correspond to organic matter. The D-rich organic particles were scattered ubiquitously throughout the matrix at a concentration of approximately 660 ppm. The morphology of the D-rich carbonaceous particles is globular up to about 1 μm in diameter and is classified into four types: ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates. The ring globules are ring-shaped organic matter containing silicate and/or oxide, with or without a void in the center. This is the first report of silicate and oxide grains surrounded by D-rich organic matter. The globule aggregates are composed of several D-rich organic globules mixed with silicates. Morphology of ring globules is very similar to core-mantle grain produced in the molecular cloud or in the outer solar nebula inferring by astronomy, suggesting that the organic globules have formed by UV photolysis in the ice mantle. Silicates or oxides attached to D-rich organic globules are the first observation among chondrites so far and may be unique nature of CR2 chondrites. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates are δD = 3000-4800, 2900-8100, 2700-11,000, and 2500-11,000‰, respectively. Variations of D/H ratio of these organic globules seemed to be attributed to variations of D/H ratio of the organic radicals or differences of content of the D-rich organic radicals. There are no significant differences in the hydrogen isotopic compositions among the four types of D-rich carbonaceous matter. The D-enrichments suggest that these organic globules have

  2. The Role of Fe,Ni Metal and Fe,Ni Sulfide Nanoparticles in Catalytic Organic Synthesis in the Early Solar System: Evidence From Carbonaceous Chondrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that carbonaceous chondrites contain a wide variety of both soluble and insoluble organic compounds. These compounds formed in a variety of different astrophysical environments including the interstellar medium, the solar nebula and on asteroidal parent bodies. The solid or insoluble organic material (IOM) in carbonaceous chondrites is likely the complex end product of synthesis and processing in all of these environments. Although the bulk chemistry and structure of IOM in carbonaceous chondrites is well understood, important questions remain as to the exact spatial occurrence and distribution of organic material within carbonaceous chondrites. Such information may provide important insights into the possible mechanisms of formation of organic material at the grain scale. We have examined the matrices of three CM carbonaceous chondrites, Y791198, Murchison and ALH81002 using a range of different TEM techniques. Mineralogically, the matrices of these meteorites consist of phyllosilicates and/or amorphous materials associated with sulfides, oxides and carbides. Using energy filtered TEM several distinct occurrences of organic material have been identified, notably associations with nanoparticles of sulfide and carbide. Sulfides have grain sizes that are commonly <100 nm with thin layers of poorly graphitized C (<1 nm) on their surfaces. This carbonaceous layer often contains nitrogen suggesting that it is organic in character. In addition, nanoparticles of Fe,Ni carbides that occur either singly or in clusters are often embedded in carbonaceous material that is also N-bearing. These carbides have experienced partial oxidation to magnetite around their rims. The ubiquitous spatial association between sulfide and carbide nanoparticles and carbonaceous material indicates a genetic relation between these phases. This association can be most readily explained by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalysis reactions involving catalytic hydrogenation

  3. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijun; Li, Xiutao; Cao, Quan; Mu, Xindong

    2011-02-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that -SO3H, -COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  4. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijun; Li Xiutao; Cao Quan; Mu Xindong

    2011-01-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that –SO 3 H, –COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  5. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite: A transmission electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.; Buseck, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite (CC) is less altered than the CI and CM chondrites and so provides a view of the mineralogy and textures resulting from the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of CCs. Matrix olivine in Lance has been partly altered to fine-grained, Fe-bearing serpentine and poorly crystalline Fe 3+ oxide, a process that required both hydration and oxidation. Serpentine occurs as discrete packets separated from the olivine surfaces by the Fe 3+ oxide. The Fe released during the dissolution of olivine was partly incorporated into the serpentine; the remainder was oxidized to form Fe 3+ oxide. Matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance matrix contain channels along their [100] and [001] directions. The formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. The alteration was pervasive but incomplete, suggesting a limited availability of fluid. A brief study of two other CO chondrites, Kainsaz and Warrenton, shows that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe 3+ oxide between olivine grains. Prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite. The alteration assemblage in Lance is only slightly different from that in Mokoia and essentially the same as that in C3 xenoliths from Murchison. Alteration products in Lance show greater similarities to CI than to CM chondrites

  6. Molybdenum isotopic evidence for the origin of chondrules and a distinct genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Gerrit; Burkhardt, Christoph; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies are powerful tracers to determine the provenance of meteorites and their components, and to identify genetic links between these materials. Here we show that chondrules and matrix separated from the Allende CV3 chondrite have complementary nucleosynthetic Mo isotope anomalies. These anomalies result from the enrichment of a presolar carrier enriched in s-process Mo into the matrix, and the corresponding depletion of this carrier in the chondrules. This carrier most likely is a metal and so the uneven distribution of presolar material probably results from metal-silicate fractionation during chondrule formation. The Mo isotope anomalies correlate with those reported for W isotopes on the same samples in an earlier study, suggesting that the isotope variations for both Mo and W are caused by the heterogeneous distribution of the same carrier. The isotopic complementary of chondrules and matrix indicates that both components are genetically linked and formed together from one common reservoir of solar nebula dust. As such, the isotopic data require that most chondrules formed in the solar nebula and are not a product of protoplanetary impacts. Allende chondrules and matrix together with bulk carbonaceous chondrites and some iron meteorites (groups IID, IIIF, and IVB) show uniform excesses in 92Mo, 95Mo, and 97Mo that result from the addition of supernova material to the solar nebula region in which these carbonaceous meteorites formed. Non-carbonaceous meteorites (enstatite and ordinary chondrites as well as most iron meteorites) do not contain this material, demonstrating that two distinct Mo isotope reservoirs co-existed in the early solar nebula that remained spatially separated for several million years. This separation was most likely achieved through the formation of the gas giants, which cleared the disk between the inner and outer solar system regions parental to the non-carbonaceous and carbonaceous meteorites. The Mo isotope

  7. Entropic Behavior of Binary Carbonaceous Mesophases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro D. Rey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maier-Saupe model for binary mixtures of uniaxial discotic nematogens, formulated in a previous study [1], is used to compute and characterize orientational entropy [2] and orientational specific heat. These thermodynamic quantities are used to determine mixture type (ideal or non-ideal which arise due to their different intrinsic properties, determined by the molecular weight asymmetry ΔMw and the molecular interaction parameter β. These molecular properties are also used to characterize the critical concentration where the mixture behaves like a single component system and exhibits the minimum nematic to isotropic (NI transition temperature (pseudo-pure mixture. A transition within the nematic phase takes place at this specific concentration. According to the Maier-Saupe model, in a single mesogen, entropy at NI transition is a universal value; in this work we quantify the mixing effect on this universal property. The results and analysis provide a new tool to characterize molecular interaction and molecular weight differences in mesogenic mixtures using standard calorimetric measurements.

  8. Radar-Enabled Recovery of the Sutters Mill Meteorite, a Carbonaceous Chondrite Regolith Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Petrus M.; Fries, Marc D.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Sears, Derek; Beauford, Robert; Ebel, Denton S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Doppler weather radar imaging enabled the rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite after a rare 4-kiloton of TNT-equivalent asteroid impact over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The recovered meteorites survived a record high-speed entry of 28.6 kilometers per second from an orbit close to that of Jupiter-family comets (Tisserand's parameter = 2.8 +/- 0.3). Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of CM (Mighei)-type carbonaceous chondrite and highly reduced xenolithic materials. It exhibits considerable diversity of mineralogy, petrography, and isotope and organic chemistry, resulting from a complex formation history of the parent body surface. That diversity is quickly masked by alteration once in the terrestrial environment but will need to be considered when samples returned by missions to C-class asteroids are interpreted.

  9. Characteristics and sources of carbonaceous aerosols from Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J.-J.; Zhu, C.-S.; Tie, X.-X.; Geng, F.-H.; Xu, H.-M.; Ho, S. S. H.; Wang, G.-H.; Han, Y.-M.; Ho, K.-F.

    2013-01-01

    An intensive investigation of carbonaceous PM2.5 and TSP (total suspended particles) from Pudong (China) was conducted as part of the MIRAGE-Shanghai (Megacities Impact on Regional and Global Environment) experiment in 2009. Data for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), organic species, including C17 to C40 n-alkanes and 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and stable carbon isotopes OC (δ13COC) and EC (δ13CEC) were used to evaluate the aerosols' temporal variations and identify presumptive sources. High OC/EC ratios indicated a large fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA); high char/soot ratios indicated stronger contributions to EC from motor vehicles and coal combustion than biomass burning. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated that much of the SOA was produced via coal combustion. Isotope abundances (δ13COC = -24.5 ± 0.8‰ and δ13CEC = -25.1 ± 0.6‰) indicated that fossil fuels were the most important source for carbonaceous PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter), with lesser impacts from biomass burning and natural sources. An EC tracer system and isotope mass balance calculations showed that the relative contributions to total carbon from coal combustion, motor vehicle exhaust, and SOA were 41%, 21%, and 31%; other primary sources such as marine, soil and biogenic emissions contributed 7%. Combined analyses of OC and EC, n-alkanes and PAHs, and stable carbon isotopes provide a new way to apportion the sources of carbonaceous particles.

  10. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Jacobsen Lauvås, Anna; Christensen, Preben; Vogel, Ulla; Sørig Hougaard, Karin; Goericke-Pesch, Sandra

    2018-01-31

    Semen quality parameters are potentially affected by nanomaterials in several ways: Inhaled nanosized particles are potent inducers of pulmonary inflammation, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators. Small amounts of particles may translocate from the lungs into the lung capillaries, enter the systemic circulation and ultimately reach the testes. Both the inflammatory response and the particles may induce oxidative stress which can directly affect spermatogenesis. Furthermore, spermatogenesis may be indirectly affected by changes in the hormonal milieu as systemic inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model. Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous nanomaterials were investigated by intratracheally instilling sexually mature male NMRI mice with four different carbonaceous nanomaterials dispersed in nanopure water: graphene oxide (18 μg/mouse/i.t.), Flammruss 101, Printex 90 and SRM1650b (0.1 mg/mouse/i.t. each) weekly for seven consecutive weeks. Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA. Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed sustained inflammatory response in the nanoparticle-exposed groups one week after the last instillation. No significant changes in epididymal sperm parameters, daily sperm production or plasma testosterone levels

  11. Characteristics and sources of carbonaceous aerosols from Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive investigation of carbonaceous PM2.5 and TSP (total suspended particles from Pudong (China was conducted as part of the MIRAGE-Shanghai (Megacities Impact on Regional and Global Environment experiment in 2009. Data for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, organic species, including C17 to C40 n-alkanes and 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and stable carbon isotopes OC (δ13COC and EC (δ13CEC were used to evaluate the aerosols' temporal variations and identify presumptive sources. High OC/EC ratios indicated a large fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA; high char/soot ratios indicated stronger contributions to EC from motor vehicles and coal combustion than biomass burning. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated that much of the SOA was produced via coal combustion. Isotope abundances (δ13COC = −24.5 ± 0.8‰ and δ13CEC = −25.1 ± 0.6‰ indicated that fossil fuels were the most important source for carbonaceous PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter, with lesser impacts from biomass burning and natural sources. An EC tracer system and isotope mass balance calculations showed that the relative contributions to total carbon from coal combustion, motor vehicle exhaust, and SOA were 41%, 21%, and 31%; other primary sources such as marine, soil and biogenic emissions contributed 7%. Combined analyses of OC and EC, n-alkanes and PAHs, and stable carbon isotopes provide a new way to apportion the sources of carbonaceous particles.

  12. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Genberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A one-year study was performed at the Vavihill background station in southern Sweden to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the carbonaceous aerosol. Weekly samples of the particulate matter PM10 were collected on quartz filters, and the amounts of organic carbon, elemental carbon, radiocarbon (14C and levoglucosan were measured. This approach enabled source apportionment of the total carbon in the PM10 fraction using the concentration ratios of the sources. The sources considered in this study were emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, as well as biogenic sources. During the summer, the carbonaceous aerosol mass was dominated by compounds of biogenic origin (80%, which are associated with biogenic primary and secondary organic aerosols. During the winter months, biomass combustion (32% and fossil fuel combustion (28% were the main contributors to the carbonaceous aerosol. Elemental carbon concentrations in winter were about twice as large as during summer, and can be attributed to biomass combustion, probably from domestic wood burning. The contribution of fossil fuels to elemental carbon was stable throughout the year, although the fossil contribution to organic carbon increased during the winter. Thus, the organic aerosol originated mainly from natural sources during the summer and from anthropogenic sources during the winter. The result of this source apportionment was compared with results from the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model. The model and measurements were generally consistent for total atmospheric organic carbon, however, the contribution of the sources varied substantially. E.g. the biomass burning contributions of OC were underestimated by the model by a factor of 2.2 compared to the measurements.

  13. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.; Mcsween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture. 104 refs

  14. Porous carbonaceous electrode structure and method for secondary electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1977-03-08

    Positive and negative electrodes are provided as rigid, porous carbonaceous matrices with particulate active material fixedly embedded. Active material such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali metal or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and a solid volatile to form a paste mixture. Various electrically conductive powders or current collector structures can be blended or embedded into the paste mixture which can be molded to the desired electrode shape. The molded paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity as the resin begins to cure into a rigid solid structure.

  15. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  16. Sub-micrometer refractory carbonaceous particles in the polar stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Katharina; Wilson, James Charles; Weinbruch, Stephan; Benker, Nathalie; Ebert, Martin; Günther, Gebhard; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Eleven particle samples collected in the polar stratosphere during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone loss and validation experiment) from January until March 2000 were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A total of 4202 particles (TEM = 3872; SEM = 330) were analyzed from these samples, which were collected mostly inside the polar vortex in the altitude range between 17.3 and 19.9 km. Particles that were volatile in the microscope beams contained ammonium sulfates and hydrogen sulfates and dominated the samples. Some particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 830 nm were refractory in the electron beams. Carbonaceous particles containing additional elements to C and O comprised from 72 to 100 % of the refractory particles. The rest were internal mixtures of these materials with sulfates. The median number mixing ratio of the refractory particles, expressed in units of particles per milligram of air, was 1.1 (mg air)-1 and varied between 0.65 and 2.3 (mg air)-1. Most of the refractory carbonaceous particles are completely amorphous, a few of the particles are partly ordered with a graphene sheet separation distance of 0.37 ± 0.06 nm (mean value ± standard deviation). Carbon and oxygen are the only detected major elements with an atomic O/C ratio of 0.11 ± 0.07. Minor elements observed include Si, S, Fe, Cr and Ni with the following atomic ratios relative to C: Si/C: 0.010 ± 0.011; S/C: 0.0007 ± 0.0015; Fe/C: 0.0052 ± 0.0074; Cr/C: 0.0012 ± 0.0017; Ni/C: 0.0006 ± 0.0011 (all mean values ± standard deviation).High-resolution element distribution images reveal that the minor elements are distributed within the carbonaceous matrix; i.e., heterogeneous inclusions are not observed. No difference in size, nanostructure and elemental composition was found between particles collected inside and outside the polar vortex. Based on chemistry and nanostructure

  17. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g -1 . The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  18. Photoelectric work function studies of carbonaceous films containing Ni nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwosz, E.; Dluzewski, P.; Kutner, T.; Stacewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of photoelectric work function measurements for carbonaceous films containing Ni nanocrystals. The investigated films were obtained by thermal vacuum deposition method. The structure of films was studied by electron diffraction, transmission microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film structure depends on Ni contents in the film volume. Work function determined from photoelectric measurements for all investigated films are similar and lie in the range of 2.65-2.93 eV. The decrease of work function value with the cleaning of the film's surface with UV pulsed laser beam was observed

  19. Process of producing carbonaceous materials; reaction with hydrogen gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-01-13

    A process is described for the production of valuable hydrocarbons by treating distillable carbonaceous materials together with hydrogen gases, under pressure and in contact with catalysts, the process consisting in adding to the original materials, first or during treatment, organic sulfonic acids together with metals from the fourth or eighth groups of the periodic system or a combination of these, or organic carbosilicic acids or inorganic acids containing oxides of sulfur or nitrogen or the anhydrides of these inorganic acids or variation of these compounds.

  20. Low-temperature catalytic conversion of carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laws of the rate of carbon conversion in steam atmosphere at a temperature in modes of the catalytic low-temperature treatment of peat, brown coal, semi-coke from peat and brown coal are obtained by experiments. Increasing of the rate of carbon conversion in temperature range up to 500 °C is achieved by using of catalysts. The possibility of using results is associated with the burners, a working zone of which is porous filling from carbonaceous particles.

  1. Nudności i wymioty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mokrowiecka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nudności są nieprzyjemnym, niebolesnym odczuciem silnej, nieodpartej potrzeby zwymiotowania, z kolei wymioty polegają na gwałtownym wydaleniu treści żołądka przez usta w wyniku silnych skurczów mięśni brzucha i klatki piersiowej. Nudności i wymioty mogą występować niezależnie od siebie, ale najczęściej są ze sobą powiązane. Nudności i wymioty powstają w odpowiedzi zarówno na bodźce fizjologiczne, jak i patologiczne. Zwykle jednak przewlekłe nudności i wymioty są objawem chorób przewodu pokarmowego lub innych narządów. Choroby przewodu pokarmowego i otrzewnej stanowią szeroką grupę chorób wywołujących nudności i wymioty, począwszy od nieżytu żołądkowo-jelitowego o ostrym infekcyjnym tle, przez zatrucie pokarmowe i nadwrażliwość pokarmową, do stanów ostrych – niedrożności jelita cienkiego lub/i grubego. Leki i toksyny, między innymi cytostatyki, są jedną z najczęstszych przyczyn nudności i wymiotów. Wśród innych przyczyn nudności i wymiotów można wymienić: choroby OUN prowadzące do zwiększenia ciśnienia śródczaszkowego, choroby endokrynologiczne i metaboliczne (mocznica, kwasica ketonowa w cukrzycy, choroby tarczycy i przytarczyc oraz choroba Addisona, zawał ściany dolnej mięśnia sercowego, nudności i wymioty pooperacyjne. Nudności i wymioty jako choroby czynnościowe zostały ujęte w III kryteriach rzymskich w punkcie „Choroby czynnościowe żołądka i dwunastnicy”. W diagnostyce różnicowej należy uwzględnić czas trwania wymiotów, czas pomiędzy posiłkiem a wystąpieniem wymiotów, a także charakter treści wymiocin i inne objawy towarzyszące. Wywiad i badanie fizykalne dostarczają zwykle wystarczających informacji do postawienia prawidłowej diagnozy i ustalenia leczenia u większości chorych cierpiących na nudności i wymioty. Niektórzy pacjenci wymagają jednak badań laboratoryjnych, obrazowych i endoskopowych przed zastosowaniem odpowiedniej

  2. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  3. Constraining Carbonaceous Aerosol Climate Forcing by Bridging Laboratory, Field and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Aiken, A. C.; Liu, S.; Saleh, R.; Cappa, C. D.; Williams, L. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Gorkowski, K.; Ng, N. L.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.; Yokelson, R. J.; Allan, J. D.; Liu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass and fossil fuel combustion emits black (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) aerosols that absorb sunlight to warm climate and organic carbon (OC) aerosols that scatter sunlight to cool climate. The net forcing depends strongly on the composition, mixing state and transformations of these carbonaceous aerosols. Complexities from large variability of fuel types, combustion conditions and aging processes have confounded their treatment in models. We analyse recent laboratory and field measurements to uncover fundamental mechanism that control the chemical, optical and microphysical properties of carbonaceous aerosols that are elaborated below: Wavelength dependence of absorption and the single scattering albedo (ω) of fresh biomass burning aerosols produced from many fuels during FLAME-4 was analysed to determine the factors that control the variability in ω. Results show that ω varies strongly with fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCEFI)—higher MCEFI results in lower ω values and greater spectral dependence of ω (Liu et al GRL 2014). A parameterization of ω as a function of MCEFI for fresh BB aerosols is derived from the laboratory data and is evaluated by field data, including BBOP. Our laboratory studies also demonstrate that BrC production correlates with BC indicating that that they are produced by a common mechanism that is driven by MCEFI (Saleh et al NGeo 2014). We show that BrC absorption is concentrated in the extremely low volatility component that favours long-range transport. We observe substantial absorption enhancement for internally mixed BC from diesel and wood combustion near London during ClearFlo. While the absorption enhancement is due to BC particles coated by co-emitted OC in urban regions, it increases with photochemical age in rural areas and is simulated by core-shell models. We measure BrC absorption that is concentrated in the extremely low volatility components and attribute it to wood burning. Our results support

  4. Light absorption of biomass burning and vehicle emission-sourced carbonaceous aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaofu; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Chen, Pengfei; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yulan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau originate primarily from biomass burning and vehicle emissions (BB and VEs, respectively). The light absorption characteristics of these carbonaceous aerosols are closely correlated with the burning conditions and represent key factors that influence climate forcing. In this study, the light absorption characteristics of elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm) generated from BB and VEs were investigated over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results showed that the organic carbon (OC)/EC ratios from BB- and VE-sourced PM 2.5 were 17.62 ± 10.19 and 1.19 ± 0.36, respectively. These values were higher than the ratios in other regions, which was primarily because of the diminished amount of oxygen over the TP. The mass absorption cross section of EC (MAC EC ) at 632 nm for the BB-sourced PM 2.5 (6.10 ± 1.21 m 2 .g -1 ) was lower than that of the VE-sourced PM 2.5 (8.10 ± 0.98 m 2 .g -1 ), indicating that the EC content of the BB-sourced PM 2.5 was overestimated because of the high OC/EC ratio. The respective absorption per mass (α/ρ) values at 365 nm for the VE- and BB-sourced PM 2.5 were 0.71 ± 0.17 m 2 .g -1 and 0.91 ± 0.18 m 2 .g -1 . The α/ρ value of the VEs was loaded between that of gasoline and diesel emissions, indicating that the VE-sourced PM 2.5 originated from both types of emissions. Because OC and WSOC accounts for most of the carbonaceous aerosols at remote area of the TP, the radiative forcing contributed by the WSOC should be high, and requires further investigation.

  5. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  6. Evaluation of traffic exhaust contributions to ambient carbonaceous submicron particulate matter in an urban roadside environment in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Berto Paul; Kwok Keung Louie, Peter; Luk, Connie; Keung Chan, Chak

    2017-12-01

    Road traffic has significant impacts on air quality particularly in densely urbanized and populated areas where vehicle emissions are a major local source of ambient particulate matter. Engine type (i.e., fuel use) significantly impacts the chemical characteristics of tailpipe emission, and thus the distribution of engine types in traffic impacts measured ambient concentrations. This study provides an estimation of the contribution of vehicles powered by different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG) to carbonaceous submicron aerosol mass (PM1) based on ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and elemental carbon (EC) measurements and vehicle count data in an urban inner city environment in Hong Kong with the aim to gauge the importance of different engine types to particulate matter burdens in a typical urban street canyon. On an average per-vehicle basis, gasoline vehicles emitted 75 and 93 % more organics than diesel and LPG vehicles, respectively, while EC emissions from diesel vehicles were 45 % higher than those from gasoline vehicles. LPG vehicles showed no appreciable contributions to EC and thus overall represented a small contributor to traffic-related primary ambient PM1 despite their high abundance (˜ 30 %) in the traffic mix. Total carbonaceous particle mass contributions to ambient PM1 from diesel engines were only marginally higher (˜ 4 %) than those from gasoline engines, which is likely an effect of recently introduced control strategies targeted at commercial vehicles and buses. Overall, gasoline vehicles contributed 1.2 µg m-3 of EC and 1.1 µ m-3 of organics, LPG vehicles 0.6 µg m-3 of organics and diesel vehicles 2.0 µg m-3 of EC and 0.7 µg m-3 of organics to ambient carbonaceous PM1.

  7. "ESSAY ON CI" BY LI QINGZHAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dashchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first Russian translation of "Essay on Ci" with detailed comments. It was written by the outstanding Chinese poetess Li Qingzhao and considered to be the first theoretical treatise dedicated to genre ci. The article revealed that the poetess used three strategies to make a genre demarcation: to legitimise, dichotomise and historicise. To legitimise means to justify that ci is a genre of poetry by identifying the same traits with official poetry shi (e.g. using the classical quotations and allusions. To dichotomise is to determine a core element of genre and oppose it to the other element identifying the similar genre (e.g. music separates ci from shi. To historicise is to develop or discover the unique historical past (e.g. the source of ci is in antiquity. The article also examined the strategy to invent classics: Li Qingzhao wrote the apophatic history of genre ci pointing not to the merits but weaknesses of her predecessors.

  8. Hydrogen ion-driven permeation in carbonaceous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the permeation properties of amorphous carbonaceous, a-C:H, films produced by plasmachemical deposition techniques. Carbonaceous films on iron substrates with thickness ranging from 60 nm to 110 nm were subjected to high fluence implantations with mass analyzed D 3 + ions with energies ranging from 600 eV to 3000 eV and fluxes ranging from 5x10 14 D/cm 2 s to 5x10 15 D/cm 2 s, respectively. Deuterium re-emission upstream, deuterium permeation downstream and secondary ions sputtered from the implantation surface were measured as a function of implantation fluence for specimens at 420 K. The present studies indicate that the a-C:H film permeability is directly related to the time, hence the fluence, required to achieve isotopic replacement and saturation of the deuterium ion beam atoms stopped in the implant region. Once the deuterium saturation level is achieved in the layer, a significant fraction of the implanting ions can result in permeation. For the present experiment, this permeation factor was much higher than that for uncoated iron specimens subjected to similar beam conditions. Carbon sputter yields of 0.008-0.01 C/D were determined in this work for 1000-eV to 400-eV deuterium ions incident on a-C:H films. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogen ion-driven permeation in carbonaceous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the permeation properties of amorphous carbonaceous, a-C:H, films produced by plasmachemical deposition techniques. Carbonaceous films on iron substrates with thickness ranging from 60 nm to 110 nm were subjected to high fluence implantations with mass analyzed D/sub 3//sup +/ ions with energies ranging from 600 eV to 3000 eV and fluxes ranging from 5x10/sup 14/ D/cm/sup 2/ s to 5x10/sup 15/ D/cm/sup 2/ s, respectively. Deuterium re-emission upstream, deuterium permeation downstream and secondary ions sputtered from the implantation surface were measured as a function of implantation fluence for specimens at 420 K. The present studies indicate that the a-C:H film permeability is directly related to the time, hence the fluence, required to achieve isotopic replacement and saturation of the deuterium ion beam atoms stopped in the implant region. Once the deuterium saturation level is achieved in the layer, a significant fraction of the implanting ions can result in permeation. For the present experiment, this permeation factor was much higher than that for uncoated iron specimens subjected to similar beam conditions. Carbon sputter yields of 0.008-0.01 C/D were determined in this work for 1000-eV to 400-eV deuterium ions incident on a-C:H films. (orig.).

  10. Hydrogen ion-driven permeation in carbonaceous films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Holland, D. F.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into the permeation properties of amorphous carbonaceous, a-C: H, films produced by plasmachemical deposition techniques. Carbonaceous films on iron substrates with thickness ranging from 60 nm to 110 nm were subjected to high fluence implantations with mass analyzed D +3 ions with energies ranging from 600 eV to 3000 eV and fluxes ranging from 5 × 10 14D/ cm2 s to 5 × 10 15D/ cm2 s, respectively. Deuterium re-emission upstream, deuterium permeation downstream and secondary ions sputtered from the implantation surface were measured as a function of implantation fluence for specimens at 420 K. The present studies indicate that the a-C : H film permeability is directly related to the time, hence the fluence, required to achieve isotopic replacement and saturation of the deuterium ion beam atoms stopped in the implant region. Once the deuterium saturation level is achieved in the layer, a significant fraction of the implanting ions can result in permeation. For the present experiment, this permeation factor was much higher than that for uncoated iron specimens subjected to similar beam conditions. Carbon sputter yields of 0.008-0.01 C/D were determined in this work for 1000-eV to 400-eV deuterium ions incident on a-C : H films.

  11. Template-free synthesis of multifunctional carbonaceous microcone forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Yang, Lei; Dai, Bing; Bai, Jie; Yang, Zhenhuai; Guo, Shuai; He, Yurong; Han, Jiecai; Zhu, Jiaqi

    2018-01-01

    Forests of vertically aligned carbonaceous microcones are fabricated directly on a nickel mesh by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The microstructure is formed through a simple one-step process involving self-assembly. The fabricated composite exhibits superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity as well as low density, owing to which it floats on water and can be used for the in-situ separation of oil from water at the oil/water interface. Furthermore, the composite exhibits pH responsivity, and its water permeability can be varied simply by altering the pH of the aqueous solution. In addition, the composite is suitable for use as an electrode material for supercapacitors owing to its large geometric surface area, porous structure, and superior electrical properties, which allow for fast ion and electron transportation. Thus, this composite consisting of forests of vertically aligned carbonaceous microcones on a nickel mesh is expected to find use in a wide range of fields and applications, including in environmental cleanup, flow switches, and energy storage devices.

  12. Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.

  13. Conditions of formation for carbonaceous silicites of the continental margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazhenova, O.K.

    1986-06-01

    Carbonaceous silicites occur in virtually all systems in Phanerozoic folded regions. They are of practical interest as concentrators of silver, molybdenum, vanadium, and nickel and as source and occasionally reservoir beds for petroleum. Some small oil pools occur in them in basins in Japan (Niigata and Akita), California, and East Sakhalin. Recently, interest has increased because a major pool was discovered in silicites of the Monterey formation: Point Arguello Hueso in the offshore part of the Santa Maria basin. Here the authors consider carbonaceous silicates in the western part of the Pacific active margin, which include Silurian and Devonian phthanites in the Mongolia-Okhotsk belt, and Triassic and Jurassic phthanites in the Sikhote-Alin area, although these rocks are of fairly local occurrence in the section. The authors have examined silicites in Kamchatka, Sakhalin, and Chukotka: diatomites, tuff-diatomites, and opokas, together with their recrystallized analogs. They occur in the Paleogene, but they are most abundant in the Miocene and Pliocene, as well as in the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene, particularly in the Miocene of California and Japan. 16 references.

  14. Review of the technology for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Spiewak, I.; Funken, K.H.; Ortner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the feasibility of solar assisted gasification of carbonaceous materials to form synthesis gas (syngas). The potential feedstocks range from natural gas, residual oil, biomass, and oil-shale to coal. The expected advantages of such processing are yields of syngas with calorific values above those of the carbonaceous feedstocks, syngas quality suited to production of hydrogen, methanol or bulk Fischer-Tropsch fuels, and the ability to process low-grade and waste materials with essentially no emissions to atmosphere other than small amounts of CO 2 . The review provides some background on solar receiver concepts to reach the high temperatures needed for syngas production, the basic chemistry involved, covers applicable experiments that have been reported with solar inputs and with conventional heating, heat transfer processes, process and energy balances, and cost analysis. Approximately 80 references are cited. The authors present their views on the most promising approaches to solar-assisted gasification, the technology development required, and the ultimate benefits of such development and commercialization

  15. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  16. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond

  17. Regional variation of carbonaceous aerosols from space and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Nakata, Makiko; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides us with a systematic monitoring in a global scale. As such, aerosol observation via satellites is known to be useful and effective. However, before attempting to retrieve aerosol properties from satellite data, the efficient algorithms for aerosol retrieval need to be considered. The characteristics and distributions of atmospheric aerosols are known to be complicated, owing to both natural factors and human activities. It is known that the biomass burning aerosols generated by the large-scale forest fires and burn agriculture have influenced the severity of air pollution. Nevertheless the biomass burning episodes increase due to global warming and climate change and vice versa. It is worth noting that the near ultra violet (NUV) measurements are helpful for the detection of carbonaceous particles, which are the main component of aerosols from biomass burning. In this work, improved retrieval algorithms for biomass burning aerosols are shown by using the measurements observed by GLI and POLDER-2 on Japanese short term mission ADEOS-2 in 2003. The GLI sensor has 380nm channel. For detection of biomass burning episodes, the aerosol optical thickness of carbonaceous aerosols simulated with the numerical model simulations (SPRINTARS) is available as well as fire products from satellite imagery. Moreover the algorithm using shorter wavelength data is available for detection of absorbing aerosols. An algorithm based on the combined use of near-UV and violet data has been introduced in our previous work with ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) -2 /GLI measurements [1]. It is well known that biomass burning plume is a seasonal phenomenon peculiar to a particular region. Hence, the mass concentrations of aerosols are frequently governed with spatial and/or temporal variations of biomass burning plumes. Accordingly the satellite data sets for our present study are adopted from the view points of investigation of regional and seasonal

  18. ANALIZA NIEZAWODNOŚCI STACJI UZDATNIANIA WODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara TCHÓRZEWSKA-CIEŚLAK

    Full Text Available Systemy zbiorowego zaopatrzenia w wodę składają się z połączonych ze sobą elementów (podsystemów stanowiących integralna całość, współpracujących ze sobą w sposób ciągły w celu zapewnienia dla konsumentów wody o odpowiedniej jakości. W przypadku gdy jakość wody w źródle nie odpowiada normatywom stawianym wodzie przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi, woda musi być poddana procesom uzdatniania. Niezawodność funkcjonowania stacji uzdatniania wody jest jednym z podstawowych elementów szeroko rozumianej analizy niezawodności i bezpieczeństwa całego systemu zbiorowego zaopatrzenia w wodę. Niezawodność dostawy wody polega na zapewnieniu stabilnych warunków, umożliwiających pokrycie bieżącego i perspektywicznego zapotrzebowania na wodę w odpowiedniej ilości i wymaganej jakości w dowolnym, dogodnym dla konsumentów wody czasie. W pracy przedstawiono podstawy analizy niezawodności, podano podstawowe miary oraz zasady wykorzystania struktur niezawodnościowych. Obliczenia wykonano dla stacji uzdatniania wody na podstawie schematu niezwodnościowego metodą jednoparametryczną. Na podstawie danych z eksploatacyjnych stacji uzdatniania wody (SUW wchodzącej w skład systemu zbiorowego zaopatrzenia w wodę miasta liczącego ok 80 tys. mieszkańców sporządzono schemat niewodności stacji oraz przeprowadzono obliczenia wskaźnika gotowości K. W metodzie wykorzystano podstawowe struktury niezawodnościowe. Wyznaczoną miarę niezawodności porównano z wartościami kryterialnymi.

  19. Space weathering trends on carbonaceous asteroids: A possible explanation for Bennu's blue slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, C.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    We compare primitive near-Earth asteroid spectral properties to the irradiated carbonaceous chondrite samples of Lantz et al. (2017) in order to assess how space weathering processes might influence taxonomic classification. Using the same eigenvectors from the asteroid taxonomy by DeMeo et al. (2009), we calculate the principal components for fresh and irradiated meteorites and find that change in spectral slope (blueing or reddening) causes a corresponding shift in the two first principal components along the same line that the C- and X-complexes track. Using a sample of B-, C-, X-, and D-type NEOs with visible and near-infrared spectral data, we further investigated the correlation between prinicipal components and the spectral curvature for the primitive asteroids. We find that space weathering effects are not just slope and albedo, but also include spectral curvature. We show how, through space weathering, surfaces having an original "C-type" reflectance can thus turn into a redder P-type or a bluer B-type, and that space weathering can also decrease (and disguise) the D-type population. Finally we take a look at the case of OSIRIS-REx target (101955) Bennu and propose an explanation for the blue and possibly red spectra that were previously observed on different locations of its surface: parts of Bennu's surface could have become blue due to space weathering, while fresher areas are redder. No clear prediction can be made on Hayabusa-2 target (162173) Ryugu.

  20. NMR studies of chemical structural variation of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments have been performed on isolated meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) spanning four different carbonaceous chondrite meteorite groups; a CR2 (EET92042), a CI1 (Orgueil), a CM2 (Murchison), and the unique C2 meteorite, Tagish Lake. These solid state NMR experiments reveal considerable variation in bulk organic composition across the different meteorite group's IOM. The fraction of aromatic carbon increases as CR2 meteorite groups. Single pulse (SP) 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments reveal the presence of nanodiamonds with an apparent concentration ranking in the IOM of CR2 IOM of all four meteoritic IOM fractions are highly substituted. Fast spinning SP 1H MAS NMR spectral data combined with other NMR experimental data reveal that the average hydrogen content of sp 3 bonded carbon functional groups is low, requiring a high degree of aliphatic chain branching in each IOM fraction. The variation in chemistry across the meteorite groups is consistent with alteration by low temperature chemical oxidation. It is concluded that such chemistry principally affected the aliphatic moieties whereas the aromatic moieties and nanodiamonds may have been largely unaffected.

  1. Language Practices in the Ci-Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Prelingually deafened children are nowadays likely to receive a cochlear implant (ci). As these children do their language acquisition with a cochlear implant they require a constant rehabilitation and support. Educational staff is instructed on how to work with children with ci in form...... of guidelines and workshops. This paper discusses language practices used in the setting of a school for cochlear-implanted children. These children encounter language and pronunciation problems that accompany prelingual deafness and hearing with a cochlear implant. I examine two practices, which are used...

  2. Influence of Bulk Carbonaceous Matter on Pluto's Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Spencer, J. R.; Moore, J. M.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C.

    2017-12-01

    The rock/ice mass ratio of the Pluto system is about 2/1 (McKinnon et al., Icarus 287, 2017) [1], though this neglects the potential role of bulk carbonaceous matter ("CHON"), an important cometary component and one likely important in the ancestral Kuiper belt. The wealth of measurements at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (a Jupiter-family comet and thus one formed in the same region of the outer Solar System as Pluto) by Rosetta are particularly instructive. E.g., Davidsson et al. (A&A 592, 2016) [2] propose in their "composition A" that 67P/Ch-G is 25% metal/sulfides, 42% rock/organics, and 32% ice by mass. For their assumed component densities, the overall grain density is 1820 kg/m3. Fulle et al. (MNRAS 462, 2016) [3] posit 5 ± 2 volume % Fe-sulfides of density 4600 kg/m3, 28 ± 5% Mg,Fe-olivines and -pyroxenes of density 3200 kg/m3, 52 ± 12% hydrocarbons of density 1200 kg/m3, and 15 ± 6% ices of 917 kg/m3. This composition yields a primordial grain density (dust + ice) of 1885 ± 240 kg/m3. Both of these cometary density estimates [2,3] are consistent with Pluto-Charon, especially as Pluto's uncompressed (STP) density is close to 1820 kg/m3 and that of the system as a whole is close to 1800 kg/m3 [1]. We consider the potential compositional and structural implications of these proposed 67P/Ch-G compositions when applied to Pluto and Charon. The amount of ice in model A of [2] is a good match to Pluto structural models. Their rock/organics component, however, is taken to be half graphite (2000 kg/m3) by volume. The composition in [3] is more divergent: very ice poor, and on the order of 50% light hydrocarbons by volume. Regardless of the differences between [2] and [3], the possibility of massive internal graphite or carbonaceous layers within Pluto is real. We discuss the possible consequences for Pluto's structure, rock/ice ratio, thermal and chemical evolution, and even interpretation of its gravity field from tectonics. For example, radiogenic heat

  3. Sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies.

    In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI fine (Dp < 2.5 μm and coarse (2.5 μm < Dp <10 μm aerosol particles were sampled from February to June (wet season and from August to September (dry season 2008 in the central Amazon basin. The mass of fine particles averaged 2.4 μg m−3 during the wet season and 4.2 μg m−3 during the dry season. The average coarse aerosol mass concentration during wet and dry periods was 7.9 and 7.6 μg m−3, respectively. The overall chemical composition of fine and coarse mass did not show any seasonality with the largest fraction of fine and coarse aerosol mass explained by organic carbon (OC; the average OC to mass ratio was 0.4 and 0.6 in fine and coarse aerosol modes, respectively. The mass absorbing cross section of soot was determined by comparison of elemental carbon and light absorption coefficient measurements and it was equal to 4.7 m2 g−1 at 637 nm. Carbon aerosol sources were identified by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of thermograms: 44% of fine total carbon mass was assigned to biomass burning, 43% to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, and 13% to volatile species that are difficult to apportion. In the coarse mode, primary biogenic aerosol particles (PBAP dominated the carbonaceous aerosol mass. The results confirmed the importance of PBAP in forested areas.

    The source apportionment results were employed to evaluate the ability of global chemistry transport models to simulate carbonaceous aerosol sources in a regional tropical background site. The comparison showed an overestimation

  4. Molecular and compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yongsong; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Fogel, Marilyn; Cody, George

    2005-07-01

    We have conducted the first systematic analyses of molecular distribution and δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from different carbonaceous chondrite groups, using flash pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific D/H analysis. IOM samples from six meteorites of different classifications, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 (CR2), Orgueil (CI1), Allan Hills (ALH) 83100 (CM1/2), Murchison (CM2), ALH 85013 (CM2), and Tagish Lake (C2) were isolated and studied. Except for the pyrolysate of Tagish Lake IOM, pyrolysates of all five meteorite IOM samples were dominated by an extensive series of aromatic (C 1 to C 7 alkyl-substituted benzenes, C 0 to C 2 alkyl-substituted naphthalenes), with aliphatic (straight chain and branched C 10 to C 15 alkanes) hydrocarbons and several S- and O- containing compounds (C 1 to C 2 alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, benzaldehyde) being also present. The strong similarity in the pyrolysates of different carbonaceous chondrites suggests certain common characteristics in the formation mechanisms of IOM from different meteorites. The Tagish Lake IOM sample is unique in that its pyrolysate lacks most of the alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons detected in other meteorite IOM samples, suggesting distinctively different formation processes. Both bulk δD values of meteorite IOMs and weighted-average δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates show a decreasing trend: CR2 > CI1 > CM2 > C2 (Tagish Lake), with the EET 92042 (CR2) IOM having the highest δD values (˜2000‰ higher than other samples). We attribute the high D contents in the IOM to primitive interstellar organic sources.

  5. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  6. Agglomeration processes in carbonaceous dusty plasmas, experiments and numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dap, S; Hugon, R; De Poucques, L; Bougdira, J; Lacroix, D; Patisson, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with carbon dust agglomeration in radio frequency acetylene/argon plasma. Two studies, an experimental and a numerical one, were carried out to model dust formation mechanisms. Firstly, in situ transmission spectroscopy of dust clouds in the visible range was performed in order to observe the main features of the agglomeration process of the produced carbonaceous dust. Secondly, numerical simulation tools dedicated to understanding the achieved experiments were developed. A first model was used for the discretization of the continuous population balance equations that characterize the dust agglomeration process. The second model is based on a Monte Carlo ray-tracing code coupled to a Mie theory calculation of dust absorption and scattering parameters. These two simulation tools were used together in order to numerically predict the light transmissivity through a dusty plasma and make comparisons with experiments.

  7. Sub-micrometer refractory carbonaceous particles in the polar stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schütze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven particle samples collected in the polar stratosphere during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone loss and validation experiment from January until March 2000 were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A total of 4202 particles (TEM  =  3872; SEM  =  330 were analyzed from these samples, which were collected mostly inside the polar vortex in the altitude range between 17.3 and 19.9 km. Particles that were volatile in the microscope beams contained ammonium sulfates and hydrogen sulfates and dominated the samples. Some particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 830 nm were refractory in the electron beams. Carbonaceous particles containing additional elements to C and O comprised from 72 to 100 % of the refractory particles. The rest were internal mixtures of these materials with sulfates. The median number mixing ratio of the refractory particles, expressed in units of particles per milligram of air, was 1.1 (mg air−1 and varied between 0.65 and 2.3 (mg air−1. Most of the refractory carbonaceous particles are completely amorphous, a few of the particles are partly ordered with a graphene sheet separation distance of 0.37 ± 0.06 nm (mean value ± standard deviation. Carbon and oxygen are the only detected major elements with an atomic O∕C ratio of 0.11 ± 0.07. Minor elements observed include Si, S, Fe, Cr and Ni with the following atomic ratios relative to C: Si∕C: 0.010 ± 0.011; S∕C: 0.0007 ± 0.0015; Fe∕C: 0.0052 ± 0.0074; Cr∕C: 0.0012 ± 0.0017; Ni∕C: 0.0006 ± 0.0011 (all mean values ± standard deviation.High-resolution element distribution images reveal that the minor elements are distributed within the carbonaceous matrix; i.e., heterogeneous inclusions are not observed. No difference in size, nanostructure and elemental composition was found between

  8. On thermodynamics of methane+carbonaceous materials adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Rahman, Kazi Afzalur

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical frameworks for the thermodynamic quantities namely the heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy for the adsorption of methane onto various carbonaceous materials. The proposed theoretical frameworks are developed from the rigor of thermodynamic property surfaces of a single component adsorbate-adsorbent system and by incorporating the micropore filling theory approach, where the effect of adsorbed phase volume is considered. The abovementioned thermodynamic properties are quantitatively evaluated from the experimental uptake data for methane adsorption onto activated carbons such as Maxsorb III at temperatures ranging from 120 to 350 K and pressures up to 25 bar. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, this paper shows the thermodynamic maps of the charge and discharge processes of adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system for understanding the behaviors of natural gas in ANG vessel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2002-10-01

    Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy.

  10. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosol emissions from selected combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.P.G.; Espino, M.P.M.; Pabroa, P.C.B.; Bautista, A.T. VII

    2015-01-01

    Carbonaceous Particulates are carbon-containing solid or liquid matter which form a significant portion of the fine particulate mass (PM2.5) and these have known profound adverse effects on health, climate and visibility. This study aims to characterize carbonaceous aerosol emissions from different combustion sources to establish fingerprints for these for use in the refinement of improvement of the resolution of sources apportionment studies being done by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), i.e. to resolve vehicular emission sources. Fine air particulate sample were collected in pre-baked Quartz filters using an improvised collection set-up with a Gent sampler. Concentrations of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) in PM2.5 were measured for the different combustion sources—vehicular emissions, tire pyrolysis, and biomass burning, using a thermal-optical method of analysis following the IMPROVE_A protocol. Measured OC ad EC concentrations are shown as percentages with respect to the total carbon (TC) and are illustrated in a 100% stacked chart. Predominance of the EC2 fraction is exhibited in both the diesel fuelled vehicle and tire pyrolysis emissions with EC2/OC2 ratio distinguishing one from the other, EC2/OC2 is 1.63 and 8.41, respectively. Predominance of either OC2 or OC3 fraction is shown in the unleaded gasoline and LPG Fuelled vehicles and in biomass burning with the OC2/OC3 ratio distinguishing one from the others. OC2/OC3 ratios are 1.33 for unleaded gasoline fuelled vehicle, 1.89 for LPG-fuelled vehicle, 0.55 for biomass burning (leaves) and 0.82 biomass burning (wood). The study has shown probable use of the EC2/OC2 and OC2/OC3 ratios to distinguish fingerprints for combustion sources covered in this study. (author)

  11.  Spis treści

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dobija

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available  Od Zespołu Redakcyjnego ............................................................................... 5 Mieczysław Dobija – Rachunkowość w systemie pomiaru aktywności ekonomicznej państwa – Accounting as part of an economic activity measurement system ............... 7 Renata Dyląg, Ewelina Puchalska – Raportowanie zagadnień środowiskowych i społecznych – Reporting on social and environmental issues .............................................. 23 Jacek Gad – Sprawozdanie z wyniku całościowego jako źródło informacji na temat kapitałowych przychodów i kosztów – doświadczenia polskiego i niemieckiego rynku kapitałowego – Statement of comprehensive income as a source of information on capital income and expenses – experience of Polish and German capital markets...... 47 Piotr Luty – Ocena kondycji finansowej łączących się spółek na przykładzie jednostek z wybranych województw Polski Zachodniej – Assessment of financial position of merging companies based on selected provinces of Western Poland ............................................................................ 69 Irena Sobańska – Znaczenie dorobku naukowego Profesor Elżbiety Burzym dla rozwoju nauki i praktyki rachunkowości w Polsce – The importance of Professor Elżbieta Burzym’s contribution to the development of accounting theory, research and practice in Poland ........................ 83 Arleta Szadziewska – Rachunkowość jako źródło informacji na temat realizacji strategii społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu – Accounting as a source of information for CSR strategy ............................. 95 Halina Waniak-Michalak – Informacja o pracy wolontariuszy w sprawozdaniach organizacji pożytku publicznego w Polsce – Information on volunteer labour in reports of public benefit organizations in Poland ............................................................................................................ 125

  12. Adsorption of aromatic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study on granular activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Shao, Ting; Kose, H Selcen; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-08-15

    Adsorption of three aromatic organic compounds (AOCs) by four types of carbonaceous adsorbents [a granular activated carbon (HD4000), an activated carbon fiber (ACF10), two single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT, SWNT-HT), and a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)] with different structural characteristics but similar surface polarities was examined in aqueous solutions. Isotherm results demonstrated the importance of molecular sieving and micropore effects in the adsorption of AOCs by carbonaceous porous adsorbents. In the absence of the molecular sieving effect, a linear relationship was found between the adsorption capacities of AOCs and the surface areas of adsorbents, independent of the type of adsorbent. On the other hand, the pore volume occupancies of the adsorbents followed the order of ACF10 > HD4000 > SWNT > MWNT, indicating that the availability of adsorption site was related to the pore size distributions of the adsorbents. ACF10 and HD4000 with higher microporous volumes exhibited higher adsorption affinities to low molecular weight AOCs than SWNT and MWNT with higher mesopore and macropore volumes. Due to their larger pore sizes, SWNTs and MWNTs are expected to be more efficient in adsorption of large size molecules. Removal of surface oxygen-containing functional groups from the SWNT enhanced adsorption of AOCs.

  13. Cognitivismo e ciência cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da comunicação é caracterizar uma escola de pensamento-o cognitivismo-e a disciplina a que ela deu origem. Depois de um breve apanhado das origens do cognitivismo descrevem-se os princípios ontológicos e metodológicos que o definem. Mostra-se a seguir a relação que há entre os computadores e a idéia funcionalista de considerar a mente como um sistema cujos elementos são caracterizados por suas funções, e não por sua constituição material. Discute-se finalmente a natureza e o nome da disciplina gerada pelo cognitivismo, sugerindo-se que se trata de uma proto-ciência, a qual deve ser denominada "Estudos Cognitivos" de preferência a "Ciência Cognitiva".

  14. Kierunki zmiansprawozdawczości finansowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Luty

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available W artykule wskazano na możliwe kierunki zmian w sprawozdawczości finansowej w najbliższych latach. Wymieńmy najważniejsze: 1 bazą jest informacja oparta na dokumentacji księgowej w ujęciu historycznym, 2 sprawozdania celowe (dedykowane, 3 informacja finansowa jako towar na specyficznym rynku sprawozdań, 4 prawo bilansowe tworzone z minimalnym wpływem lobbingu inwestorów.

  15. Carbonaceous species (coke) characterization in zeolites by solid state {sup 13} C NMR; Caracterizacao de especies carbonaceas (coque) em zeolitos por RMN de {sup 13} C estado solido (CP/MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Claudio J.A.; Menezes, Sonia C [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1992-12-31

    This work applies solid state {sup 13} C NMR for characterization of carbonaceous species (coke) deposited on zeolites after contact with n-hexane at 370 deg C. The results have shown two types of carbon: saturated (sp{sup 3}) and unsaturated (sp{sup 2}) 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  17. Harnessing Neuroplasticity to Promote Rehabilitation: CI Therapy for TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    occasions, magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional MRI (fMRI) of the brain will be carried out to determine changes...to which types of neuroplasticity-inducing pharmacological agents, when combined with CI therapy, are most likely to yield a superior treatment...were negotiated with the Birmingham VAMC, Denver VAMC, and Richmond VAMC. • The option of collecting MRI data using a 1.5T scanner was added for

  18.  Spis treści

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA BARTOSZEWICZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available  Od Zespołu Redakcyjnego – Editorial .......................................................................................................... 7 Anna Bartoszewicz – Praktyczna realizacja Programu zapewnienia i poprawy jakości w komórkach audytu wewnętrznego na wybranych przykładach – Implementation of Quality Assurance and Improvement Program by internal audit teams on selected examples ................................................................ 9 Anna Białek-Jaworska, Natalia Nehrebecka – Struktura kapitałowa przedsiębiorstw w świetle wyników badań – Capital structure of companies in the light of research results ..................... 29 Magda Chraścina – Determinanty tworzenia rezerw oraz ich skutki bilansowo- -wynikowe na przykładzie spółek notowanych na Giełdzie Papierów Wartościowych w Warszawie – Determinants of creating provisions and their effect on the balance sheet and income statement on the example of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange .................................................................................................. 53 Małgorzata Garstka – Dobry obyczaj jako norma kształtująca zachowanie księgowych – Good practice as a norm shaping the behavior of accountants ...................... 73 Przemysław Kabalski, Joanna Szwajcar – Feminizacja studiów w zakresie rachunkowości w Polsce – przyczyny i skutki – Feminization of accounting studies in Poland – causes and consequences .. 85 Anna Kasperowicz – Znaki i kody rachunkowości w procesie komunikacji – Accounting signs and codes in the communication process .......................... 107 Marcin Kędzior – Dobrowolne stosowanie MSSF przez spółki giełdowe w wybranych krajach Europy Zachodniej – Voluntary adoption of IFRS by listed companies in selected Western European countries ................................................................................................. 123 Ewelina Zarzycka

  19. The Application of Modern Techniques and Measurement Devices for Identification of Copper Ore Types and Their Properties / Wykorzystanie nowoczesnych technik i urządzeń pomiarowych do identyfikacji typów rud miedzi i ich właściwości

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczykowska, Aldona; Trybalski, Kazimierz; Krawczykowski, Damian

    2013-06-01

    The paper concerns the application of modern methods and research techniques for investigations of copper ore properties. It presents the procedure and tools which, when put together, can constitute a source of information on properties of different products of processing and, simultaneously, can be used in the process control and optimization. The copper ore of one of the branches of the KHGM Polska Miedz plc was investigated. The ore samples represented each of the three lithological types occurring in the Polish deposits, i.e. carbonate, shale and sandstone ores. The paper presents the results of microscopic analyses, image analysis of scanning photographs and application procedures of the obtained information for the identification of ore types (application of neuron networks to the recognition of lithological compositions). The present publication will present sample results of modelling of classification identifying two types of ores, i.e. carbonate-shale and sandstone. Summing up the predictions of ore type fractions in respective mixtures for the considered problem of classification it can be stated that the prediction results are good and confirm the lithological predominance of certain ore types in the investigated mixtures. The experimental part comprised the determination of mineralogical and lithological composition of ores (optical microscope) and also elemental composition in the microareas of analysed samples (scanning microscope). Next, the image analysis was performed and subsequently the models classifying the ore types were made. W rudzie miedzi przerabianej w zakładach wzbogacania O/ZWR KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. można wyróżnić trzy typy litologiczne: rudę węglanową, łupkową i piaskowcową. Typy te różnią się właściwościami między innymi takimi jak: rodzaj i zawartość minerałów miedzi, rodzaj minerałów nieużytecznych, zawartość miedzi, twardość i podatność na rozdrabnianie, ale także wielkością i kształtem ziaren

  20. Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. Agglomeration Determines Effects of Carbonaceous Nanomaterials on Soybean Nodulation, Dinitrogen Fixation Potential, and Growth in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) on agricultural plants are of concern. However, little research has been performed using plants cultivated to maturity in soils contaminated with various CNMs at different concentrations. Here, we grew soybean for 39 days...

  2. Diversity in C-Xanes Spectra Obtained from Carbonaceous Solid Inclusions from Monahans Halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Rahman, Z.; Cody, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Monahans meteorite (H5) contains fluid inclusion- bearing halite (NaCl) crystals [1]. Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that the fluid in the inclusions is an aqueous brine and they were trapped near 25degC [1]. Their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism [2]. Abundant solid inclusions are also present in the halites. The solid inclusions include abundant and widely variable organics [2]. Analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and TEM reveal that these grains include macromolecular carbon similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, magnetite, sulfides, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and possibly the zeolite phillipsite [3]. Here we report organic analyses of these carbonaceous residues in Monahans halite using C-, N-, and O- X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Samples and Methods: Approximately 100 nm-thick sections were extracted with a focused ion beam (FIB) at JSC from solid inclusions from Monahans halite. The sections were analyzed using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) on beamline 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for XANES spectroscopy. Results and Discussion: C-XANES spectra of the solid inclusions show micrometer-scale heterogeneity, indicating that the macromolecular carbon in the inclusions have complex chemical variations. C-XANES features include 284.7 eV assigned to aromatic C=C, 288.4-288.8 eV assigned to carboxyl, and 290.6 eV assigned to carbonate. The carbonyl features obtained by CXANES might have been caused by the FIB used in sample preparation. No specific N-XANES features are observed. The CXANES spectra obtained from several areas in the FIB sections include type 1&2 chondritic IOM like, type 3 chondritic IOM like, and none of the above

  3. Time-resolved measurements of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosols at Gosan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, K Y; Cayetano, M G; Jung, J S; Kim, S Y; Kim, K C; Lee, S J; Kim, J S; Chang, L S; An, J Y

    2011-11-01

    In order to better understand the characteristics of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosol at a background site in Northeast Asia, semicontinuous organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and time-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were measured by a Sunset OC/ EC and a PILS-TOC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with an online total organic carbon) analyzer, respectively, at the Gosan supersite on Jeju Island, Korea, in the summer (May 28-June 17) and fall (August 24-September 30) of 2009. Hourly average OC concentration varied in the range of approximately 0.87-28.38 microgC m-3, with a mean of 4.07+/- 2.60 microgC m-3, while the hourly average EC concentration ranged approximately from 0.04 to 8.19 .microgC m-3, with a mean of 1.35 +/- 0.71 microgC m-3, from May 28 to June 17, 2009. During the fall season, OC varied in the approximate range 0.9-9.6 microgC m-3, with a mean of 2.30 +/-0.80 microgC m-3, whereas EC ranged approximately from 0.01 to 5.40 microgC m-3, with a mean of 0.66 +/- 0.38 microgC m-3. Average contributions of EC to TC and WSOC to OC were 26.0% +/- 9.7% and 20.6% +/-7.4%, and 37.6% +/- 23.5% and 57.2% +/- 22.2% during summer and fall seasons, respectively. As expected, clear diurnal variation of WSOC/OC was found in summer, varying from 0.22 during the nighttime up to 0.72 during the daytime, mainly due to the photo-oxidation process. In order to investigate the effect of air mass pathway on the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol, 5-day back-trajectory analysis was conducted using the HYSPLIT model. The air mass pathways were classified into four types: Continental (CC), Marine (M), East Sea (ES) and Korean Peninsula (KP). The highest OC/EC ratio of 3.63 was observed when air mass originated from the Continental area (CC). The lowest OC/EC ratio of 0.79 was measured when air mass originated from the Marine area (M). A high OC concentration was occasionally observed at Gosan due to local biomass burning activities. The

  4. Preparation of carbonaceous electrodes and evaluation of their performance by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.S.; Manolkar, R.B.; Kamat, J.V.; Marathe, S.G.; Biswas, A.R.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous electrodes, from glassy carbon (GC), graphite rod or graphite powder, have been prepared for coulometric and voltammetric investigation. Beaker type graphite electrode of larger surface area was used as working electrode for the analysis of uranium and plutonium in solution by coulometry. Results have shown usefulness of the electrode for both uranium and plutonium analysis. Thus the graphite electrode can be used in place of mercury for uranium analysis and in place of platinum gauze for plutonium analysis. GC electrode ( from French and Indian material ), graphite or carbon paste electrode of smaller surface area prepared here have also been found to give satisfactory performance as could be observed from cyclic voltammetric (cv) patterns for standard K 9 Fe(CN) 6 /K 4 Fe(CN) 6 redox system. Especially the GC electrode, (French) polished to 1μ finish with diamond paste gave very low values (1μ amp.) of background current in 1M KCl and the difference in cathodic and anodic peak potentials (δE values) was close to 60 mV from one electron transfer. Therefore the electrode can be used for various types of electrochemical studies relating to redox potentials, reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters etc. of different electrode processes. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs., 8 photographs

  5. Próba ukierunkowania rehabilitacji u pacjentów ze stwardnieniem rozsianym w zależności od typu klinicznego choroby = The attempt conditions for the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis, depending on the type of clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Garczyński

    2016-07-01

    rednim czasie trwania choroby z podziałem na formy kliniczne (odpowiednio p<0,001 i p<0,01. Na podstawie testu Kruskala - Wallisa stwierdzono istotne statystycznie różnice w poziomie niewydolności ruchowej - EDSS (p<0,001, zmęczenia – MFIS (p<0,05, równowagi – EQUI SCALE (p<0,001 i niesprawności – MDST (p<0,01 w typach klinicznych stwardnienia rozsianego. WNIOSKI. 1. Poziom zmęczenia, zakres zaburzeń równowagi, poziom niewydolności ruchowej oraz niesprawności zależą od typu klinicznego SM. 2. Poziom objawów lękowych i depresyjnych nie wykazuje zróżnicowania pod względem typu klinicznego SM. 3. Pomimo występowania pewnego zróżnicowania poziomu wybranych funkcji fizycznych i społecznych zależnie od typu SM, trudnym wydaje się ukierunkowanie rehabilitacji w oparciu o te założenia.       INTRODUCTION. Multiple sclerosis (eng. Multiple sclerosis, MS is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, wherein the multifocal changes occur. Etiopathogenesis is related to genetics and immune. Lesions are characterized by rapid progression and are mainly found in the white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord and optic nerve. In remission, remyelination occurs, following which the inflammation subsides. Multiple sclerosis can run with or without relapses. Clinical form of primary progressive (PPMS, multiple sclerosis occurring without relapses, other clinical forms: relapsing - remitting (RRMS, secondary progressive (SPMS and progressive - relapsing (PRMS are characterized by the appearance of relapses, a form of benign (BNMS may be present without relapses. OBJECTIVES. The main objective of this study was to examine correlations between the diversity of physical and social functions in patients with multiple sclerosis and the type and form of the disease. Possible to find such relations, in consequence,  would enable an early orientation of rehabilitation process for needs of patients with a particular type and form of the

  6. Proto-Planetary Disk Chemistry Recorded by D-Rich Organic Radicals in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ~4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that orga...

  7. Kuhn e as ciências sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de Paula Assis

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available No texto, são expostos os motivos básicos pelos quais o vocabulário emprestado de Thomas Kuhn - notadamente o termo paradigma - e o modelo de desenvolvimento científico exposto pelo autor em seu A estrutura das revoluções científicas foram tomados de empréstimo em textos que discutem a epistemologia das ciências sociais. A conclusão é que as supostas aplicações do modelo kuhniano às ciências sociais se baseiam em leitura que não encontra qualquer apoio no autor e, principalmente, obscurecem as implicações mais amplas de sua obra.The article shows for what reasons the vocabulary and the model for scientific growth of Thomas Kuhn were borrowed by epistemologists of the social sciences. The conclusion is that the texts produced in this vein are based in a shallow understanding of the author's main implications.

  8. O TOŻSAMOŚCI I POLITYCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Warmińska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ostatnie dekady przyniosły znaczące zmiany w sferze stosunków etnicznych w Polsce. Można było zaob- serwować wzrastającą aktywność społeczności mniejszościowych, które stają się w coraz większym stopniu aktywnymi, coraz lepiej zorganizowanymi aktorami na scenie publicznej. W bardziej otwarty sposób komunikują swoje potrzeby, cele i wizje świata. Chcąc uchwycić istotę tych przemian postanowiłam zaaplikować, do ich analizy, koncepcję polityki tożsamości. Moim celem jest ukazanie swoistej „logiki” działania politycznego grup tożsamościowych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem jego wymiaru etnicznego z jednoczesnym wskazaniem na pożytek z zastosowania tego pojęcia do analizy zjawisk etnicznych w Polsce. Jako empiryczną egzemplifikację potraktowałam społeczność kaszubską.

  9. Evaluation of early Archean volcaniclastic and volcanic flow rocks as possible sites for carbonaceous fossil microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maud M

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks have traditionally been the focus of the search for Archean microfossils; the Earth's oldest fossil bacteria are associated with carbonaceous matter in sedimentary cherts in greenstone belts in the eastern Pilbara block of Western Australia and Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa. Reports of possible fossils in a martian meteorite composed of igneous rock and the discovery of modern bacteria associated with basalts have stimulated a new look at Archean volcanic rocks as possible sites for fossil microbes. This study examines silicified volcaniclastic rocks, near-surface altered volcanic flow rocks, and associated stromatolite- like structures from the Archean Barberton greenstone belt to evaluate their potential for the preservation of carbonaceous fossils. Detrital carbonaceous particles are widely admixed with current-deposited debris. Carbonaceous matter is also present in altered volcanic flow rocks as sparse particles in silica veins that appear to be fed by overlying carbonaceous chert layers. Neither microfossils nor mat-like material was identified in the altered volcanic rocks or adjacent stromatolite-like structures. Ancient volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks are not promising sites for carbonaceous fossil preservation.

  10. Accretion and Preservation of Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites as Revealed by NanoSIMS Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive known meteorites. Their parent bodies accreted several discrete components of the early solar system: CAIs, other silicates, oxides, sulfides, ice, organics, and noble gases. Radioactive decay of short live radionucleides quickly heated these parent bodies and drove thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration of their constituents. Despite this post-acretionary modification, at least some components of the organic matter in the carbaceous chondrites retained distinctive isotopic and molecular properties that may relate to their pre-acretionary origins in the protosolar nebula or in the molecular cloud that gave birth to it [1]. These processes that gave rise to early solar-system organic matter and the extent to which it was modified by parent body processes are still a matter of debate [2]. We have acquired NanoSIMS images of matrices of several CI, CM, CR and CV chondrites to document, in- situ, the distribution of organics and their textural and chemical relationships to co-existing inorganic components. Importantly, we performed these analyses on essentially unmodified fragments of matrix material pressed into indium, rather than on extracts, which have been the focus of most previous work on meteoritic organic matter. Specifically, we simultaneously collected H, D, 12C, 18O, 26CN, 28Si and 32S with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Inorganic constituents of the imaged domains were determined by SEM imaging and EDS analysis. We identify two textural classes of organic constituents: diffuse organic matter and organic particles ~ 1 micron in diameter. The particles are common and do not exhibit any textural association with any inorganic matrix constituent. This distribution is consistent with previous observations by fluorescence optical microscopy [3]. These organic particles are likely primarily composed of insoluble organic matter (IOM) that grew prior to accretion as pure organic particules and was preserved in

  11. Natureza e ciências sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Vargas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A construção do sentido do termo natureza abrange diferentes áreas do conhecimento e tem sido objeto de reflexão tanto das ciências naturais quanto sociais. Nos desdobramentos do conhecimento produzido sobre esta temática existem diversas abordagens que, da perspectiva das ciências sociais, podem ser identificadas. O propósito deste artigo é considerar algumas dessas abordagens e relacioná-las com as novas práticas sociais que determinam formas de intervenção inéditas sobre a natureza, e que colocam questões para estas ciências, enquanto produtoras de conhecimento sobre o tema. De igual forma, explicita-se a substituição deste termo pelo de ambiente e, posteriormente, o aparecimento do desenvolvimento sustentável, como parte do cabedal conceitual com que a problemática em torno das relações naturezasociedade é abordada nas ciências sociais.La construcción del sentido del término naturaleza abarca diferentes áreas del conocimiento y ha sido objeto de reflexión tanto de las ciencias naturales como sociales. Los desdoblamientos del conocimiento producido sobre este tema muestran que existen diversos abordajes que pueden ser identificados desde la perspectiva de las ciencias sociales. El objetivo de este artículo es considerar algunos de esos abordajes y relacionarlos con las nuevas prácticas sociales que determinan formas de intervención inéditas sobre la naturaleza y que sugieren cuestionamientos para estas ciencias, como productoras de conocimiento sobre este tema. De igual manera, se explicita la substitución de este término por el de ambiente e, posteriormente, el aparecimiento del término desarrollo sostenible como parte del acervo conceptual con que es abordada la problemática alrededor de las relaciones naturaleza-sociedad en las ciencias sociales.The construction of the term nature involves different areas of knowledge and has been the object of inquiry of both natural and social sciences. The knowledge

  12. Laboratory study of carbonaceous dust and molecules of astrochemical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, F; Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Manchado, A; Kwok, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper are reviewed some research works dedicated to the study of carbonaceous dust and molecules of astrochemical interest. First of all it is discussed the carbon arc through which it is possible to produce carbon soot and fullerenes under helium but also many other different products just changing the arcing conditions. For example, when the carbon arc is struck in an hydrocarbon solvent it is possible to produce and trap polyynes in the solvent. Monocyanopolyynes and dicyanopolyynes can be produced as well by selecting the appropriate conditions. Amorphous carbon soot or partially graphitized carbon black can be produced with the carbon arc. Fullerenes were found in space thanks to the reference infrared spectra and the absorption cross sections which were determined in laboratory. Fullerenes are readily reactive with hydrogen yielding fulleranes the hydrogenated fullerenes. Furthermore fullerenes react with PAHs and with iron carbonyl yielding adducts. All these fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their reference spectra recorded in laboratory. It was proposed that petroleum fractions can be used as model substrates in the explanation of the carriers of the AIB (Aromatic Infrared Bands) observed in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae and the UIE (Unidentified Infrared Bands) found in the interstellar medium. (paper)

  13. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsuruho, K. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Tamura, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Mie University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry for Materials; Kuroda, K. [Osaka City University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous particulates in indoor and outdoor air at roadside private households were measured in Osaka, Japan. The particulate samples were collected on filters using a portable AND sampler capable of separating particles into three different size ranges: over 10 {mu}m, 2-10 {mu}m (coarse) and below 2 {mu}m (fine) in aerodynamic diameter. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal oxidation using a CHN CORDER. The results showed that indoor fine PM concentration is considerably affected by fine EC and the fine EC in indoor air is significantly correlated to that in outdoor air, r = 0.86 (n = 30, p < 0.001). A simple estimation from EC content ratio in diesel exhaust particles indicated that about 30% of indoor particulates of less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) were contributed from diesel exhaust. Additionally, the size characteristics of outdoor PM at roadside and background sites were examined using Andersen Cascade Impactors. (author)

  14. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  15. The anthropogenic influence on carbonaceous aerosol in the European background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Barbara; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Hammer, Samuel (Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)). e-mail: barbara.may@iup.uni-heidelberg.de; Steier, Peter (VERA laboratory, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Puxbaum, Hans (Inst. for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)); Pio, Casimiro (CESAM and Dept. of Environment, Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    To constrain the relatively uncertain anthropogenic impact on the organic aerosol load, radiocarbon analyses were performed on aerosol samples, collected year-round, at six non-urban sites including a maritime background and three remote mountain stations, lying on a west-east transect over Western Europe. From a crude three component model supported by TOC and levoglucosan filter data, the fossil fuel, biomass burning and biogenic TOC fraction are estimated, showing at all stations year-round, a relatively constant fossil fuel fraction of around (26 +- 6)%, a dominant biogenic contribution of on average (73 +- 7)% in summer and the continental as well as the maritime background TOC to be only about 50% biogenic. Assuming biomass burning as completely anthropogenic, the carbonaceous aerosol concentration at the mountain sites was found to have increased by a factor of up to (1.4 +- 0.2) in summer and up to (2.5 +- 1.0) in winter. This figure is significantly lower, however, than the respective TOC change since pre-industrial times seen in an Alpine ice core. Reconciling both observations would require an increase, since pre-industrial times, of the background biogenic aerosol load, which is estimated at a factor of 1.3-1.7.

  16. The anthropogenic influence on carbonaceous aerosol in the European background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Barbara; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Hammer, Samuel (Inst. fuer Umweltphysik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)). e-mail: barbara.may@iup.uni-heidelberg.de; Steier, Peter (VERA laboratory, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Puxbaum, Hans (Inst. for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria)); Pio, Casimiro (CESAM and Dept. of Environment, Univ. of Aveiro (Portugal))

    2008-07-01

    To constrain the relatively uncertain anthropogenic impact on the organic aerosol load, radiocarbon analyses were performed on aerosol samples, collected year-round, at six non-urban sites including a maritime background and three remote mountain stations, lying on a west-east transect over Western Europe. From a crude three component model supported by TOC and levoglucosan filter data, the fossil fuel, biomass burning and biogenic TOC fraction are estimated, showing at all stations year-round, a relatively constant fossil fuel fraction of around (26 +- 6)% , a dominant biogenic contribution of on average (73 +- 7)% in summer and the continental as well as the maritime background TOC to be only about 50% biogenic. Assuming biomass burning as completely anthropogenic, the carbonaceous aerosol concentration at the mountain sites was found to have increased by a factor of up to (1.4 +- 0.2) in summer and up to (2.5 +- 1.0) in winter. This figure is significantly lower, however, than the respective TOC change since pre-industrial times seen in an Alpine ice core. Reconciling both observations would require an increase, since pre-industrial times, of the background biogenic aerosol load, which is estimated at a factor of 1.3-1.7

  17. On the Q-phase of carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.; Heymann, D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the unresolved puzzles of meteoritics is the nature of the carrier of the so-called heavy planetary gases. Apparently, these gases reside mainly in a minor fraction, which has been dubbed Q by Lewis et al. [R.S. Lewis, B. Srinivasan, E. Anders, Science 190 (1975) 1251] in analogy of the naming by Papanastasiou et al. [D.A. Papanastassiou, G.J. Wasserburg, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 11 (1971) 37] of a minor glassy phase in lunar rocks highly enriched in trace elements such as Pb and U. Q stands for the archaic term quintessence, the fifth or last and highest substance in ancient and medieval philosophy above fire, air, water and earth. In this contribution, an attempt is made to provide evidence that Q is carbonaceous, with carbon in the form of closed structures such as carbon nanotubes which serve as micro bottles for the heavy noble gases. To this end, Q was characterised with micro-PIXE and NRA, whereas HREM was used to search for nanotubes. Q itself was obtained as residue after chemical destruction of samples of Allende, Leoville and Vigarano

  18. Isotopic diversity in nebular dust: The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Average Ti isotopic patterns are derived for each class of carbonaceous chondrite from a chemically characterized suite of whole-rock samples. There is a well-resolved excess of 50 Ti in a subset of CI meteorites. Mean values of the 50 Ti excess for the four classes span a range of only 2 ε-units, with an apparent positive correlation with Al content. Previous evidence for anomalies in chondrules is augmented here by demonstrating that: (1) the more pristine Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in Efremovka show the same isotopic pattern as the typical Allende CAI; and, (2) CM and CV matrix carry 50 Ti excesses of about 2 ε-units. The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies among matrix, chondrules, and CAIs suggests a model in which all three constituents formed from precursor-assemblages in which some chemical memories were still intact; the isotopic differences reflect fractionations among the carrier phases of the different isotopic components. Chondrules formed by a mostly closed-system melting of their precursors, and thus provide a recording of the extent of nebular heterogeneity on the mg-size scale. The larger anomalies in CAIs, compared to matrix and most (but not all) chondrules, are attributed primarily to an open- rather than closed-system processing of the CAI precursors. Precursors of both FUN and normal CAIs experienced an episode of intense processing, perhaps partial melting, that created the FUN characteristics, but for normal CAIs the FUN effects were erased by subsequent isotopic equilibration and exchange

  19. KOH activation of pitch-derived carbonaceous materials - Effect of carbonization degree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, Magdalena [Institute of Open Cast Mining POLTEGOR-Institute, Parkowa, Wroclaw (Poland); Gryglewicz, Grazyna; Machnikowski, Jacek [Division of Polymer and Carbonaceous Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Gdanska (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Two series of mesophase pitches and semi-cokes of different carbonization degree were produced by heat treatment of anthracene oil derived pitches P1 and P4 in the temperature range of 460-700 C. These carbonaceous materials were activated with potassium hydroxide at 700 C using 1:3 reagents ratio to assess the effects of the precursor optical texture and carbonization degree on the activation behavior. The results show that the increase in the pitch pretreatment temperature suppresses propensity to the pore generation while enhancing particle breaking. The effect can be illustrated by decreases in the BET surface area S{sub BET} from {proportional_to} 2700 to {proportional_to} 1500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the micropore volume V{sub DR} from {proportional_to} 0.85 to {proportional_to} 0.45 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. These parameters are inversely related with the H/C atomic ratio of precursor. In contrast, the anisotropic development of pitch coke, varying from flow type to mosaics, has a slight effect on the activation behaviour. The mechanism of porosity generation, that is proposed, stresses the role of hydrogen occurring at the edges of graphene layers and potassium metal insertion/deinsertion on the porosity development and particle disintegration during KOH activation of pitch-derived carbons. (author)

  20. AMMONIA IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: AN ACCOUNT FROM CARBONACEOUS METEORITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzarello, S.; Williams, L. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a survey of abundance distribution and isotopic composition of the ammonia found incorporated in the kerogen-like insoluble material of selected carbonaceous chondrite meteorites; the ammonia was released upon hydrothermal treatment at 300°C and 100 MPa. With the exception of Allende, a metamorphosed and highly altered stone, all the insoluble organic materials (IOM) of the meteorites analyzed released significant amounts of ammonia, which varied from over 4 μg mg –1 for the Orgueil IOM to 0.5 μg mg –1 for that of Tagish Lake; the IOM of the pristine Antarctica find GRA95229 remains the most rich in freeable ammonia with 10 μg mg –1 . While the amounts of IOM bound ammonia do not appear to vary between meteorites with a recognizable trend, a possible consequence of long terrestrial exposure of some of the stones, we found that the δ 15 N composition of the ammonia-carrying materials is clearly distinctive of meteorite types and may reflect a preservation of the original 15 N distribution of pre- and proto-solar materials.

  1. Ammonia in the Early Solar System: An Account from Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, S.; Williams, L. B.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a survey of abundance distribution and isotopic composition of the ammonia found incorporated in the kerogen-like insoluble material of selected carbonaceous chondrite meteorites; the ammonia was released upon hydrothermal treatment at 300°C and 100 MPa. With the exception of Allende, a metamorphosed and highly altered stone, all the insoluble organic materials (IOM) of the meteorites analyzed released significant amounts of ammonia, which varied from over 4 μg mg-1 for the Orgueil IOM to 0.5 μg mg-1 for that of Tagish Lake; the IOM of the pristine Antarctica find GRA95229 remains the most rich in freeable ammonia with 10 μg mg-1. While the amounts of IOM bound ammonia do not appear to vary between meteorites with a recognizable trend, a possible consequence of long terrestrial exposure of some of the stones, we found that the δ15N composition of the ammonia-carrying materials is clearly distinctive of meteorite types and may reflect a preservation of the original 15N distribution of pre- and proto-solar materials.

  2. AMMONIA IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: AN ACCOUNT FROM CARBONACEOUS METEORITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Williams, L. B., E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    This study presents a survey of abundance distribution and isotopic composition of the ammonia found incorporated in the kerogen-like insoluble material of selected carbonaceous chondrite meteorites; the ammonia was released upon hydrothermal treatment at 300 Degree-Sign C and 100 MPa. With the exception of Allende, a metamorphosed and highly altered stone, all the insoluble organic materials (IOM) of the meteorites analyzed released significant amounts of ammonia, which varied from over 4 {mu}g mg{sup -1} for the Orgueil IOM to 0.5 {mu}g mg{sup -1} for that of Tagish Lake; the IOM of the pristine Antarctica find GRA95229 remains the most rich in freeable ammonia with 10 {mu}g mg{sup -1}. While the amounts of IOM bound ammonia do not appear to vary between meteorites with a recognizable trend, a possible consequence of long terrestrial exposure of some of the stones, we found that the {delta}{sup 15}N composition of the ammonia-carrying materials is clearly distinctive of meteorite types and may reflect a preservation of the original {sup 15}N distribution of pre- and proto-solar materials.

  3. Synchrotron Radiation XRD Analysis of Indialite in Y-82094 Ungrouped Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Sawa, N.; Kimura, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2016-01-01

    Y-82094 is an ungrouped type 3.2 carbonaceous chondrite, with abundant chondrules making 78 vol.% of the rock. Among these chondrules, an unusual porphyritic Al-rich magnesian chondrule is reported that consists of a cordierite-like phase, Al-rich orthopyroxene, cristobalite, and spinel surrounded by an anorthitic mesostasis. The reported chemical formula of the cordierite-like phase is Na(0.19)Mg(1.95)Fe(0.02)Al(3.66)Si(5.19)O18, which is close to stoichiometric cordierite (Mg2Al3[AlSi5O18]). Although cordierite can be present in Al-rich chondrules, it has a high temperature polymorph (indialite) and it is therefore necessary to determine whether it is cordierite or indialite in order to better constrain its formation conditions. In this abstract we report on our synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) study of the cordierite-like phase in Y-82094.

  4. Zhamanshin astrobleme provides evidence for carbonaceous chondrite and post-impact exchange between ejecta and Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Žák, Karel; Pack, Andreas; Moynier, Frédéric; Mougel, Bérengère; Peters, Stefan; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2017-08-09

    Chemical fingerprints of impacts are usually compromised by extreme conditions in the impact plume, and the contribution of projectile matter to impactites does not often exceed a fraction of per cent. Here we use chromium and oxygen isotopes to identify the impactor and impact-plume processes for Zhamanshin astrobleme, Kazakhstan. ε 54 Cr values up to 1.54 in irghizites, part of the fallback ejecta, represent the 54 Cr-rich extremity of the Solar System range and suggest a CI-like chondrite impactor. Δ 17 O values as low as -0.22‰ in irghizites, however, are incompatible with a CI-like impactor. We suggest that the observed 17 O depletion in irghizites relative to the terrestrial range is caused by partial isotope exchange with atmospheric oxygen (Δ 17 O = -0.47‰) following material ejection. In contrast, combined Δ 17 O-ε 54 Cr data for central European tektites (distal ejecta) fall into the terrestrial range and neither impactor fingerprint nor oxygen isotope exchange with the atmosphere are indicated.Identifying the original impactor from craters remains challenging. Here, the authors use chromium and oxygen isotopes to indicate that the Zhamanshin astrobleme impactor was a carbonaceous chrondrite by demonstrating that depleted 17O values are due to exchange with atmospheric oxygen.

  5. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  6. A Case for Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Chromium Isotopic Composition of Almahata Sitta Stone 91A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, M. E.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NC)-like, with minimal mixing attributed to a gap opened in the protoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests there should be large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids, an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-e54Cr isotope systematics. The Almahata Sitta (AhS) meteorite provides a unique opportunity to test the Grand Tack model. The meteorite fell to Earth in October 2008 and has been linked to the asteroid 2008 TC3 which was discovered just prior to the fall of the AhS stones. The AhS meteorite is composed of up to 700 individual pieces with approx.140 of those pieces having some geochemical and/or petrologic studies. Almahata Sitta is an anomalous polymict ureilite with other meteorite components, including enstatite, ordinary, and carbonaceous chondrites with an approximate abundance of 70% ureilites and 30% chondrites. This observation has lead to the suggestion that TC3 2008 was a loosely aggregated rubble pile-like asteroid with the non-ureilite sample clasts within the rubble-pile. Due to the loosely-aggregated nature of AhS, the object disintegrated during atmospheric entry resulting in the weakly held clasts falling predominantly as individual stones in the AhS collection area. However, recent work has identified one sample of AhS, sample 91A, which may represent two different lithologies coexisting within a single stone. The predominate lithology type in 91A appears to be that of a C2 chondrite based on mineralogy but also contains olivine, pyroxene, and albite that have ureilite-like compositions. Previous Cr isotope investigations into AhS stones are sparse and what data is available show nearly uniform isotopic composition similar to that of typical ureilites with negative e54Cr values.

  7. Filosofia da ciência e ensino da ciência: uma analogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, inicialmente explicitaremos nossa compreensão do debate entre Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos e Feyerabend na Conferencia Internacional sobre Filosofia da Ciência (1965, delineando as diferenças nas posições de nossos filósofos. Em seguida apresentaremos um quadro das posições sobre o ensino de ciências, assim como nos parecem caracterizar os último 30 anos de pesquisas na área. Finalmente tentaremos uma aproximação dos dois campos, procurando salientar as implicações que a problemática filosófica teve e tem para uma maior compreensão do ensino de ciências e matemática.

  8. Thermal maturity and organic composition of Pennsylvanian coals and carbonaceous shales, north-central Texas: Implications for coalbed gas potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Guevara, Edgar H.; Hentz, Tucker F. [Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States); Hook, Robert W. [1301 Constant Springs Drive, Austin, TX 78746 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Thermal maturity was determined for about 120 core, cuttings, and outcrop samples to investigate the potential for coalbed gas resources in Pennsylvanian strata of north-central Texas. Shallow (< 600 m; 2000 ft) coal and carbonaceous shale cuttings samples from the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups in Archer and Young Counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin (northwest and downdip from the outcrop) yielded mean random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values between about 0.4 and 0.8%. This range of R{sub o} values indicates rank from subbituminous C to high volatile A bituminous in the shallow subsurface, which may be sufficient for early thermogenic gas generation. Near-surface (< 100 m; 300 ft) core and outcrop samples of coal from areas of historical underground coal mining in the region yielded similar R{sub o} values of 0.5 to 0.8%. Carbonaceous shale core samples of Lower Pennsylvanian strata (lower Atoka Group) from two deeper wells (samples from {proportional_to} 1650 m; 5400 ft) in Jack and western Wise Counties in the western part of the Fort Worth basin yielded higher R{sub o} values of about 1.0%. Pyrolysis and petrographic data for the lower Atoka samples indicate mixed Type II/Type III organic matter, suggesting generated hydrocarbons may be both gas- and oil-prone. In all other samples, organic material is dominated by Type III organic matter (vitrinite), indicating that generated hydrocarbons should be gas-prone. Individual coal beds are thin at outcrop (< 1 m; 3.3 ft), laterally discontinuous, and moderately high in ash yield and sulfur content. A possible analog for coalbed gas potential in the Pennsylvanian section of north-central Texas occurs on the northeast Oklahoma shelf and in the Cherokee basin of southeastern Kansas, where contemporaneous gas-producing coal beds are similar in thickness, quality, and rank. (author)

  9. Isotopically Anomalous Carbonaceous Nanoglobules in Meteorites and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, B. T.; Alexander, C.; Bassim, N. D.; Cody, G. D.; Kilcoyne, D.; Nittler, L.; Stroud, R.; Zega, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sub-micron, spherical, organic globules are prevalent in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Many of these globules are significantly enriched in 15N and/or D, relative to solar values, which suggest that they or their precursors formed in cold regions of the solar nebula or in interstellar molecular clouds. We have used correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine the elemental and isotopic composition and organic functional group chemistry of individual carbonaceous nanoglobules in a suite of insoluble organic matter (IOM) residues prepared from carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, and two additional organic globules from the Stardust comet 81P/Wild 2 sample collection. The majority of the meteoritic nanoglobules have a similar chemistry to the bulk IOM, with, on average, a small but significant enrichment in aromatic ketone (-C=O) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups. However, some of the meteoritic nanoglobules and one of the Stardust nanoglobules contain highly aromatic organic matter with no significant oxygen functionality. Preliminary measurements indicate that the highest 15N enrichments are associated with the highly aromatic nanoglobules and that aromatic nanoglobules are more prevalent in IOM from more primitive meteorites (e.g. Bells contains more aromatic globules than Murchison). For example, of two adjacent nanoglobules with nearly identical hollow morphologies from Murchison, one contains highly aromatic organic matter and the other contains oxidized IOM-like organic matter. SIMS analysis of these two globules reveals that the highly aromatic globule has the greatest 15N enrichment (δ15N ~ +500‰) of all meteoritic globules in which both XANES and SIMS was performed, whereas the adjacent IOM-like globule has a smaller 15N enrichment (δ15N ~ +300‰) but still greater than bulk IOM (δ15

  10. Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles (SCPs) as Chronological Markers in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornalley, D.; Rose, N.; Oppo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) are a component of fly-ash, the particulate by-product of industrial high-temperature combustion of coal and fuel-oil that is released to the atmosphere with flue-gases. They are morphologically distinct and have no natural sources making them unambiguous markers of contamination from these anthropogenic sources. In naturally accumulating archives, SCPs may be used as a chronological tool as they provide a faithful record of industrial emissions and deposition. While the timing of the first presence of SCP in the 19th century, and the observed sub-surface peak are dependent on factors such as sediment accumulation rates and local industrial history, a rapid increase in SCP inputs in the mid-20thcentury appears to be a global signal corresponding to an acceleration in global electricity demand following the Second World War and the use of fuel-oil in electricity production at an industrial scale for the first time. While this approach has been widely used in lake sediments, it has not been applied to marine sediments, although there is great potential. Improved dating of 19th-20th century marine sediments has particular relevance for developing reconstructions of recent multi-decadal climate and ocean variability, and for studies that aim to place 20thcentury climate change within the context of the last millennium. Here, we present data from three sediment cores from the continental slope south of Iceland to demonstrate the temporal and spatial replicability of the SCP record in the marine environment and compare these data with cores taken from more contaminated areas off the coast of the eastern United States. The improved age model constraints provided by the analysis of SCPs has enabled a more accurate assessment of the timing of recent abrupt climate events recorded in these archives and has thus improved our understanding of likely causal climate mechanisms.

  11. Influence of Electric Fields on Biofouling of Carbonaceous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Soumya; Shanbhag, Sneha; Mauter, Meagan; Oren, Yoram; Herzberg, Moshe

    2017-09-05

    Biofouling commonly occurs on carbonaceous capacitive deionization electrodes in the process of treating natural waters. Although previous work reported the effect of electric fields on bacterial mortality for a variety of medical and engineered applications, the effect of electrode surface properties and the magnitude and polarity of applied electric fields on biofilm development has not been comprehensively investigated. This paper studies the formation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on a Papyex graphite (PA) and a carbon aerogel (CA) in the presence and the absence of an electric field. The experiments were conducted using a two-electrode flow cell with a voltage window of ±0.9 V. The CA was less susceptible to biofilm formation compared to the PA due to its lower surface roughness, lower hydrophobicity, and significant antimicrobial properties. For both positive and negative applied potentials, we observed an inverse relationship between biofilm formation and the magnitude of the applied potential. The effect is particularly strong for the CA electrodes and may be a result of cumulative effects between material toxicity and the stress experienced by cells at high applied potentials. Under the applied potentials for both electrodes, high production of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was indicative of bacterial stress. For both electrodes, the elevated specific ROS activity was lowest for the open circuit potential condition, elevated when cathodically and anodically polarized, and highest for the ±0.9 V cases. These high applied potentials are believed to affect the redox potential across the cell membrane and disrupt redox homeostasis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth.

  12. Observationally constrained estimates of carbonaceous aerosol radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chul E; Ramanathan, V; Decremer, Damien

    2012-07-17

    Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) emitted by fossil and biomass fuels consist of black carbon (BC), a strong absorber of solar radiation, and organic matter (OM). OM scatters as well as absorbs solar radiation. The absorbing component of OM, which is ignored in most climate models, is referred to as brown carbon (BrC). Model estimates of the global CA radiative forcing range from 0 to 0.7 Wm(-2), to be compared with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's estimate for the pre-Industrial to the present net radiative forcing of about 1.6 Wm(-2). This study provides a model-independent, observationally based estimate of the CA direct radiative forcing. Ground-based aerosol network data is integrated with field data and satellite-based aerosol observations to provide a decadal (2001 through 2009) global view of the CA optical properties and direct radiative forcing. The estimated global CA direct radiative effect is about 0.75 Wm(-2) (0.5 to 1.0). This study identifies the global importance of BrC, which is shown to contribute about 20% to 550-nm CA solar absorption globally. Because of the inclusion of BrC, the net effect of OM is close to zero and the CA forcing is nearly equal to that of BC. The CA direct radiative forcing is estimated to be about 0.65 (0.5 to about 0.8) Wm(-2), thus comparable to or exceeding that by methane. Caused in part by BrC absorption, CAs have a net warming effect even over open biomass-burning regions in Africa and the Amazon.

  13. Analyses and characterization of fossil carbonaceous materials for silicon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrvaagnes, Viktor

    2008-01-15

    Production of high silicon alloys is carried out in submerged arc furnaces by reduction of silicon bearing oxides (typically quartz) with carbon materials. Carbonaceous materials like coal, coke, charcoal and woodchips are commonly used as reduction materials in the process. Primarily based on historical prices of charcoal compared to fossil reduction materials, the Norwegian Ferroalloy Industry has mostly been using coal and coke (char) as the source of carbon. From a process point of view, the most important role of the carbonaceous material is to react with SiO gas to produce SiC. The ability of the reduction materials to react with SiO gas can be measured and the value is recognized as the reactivity of the carbon source. Reactivity is one of the most important parameters in the smelting process and is commonly acknowledged to strongly affect both productivity and specific energy consumption. The main objectives of this work has been to establish methods to characterize the material properties of fossil carbonaceous reduction materials used in the silicon process and to evaluated how these properties affect the reactivity towards SiO gas. In order to accomplish these objectives, three run of mine (ROM) single seam coals which are particularly well suited for ferroalloy production were selected. Two Carboniferous coals from USA (Blue Gem) and Poland (Staszic) with similar rank, but significantly different composition as well as a Permian coal from Australia (Peak Downs) have been characterized by chemical- and petrographical methods. Blue Gem is a homogeneous coal, low in mineral inclusions and macerals of the inertinite group and determined to have a random vitrinite reflectance of 0.71 %. Staszic has a similar reflectance of vitrinite (0.72 %), but is determined to be a very inhomogeneous coal with both inertinite macerals and minerals embedded in the vitrinite matrix. Peak Downs has a random reflectance of vitrinite of 1.32 % and is hence the coal sample of

  14. Od ciężkości astmy do kontroli astmy. Metody oceny kontroli astmy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mikołajczyk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Według pierwszych wytycznych dotyczących postępowania w astmie leczenie astmy zależy od stopnia jej cięż- kości, określonej na podstawie objawów klinicznych i wskaźników czynności płuc. Ponieważ astma jest chorobą o zmiennym przebiegu, duże znaczenie ma jej ciągła ocena kliniczna i dostosowana do niej modyfikacja leczenia. Niestety, stopień ciężkości nie dopasowuje się elastycznie do odpowiedzi na leczenie. Biorąc ten fakt pod uwagę, światowi eksperci zalecają zmianę w postępowaniu z astmą, przedkładając uzyskanie klinicznej kontroli astmy nad ustaleniem stopnia jej ciężkości, wyróżniając astmę kontrolowaną, częściowo kontrolowaną i niekontrolowaną. Uzyskanie stanu pełnej kontroli astmy formułuje się w raporcie GINA 2006 jako główny cel leczenia. Kontrola astmy odnosi się do stopnia opanowania objawów i byłoby najlepiej, gdyby dotyczyła też markerów zapalenia i patofizjologicznych wykładników choroby. Określenie stopnia kontroli choroby zgodnie z obecnymi założeniami stanowi podstawę wyboru i modyfikacji leczenia – właściwe ustalenie stopnia kontroli astmy wpływa na skuteczność leczenia. Obecnie dostępnych jest wiele metod oceny kontroli astmy, wtym ocena parametrów klinicznych (objawy w ciągu dnia, objawy nocne, stosowanie leków rozszerzających oskrzela, ocena czynności płuc (PEF i FEV1, określenie zaawansowania zapalenia w drogach oddechowych (nieswoista nadreaktywność oskrzeli, stężenie tlenku azotu w powietrzu wydechowym, liczba eozynofili w plwocinie indukowanej. Dostępne są także subiektywnie oceniające kontrolę astmy kwestionariusze badawcze oraz szybkie testy kontroli astmy (ACT, ACQ, ATAQ. Z drugiej strony wciąż nie wypracowano jednoznacznego stanowiska, który z parametrów lub jakie połączenia parametrów najbardziej wiarygodnie określają kontrolę astmy. Ze względu na wieloczynnikową patogenezę astmy wydaje się, iż uzyskanie pe

  15. Improvements in or relating to process for the production of fuel gas from a carbonaceous solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process was designed for the generation of fuel gas from a solid carbonaceous fuel containing volatilizable constituents, which comprises admixing the solid carbonaceous fuel in particle form with sufficient water to form a fluid suspension, passing the suspension through a heating zone at an elevated temperature such that substantially all of the water is vaporized, thereby forming a dispersion of coal in steam and causing the dispersion to attain a velocity of at least 60 ft. per second to shatter the particles of coal by collision, passing the resulting dispersion into a fluidized bed of solid carbonaceous material in a methanization zone into contact with carbon monoxide and hydrogen at a temperature within the range of from 900/sup 0/ to 1,800/sup 0/F whereby carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to methane and volatilizable constituents of the solid carbonaceous material are distilled therefrom, withdrawing carbonaceous material from the methanization zone and passing it into contact with oxygen and steam in dilute phase in a gasification zone maintained at a temperature within the range of 2,000/sup 0/ to about 3,000/sup 0/F, passing the resulting gases comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen from the gasification zone into the methanization zone as the source of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and discharging the gaseous products of the methanization zone as the raw-product fuel gas.

  16. Preparation and characterization of a new carbonaceous material for electrochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZI JI LIN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new carbonaceous material was successfully prepared by the py-rolysis of scrap tire rubber at 600 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The physical characteristics of the prepared carbonaceous material were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. It was proved that the carbonaceous material had a disordered structure and spherical morphology with an average particle size about 100 nm. The prepared carbonaceous material was also used as electrodes in electrochemical systems to examine its electrochemical performances. It was demonstrated that it delivered a lithium insertion capacity of 658 mA h g-1 during the first cycle with a coulombic efficiency of 68 %. Cyclic voltammograms test results showed that a redox reaction occurred during the cycles. The chemical diffusion coefficient based on the impedance diagram was about 10-10 cm2 s-1. The pyrolytic carbonaceous material derived from scrap tire rubber is therefore considered to be a potential anode material in lithium secondary batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, it is advantageous for environmental protection.

  17. Selective chromogenic detection of thiol-containing biomolecules using carbonaceous nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Hai-Zhou; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2011-04-26

    Thiol-containing biomolecules show strong affinity with noble metal nanostructures and could not only stably protect them but also control the self-assembly process of these special nanostructures. A highly selective and sensitive chromogenic detection method has been designed for the low and high molecular weight thiol-containing biomolecules, including cysteine, glutathione, dithiothreitol, and bovine serum albumin, using a new type of carbonaceous nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as carrier. This strategy relies upon the place-exchange process between the reporter dyes on the surface of Ag NPs and the thiol groups of thiol-containing biomolecules. The concentration of biomolecules can be determined by monitoring with the fluorescence intensity of reporter dyes dispersed in solution. This new chromogenic assay method could selectively detect these biomolecules in the presence of various other amino acids and monosaccharides and even sensitively detect the thiol-containing biomolecules with different molecular weight, even including proteins.

  18. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Shukla, Pravesh C.; Dhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of luminescent carbonaceous nanoparticles from silk fibroin for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongzhi; Teng, Choon Peng; Huang, Donghong; Xu, Wanqing; Zheng, Chaohui; Chen, Yisong; Liu, Minghuan; Yang, Da-Peng; Lin, Ming; Li, Zibiao; Ye, Enyi

    2017-11-01

    Bombyx mori silk as a natural protein based biopolymer with high nitrogen content, is abundant and sustainable because of its mass product all over the world per year. In this study, we developed a facile and fast microwave-assisted synthesis of luminescent carbonaceous nanoparticles using Bombyx mori silk fibroin and silk solution as the precursors. As a result, the obtained carbonaceous nanoparticles exhibit a photoluminescence quantum yield of ~20%, high stability, low cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility. Most importantly, we successfully demonstrated bioimaging using these luminescent carbonaceous nanoparticles with excitation dependent luminescence. In addition, the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method can be extended to convert other biomass into functional nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tunable atomic force microscopy bias lithography on electron beam induced carbonaceous platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kurra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable local electrochemical and physical modifications on the carbonaceous platforms are achieved using Atomic force microscope (AFM bias lithography. These carbonaceous platforms are produced on Si substrate by the technique called electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD. EBICD is composed of functionalized carbon species, confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. AFM bias lithography in tapping mode with a positive tip bias resulted in the nucleation of attoliter water on the EBICD surface under moderate humidity conditions (45%. While the lithography in the contact mode with a negative tip bias caused the electrochemical modifications such as anodic oxidation and etching of the EBICD under moderate (45% and higher (60% humidity conditions respectively. Finally, reversible charge patterns are created on these EBICD surfaces under low (30% humidity conditions and investigated by means of electrostatic force microscopy (EFM.

  1. Preparation of a Sulfonated Carbonaceous Material from Lignosulfonate and Its Usefulness as an Esterification Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%–29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  2. Apparatus for the distillation of coal, shale or other carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P

    1932-02-16

    The design consists of a retort having a series of joined closed superheated sections each having a heavier gas delivery port therefrom leading to an outlet pipe in combination with a condenser, means above and on said sections comprising a series of hoppers in communication with a common feed hopper for carbonaceous materials to be distilled. An air tight cover for said feed hopper and intermediate rotatable valve control are provided. Means are provided for said carbonaceous material between said hoppers and said sections and adjacent means having lighter gas ports to a pipe also in communication with said condenser. A series of exit hoppers are located below such sections and means for feeding preheated gas through the exit hoppers to the material to be distilled are provided. A rotatable valve control means associated with the exit hoppers for discharging spent carbonaceous materials to separate water sealed outlets to a tank located below the apparatus.

  3. Mineralogy and Textural Characteristics of Fine-grained Rims in the Yamato 791198 CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Constraints on the Location of Aqueous Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizmadia, Lysa J.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2003-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites provide important clues into the nature of physical and chemical processes in the early solar system. A question of key importance concerns the role of water in solar nebular and asteroidal processes. The effects of water on primary mineral assemblages have been widely recognized in chondritic meteorites, especially the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. These meteorites have undergone extensive aqueous alteration that occurred prior to their arrival on Earth. In the case of the CM chondrites, this alteration has resulted in the partial to complete replacement of the primary nebular phases with secondary alteration phases. Considerable controversy exists as to the exact location where the alteration of the CM chondrites occurred. Several textural lines of evidence have been cited in support of aqueous alteration prior to the accretion of the final parent asteroid. An important line of evidence to support this hypothesis is the dis-equilibrium nature of fine-grained rims and matrix materials. [2] also noted the juxtaposition of micron-sized Fe-Ni metal grains and apparently unaltered chondrule glass against hydrated rim silicates. Conversely, there is a large body of evidence in favor of parent body alteration such as the occurrence of undisturbed Fe-rich aureoles and the systematic redistribution of elemental components over millimeters, e.g., Mg(+2) into the matrix and Fe(+2) into chondrules etc.

  4. ACCRETION AND PRESERVATION OF D-RICH ORGANIC PARTICLES IN CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES: EVIDENCE FOR IMPORTANT TRANSPORT IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have acquired NanoSIMS images of the matrices of CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites to study, in situ, the organic matter trapped during the formation of their parent bodies. D/H ratio images reveal the occurrence of D-rich hot spots, constituting isolated organic particles. Not all the organic particles are D-rich hot spots, indicating that at least two kinds of organic particles have been accreted in the parent bodies. Ratio profiles through D-rich hot spots indicate that no significant self-diffusion of deuterium occurs between the D-rich organic matter and the depleted hydrous minerals that are surrounding them. This is not the result of a physical shielding by any constituent of the chondrites. Ab initio calculations indicate that it cannot be explained by isotopic equilibrium. Then it appears that the organic matter that is extremely enriched in D does not exchange with the hydrous minerals, or this exchange is so slow that it is not significant over the 4.5 billion year history on the parent body. If we consider that the D-rich hot spots are the result of an exposure to intense irradiation, then it appears that carbonaceous chondrites accreted organic particles that have been brought to different regions of the solar nebula. This is likely the result of important radial and vertical transport in the early solar system.

  5. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Jamil, M.K.; Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R.

    2000-01-01

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 450 0 C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated

  6. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming, and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening. We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1 Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999, including all mixtures of black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM, increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2 Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing. Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3 Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4 Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64°C decade−1 observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m−2 than North America (1.2 W m−2. Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian

  7. Laboratory Experiments on the Low-temperature Formation of Carbonaceous Grains in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulvio, Daniele; Góbi, Sándor; Jäger, Cornelia; Kereszturi, Ákos; Henning, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The life cycle of cosmic dust grains is far from being understood and the origin and evolution of interstellar medium (ISM) grains is still under debate. In the ISM, the cosmic dust destruction rate is faster than the production rate by stellar sources. However, observations of ISM refractory matter suggest that to maintain a steady amount of cosmic grains, some supplementary production mechanism takes place. In this context, we aimed to study possible reformation mechanisms of cosmic grains taking place at low temperature directly in the ISM. The low-temperature condensation of carbonaceous materials has been investigated in experiments mimicking the ISM conditions. Gas-phase carbonaceous precursors created by laser ablation of graphite were forced to accrete on cold substrates (T ≈ 10 K) representing surviving dust grains. The growing and evolution of the condensing carbonaceous precursors have been monitored by MIR and UV spectroscopy under a number of experimental scenarios. For the first time, the possibility to form ISM carbonaceous grains in situ is demonstrated. The condensation process is governed by carbon chains that first condense into small carbon clusters and finally into more stable carbonaceous materials, of which structural characteristics are comparable to the material formed in gas-phase condensation experiments at very high temperature. We also show that the so-formed fullerene-like carbonaceous material is transformed into a more ordered material under VUV processing. The cold condensation mechanisms discussed here can give fundamental clues to fully understand the balance between the timescale for dust injection, destruction, and reformation in the ISM.

  8. On radiogenic nature of xenon-X in carbonaceous and LL chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, Eh.K.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of Xe-X from the mineral fraction produced during the differential dissolution of carbonaceous and LL chondrites was investigated using literature data on the age of some meteorites and their fractions and quantities of fission 136 Xe contained in them. A graph of lg fission 136 Xe against the age of meteorites was plotted; the decay constant of a hypothetical superheavy nucleus was calculated using the graph and equaled 1x10 - 7 year - 1 . The calculations served as a forcible argument for the radiogenic nature of xenon with 136 and 134 mass in carbonaceous and LL chondrites

  9. The analysis of creep characteristics of the surrounding rock of the carbonaceous rock tunnel based on Singh-Mitchell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhui; Mi, Decai; Ye, Qiongyao; Deng, Shengqiang; Zeng, Fuquan; Zeng, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Carbonaceous rock has the characteristics of easy disintegration, softening, swelling and environmental sensitivity, which belongs to soft surrounding rock, and the deformation during excavation and long-term stability of the surrounding rock of carbonaceous rock tunnel are common problems in the construction of carbonaceous rock tunnel. According to the above, the Monitor and measure the displacement, temperature and osmotic pressure of the surrounding carbonaceous rock of the tunnel of Guangxi Hebai highway. Then it based on the obtaining data to study the creep mechanism of surrounding rock using Singh-Mitchell model and predict the deformation of surrounding rock before the tunnel is operation. The results show that the Singh-Mitchell creep model can effectively analyse and predict the deformation development law of surrounding rock of tunnel without considering temperature and osmotic pressure, it can provide reference for the construction of carbonaceous rock tunnel and the measures to prevent and reinforce it..

  10. Correlated Amino Acid and Mineralogical Analyses of Milligram and Submilligram Samples of Carbonaceous Chondrite Lonewolf Nunataks 94101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S.; Berger, E. L.; Locke, D. R.; Lewis, E. K.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in the eight carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances, structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of amino acids differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. These results suggest parent-body conditions (thermal or aqueous alteration), mineralogy, and the preservation of amino acids are linked. Previously, elucidating specific relationships between amino acids and mineralogy was not possible because the samples analyzed for amino acids were much larger than the scale at which petrologic heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences corresponding to sub-mg samples); for example, Pizzarello and coworkers measured amino acid abundances and performed X-ray diffraction (XRD) on several samples of the Murchison meteorite, but these analyses were performed on bulk samples that were 500 mg or larger. Advances in the sensitivity of amino acid measurements by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/TOF-MS), and application of techniques such as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for mineralogical characterizations have now enabled coordinated analyses on the scale at which mineral heterogeneity is observed. In this work, we have analyzed samples of the Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. We are investigating the link(s) between parent body processes, mineralogical context, and amino acid compositions in meteorites on bulk samples (approx. 20mg) and mineral separates (< or = 3mg) from several of spatial locations within our allocated samples. Preliminary results of these analyses are presented here.

  11. A ciência no espaço educacional da criança: do fazer ciência à ciência do fazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the possible articulations of the development of science in the education of children and their respective childhoods. While in Kindergarten and Elementary School students are, above all, children, and as such, subjects endowed with intelligence, emotions, and feelings. They are able to make observations, retain information, propose arguments, participate in discussions, and make choices that allow them to exercise free expression of theirs thoughts in many different languages. However, to ensure the effective participation of the child as a subject of today, not an intented being, it is necessary to reconsider the actions and relationships in the school environment. In this sense, this study highlights contributions on how the educational process of science can/should be thought in the process of children education. Also, we hope to provide access to scientific culture without detracting the childhoods. We highlight the possibility of using some powerful elements of science in the school environment to sharpen curiosity and improve new worldviews. Often different from the adult perspective, science in children education should emphasize issues such as the specificity of child logic, which encompasses creativity, imagination, fantasy, and desire. This article, in its theoretical nature, discusses notions such as childhood, children, and science in order to consider a type of early childhood education in which an educational routine with elements of scientific culture would enable the occurrence of childhood practice. Este artigo objetiva refletir sobre as possíveis articulações do desenvolvimento das ciências na educação das crianças e suas respectivas infâncias e parte da compreensão de que na Educação Infantil e nos primeiros anos do Ensino Fundamental, os estudantes antes de alunos são crianças, e como tais, são sujeitos completos, dotados de inteligência, emoções e sentimentos; capazes de

  12. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Long, E-mail: zhaolong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Hou, Hong, E-mail: houhong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O{sub 8}CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  13. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O_8CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  14. Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition and measurement techniques for atmospheric 'black carbon' ('BC' or 'elemental carbon'' ('EC' have long been subjects of scientific controversy, the recent discovery of light-absorbing carbon that is not black ('brown carbon, Cbrown' makes it imperative to reassess and redefine the components that make up light-absorbing carbonaceous matter (LAC in the atmosphere. Evidence for the atmospheric presence of Cbrown comes from (1 spectral aerosol light absorption measurements near specific combustion sources, (2 observations of spectral properties of water extracts of continental aerosol, (3 laboratory studies indicating the formation of light-absorbing organic matter in the atmosphere, and (4 indirectly from the chemical analogy of aerosol species to colored natural humic substances. We show that brown carbon may severely bias measurements of 'BC' and 'EC' over vast parts of the troposphere, especially those strongly polluted by biomass burning, where the mass concentration of Cbrown is high relative to that of soot carbon. Chemical measurements to determine 'EC' are biased by the refractory nature of Cbrown as well as by complex matrix interferences. Optical measurements of 'BC' suffer from a number of problems: (1 many of the presently used instruments introduce a substantial bias into the determination of aerosol light absorption, (2 there is no unique conversion factor between light absorption and 'EC' or 'BC' concentration in ambient aerosols, and (3 the difference in spectral properties between the different types of LAC, as well as the chemical complexity of Cbrown, lead to several conceptual as well as practical complications. We also suggest that due to the sharply increasing absorption of Cbrown towards the UV, single-wavelength light absorption measurements may not be adequate for the assessment of absorption of solar radiation in the troposphere. We discuss the possible consequences of these effects for our

  15. The interstellar carbonaceous aromatic matter as a trap for molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzat, F.; Lattelais, M.; Ellinger, Y.; Minot, C.

    2011-04-01

    We report a theoretical study of the physisorption of molecular hydrogen, H2, on a major component of the interstellar dust, namely, the polyaromatic carbonaceous grains. Going beyond the model of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon freeflyers and its theoretical treatment within the super molecule approach, we consider the graphene surface in a Density Functional Theory periodic approach using plane-wave expansions. The physisorption energy of isolated H2 on that flat and rigid support is determined to be attractive by ˜0.75 kcal mol-1 and practically independent of the orientation with respect to the infinite surface. Since this energy is also not affected by the position (over a ring centre, a carbon atom or the middle of a carbon-carbon bond), we can conclude that H2 is able to move freely like a ball rolling on the graphene support. We also investigate the conditions for multiple physisorption. It leads to a monolayer of H2 molecules where the corresponding interaction energy per H2 amounts to a potential depth of ˜1 kcal mol-1, close to the available experimental estimates ranging from 1.1 to 1.2 kcal mol-1. We show that the most energetically favourable coverage, which corresponds to an arrangement of the H2 molecules, the closest possible to the dimer configuration, leads to a surface density of ˜0.8 × 1015 molecule cm-2. Finally, assuming that 15-20 per cent of the interstellar carbon is locked in aromatic systems, one obtains ˜10-5 of the interstellar hydrogen trapped as H2 on such types of surfaces.

  16. Detection of serpentine in exogenic carbonaceous chondrite material on Vesta from Dawn FC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Cloutis, Edward A.; Schäfer, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Christensen, Ulrich; Sierks, Holger; Thangjam, Guneshwar Singh; Le Corre, Lucille; Mengel, Kurt; Vincent, Jean-Baptist; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Tom; Schmedemann, Nico; Kneissl, Thomas; Raymond, Carol; Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo; Hall, Ian; Büttner, Irene

    2014-09-01

    The Dawn mission’s Framing Camera (FC) observed Asteroid (4) Vesta in 2011 and 2012 using seven color filters and one clear filter from different orbits. In the present paper we analyze recalibrated HAMO color cubes (spatial resolution ∼60 m/pixel) with a focus on dark material (DM). We present a definition of highly concentrated DM based on spectral parameters, subsequently map the DM across the Vestan surface, geologically classify DM, study its spectral properties on global and local scales, and finally, compare the FC in-flight color data with laboratory spectra. We have discovered an absorption band centered at 0.72 μm in localities of DM that show the lowest albedo values by using FC data as well as spectral information from Dawn’s imaging spectrometer VIR. Such localities are contained within impact-exposed outcrops on inner crater walls and ejecta material. Comparisons between spectral FC in-flight data, and laboratory spectra of meteorites and mineral mixtures in the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 μm, revealed that the absorption band can be attributed to the mineral serpentine, which is typically present in CM chondrites. Dark material in its purest form is rare on Vesta’s surface and is distributed globally in a non-uniform manner. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of an exogenic origin of the DM by the infall of carbonaceous chondritic material, likely of CM type. It further confirms the hypothesis that most of the DM was deposited by the Veneneia impact.

  17. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  18. Petrography of the carbonaceous, diamond-bearing stone "Hypatia" from southwest Egypt: A contribution to the debate on its origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanin, Georgy A.; Kramers, Jan D.; Andreoli, Marco A. G.; Greco, Francesco; Gucsik, Arnold; Makhubela, Tebogo V.; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The stone named "Hypatia" found in the Libyan Desert Glass area of southwest Egypt is carbon-dominated and rich in microdiamonds. Previous noble gas and nitrogen isotope studies suggest an extraterrestrial origin. We report on a reconnaissance study of the carbonaceous matrix of this stone and the phases enclosed in it. This focused on areas not affected by numerous transecting fractures mostly filled with secondary minerals. The work employed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive (WDS) electron microprobe (EMPA) analysis, Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We found that carbonaceous matrices of two types occur irregularly intermingled on the 50-500 μm scale: Matrix-1, consisting of almost pure carbonaceous matter, and Matrix-2, containing Fe, Ni, P and S at abundances analyzable by microprobe. Matrix-2 contains the following phases as inclusions: (i) (Fe,Ni) sulphide occurring in cloud-like concentrations of sub-μm grains, in domains of the matrix that are enriched in Fe and S. These domains have (Fe + Ni)/S (atomic) = 1.51 ± 0.24 and Ni/Fe = 0.086 ± 0.061 (both 1SD); (ii) grains up to ∼5 μm in size of moissanite (SiC); (iii) Ni-phosphide compound grains up to 60 μm across that appear cryptocrystalline or amorphous and have (Ni + Fe)/P (atomic) = 5.6. ± 1.7 and Ni/Fe = 74 ± 29 (both 1SD), where both these ratios are much higher than any known Ni-phosphide minerals; (iv) rare grains (observed only once) of graphite, metallic Al, Fe and Ag, and a phase consisting of Ag, P and I. In Matrix-2, Raman spectroscopy shows a prominent narrow diamond band at 1340 cm-1. In Matrix-1 the D and G bands of disordered carbon are dominant, but a minor diamond band is ubiquitous, accounting for the uniform hardness of the material. The D and G bands have average full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of 295 ± 19 and 115 ± 19 cm-1, respectively, and the D/G intensity ratio

  19. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  20. Functionalization of biomass carbonaceous aerogels: selective preparation of MnO2@CA composites for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yumei; Xu, Qun; Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Hongxia; Wang, Bo; Yang, Daoyuan; Hu, Junhua; Liu, Zhimin

    2014-06-25

    Functionalized porous carbon materials with hierarchical structure and developed porosity coming from natural and renewable biomass have been attracting tremendous attention recently. In this work, we present a facile and scalable method to synthesize MnO2 loaded carbonaceous aerogel (MnO2@CA) composites via the hydrothermal carbonaceous (HTC) process. We employ two reaction systems of the mixed metal ion precursors to study the optimal selective adsorption and further reaction of MnO2 precursor on CA. Our experimental results show that the system containing KMnO4 and Na2S2O3·5H2O exhibits better electrochemical properties compared with the reaction system of MnSO4·H2O and (NH4)2S2O8. For the former, the obtained MnO2@CA displays the specific capacitance of 123.5 F·g(-1). The enhanced supercapacitance of MnO2@CA nanocomposites could be ascribed to both electrochemical contributions of the loaded MnO2 nanoparticles and the porous structure of three-dimensional carbonaceous aerogels. This study not only indicates that it is vital for the reaction systems to match with porous carbonaceous materials, but also offers a new fabrication strategy to prepare lightweight and high-performance materials that can be used in energy storage devices.

  1. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Gan, E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Yue; Guo Lingli [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang Jianhui [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Lee, Celine S.L. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Yingjun [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 {+-} 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 2.5 {+-} 1.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 {+-} 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.8 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 {+-} 4.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  2. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  3. Composition and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Northern Europe during winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasius, M.; Hansen, A.M.K.; Claeys, M.; Henzing, J.S.; Jedynska, A.D.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kistler, M.; Kristensen, K.; Martinsson, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Nøjgaard, J.K.; Spindler, G.; Stenström, K.E.; Swietlicki, E.; Szidat, S.; Simpson, D.; Yttri, K.E.

    2018-01-01

    Sources of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols (carbonaceous aerosols) were investigated by collection of weekly aerosol filter samples at six background sites in Northern Europe (Birkenes, Norway; Vavihill, Sweden; Risoe, Denmark; Cabauw and Rotterdam in The

  4. The application of a layer of carbonaceous material to a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of applying a carbonaceous material to a surface is described. It consists of exposing the surface to an ionised gas atmosphere generated in a gas consisting substantially of carbon and hydrogen, and applying to the surface through capacitive means an electrical potential which changes in sign at time intervals of between 5 x 10 -9 seconds and 10 -6 seconds. (author)

  5. Effects of chemical functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jing, E-mail: liujing27@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheney, Marcos A. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Wu Fan; Li Meng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A systematic theoretical study using density functional theory is performed to provide molecular-level understanding of the effects of chemical functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces. The zigzag and armchair edges were used in modeling the carbonaceous surfaces to simulate different adsorption sites. The edge atoms on the upper side of the models are unsaturated to simulate active sites. All calculations (optimizations, energies, and frequencies) were made at B3PW91 density functional theory level, using RCEP60VDZ basis set for mercury and 6-31G(d) pople basis set for other atoms. The results indicate that the embedding of halogen atom can increase the activity of its neighboring site which in turn increases the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface for Hg{sup 0}. The adsorption belongs to chemisorptions, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. For the effects of oxygen functional groups, lactone, carbonyl and semiquinone favor Hg{sup 0} adsorption because they increase the neighboring site's activity for mercury adsorption. On the contrary, phenol and carboxyl functional groups show a physisorption of Hg{sup 0}, and reduce Hg capture. This result can explain the seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature concerning the influence of oxygen functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surface.

  6. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  7. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gan; Li Jun; Li Xiangdong; Xu Yue; Guo Lingli; Tang Jianhui; Lee, Celine S.L.; Liu Xiang; Chen Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 ± 4.5 μg/m 3 , EC = 2.5 ± 1.9 μg/m 3 ) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 ± 2.6 μg/m 3 , EC = 0.8 ± 0.4 μg/m 3 ) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 ± 4.0 μg/m 3 , EC = 0.5 ± 0.4 μg/m 3 ) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  8. R Raman Spectroscopy and Petrology of Antarctic CR Chondrites: Comparison with Other Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Yasutake, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites, abundant original Fe,Ni-metal is preserved in chrondules, but the matrix is characterized by fine-grained magnetite with phyllosilicate. This combination of reduced Fe in chrodrules with oxidized Fe and phyllosilicate in the matrix has been attributed to aqueous alteration of matrix at relatively low temperatures.

  9. PCB congener sorption to carbonaceous sediment components: Macroscopic comparison and characterization of sorption kinetics and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeok; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2009-01-01

    Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to sediment is a key process in determining their mobility, bioavailability, and chemical decomposition in aquatic environments. In order to examine the validity of currently used interpretation approaches for PCBs sorption, comparative results on 2-chlorobiphenyl sorption to carbonaceous components in sediments (activated carbon, carbon black, coal, soot, graphite, flyash, wood) were macroscopically correlated with the structural, morphological, crystallographic, and compositional properties of the carbonaceous components. Since the Freundlich sorption constant, K F (L kg -1 ) spanned several orders of magnitude, ranging from log K F of 6.13-5.27 for activated carbon, 5.04 for carbon black, 3.83 for coal to 3.08 for wood, organic carbon partitioning approach should be more specifically categorized, considering the various forms, nature and origins of organic carbon in sediment. Sorption rate constants and fraction parameters, which were numerically defined from empirical kinetic model with fast and slow sorption fractions, were closely related to the physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous components. Sorption interpretation approaches with a specific property and viewpoint, such as organic carbon partitioning, soot carbon distribution, or surface area correlation, did not properly explain the overall results on sorption capacity, fast and slow sorption kinetics, and partitioning coefficient. It is also important to emphasize the heterogeneous nature of sediment and the difficulties of encompassing the partitioning among its carbonaceous components.

  10. PCB congener sorption to carbonaceous sediment components: Macroscopic comparison and characterization of sorption kinetics and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R., E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to sediment is a key process in determining their mobility, bioavailability, and chemical decomposition in aquatic environments. In order to examine the validity of currently used interpretation approaches for PCBs sorption, comparative results on 2-chlorobiphenyl sorption to carbonaceous components in sediments (activated carbon, carbon black, coal, soot, graphite, flyash, wood) were macroscopically correlated with the structural, morphological, crystallographic, and compositional properties of the carbonaceous components. Since the Freundlich sorption constant, K{sub F} (L kg{sup -1}) spanned several orders of magnitude, ranging from log K{sub F} of 6.13-5.27 for activated carbon, 5.04 for carbon black, 3.83 for coal to 3.08 for wood, organic carbon partitioning approach should be more specifically categorized, considering the various forms, nature and origins of organic carbon in sediment. Sorption rate constants and fraction parameters, which were numerically defined from empirical kinetic model with fast and slow sorption fractions, were closely related to the physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous components. Sorption interpretation approaches with a specific property and viewpoint, such as organic carbon partitioning, soot carbon distribution, or surface area correlation, did not properly explain the overall results on sorption capacity, fast and slow sorption kinetics, and partitioning coefficient. It is also important to emphasize the heterogeneous nature of sediment and the difficulties of encompassing the partitioning among its carbonaceous components.

  11. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007, concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August and warm (September to February seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41% than in the warm season (44 ± 18%. On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3 for fine particulate matter.

  12. Carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G E; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002-2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m(3)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m(3)) for fine particulate matter.

  13. Sorption of ionizable and ionic organic compounds to biochar, activated carbon and other carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Xiao, Feng; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-11-01

    The sorption of ionic and ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals and pesticides) on carbonaceous materials plays an important role in governing the fate, transport and bioavailability of IOCs. The paradigms previously established for the sorption of neutral organic compounds do not always apply to IOCs and the importance of accounting for the particular sorption behavior of IOCs is being increasingly recognized. This review presents the current state of knowledge and summarizes the recent advances on the sorption of IOCs to carbonaceous sorbents. A broad range of sorbents were considered to evaluate the possibility to read across between fields of research that are often considered in isolation (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, biochar, and activated carbon). Mechanisms relevant to IOCs sorption on carbonaceous sorbents are discussed and critically evaluated, with special attention being given to emerging sorption mechanisms including low-barrier, charge-assisted hydrogen bonds and cation-π assisted π-π interactions. The key role played by some environmental factors is also discussed, with a particular focus on pH and ionic strength. Overall the review reveals significant advances in our understanding of the interactions between IOCs and carbonaceous sorbents. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified and priorities for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  15. The configuration-driven table CI method and comparison with integral-driven CI procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenker, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A new configuration-driven CI algorithm is outlined which eliminates the need for explicit comparison of pairs of Slater determinants through the use of a series of compact tables. In this scheme each pair of configurations is either shown to be non-interacting or to fall into one of nine cases, each of which is characterized fully once certain orbital permutations are determined. The program is divided into three parts: a case structure analysis step including integral label generation, a sort of the required electron repulsion integrals, and finally a procedure in which the foregoing information is combined with tabulated directions for the evaluation of the necessary Hamiltonian matrix elements over spin-adapted functions. Timing improvements of up to more than a factor of four have been achieved with the new algorithm

  16. Carbonaceous aerosol at two rural locations in New York State: Characterization and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Hopke, Philip K.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2008-06-01

    Fine particle samples were collected to determine the chemical constituents in PM2.5 at two rural background sites (Potsdam and Stockton, N. Y.) in the northeastern United States from November 2002 to August 2005. Samples were collected every third day for 24 h with a speciation network sampler. The measured carbonaceous species included thermal-optical organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), pyrolytic carbon (OP), black carbon (BC), and water-soluble, short-chain (WSSC) organic acids. Concentration time series, autocorrelations, and seasonal variations of the carbonaceous species were examined. During this multiyear period, the contributions of the total carbon (OC + EC) to the measured fine particle mass were 31.2% and 31.1% at Potsdam and Stockton, respectively. The average sum of the WSSC acids carbon accounted for approximately 2.5% of the organic carbon at Potsdam and 3.0% at Stockton. At Potsdam, the seasonal differences in the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) values for carbonaceous species suggest that secondary formation may be an important contributor to the observed concentrations of species likely to be secondary in origin, particularly during the photochemically active time of the year (May to October). This study also investigated the relationships between carbonaceous species to better understand the behavior of carbonaceous aerosol and to assess the contribution of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to the total organic carbon mass (the EC tracer method was used to estimate SOC). At Potsdam the average SOC contribution to total OC varied between 66% and 72%, while at Stockton it varied between 58% and 64%.

  17. Investigating the Early Carbon Cycle Using Carbonaceous Inclusions and Dissolved Carbon in Detrital Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Harrison, M.; Mao, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Because the terrestrial rock record extends only to ~4 Ga and older materials thus far identified are limited to detrital zircons, information about volatile abundances and cycles on early Earth is limited. Carbon, for instance, plays an important role not only in the modern biosphere but also in deep recycling of materials between the crust and mantle. We are investigating the record of carbon abundance and origin in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills (W. Australia) using two main approaches. First, carbon may partition into the zircon structure at trace levels during crystallization from a magma, and better understanding of this partitioning behavior will allow for zircon's use as a monitor of magmatic carbon contents. We have measured carbon abundances in zircon from a variety of igneous rocks (gabbro; I-, A-, and S-type granitoids) via SIMS and found that although abundances are typically low (average raw 12C/30Si ~ 1x10-6), S-type granite zircons can reach a factor of 1000 over this background. Around 10% of Hadean zircons investigated show similar enrichments, consistent with other evidence for the derivation of many Jack Hills zircons from S-type granitoids and with the establishment of modern-level carbon abundances in the crust by ca. 4.2 Ga. Diamond and graphite inclusions reported in the Jack Hills zircons by previous studies proved to be contamination by polishing debris, leaving the true abundance of these materials in the population uncertain. On a second front, we have identified and investigated primary carbonaceous inclusions in these zircons. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one concordant 4.10±0.01 Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions (so interpreted due to their enclosure in a crack-free zircon host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit). Their δ13CPDB of -24±5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and, in the absence of a likely inorganic mechanism to produce such a

  18. Characterization of carbonaceous matter in xenolithic clasts from the Sharps (H3.4) meteorite: Constraints on the origin and thermal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebukawa, Yoko [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Zolensky, Michael E. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chan, Queenie H. S. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Nagao, Keisuke [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kilcoyne, A. L. David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bodnar, Robert J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Farley, Charles [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rahman, Zia [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Le, Loan [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cody, George D. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-25

    Primitive xenolithic clasts, often referred to as “dark clasts”, are well known in many regolith breccias. The Sharps H3.4 ordinary chondrite contains unusually large dark clasts up to ~1 cm across. Poorly-graphitized carbon (PGC), with Fe, Ni metal and described as “carbon-rich aggregates”, has been found in these clasts (Brearley, 1990). We report detailed analyses of carbonaceous matter in several identical Sharps clasts using FTIR, Raman, C-XANES, and TEM that provide insight on the extent of thermal processing and possible origin of such clasts. We also prepared acid residues of the clasts using the HCl/HF method and conducted mass spectrometric analysis of the entrained noble gases. Carbonaceous matter is often used to infer thermal history due to its sensitivity to thermal processes. The FTIR spectra of the acid residue from the Sharps clast suggest that carbonaceous matter in the clast contains less hydrogen and oxygen compared to acid residues from typical type 3.4 ordinary chondrites. The metamorphic temperatures obtained by Raman spectroscopy ranges between ~380 °C and ~490 °C. TEM observations indicate that the clasts experienced a peak temperature of 300 °C to 400 °C, based on the carbon d 002 layer lattice spacing of C-rich aggregates. These estimates are consistent with an earlier estimate of 330 ± 50 °C, that is also estimated by the d 002 layer lattice spacing (Brearley, 1990). It should be noted that the lattice spacing thermometer is based on terrestrial metamorphose rocks, and thus temperature was probably underestimated. Meanwhile, the C-XANES spectra of the C-rich aggregates show high exciton intensities, indicative of graphene structures that developed at around 700–800 °C following an extensive period of time (millions of years), however, the surrounding matrix areas experienced lower temperatures of less than 300–500 °C. Noble gas analysis of the acid residue from the Sharps clasts shows that the residue is

  19. Do estilo em ciência e em história das ciências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Paty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ao considerar o conhecimento científico como uma forma de pensamento simbólico, entende-se com isso não simples sistemas de signos, mas conteúdos de pensamento (expressos por conceitos ligados entre si e que fazem sentido, que são, no espaço das representações mentais, os substitutos do "dado objetivo" que se supõe subjazer à experiência que fazemos do "mundo" pelos sentidos e, nesse nível indissociavelmente, pelo entendimento. Esse pensamento simbólico adquire densidade e consistência pela "tecelagem" realizada graças ao trabalho dos pensamentos individuais que se comunicam, social e culturalmente, inscritos no tempo da história. Da tensão dinâmica entre o sujeito do conhecimento, que busca a inteligibilidade (pela operação de sua razão, e a objetividade dos conteúdos que ele se propõe (inicialmente dados, depois modificados ou produzidos, resulta o movimento do pensamento científico e a transformação dos conhecimentos. Esse trabalho do pensamento simbólico é marcado por um estilo próprio a cada um, mas que em parte pode ser comum em contextos, escolas ou tradições. Em ciência e em história das ciências, o estilo intervém em dois níveis: o da abordagem "objetal" da produção das obras pelos cientistas e o da abordagem "reflexiva" da história epistemológica e da filosofia, que se interrogam sobre a significação tanto dos próprios conteúdos de conhecimento quanto do pensamento racional, simbólico, cuja função é manifestá-los.By considering scientific knowledge as a form of symbolic thought, we do not mean by the latter simply systems of signs, but thought contents (expressed by concepts related between them and providing meaning ; they are, in the space of mental representations, the substitutes of the «objectively given» that one supposes to underly the experience of the «world» done through the senses and the understanding, both being indissociable at this level. This symbolic thought gets

  20. Sorption characteristics and mechanisms of organic contaminant to carbonaceous biosorbents in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbonaceous biosorbents was prepared by pyrolyzing pine needles,a model biomass,at various temperatures (100-700℃) under an oxygen-limited condition for 6h. The elemental composi-tions and the specific surface areas (BET-N2) of the biosorbents were analyzed. Sorption properties of 4-nitrotoluene to the biosorbents and their mechanisms were investigated,and then correlated with the structures of the biosorbents. The result shows that with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature,the aromaticity of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases dramatically and the polarity (the (N+O)/C atomic ratio) decreases sharply. Correspondingly,conformations of the organic matter in the biosor-bents transform gradually from a "soft-state" to a "hard-state" and the specific surface areas of the resultant biosorbents extend rapidly. The sorption isotherms fit well with the Freundlich equation. The regression parameters (i.e.,N and lgKf) are linearly related to the aromaticity indices (the H/C atomic ratio). Contributions of adsorption and partition to total sorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents are quantified. The adsorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases quickly with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature. The saturated adsorption amounts (Qmax) increase linearly with the increase of the specific surface areas (SA) of the biosorbents. For the carbonaceous biosorbents with hard-state carbon,the calculated normalized-Qmax values by SA are comparable to the theoretical estimation (2.45 μmol/m2). In comparison,for the carbonaceous sorbents with soft-state carbon,the calculated nor-malized-Qmax values by SA are much higher than the theoretical estimation. The partition coefficients (Kom) increase with the decrease of the polarity of the biosorbents,reaching a maximum,and then de-crease sharply with further decreasing the polarity,suggesting that partition mechanism be dominated by the compatibility and accessibility of the sorbent medium with organic

  1. Sorption characteristics and mechanisms of organic contaminant to carbonaceous biosorbents in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN BaoLiang; ZHOU DanDan; ZHU LiZhong; SHEN XueYou

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbonaceous biosorbents was prepared by pyrolyzing pine needles, a model biomass, at various temperatures (100-700℃) under an oxygen-limited condition for 6 h. The elemental composi-tions and the specific surface areas (BET-N2) of the biosorbents were analyzed. Sorption properties of 4-nitrotoluene to the biosorbents and their mechanisms were investigated, and then correlated with the structures of the biosorbents. The result shows that with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature, the sromaticity of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases dramatically and the polarity (the (N+O)/C atomic ratio) decreases sharply. Correspondingly, conformations of the organic matter in the biosor-bents transform gradually from a "soft-state" to a "hard-state" and the specific surface areas of the resultant biosorbents extend rapidly. The sorption isotherms fit well with the Freundlich equation. The regression parameters (I.e., N and IgKf) are linearly related to the aromaticity indices (the H/C atomic ratio). Contributions of adsorption and partition to total sorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents are quantified. The adsorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases quickly with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature. The saturated adsorption amounts (Qmax) increase linearly with the increase of the specific surface areas (SA) of the biosorbents. For the carbonaceous biosorbents with hard-state carbon, the calculated normalized-Qmax values by SA are comparable to the theoretical estimation (2.45 μmol/m2). In comparison, for the carbonaceous sorbents with soft-state carbon, the calculated nor-malized-Qmax values by SA are much higher than the theoretical estimation. The partition coefficients (Kom) increase with the decrease of the polarity of the biosorbents, reaching a maximum, and then de-crease sharply with further decreasing the polarity, suggesting that partition mechanism be dominated by the compatibility and accessibility of the sorbent medium with

  2. Carbonaceous aerosols over China--review of observations, emissions, and climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linpeng; Zhou, Xuehua; Ma, Yujie; Cao, Zhaoyu; Wu, Ruidong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols have been attracting attention due to the influence on visibility, air quality, and regional climate. Statistical analyses based on concentration levels, spatial-temporal variations, correlations, and organic carbon (OC) to element carbon (EC) ratios from published data of OC and EC in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were carried out in order to give a carbonaceous aerosol profile in China. The results showed maxima for OC of 29.5 ± 18.2 μg C m(-3) and for EC of 8.4 ± 6.3 μg C m(-3) in winter and minima for OC of 12.9 ± 7.7 μg C m(-3) in summer and for EC of 4.6 ± 2.8 μg C m(-3) in spring. In addition, OC and EC both had higher concentrations in urban than those in rural sites. Carbonaceous aerosol levels in China are about three to seven times higher compared to those in the USA and Europe. OC and EC occupied 20 ± 6 and 7 ± 3% of PM2.5 mass and 17 ± 7 and 5 ± 3% of PM10 mass, respectively, implying that carbonaceous aerosols are the main component of PM, especially OC. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was a significant portion of PM and contributed 41 ± 26% to OC and 8 ± 6% to PM2.5 mass. The OC/EC ratio was 3.63 ± 1.73, which, along with the good correlation between OC and EC and the OC to EC slope of 2.29, signifies that coal combustion and/or vehicular exhaust is the dominated carbonaceous aerosol source in China. These provide a primary observation-based understanding of carbonaceous aerosol pollution in China and have a great significance in improving the emission inventory and climate forcing evaluation.

  3. Detection of CI line emission towards the oxygen-rich AGB star omi Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, M.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; De Beck, E.; Montez, R.; Ramstedt, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the detection of neutral atomic carbon CI(3P1-3P0) line emission towards omi Cet. This is the first time that CI is detected in the envelope around an oxygen-rich M-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. We also confirm the previously tentative CI detection around V Hya, a carbon-rich AGB star. As one of the main photodissociation products of parent species in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) around evolved stars, CI can be used to trace sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in CSEs. The observed flux density towards omi Cet can be reproduced by a shell with a peak atomic fractional abundance of 2.4 × 10-5 predicted based on a simple chemical model where CO is dissociated by the interstellar radiation field. However, the CI emission is shifted by 4 km s-1 from the stellar velocity. Based on this velocity shift, we suggest that the detected CI emission towards omi Cet potentially arises from a compact region near its hot binary companion. The velocity shift could, therefore, be the result of the orbital velocity of the binary companion around omi Cet. In this case, the CI column density is estimated to be 1.1 × 1019 cm-2. This would imply that strong UV radiation from the companion and/or accretion of matter between two stars is most likely the origin of the CI enhancement. However, this hypothesis can be confirmed by high-angular resolution observations.

  4. Structural Biology of CI from Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar

    (CTD), separated by a linker of various lengths. The NTD is responsible for DNA binding and the CTD is responsible for oligomerization of the CI protein. A Helix-turn-Helix motif is usually responsible for DNA binding. This thesis presents a structural characterization of the CI repressor from TP901...... condition of the CTD, responsible for the arrangement of the hexameric CI repressor. The arrangement of the CI repressor for TP901-1 has previously been described to have 32 point group symmetry based on SAXS studies. The CTD crystallizes with P3121 or P3221 symmetry with one molecule in the asymmetric unit......-length CI can only be answered unambiguously by solving the CTD crystal structure or by use of alternative techniques on the full-length CI....

  5. Understanding the Organo-Carbonate Associations in Carbonaceous Chondrites with the Use of Micro-Raman Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonates can potentially provide sites for organic materials to accrue and develop into complex macromolecules. This study examines the organics associated with carbonates in carbonaceous chondrites using micron-Raman imaging.

  6. The Biological Potency Of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles Is Associated With The State Of Oxidation Of Surface Carbon Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. An important component of PM consists of inorganic and organic compounds adsorbed onto a carbonaceous particle core. Toxicological studies indica...

  7. A European Aerosol Phenomenology -4: Harmonized Concentrations of Carbonaceous Aerosol at 10 Regional Background Sites Across Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cavalli, F.; Areskoug, H.; Ceburnis, D.; Čech, J.; Genberg, J.; Harrison, R. M.; Jaffrezo, J.L.; Kiss, G.; Laj, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Perez, N.; Quincey, P.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Sellegri, K.; Spindler, G.; Swietlicki, E.; Theodosi, C.; Yttri, K.E.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, NOV 2016 (2016), s. 133-145 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol * carbonaceous * PM Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  8. Nowe zasady działalności firm audytorskich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Sawicki

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono zmiany, stanowiące implementację Dyrektywy 2006/43/WE Unii Europejskiej w części dotyczącej funkcjonowania firm audytorskich w Polsce. Zgłoszono uwagi popierające nowe rozwiązania, jak też zawierające wątpliwości dotyczące skuteczności ich stosowania w praktyce.

  9. Wrap it in rap! - Music Making with Adolescent CI Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the potential effects of an intensive musical ear training program on the perception of music and speech in prelingually hearing impaired adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and 2) these adolescents’ music engagement. Eleven adolescent CI users parti...... and repetitive focus on language, articulation, rhythm and rhyme and might even represent a possible form of artistic expression for some of the young CI users....

  10. Filosofia das ciências sociais: temas atuais

    OpenAIRE

    Kincaid, Harold

    2014-01-01

    A filosofia das ciências sociais, concebida da maneira adequada, tem algo a oferecer aos que praticam as ciências sociais. Os cientistas sociais adotam em suas pesquisas, ainda que de forma implícita, alguma filosofia de sua ciência. Para evitar impasses, é melhor explicitar essa filosofia e ser criticamente consciente dos seus méritos. A filosofia das ciências sociais, por sua vez, não pode ser praticada sem um envolvimento íntimo com a pesquisa social. O artigo esboça alguns desenvolvimento...

  11. Everyone Wins: A Mars-Impact Origin for Carbonaceous Phobos and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of Phobos' and Deimos' origin(s) tend to feature an orthogonally opposed pair of observations: dynamical studies which favor coalescence of the moons from an orbital debris ring arising from a large impact on Mars; and reflectance spectroscopy of the moons that indicate a carbonaceous composition that is not consistent with Martian surface materials. One way to reconcile this discrepancy is to consider the option of a Mars-impact origin for Phobos and Deimos, followed by surficial decoration of carbon-rich materials by interplanetary dust particles (IDP). The moons experience a high IDP flux because of their location in Mars' gravity well. Calculations show that accreted carbon is sufficient to produce a surface with reflectance spectra resembling carbonaceous chondrites.

  12. Enantiomer excesses of rare and common sugar derivatives in carbonaceous meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Rios, Andro C

    2016-06-14

    Biological polymers such as nucleic acids and proteins are constructed of only one-the d or l-of the two possible nonsuperimposable mirror images (enantiomers) of selected organic compounds. However, before the advent of life, it is generally assumed that chemical reactions produced 50:50 (racemic) mixtures of enantiomers, as evidenced by common abiotic laboratory syntheses. Carbonaceous meteorites contain clues to prebiotic chemistry because they preserve a record of some of the Solar System's earliest (∼4.5 Gy) chemical and physical processes. In multiple carbonaceous meteorites, we show that both rare and common sugar monoacids (aldonic acids) contain significant excesses of the d enantiomer, whereas other (comparable) sugar acids and sugar alcohols are racemic. Although the proposed origins of such excesses are still tentative, the findings imply that meteoritic compounds and/or the processes that operated on meteoritic precursors may have played an ancient role in the enantiomer composition of life's carbohydrate-related biopolymers.

  13. Preparing patterned carbonaceous nanostructures directly by overexposure of PMMA using electron-beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Huigao; Zhao Jianguo; Zhang Yongzhe; Xie Erqing [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han Li [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: duanhg@gmail.com, E-mail: xieeq@lzu.edu.cn

    2009-04-01

    The overexposure process of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied in detail using electron-beam lithography. It was found that PMMA films could be directly patterned without development due to the electron-beam-induced collapse of PMMA macromolecular chains. By analyzing the evolution of surface morphologies and compositions of the overexposed PMMA films, it was also found that the transformation of PMMA from positive to negative resist was a carbonization process, so patterned carbonaceous nanostructures could be prepared directly by overexposure of PMMA using electron-beam lithography. This simple one-step process for directly obtaining patterned carbonaceous nanostructures has promising potential application as a tool to make masks and templates, nanoelectrodes, and building blocks for MEMS and nanophotonic devices.

  14. Regional radiative impacts of mixed dust and carbonaceous aerosols over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent; Pont, Véronique; Solmon, Fabien; Mallet, Marc; Léon, Jean-François; Liousse, Catherine; Johnson, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Africa is a major source of aerosols at global scale. Two types of aerosols dominate the regional background: biomass burning aerosols as results of combustion of the vegetation and mineral dust aerosols related to erosion of arid soils by wind. These important burdens of aerosols are known to have each one a strong impact on the regional radiative budget. Whereas recent modelling efforts show significant impacts at climatic timescale on West African Monsoon due to the radiative effects of dust aerosols (see Solmon et al 2008 in GRL and references therein), biomass burning radiative effects in this region stand still poorly documented. What about West Africa, during the dry season (december-february) when both biomass burning and dust aerosols are encountered in the atmospheric background ? In that frame, we use ICTP Regional Climate Model versions 3 in order to estimate the radiative forcing due to the external mixing of mineral dust and carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning, BioFuel and Fossil Fuel combustion during the dry season. Emissions of biomass burning aerosols are taken from new inventories based on SPOT vegetation burnt area products. Optical properties of carboneaceous aerosols are updated thanks to chemical sampling at Djougou during AMMA SOP-0. This presentation focuses on the model efficiency to correctly reproduce the main features concerning aerosols observed during AMMA-SOP0/DABEX field campaigns. It refers to (i) a strong stratification of dust and smoke layers, and (ii) a marked seasonal cycle of aerosol mixture optical properties. Those features are key parameters for modelling the direct and semi direct effects of aerosols over West Africa. Results of simulations indicate that the particular low value of single scattering albedo (SSA) for biomass burning aerosols (~0.81 at 550nm) involves important diabatic heating in the atmosphere. Values of aerosol heating rates are estimated and compared with aircraft measurement from DABEX

  15. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  16. Dome C UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic MicroMeteorites Infrared and Raman fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Dartois, E.; Engrand, C.; Duprat, J.; Godard, M.; Charon, E.; Delauche, L.; Sandt, C.; Borondics, F.

    2017-01-01

    UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic MicroMeteorites (UCAMMs) represent a small fraction of interplanetary dust particles reaching the Earth's surface and contain large amounts of an organic component not found elsewhere. They are most probably sampling a contribution from the outer regions of the solar system to the local interplanetary dust particle flux. We characterize UCAMMs composition focusing on the organic matter, and compare the results to the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive me...

  17. Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics over Delhi in Northern India: Seasonal variability and possible sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Bisht, Ds; Tiwari, S.

    Carbonaceous aerosols have been the focus of extensive studies during the last decade due to its significant impacts on human health, visibility and climate change. As per Asian regions are concerned, aerosols in south-Asia are gaining considerable importance because of their potential impacts on regional climate, yet their possible sources are poorly understood. Semi-continuous measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosols were conducted simultaneously at Delhi during the period from January 2011 to May 2012. Delhi is the capital city of India and one of the densely populated and industrialized urban megacities in Asia, located at the Ganga basin in the northern part of India. Being highly polluted region, mass concentrations of OC, EC and BC over Delhi were found to vary from about 6-92 mug m (-3) (mean: 23±16 mug m (-3) ), 3-38 mug m (-3) (mean: 11±7 mug m (-3) ) and 1-24 mug m (-3) (mean: 7±5 mug m (-3) ), respectively during the entire measurement period, with about two times higher concentration during winter as compared to summer. A significant correlation between OC and EC (R=0.95, n=232) and relatively lower OC/EC ratio (range: 1.0-3.6; mean: 2.2±0.5) suggest fossil fuel emission as a dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols over the station. The average mass concentration of EC was found about 38% higher than BC during the study period, which is interestingly different as reported at other locations over Ganga basin. We also determined the associated optical properties of carbonaceous species (e.g. absorption coefficient and mass absorption efficiency) over the station. Significant loading of carbonaceous species over such regions emphasize an urgent need to focus on air quality management and proper impact assessment on health perspective.

  18. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Snachev; E. P. Shchulkin

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5...

  19. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  20. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  1. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  2. Process of treating carbonaceous materials. [400 to 700/sup 0/C, high vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, O J

    1913-11-24

    A process is given of treating carbonaceous materials, characterized by the material being submitted simultaneously to a temperature of 400 to 700/sup 0/C, a pressure between 5.0 mm of mercury under atmospheric and a practically perfect vacuum, and by the volatile material able to condense under the vacuum used being condensed practically under the same pressure for the production of a high proportion of condensable products and a superior fuel.

  3. In Situ Mapping of the Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Mineral Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite organic matter represents a fossil record of reactions that occurred in a range of physically, spatially and temporally distinct environments, from the interstellar medium to asteroid parent bodies. While bulk chemical analysis has provided a detailed view of the nature and diversity of this organic matter, almost nothing is known about its spatial distribution and mineralogical relationships. Such information is nevertheless critical to deciphering its formation processes and evolutionary history.

  4. Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

    2015-01-15

    In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (∼20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of combustion-generated carbonaceous nanoparticles by size-dependent ultraviolet laser photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodo, Mario; Sgro, Lee Anne; Minutolo, Patrizia; D'Anna, Andrea

    2013-05-16

    Photoelectric charging of particles is a powerful tool for online characterization of submicrometer aerosol particles. Indeed photoionization based techniques have high sensitivity and chemical selectivity. Moreover, they yield information on electronic properties of the material and are sensitive to the state of the surface. In the present study the photoionization charging efficiency, i.e., the ratio between the generated positive ions and the corresponding neutral ones, for different classes of flame-generated carbonaceous nanoparticles was measured. The fifth harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser, 213 nm (5.82 eV), was used as an ionization source for the combustion generated nanoparticles, whereas a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) coupled to a Faraday cup electrometer was used for particle classification and detection. Carbonaceous nanoparticles in the nucleation mode, i.e., sizes ranging from 1 to 10 nm, show a photoionization charging efficiency clearly dependent on the flame conditions. In particular, we observed that the richer the flame is, i.e., the higher the equivalent ratio is, the higher the photon charging efficiency is. We hypothesized that such an increase in the photoionization propensity of the carbonaceous nanoparticles from richer flame condition is associated to the presence within the particles of larger aromatic moieties. The results clearly show that photoionization is a powerful diagnostic tool for the physical-chemical characterization of combustion aerosol, and it may lead to further insights into the soot formation mechanism.

  6. AFM measurements of adhesive forces between carbonaceous particles and the substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianqi [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Peng, Wei, E-mail: pengwei@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen, Ke [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Suyuan, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Educations, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Adhesive force of spherical carbonaceous particle MCMBs and HTR-10 graphite matrix debris were measured for the first time. • The measured equivalent works of adhesion were much smaller than the ideal values. • The shape factor and the particle morphology reduce the adhesive force. • The adhesion effect does not change directly with the asperity size. - Abstract: Graphite dust is carbonaceous particles generated during operation of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR). Graphite dust resuspension is the key behavior associated with HTR source term analyses and environmental safety assessment. The adhesive force is the key factor that determines the resuspension rate. The present study used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure the adhesive force between a single carbonaceous particle and the substrate. The measurements were performed on mica, graphite IG110 and Inconel 800H. The prepared “probe cantilevers” were mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), fuel element debris from HTR-10 and graphite NBG18. The equivalent work of adhesion was derived from the measured adhesive force and calculated based on substrate profile approximation and the JKR theoretical model. The measured work was smaller than the ideal work of adhesion, most likely due to the rough particle morphology and the rough substrate surface. Additionally, a shape factor imposes a constraint on the lateral deformation of the particles. Furthermore, surface roughness could reduce the adhesive force some depending on the particle size. Once the particle was too small to be trapped into a trough, the adhesive force would not be further reduced.

  7. AFM measurements of adhesive forces between carbonaceous particles and the substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tianqi; Peng, Wei; Shen, Ke; Yu, Suyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesive force of spherical carbonaceous particle MCMBs and HTR-10 graphite matrix debris were measured for the first time. • The measured equivalent works of adhesion were much smaller than the ideal values. • The shape factor and the particle morphology reduce the adhesive force. • The adhesion effect does not change directly with the asperity size. - Abstract: Graphite dust is carbonaceous particles generated during operation of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR). Graphite dust resuspension is the key behavior associated with HTR source term analyses and environmental safety assessment. The adhesive force is the key factor that determines the resuspension rate. The present study used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure the adhesive force between a single carbonaceous particle and the substrate. The measurements were performed on mica, graphite IG110 and Inconel 800H. The prepared “probe cantilevers” were mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), fuel element debris from HTR-10 and graphite NBG18. The equivalent work of adhesion was derived from the measured adhesive force and calculated based on substrate profile approximation and the JKR theoretical model. The measured work was smaller than the ideal work of adhesion, most likely due to the rough particle morphology and the rough substrate surface. Additionally, a shape factor imposes a constraint on the lateral deformation of the particles. Furthermore, surface roughness could reduce the adhesive force some depending on the particle size. Once the particle was too small to be trapped into a trough, the adhesive force would not be further reduced.

  8. Adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids by carbonaceous adsorbents: Effect of carbon surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption by carbonaceous sorbents is among the most feasible processes to remove perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) from drinking and ground waters. However, carbon surface chemistry, which has long been recognized essential for dictating performance of such sorbents, has never been considered for PFOS and PFOA adsorption. Thus, the role of surface chemistry was systematically investigated using sorbents with a wide range in precursor material, pore structure, and surface chemistry. Sorbent surface chemistry overwhelmed physical properties in controlling the extent of uptake. The adsorption affinity was positively correlated carbon surface basicity, suggesting that high acid neutralizing or anion exchange capacity was critical for substantial uptake of PFOS and PFOA. Carbon polarity or hydrophobicity had insignificant impact on the extent of adsorption. Synthetic polymer-based Ambersorb and activated carbon fibers were more effective than activated carbon made of natural materials in removing PFOS and PFOA from aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • Adsorption of PFOS and PFOA by ten carbonaceous adsorbents were compared. • Surface chemistry of the adsorbents controlled adsorption affinity. • Carbon surface basicity was positively correlated with the extent of PFOS and PFOA uptake. • Carbon polarity or hydrophobicity was not correlated with adsorption affinity. • Synthetic polymer-based adsorbents were more effective in removing PFOS and PFOA. - Carbon surface basicity is the primary factor that influences adsorption affinity of the carbonaceous sorbents for perfluorooctane sulfonic and carboxylic acids

  9. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  10. Rhenium-osmium systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; MacPherson, G.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    pose several difficulties. The narrow range of 187Os/188Os in group I, III, V, and VI bulk CAIs, and the agreement with 187Os/188Os of whole rock carbonaceous chondrites suggest that on a bulk inclusion scale, secondary alteration only modestly fractionated Re/Os in these CAIs. The average of 187Os/188Os for group I, III, V, and VI CAIs is indistinguishable from average CI chondrites, indicating a modern solar system value for 187Os/188Os of 0.12650, corresponding to a 187Re/188Os of 0.3964. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Characteristics and determinants of music appreciation in adult CI users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Birgit; Vinck, Bart; De Vel, Eddy; Maes, Leen; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the associations between self-reported listening habits and perception of music and speech perception outcomes in quiet and noise for both unilateral cochlear implant (CI) users and bimodal (CI in one ear, hearing aid in contra-lateral ear) users. Information concerning music appreciation was gathered by means of a newly developed questionnaire. Moreover, audiological data (pure-tone audiometry, speech tests in noise and quiet) were gathered and the relationship between speech perception and music appreciation is studied. Bimodal users enjoy listening to music more in comparison with unilateral CI users. Also, music training within rehabilitation is still uncommon, while CI recipients believe that music training might be helpful to maximize their potential with current CI technology. Music training should not be exclusively reserved for the good speech performers. Therefore, a music training program (MTP) that consists of different difficulty levels should be developed. Hopefully, early implementation of MTP in rehabilitation programs can enable adult CI users to enjoy and appreciate music and to maximize their potential with commercially available technology. Furthermore, because bimodal users consider the bimodal stimulation to be the most enjoyable way to listen to music, CI users with residual hearing in the contra-lateral ear should be encouraged to continue wearing their hearing aid in that ear.

  12.  Dylematy harmonizacji rachunkowości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Gierusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Harmonizacja rachunkowości finansowej jest procesem przynoszącym wiele korzyści, ale także generującym poważne zagrożenia. Wśród pozytywnych stron harmonizacji wymienić należy: wzmocnienie funkcji alokacyjnej rynków kapitałowych, wzrost zaufania inwestorów do sprawozdań finansowych, rozszerzenie możliwości pozyskiwania kapitału pożyczkowego, obniżenie kosztów funkcjonowania korporacji międzynarodowych. Towarzyszące harmonizacji zjawiska niepożądane to: wyeliminowanie porównywalności sprawozdań finansowych na poziomie krajowym, przekreślenie znacznej części dorobku szkoły kontynentalnej rachunkowości, ustanowienie monopolu w tworzeniu standardów, zanik normatywnego nurtu badań w rachunkowości.

  13. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Penner, J.; Carmichael, G.; Gadi, R.; Denier Van der Gon, H.; Gregoire, J.M.; Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  14. Zależność bodźcowości ciśnienia od cyrkulacji atmosferycznej w Warszawie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rozbicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available W pracy zbadano: czasowy rozkład ciśnienia atmosferycznego, bodźcowe oddziaływanie ciśnienia atmosferycznego o wartościach wyższych od 1015 hPa lub niższych od 985 hPa. Wyznaczono częstość i prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia ciśnienia o oddziaływaniu bodźcowym oraz zanalizowano zależność zmian międzydobowych ciśnienia od typów cyrkulacji atmosferycznej według klasyfikacji Lityńskiego. Do obliczeń wykorzystano cogodzinne wartości ciśnienia atmosferycznego pochodzące ze stacji Ursynów SGGW z okresu 2011–2015. Na podstawie badań stwierdzono, że ciśnienie atmosferyczne o oddziaływaniu bodźcowym w Warszawie może wystąpić w każdym miesiącu z prawdopodobieństwem od 0,2% do 19,1%, w przypadku ciśnienia o wartościach wyższych niż 1015 hPa oraz od 0,1 do 3,4%, w przypadku ciśnienia niższego od 985 hPa, z wyjątkiem czerwca i sierpnia. Zmiany międzydobowe ciśnienia atmosferycznego mogą osiągać około 24 hPa, a częstość występowania bodźców „silnych” wywołanych tymi zmianami wyniosła w poszczególnych miesiącach od 1% do 16%, natomiast bodźców „bardzo silnych” od 2% do 8%. Spośród sytuacji synoptycznych największe znaczenie dla bodźcowości zmian ciśnienia mają sytuacje cyklonalne: szczególnie przy adwekcji powietrza z sektora północno-zachodniego (NWC.

  15. Enrichment of the Amino Acid L-Isovaline by Aqueous Alteration on CI and CM Meteorite Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution and enantiomeric composition of the 5-carbon (C(sub 5)) amino acids found in Cl-, CM-, and CR-type carbonaceous meteorites were investigated by using liquid chromatography fluorescence detection/TOF-MS coupled with o-phthaldialdehyde/Nacetyl- l-cysteine derivatization. A large L-enantiomeric excess (ee) of the a-methyl amino acid isovaline was found in the CM meteorite Murchison (L(sub ee) = 18.5 +/- 2.6%) and the Cl meteorite Orguell (L(sub ee) = 15.2 +/- 4.0%). The measured value for Murchison is the largest enantiomeric excess in any meteorite reported to date, and the Orgueil measurement of an isovaline excess has not been reported previously for this or any Cl meteorite. The L-isovaline enrichments in these two carbonaceous meteorites cannot be the result of interference from other C(sub 5) amino acid isomers present in the samples, analytical biases, or terrestrial amino acid contamination. We observed no L-isovaline enrichment for the most primitive unaltered Antarctic CR meteorites EET 92042 and QUE 99177. These results are inconsistent with UV circularly polarized light as the primary mechanism for L-isovaline enrichment and indicate that amplification of a small initial isovaline asymmetry in Murchison and Orgueil occurred during an extended aqueous alteration phase on the meteorite parent bodies. The large asymmetry in isovaline and other alpha-dialkyl amino acids found in altered Ct and CM meteorites suggests that amino acids delivered by asteroids, comets, and their fragments would have biased the Earth's prebiotic organic inventory with left-handed molecules before the origin of life.

  16. Implications of CI therapy for Visual Deficit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward eTaub

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We address here the question of whether the techniques of CI therapy, a family of treatments that has been employed in the rehabilitation of movement and language after brain damage might apply to the rehabilitation of such visual deficits as unilateral spatial neglect and visual field deficits. CI therapy has been used successfully for the upper and lower extremities after chronic stroke, cerebral palsy (CP, multiple sclerosis (MS, other CNS degenerative conditions, resection of motor areas of the brain, focal hand dystonia, and aphasia. Treatments making use of similar methods have proven efficacious for amblyopia.The CI therapy approach consists of four major components: intensive training, training by shaping, a transfer package to facilitate the transfer of gains from the treatment setting to everyday activities, and strong discouragement of compensatory strategies.CI therapy is said to be effective because it overcomes learned nonuse, a learned inhibition of movement that follows injury to the CNS. In addition, CI therapy produces substantial increases in the grey matter of motor areas on both sides of the brain. We propose here that these mechanisms are examples of more general processes: learned nonuse being considered parallel to sensory nonuse following damage to sensory areas of the brain, with both having in common diminished neural connections (DNC in the nervous system as an underlying mechanism. CI therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by strengthening the diminished neural connections. Use-dependent cortical reorganization is considered to be an example of the more general neuroplastic mechanism of brain structure repurposing (BSR. If the mechanisms involved in these broader categories are involved in each of the deficits being considered, then it may be the principles underlying efficacious treatment in each case may be similar. The lessons learned during CI therapy research might then prove useful for the treatment of

  17. Microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites: implications to the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-11-01

    Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) investigations have shown that a wide variety of carbonaceous meteorites contain the remains of large filaments embedded within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite rock matrix. The filaments occur singly or in dense assemblages and mats and are often encased within carbon-rich, electron transparent sheaths. Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spot analysis and 2D X-Ray maps indicate the filaments rarely have detectable nitrogen levels and exhibit elemental compositions consistent with that interpretation that of the meteorite rock matrix. Many of the meteorite filaments are exceptionally well-preserved and show evidence of cells, cell-wall constrictions and specialized cells and processes for reproduction, nitrogen fixation, attachment and motility. Morphological and morphometric analyses permit many of the filaments to be associated with morphotypes of known genera and species of known filamentous trichomic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria and sulfur bacteria). The presence in carbonaceous meteorites of diagenetic breakdown products of chlorophyll (pristane and phytane) along with indigenous and extraterrestrial chiral protein amino acids, nucleobases and other life-critical biomolecules provides strong support to the hypothesis that these filaments represent the remains of cyanobacteria and other microorganisms that grew on the meteorite parent body. The absence of other life-critical biomolecules in the meteorites and the lack of detectable levels of nitrogen indicate the filaments died long ago and can not possibly represent modern microbial contaminants that entered the stones after they arrived on Earth. This paper presents new evidence for microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites and considers the implications to some of the major hypotheses for the Origin of Life.

  18. Nitrile versus isonitrile adsorption at interstellar grain surfaces. II. Carbonaceous aromatic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, M.; Doronin, M.; Michaut, X.; Philippe, L.; Markovits, A.; Fillion, J.-H.; Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Almost 20% of the 200 different species detected in the interstellar and circumstellar media present a carbon atom linked to nitrogen by a triple bond. Of these 37 molecules, 30 are nitrile R-CN compounds, the remaining 7 belonging to the isonitrile R-NC family. How these species behave in their interactions with the grain surfaces is still an open question. Aims: In a previous work, we have investigated whether the difference between nitrile and isonitrile functional groups may induce differences in the adsorption energies of the related isomers at the surfaces of interstellar grains of various nature and morphologies. This study is a follow up of this work, where we focus on the adsorption on carbonaceous aromatic surfaces. Methods: The question is addressed by means of a concerted experimental and theoretical approach of the adsorption energies of CH3CN and CH3NC on the surface of graphite (with and without surface defects). The experimental determination of the molecule and surface interaction energies is carried out using temperature-programmed desorption in an ultra-high vacuum between 70 and 160 K. Theoretically, the question is addressed using first-principle periodic density functional theory to represent the organised solid support. Results: The adsorption energy of each compound is found to be very sensitive to the structural defects of the aromatic carbonaceous surface: these defects, expected to be present in a large numbers and great diversity on a realistic surface, significantly increase the average adsorption energies to more than 50% as compared to adsorption on perfect graphene planes. The most stable isomer (CH3CN) interacts more efficiently with the carbonaceous solid support than the higher energy isomer (CH3NC), however.

  19. Microwave-assisted and carbonaceous catalytic pyrolysis of crude glycerol from biodiesel waste for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Jo-Han; Leong, Swee Kim; Lam, Su Shiung; Ani, Farid Nasir; Chong, Cheng Tung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Crude glycerol is pyrolysed catalytically via microwave irradiation to produce bioenergy. • Carbonaceous catalyst elevates pyrolysis temperature and promotes selectivity towards H_2 production. • Synthesis gas consisting of mainly H_2 and CH_4 was predominantly produced at long residence time and high temperature. • Production of bio-oil consisting of oxygenated compounds peaks at intermediate carrier gas flow rate. • Energy profit analysis shows positive energy gained with increasing residence time and decreasing reaction temperature. - Abstract: Biodiesel proliferation as a sustainable fuel has led to a glut of crude glycerol as co-product. This scenario made a previously lucrative co-product in the food and pharmaceutical sectors into a bioresource waste. The present study investigates the utilisation of a microwave-assisted pyrolysis technique to convert crude glycerol from biodiesel waste into usable bioenergy source. Operating conditions ranged from a temperature of 300–800 °C at carrier gas flow rates of 100–2000 mL/min, with the effects of carbonaceous catalyst on the selectivity of reaction pathway being investigated. Within the aforementioned conditions, the proportion of products phases is mainly dependent on the residence time inside the quartz reactor, followed by the reaction temperature. This is due to the combined factors of the reaction sequence and provision of activation energy to change product phases. The third factor of carbonaceous catalyst shows a predisposition towards hydrogen gas selectivity, leading to a lower overall gaseous product mass when factoring in products from all phases. An analysis of the energy content revealed that overall energy profit increases with decreasing temperature and increasing residence time. This concurs with solid energy content increasing in the same conditions, while it increases for liquid and gaseous products with decreasing temperature and flow rate, respectively. The

  20. Carbon isotope analysis of carbonaceous compounds in Puget Sound and Lake Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A new method has been developed and tested for determining chronological profiles of organic pollutants. This method, Carbon Isotope Analysis (CIA), involves measurements of 12 C, 13 C and 14 C in carbonaceous compounds found in layers of sediment. Lipids, total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are separated from kg quantities of sediment. Large Soxhlet extractors are used to remove the extractable organics, using ultra-pure benzene-methanol solution and having an extraction efficiency of about 86% for compounds with boiling points higher than n-tetradecane (n-C 14 ). The basic steps in compound separation include freeze-drying, extraction, fractionation, column chromatography and evaporation. Isolating the TAH and PAH fractions is accomplished by eluting samples from Sephadex and alumina/silica-gel columns. The amount of each fraction recovered is determined by converting the hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and measuring this gas manometrically. Variations in 12 C and 13 C abundances for carbonaceous compounds are primarily due to thermodynamic, photosynthetic and metabolic fractionation processes. Thus, the source of a particular organic compound can often be determined by measuring its 13 C/ 12 C ratio. Combining the information from both the 13 C analysis and 14 C analysis makes source identification more certain. In addition, this investigation reviews carbon isotopic data and carbon cycling and analyzes organic pollution in two limited ecosystems (Puget Sound and Lake Washington). Specifically, distinct carbonaceous species are analyzed for pollution in sediments of Lake Washington, Elliott Bay, Commencement Bay, central Puget Sound and northern Puget Sound near the Cherry Point oil refineries

  1. Hírpiacok szimulációja

    OpenAIRE

    Németh, András

    2005-01-01

    Hírtőzsdén olyan, általában elektronikus piacot értünk, ahol különféle jövőbeli eseményekre lehet fogadni. Mint azt már több vizsgálat is megmutatta, ezek a játéktőzsdék alkalmasak arra, hogy a résztvevők rendelkezésére álló elszórt részinformációkat összegyűjtsék, egyetlen árfolyammá alakítsák (információaggregáció), és ezzel előre jelezzék az eseményeket. Jelen tanulmány célja e hírtőzsdék és szereplőinek modellezése, valamint az információaggregáció vizsgálata. Ennek érdekében felépítünk e...

  2. Source apportionment of carbonaceous particulate matter during haze days in Shanghai based on the radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannan Wei; Jialiang Feng; Detao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the sources of carbonaceous particulate matter, "1"4C and biomass-burning marker (levoglucosan) were measured in the form of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM_2_._5 that was collected in five different functional districts of Shanghai during winter 2013. Spatial variations of the contemporary proportion among different districts were evident. The results of levoglucosan in Xujiahui (XH) and Chongming (CM) agreed well with those of "1"4C. The results indicate that environmental protection policies should vary for functional districts within the same city to account for their different sources of emissions. (author)

  3. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, D.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Dumka, U.C., E-mail: dumka@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (India); Kaskaoutis, D.G. [School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Tehsil Dadri (India); Pipal, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M. [India Meteorology Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India)

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM{sub 2.5} samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM{sub 2.5} (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM{sub 2.5} (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m{sup −3} (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m{sup −3}) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m{sup −3}) than daytime (103.8 μg m{sup −3}) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO{sub 3}{sup −}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day{sup −1}) due to agricultural burning effects

  4. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, D.S.; Dumka, U.C.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Pipal, A.S.; Srivastava, A.K.; Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM 2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM 2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM 2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m −3 (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m −3 ) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m −3 ) than daytime (103.8 μg m −3 ) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO 3 − and SO 4 2− , which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R 2 = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day −1 ) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. - Highlights: • Very high PM 2.5 (> 200 µg m −3 ) levels

  5. Quenched carbonaceous composite - Fluorescence spectrum compared to the extended red emission observed in reflection nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Asano, Yoichi; Iijima, Yutaka; Onaka, Takashi; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    1992-01-01

    The photoluminescence (fluorescence) of a film of the laboratory-synthesized quenched carbonaceous composite (filmy QCC) is shown to have a single broad emission feature with a peak wavelength that varies from 670 to 725 nm, and coincides with that of the extended red emission observed in reflection nebulae. The rapid decay of the filmy QCC red fluorescence in air and of the stable blue fluorescence of the filmy QCC dissolved in liquid Freon suggests that the red fluorescence originates from the interaction of active chemical species and aromatic components in the filmy QCC. A material similar in nature to that of the filmy QCC may be a major component of interstellar dust.

  6. Enantiomer excesses of rare and common sugar derivatives in carbonaceous meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, George; Rios, Andro C.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of biological sugars and their derivatives contain higher abundances of the “d” mirror-image forms relative to the “l” forms. For example, nucleic acids are composed of only d sugars. Carbonaceous meteorites can potentially assist in understanding the long-sought origin of such phenomena; They preserve a record of the earliest (∼4.5 Gy) chemical processes in the Solar System. To date, there have been no systematic studies of d/l (i.e., enantiomer) ratios of meteoritic sugar deriv...

  7. CO2 Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, José M.; Dominguez, Pablo Haro; Arenillas, Ana; Cot, Jaume; Weber, Jens; Luque, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO2 adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO2 (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO2/85% N2, 273K, 1 bar) and capacities (>2 mmol·g−1 at 273 K). Both CO2 isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO2 which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes. PMID:28788352

  8. CO2 Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arenillas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO2 adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO2 (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO2/85% N2, 273K, 1 bar and capacities (>2 mmol·g−1 at 273 K. Both CO2 isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO2 which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes.

  9. CO₂ Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, José M; Dominguez, Pablo Haro; Arenillas, Ana; Cot, Jaume; Weber, Jens; Luque, Rafael

    2013-10-18

    Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO₂ adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO₂ (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO₂/85% N₂, 273K, 1 bar) and capacities (>2 mmol·g -1 at 273 K). Both CO₂ isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO₂ which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes.

  10. Geological Structure and Gold Mineralization of Carbonaceous Deposits of the Tyotechnaya Mountain (South Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Snachev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the geological structure of the northern part of the East-Urals Trough. Particular attention is paid to the Kosobrodskaya Formation, where the carbonaceous deposits are most abundant. It was found that the gold in the black shales of the Tyotechnaya Mountain is associated with the intensively dislocated, silicified and sulfidised rocks struck with the diorite porphyry of the Birgildin-Tomino Complex. Channel sampling on the number of wells showed the gold grades up to 1.5 g/t that allows suggesting the setting up of new gold deposit.

  11. Indigenous Carbonaceous Phases Embedded Within Surface Deposits on Apollo 17 Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. Prior studies of Apollo samples have shown the total amount of organic matter to be in the range of approx 50 to 250 ppm. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity but also its heterogeneous distribution. Several processes should have contributed to the lunar organic inventory including exogenous carbonaceous accretion from meteoroids and interplanetary dust particles, and endogenous synthesis driven by early planetary volcanism and cosmic and solar radiation.

  12. Studying properties of carbonaceous reducers and process of forming primary titanium slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When smelting a rich titanium slag the most suitable are low-ash reducers, and the studies revealed the suitability for this purpose of special coke and coal. An important property of a reducer is its specific resistance. Therefore there were carried out studies for measuring electric resistance of briquettes consisting of ilmenite concentrate and different carbonaceous reducers. It is recommended to jointly smelt the briquetted and powdered burden (the amount of the powdered burden varies form 20 tо 50 %, this leads to the increase of technical-economic indicators of the process.

  13. Density functional theory study the effects of oxygen-containing functional groups on oxygen molecules and oxygen atoms adsorbed on carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuejun; Song, Wenwu; Shi, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Density functional theory was used to study the effects of different types of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of oxygen molecules and single active oxygen atoms on carbonaceous materials. During gasification or combustion reactions of carbonaceous materials, oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl(-OH), carbonyl(-CO), quinone(-O), and carboxyl(-COOH) are often present on the edge of graphite and can affect graphite's chemical properties. When oxygen-containing functional groups appear on a graphite surface, the oxygen molecules are strongly adsorbed onto the surface to form a four-member ring structure. At the same time, the O-O bond is greatly weakened and easily broken. The adsorption energy value indicates that the adsorption of oxygen molecules changes from physisorption to chemisorption for oxygen-containing functional groups on the edge of a graphite surface. In addition, our results indicate that the adsorption energy depends on the type of oxygen-containing functional group. When a single active oxygen atom is adsorbed on the bridge site of graphite, it gives rise to a stable epoxy structure. Epoxy can cause deformation of the graphite lattice due to the transition of graphite from sp2 to sp3 after the addition of an oxygen atom. For quinone group on the edge of graphite, oxygen atoms react with carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. Similarly, the single active oxygen atoms of carbonyl groups can interact with edge carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. The results show that oxygen-containing functional groups on graphite surfaces enhance the activity of graphite, which promotes adsorption on the graphite surface.

  14. A ideia de ciência em Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Chaves Feijó

    2015-12-01

    ideias: a economia política clássica e o legado alemão. Em seguida, investiga-se o que seria a sua concepção particular de ciência, entendida como uma proposta de fundir esses dois legados. Avalia-se, em seguida, o caráter científico da contribuição marxiana, entendida como o fazer de uma ciência que se propõe positiva. Destarte, iremos examinar as razões que separam a tradição marxiana e o mainstream da economia atual, mostrando que a natureza peculiar de uma ciência de raízes alemãs gera dificuldades na comunicação entre uma e outra.

  15. Using the Web for Competitive Intelligence (CI) Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George

    2002-01-01

    Businesses use the Internet as a way to communicate company information as a way of engaging their customers. As the use of the Web for business transactions and advertising grows, so too, does the amount of useful information for practitioners of competitive intelligence (CI). CI is the legal and ethical practice of information gathering about competitors and the marketplace. Information sources like company webpages, online newspapers and news organizations, electronic journal articles and reports, and Internet search engines allow CI practitioners analyze company strengths and weaknesses for their customers. More company and marketplace information than ever is available on the Internet and a lot of it is free. Companies should view the Web not only as a business tool but also as a source of competitive intelligence. In a highly competitive marketplace can any organization afford to ignore information about the other players and customers in that same marketplace?

  16. Cinema, ciência e percepção.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barreto

    Full Text Available Resumo O cinema invoca a questão dos limites da percepção humana, pois modula o tempo em imagens tão reais quanto artificiais, revelando algo mais próximo de uma nova dimensão da realidade do que de sua representação. No início do século XX, a ciência modifica o real percebido através das lentes dos microscópios e das teorias da física moderna; o parentesco entre cinema e ciência está principalmente naquilo que excede o campo perceptivo e é explorado neste artigo para mostrar como a tensão entre o caráter estático da fotografia e a fluidez fugitiva do tempo revela a ciência sem seus estereótipos habituais.

  17. Evaluation of the Clinical Data Dictionary (CiDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Min, Yul Ha; Kim, Younglan; Min, Hyo Ki; Ham, Sung Woo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to evaluate content coverage and data quality of the Clinical Data Dictionary (CiDD) developed by the Center for Interoperable EHR (CiEHR). Methods A total of 12,994 terms were collected from 98 clinical forms of a tertiary cancer center hospital with 500 beds. After data cleaning, 9,418 terms were mapped with the data items of the CiDD by the research team, and validated by 30 doctors and nurses at the research hospital. Results Mapping results were classified into five categories: lexically mapped; semantically mapped; mapped to either a broader term or a narrower term; mapped to more than one term and not mapped. In terms of coverage, out of 9,418 terms, 6,750 (71.7%) terms were mapped; 4,319 (45.9%) terms were lexically mapped; 2,431 (25.8%) were semantically mapped; 281 (3.0%) terms were mapped to a broader term; 43 (0.5%) were mapped to a narrower term; and 550 (5.8%) were mapped to more than one term. In terms of data quality, the CiDD has problems such as errors in concept namingand representation, redundancy in synonyms, inadequate synonyms, and ambiguity in meaning. Conclusions Although the CiDD has terms covering 72% of local clinical terms, the CiDD can be improved by cleaning up errors and redundancies, adding textual definitions or use cases of the concept, and arranging the concepts in a hierarchy. PMID:21818428

  18. Nauczanie sprawności komunikacyjnych w grupach ekonomicznych

    OpenAIRE

    Wielkiewicz-Jałmużna, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Celem nauczania języka polskiego w grupach ekonomicznych jest przede wszystkim rozwijanie kompetencji uczących się. Kluczowe znaczenie mają umiejętności receptywne czyli rozumienie ze słuchu i czytanie. Istotne znaczenie ma również nauczanie sprawności produktywnych to jest mówienia i pisania. Kolejnymi sprawnościami językowymi, które uczniowie zdobywają pod nadzorem nauczyciela są: umiejętność interakcji i mediacji.

  19. Ciência e Direitos Humanos: direitos culturais e maternidade

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Allice Ferreira; Gomes, Ana Lucia de Abreu

    2018-01-01

    O objetivo desse artigo é analisar a ligação entre ciência e cultura bem como seu impacto entre as mulheres, especialmente durante a maternidade, destacando a recente conquista dos espaços públicos. Foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico sobre o tema dos Direitos Humanos das Mulheres e a visão sobre as mulheres na Ciência. Posteriormente é apresentada pesquisa sobre legislações e normativas disponíveis nos portais virtuais do Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional, com desta...

  20. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  1. Ceux-ci ne sont pas : [luuletused] / Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusa, Kalju, pseud., 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Ceux-ci ne sont pas ; Köögivahet ; "Taara..." ; "Pakane pistab pisikesi ..." ; "Meri on kaet mattklaasiga ; Pydemise päivil ; "Toas muusika mängib ..." ; "Jäin juustu imetlema ; "Mu elu on mustikas ..." ; Hingepidetus ; ŁNo me gusta la cocina

  2. Por uma ciência do riso e da sabedoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Corrêa Henning

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O artigo busca problematizar a história das ciências, especialmente o ethos da Modernidade e Pós-modernidade. Para isso, utiliza autores que se anteciparam à Pós-modernidade como Friedrich Nietzsche e Michel Foucault. Na esteira dessa discussão busca uma problematização acerca da Ciência nos rastros da Modernidade e algumas fissuras e fragilidades produzidas na ciência num cenário contemporâneo. Apresenta ainda alguns discursos midiáticos acerca de propagandas televisivas que trazem o discurso científico como legítimo e inabalável. Traz para o campo de discussão uma ciência alegre, como aprendemos com Nietzsche ou prosaica por vezes, anunciando o riso e a sabedoria na produção do conhecimento científico.

     

  3. Calculation of particle dynamics in CI-10 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, E.V.; Karamysheva, G.A.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    The calculations of beam dynamic characteristics of High-Intensity Cyclotron-Injector CI-10 for deuteron beam of 15 MeV energy are presented. Analytical estimations of space charge effects are given. In order to increase the intensity of the accelerator beam some ideas about the cyclotron design modification are given too. (author)

  4. Uwarunkowania skuteczności działania inkubatorów przedsiębiorczości

    OpenAIRE

    Świeszczak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Skłonność społeczeństwa do prowadzenia własnej działalności gospodarczej odgrywa istotną rolę w rozwoju krajowych gospodarek. Biorąc pod uwagę charakterystykę jednostek należących do sektora MSP, ich potrzeby oraz bariery, niekiedy uniemożliwiające egzystencję na rynku, warto zwrócić uwagę na konieczność kreowania narzędzi wspomagających przedsiębiorczość. Spośród licznych instrumentów wsparcia jednostek z sektora MSP na szczególną uwagę zasługują inkubatory przedsiębiorczości , których dział...

  5. Implementing a new EPR lineshape parameter for organic radicals in carbonaceous matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbin, Mathilde; Du, Yann Le; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier

    2013-07-17

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a non-destructive, non-invasive technique useful for the characterization of organic moieties in primitive carbonaceous matter related to the origin of life. The classical EPR parameters are the peak-to-peak amplitude, the linewidth and the g factor; however, such parameters turn out not to suffice to fully determine a single EPR line. In this paper, we give the definition and practical implementation of a new EPR parameter based on the signal shape that we call the R10 factor. This parameter was originally defined in the case of a single symmetric EPR line and used as a new datation method for organic matter in the field of exobiology. Combined to classical EPR parameters, the proposed shape parameter provides a full description of an EPR spectrum and opens the way to novel applications like datation. Such a parameter is a powerful tool for future EPR studies, not only of carbonaceous matter, but also of any substance which spectrum exhibits a single symmetric line. The paper is a literate program-written using Noweb within the Org-mode as provided by the Emacs editor- and it also describes the full data analysis pipeline that computes the R10 on a real EPR spectrum.

  6. Atmospheric pressure MALDI for the noninvasive characterization of carbonaceous ink from Renaissance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Marzia; Rapisarda, Alessandro; D'Agata, Roberta; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The analytical methods that are usually applied to determine the compositions of inks from ancient manuscripts usually focus on inorganic components, as in the case of iron gall ink. In this work, we describe the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of the organic carbonaceous components of inks used in handwritten parts of ancient books for the first time. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (L-PAH) were identified in situ in the ink of XVII century handwritten documents. We prove that it is possible to apply MALDI-MS as a suitable microdestructive diagnostic tool for analyzing samples in air at atmospheric pressure, thus simplifying investigations of the organic components of artistic and archaeological objects. The interpretation of the experimental MS results was supported by independent Raman spectroscopic investigations. Graphical abstract Atmospheric pressure/MALDI mass spectrometry detects in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the carbonaceous ink of XVII century manuscripts.

  7. Enantiomer excesses of rare and common sugar derivatives in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Rios, Andro C.

    2016-06-01

    Biological polymers such as nucleic acids and proteins are constructed of only one—the d or l—of the two possible nonsuperimposable mirror images (enantiomers) of selected organic compounds. However, before the advent of life, it is generally assumed that chemical reactions produced 50:50 (racemic) mixtures of enantiomers, as evidenced by common abiotic laboratory syntheses. Carbonaceous meteorites contain clues to prebiotic chemistry because they preserve a record of some of the Solar System’s earliest (˜4.5 Gy) chemical and physical processes. In multiple carbonaceous meteorites, we show that both rare and common sugar monoacids (aldonic acids) contain significant excesses of the d enantiomer, whereas other (comparable) sugar acids and sugar alcohols are racemic. Although the proposed origins of such excesses are still tentative, the findings imply that meteoritic compounds and/or the processes that operated on meteoritic precursors may have played an ancient role in the enantiomer composition of life’s carbohydrate-related biopolymers.

  8. [Study on pollution characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in Xi'an City during the spring festival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bian-Hong; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Wang, Ge-Hui

    2013-02-01

    The samples of PM2.5 with 8 times periods were collected using Automated Cartridge Collection Unit (ACCU) of Rupprecht& Patashnick (R&P)Corporation, and monitored by R&P1400a instrument of TEOM series online during 2011 Spring Festival in Xi'an city. The organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) contents of 3 h integrated PM2.5 were analyzed to evaluate the influence of firework display on the carbonaceous components in urban air. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was found increased significantly from 00:00 A. M. to 02:59 A. M. at the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve than the non-firework periods, reaching 1514.8 microg.m-3 at 01:00 A. M. The mass concentrations of OC, EC, WSOC, and WIOC during the same time period were 123.3 microg.m-3, 18.6 microg.m-3, 66.7 microg.m-3, and 56.6 microg.m-3, about 1.7, 1.2, 1.4, and 2.2 times higher than the average in normal days, respectively. Correlation analysis among WSOC, OC, and EC contents in PM25 showed that firework emission was an obvious source of carbonaceous aerosol in the Spring Festival vacation. However, it only contributes to 9. 4% for aerosol in fireworks emission.

  9. PROTO-PLANETARY DISK CHEMISTRY RECORDED BY D-RICH ORGANIC RADICALS IN CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, Francois; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ∼4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that organic radicals hold all the deuterium excess (relative to the bulk IOM) in distinct, micrometer-sized, D-rich hotspots. Taken together with previous work, the results indicate that an isotopic exchange reaction took place between pre-existing organic compounds characterized by low D/H ratios and D-rich gaseous molecules, such as H 2 D + or HD 2 + . This exchange reaction most likely took place in the diffuse outer regions of the proto-planetary disk around the young Sun, offering a model that reconciles meteoritic and cometary isotopic compositions of organic molecules.

  10. The molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter isolated from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F.; Derenne, S.

    2009-04-01

    During these last 10 years, our group has characterized the various molecular moieties of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from carbonaceous meteorites with the aim of reconstructing its overall molecular structure. Indeed, a precise knowledge of the structure of an organic macromolecule contains irreplaceable information that traces its mechanisms of synthesis and its conditions of formation. Such a modelled structure will be presented. Carbonaceous chondrites contain up to 3 wt % of carbon that is under the form of soluble and insoluble fractions. The IOM, which constitutes more than 75 wt% of the bulk organic matter, was isolated from the bulk rock through successive acid dissolutions. The chemical structure of the isolated IOM has been studied by both (1) destructive and (2) non destructive methods. Methods include thermal and chemical degradations followed by GC/MS, spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy; X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance) along with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Although each technique alone cannot provide definite information on the chemical structure of such a complex material, the combination of the results can be used to reconstruct the molecular structure of the IOM. The proposed structure accounts for all these measured parameters. The details of this structure reveal information of the conditions of its formation in space and allow to discuss the mechanisms of organo-synthesis in the cosmochemical context of the formation of the solar system.

  11. Proto-Planetary Disk Chemistry Recorded by D-Rich Organic Radicals in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-06-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ~4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that organic radicals hold all the deuterium excess (relative to the bulk IOM) in distinct, micrometer-sized, D-rich hotspots. Taken together with previous work, the results indicate that an isotopic exchange reaction took place between pre-existing organic compounds characterized by low D/H ratios and D-rich gaseous molecules, such as H2D+ or HD2 +. This exchange reaction most likely took place in the diffuse outer regions of the proto-planetary disk around the young Sun, offering a model that reconciles meteoritic and cometary isotopic compositions of organic molecules.

  12. The chemical structure of the insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, S.; Robert, F.

    2008-09-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive objects of the solar system. They contain substantial amounts of carbon (up to 3%), mostly occurring in macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM). This IOM is generally considered as a record of interstellar synthesis and may contain precursors of prebiotic molecules possibly deposited on earth by meteoritic bombardments. For these reasons, chondritic IOM has been raising interest for long and it is therefore of special interest to decipher its chemical structure. It is now well established that the chemical structure of this macromolecular material is based on aromatic moieties linked by short aliphatic chains and comprising substantial amounts of heteroatoms. However, its precise chemical structure could only be recently specified. The aim of this presentation is to propose a molecular model for the chemical structure of IOM isolated from non-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites. This model is derived from a large set of data obtained through a combination of techniques including various spectrocopies, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and chemical and thermal degradations. Cosmochemical implications of such a structure will also be discussed.

  13. Inner Surface Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Carbonaceous Tubular Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Baozong; Guo, Yongmin; Li, Yi; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-11-01

    Single-handed twisted 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons were prepared by tuning the water/ethanol volume ratio in the reaction mixture at pH = 11.6 through a supramolecular templating approach. The single-layered nanoribbons were formed by shrinking tubular nanoribbons after the removal of the templates. In addition, solvent-induced handedness inversion was achieved. The handedness of the polybissilsesquioxanes could be controlled by changing the ethanol/water volume ratio in the reaction mixture. After carbonization at 900 °C for 4.0 h and removal of silica, single-handed twisted carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons with micropores in the walls were obtained. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the carbon is predominantly amorphous. The circular dichroism spectra show that the twisted tubular nanoribbons exhibit optical activity, while the twisted single-layered nanoribbons do not. The results shown here indicate that chirality is transferred from the organic self-assemblies to the inner surfaces of the 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and subsequently to those of the carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Role of air bubbles overlooked in the adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate on hydrophobic carbonaceous adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pingping; Deng, Shubo; Lu, Xinyu; Du, Ziwen; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-12-02

    Hydrophobic interaction has been considered to be responsible for adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) on the surface of hydrophobic adsorbents, but the long C-F chain in PFOS is not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic. In this study, for the first time we propose that air bubbles on the surface of hydrophobic carbonaceous adsorbents play an important role in the adsorption of PFOS. The level of adsorption of PFOS on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphite (GI), graphene (GE), and powdered activated carbon (PAC) decreases after vacuum degassing. Vacuum degassing time and pressure significantly affect the removal of PFOS by these adsorbents. After vacuum degassing at 0.01 atm for 36 h, the extent of removal of PFOS by the pristine CNTs and GI decreases 79% and 74%, respectively, indicating the main contribution of air bubbles to PFOS adsorption. When the degassed solution is recontacted with air during the adsorption process, the removal of PFOS recovers to the value obtained without vacuum degassing, further verifying the key role of air bubbles in PFOS adsorption. By theoretical calculation, the distribution of PFOS in air bubbles on the adsorbent surfaces is discussed, and a new schematic sorption model of PFOS on carbonaceous adsorbents in the presence of air bubbles is proposed. The accumulation of PFOS at the interface of air bubbles on the adsorbents is primarily responsible for its adsorption, providing a new mechanistic insight into the transport, fate, and removal of PFOS.

  15. The carbonaceous sorbent based on the secondary silica-containing material from oil extraction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, I. V.; Stolyarov, D. V.; Anichina, Ya N.; Porozhnyuk, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The object of research in this work is the silica-containing waste of oil extraction industry - the waste kieselghur (diatomite) sludge from precoat filtering units, used for the purification of vegetable oils from organic impurities. As a result of the thermal modification of the sludge, which contains up to 70% of organic impurities, a finely-dispersed low-porous carbonaceous mineral sorption material is formed. The modification of the sludge particles surface causes the substantial alteration of its physical, chemical, adsorption and structural properties - the organic matter is charred, the particle size is reduced, and on the surface of diatomite particles a carbon layer is formed, which deposits in macropores and partially occludes them. The amount of mesopores is increased, along with the specific surface of the obtained product. The optimal temperature of sludge modification is 500°C. The synthesized carbonaceous material can be used as an adsorbing agent for the purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions. The sorption capacity of Cu2+ ions amounted to 14.2 mg·g-1 and for Ni2+ ions - 17.0 mg·g-1. The obtained values exceed the sorption capacity values of the initial kieselghur, used as a filtering charge, for the researched metal ions.

  16. Source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particulate matter based on the radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang-hua Wang; You-shi Zeng; Jian Yao; Yuan Qian; Ke Liu; Wei Liu; Yan Li; Yu Huang; University of South China, Hunan

    2013-01-01

    A method was established to quantitatively estimate sources of atmospheric carbonaceous matter, using a combination of radiocarbon technology, linear regression of organic carbon (OC) -K + and elemental carbon (EC) tracer method. Fractional contributions of fossil fuels, biomass burning, biogenic secondary organic carbon (BSOC) and soil dust to the atmospheric size-resolved carbonaceous matters in Shanghai suburb were estimated using this new method. The fossil carbon contributed most of the OC in particles smaller than 0.49 μm, and its fraction decreased with the increase of particle size. Biomass burning contributed 17-28 % to the OC. The BSOC contributed comparable proportions to the OC in particles smaller than 3.0 μm with the biomass burning, but larger in the particles lager than 3.0 μm. The soil dust contributed least fraction to the OC of each size with a proportion of 2-13 %. The biomass burning and fossil sources shared comparable fraction of the EC in all size range. (author)

  17. BIOGRAMY POLSKICH MYŚLICIELI RACHUNKOWOŚCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Biadacz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmenty artykułu: Włodzimierz Brzezin (1926–2008, profesor zwyczajny, doktor habilitowany, urodził się 1 lipca 1926 r. w Wieluniu, zmarł 29 grudnia 2008 r. w Częstochowie. (... Bilans działalności i osiągnięć Profesora Brzezina jest bardzo bogaty i trudno go przedstawić w skrócie. Należy jednak zaznaczyć, że jedną z cech charakteryzujących całokształt Jego zainteresowań naukowych jest szeroki krąg tematyczny. Obejmuje zagadnienia teoretyczne i praktyczne rachunkowości, zarówno sensu stricte, jak i sensu largo, jak również problematykę teorii pomiaru, analizy finansowej, controllingu, polityki bilansowej, wykorzystania rachunku kosztów przez kadrę inżynierską. Zdzisław Kołaczyk (1927–2008 docent doktor, urodził się 15 czerwca 1927 r. w Częstochowie, zmarł 9 lipca 2008 r. w Poznaniu. (... Działalność naukowa doc. dr Z. Kołaczyka skupiała się głównie na rachunkowości finansowej. Początkowo Jego zainteresowania naukowe koncentrowały się na rachunku kosztów przedsiębiorstw przemysłowych i budowlanych. Z tego zakresu opublikował kilka interesujących artykułów naukowych, zamieszczonych w Ruchu Prawniczym, Ekonomicznym i Socjologicznym oraz w Zeszytach Naukowych WSE w Poznaniu. W kolejnych latach doc. dra Z. Kołaczyka interesował rozwój rachunkowości jako nauki i działalności praktycznej

  18. Kontrowersje w leczeniu dietetycznym otyłości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Otyłość jest zjawiskiem coraz częściej występującym na świecie. Szacuje się, że ponad połowę dorosłej populacji krajów uprzemysłowionych dotknęła nadwaga, a odsetek otyłości w niektórych krajach (USA, Wielka Brytania wzrasta do 30%. Ta niepokojąca tendencja obserwowana jest również w populacji dzieci i młodzieży. Epidemia otyłości rozpoczęła się w latach 80. i trwa nieprzerwanie do chwili obecnej, stając się poważnym problemem społeczno-medycznym współczesnego świata. Przyczyny tego zjawiska są złożone i wynikają z uwarunkowań biologicznych i środowiskowych, w szczególności z niedostatecznej codziennej aktywności fizycznej oraz złych nawyków żywieniowych. Do tej pory nie udało się wypracować w pełni efektywnej strategii leczenia otyłości. Promocja zdrowego stylu życia oraz właściwych nawyków żywieniowych adresowana do całej populacji stanowi podstawę prewencji i leczenia otyłości. Powszechnie stosowane różnego rodzaju diety odchudzające zawierają często sprzeczne zalecenia. Istniejące kontrowersje utrudniają wybór skutecznej diety w celu redukcji masy ciała, a ich mnogość i różnorodność wprowadzają swoisty chaos informacyjny. Efekty wielu diet są krótkotrwałe i obarczone efektem jo-jo. W wielu przypadkach brak jest jakichkolwiek przesłanek naukowych uzasadniających dane postępowanie dietetyczne. Właśnie dlatego wciąż istnieje potrzeba prowadzenia dalszych badań naukowych umożliwiających w sposób obiektywny ocenę skuteczności dietetycznych metod leczenia otyłości. W niniejszej pracy autorzy przedstawiają spotykane w praktyce różne dietetyczne podejścia do problemu otyłości, wskazując na ich efektywność i naukowe uzasadnienie.

  19. Transseksualizm – pytania i wątpliwości

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wiek dojrzewania jest czasem określania własnej tożsamości, odkrywania pragnień, dążeń, również w sferze sek‑ sualności. Poszukiwanie siebie, własnej orientacji seksualnej, znajdowanie pierwszych obiektów pożądania jest dla adolescenta nowym, ważnym przeżyciem, wyzwalającym silne emocje. Czasami jednak młody człowiek staje wo‑ bec dużych trudności, bowiem to, co odkrywa w sobie, nie znajduje umocowania w społecznych normach, nie jest akceptowane przez rodzinę i otoczenie, a w związku z tym dla samego adolescenta staje się ciężarem trudnym do uniesienia. Konsekwencją nieradzenia sobie z własną seksualnością, jej odbiorem rodzinnym lub społecznym mogą być zaburzenia depresyjne, lękowe, zaburzenia odżywiania oraz różnorodne formy autoagresji. W obliczu wysokie‑ go ryzyka występowania zaburzeń psychicznych u osób w wieku rozwojowym, u których seksualność kształtuje się w sposób odmienny, należy rozważać szerokie spektrum czynników mogących determinować takie, a nie inne oblicze seksualności. Intencją autorów pracy było przedstawienie, w oparciu o przypadek kliniczny, historii człowieka odkry‑ wającego swoją tożsamość płciową, biorąc pod uwagę zarówno osobnicze uwarunkowania, przebyte zdarzenia trau‑ matyczne, jak i kontekst rodzinny pacjenta oraz konsekwencje procesu coming out. Autorzy starali się zwrócić uwagę na złożoność i wielostopniowość procesu ujawniania się, który stał się możliwy dopiero po zapewnieniu adolescen‑ towi zrozumienia, wsparcia i akceptacji. Tym samym ukazano kluczową rolę środowiska, które może sprzyjać pro‑ cesowi odkrywania się i umożliwić go lub przeciwnie – utrudnić czy też całkowicie go zablokować. Transseksualizm w różnych środowiskach budzi sporo kontrowersji, pytań i wątpliwości. Historia hospitalizowanego pacjenta obrazu‑ je złożoność problemów, z którymi zmagają się osoby z zaburzeniami tożsamości

  20. Source contributions to carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and their uncertainty analysis at typical urban, peri-urban and background sites in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Chen, Xiaoqiu; He, Chi; Lin, Lifeng; Yin, Liqian; Xu, Lingling

    2013-01-01

    Determination of 14 C and levoglucosan can provide insights into the quantification of source contributions to carbonaceous aerosols, yet there is still uncertainty on the partitioning of organic carbon (OC) into biomass burning OC (OC bb ) and biogenic emission OC (OC bio ). Carbonaceous species, levoglucosan and 14 C in PM 2.5 were measured at three types of site in southeast China combined with Latin hypercube sampling, with the objectives to study source contributions to total carbon (TC) and their uncertainties, and to evaluate the influence of levoglucosan/OC bb ratios on OC bb and OC bio partitioning. It was found reliably that fossil fuel combustion is the main contributor (62.90–72.23%) to TC at urban and peri-urban sites. Biogenic emissions have important contribution (winter, 52.98%; summer, 45.71%) to TC at background site. With the increase in levoglucosan/OC bb ratios, the contribution of OC bio is increased while OC bb is decreased in a pattern of approximate natural logarithm at a given range. -- Highlights: •Source contributions to OC and EC were quantified by levoglucosan and 14 C. •Fossil fuel combustion is the main contributor to TC for urban and peri-urban sites. •Biogenic emissions have important contribution to TC for the background site. •Biomass burning is a minor contributor to TC and has high contribution in winter. •Ratios of OC bio and OC bb to TC have a natural logarithmic relation with lev/OC bb . -- The contributions of OC bio and OC bb to TC have a natural logarithmic relationship with the levoglucosan/OC bb ratios

  1. [Estimation of carbonaceous gases emission from forest fires in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China in 1953-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Luo, Bi-Zhen; Wei, Shu-Jing; Sun, Long; Wei, Shu-Wei; Wen, Zheng-Min

    2013-11-01

    Based on the forest resources investigation data and the forest fire inventory in 1953-2011, in combining with our field research in burned areas and our laboratory experiments, this paper estimated the carbonaceous gases carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emission from the forest fires in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China in 1953-2011. The total carbon emission from the forest fires in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains in 1953-2011 was 1.12 x 10(7) t, and the annual emission was averagely 1.90 x10(5) t, accounting for 1.7% of the annual average total carbon emission from the forest fires in China. The emission of CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC was 3.39 x 10(7), 1.94 x 10(5), 1.09 x 10(5), and 7.46 x 10(4) t, respectively, and the corresponding annual average emission was 5.74 x 10(5), 3.29 x 10(4), 1.85 x 10(3), and 1.27 x 10(3) t, accounting for 1.4%, 1.2%, 1.7%, and 1.1% of the annual carbonaceous gases emitted from the forest fires in China, respectively. The combustion efficiency and the carbon emission per unit burned area of different forest types decreased in order of coniferous forest > broad-leaved forest > coniferous broadleaved mixed forest. Some rational forest fire management measures were put forward.

  2. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment...

  3. On the identification of carbonaceous aerosols via 14C accelerator mass spectrometry, and laser microprobe mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.; Fletcher, R.A.; Klouda, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon isotopic measurements ( 12 C, 14 C), derived from chemical measurements of total carbon plus AMS measurements of 14 C/ 12 C have become an accepted means for estimating fossil and contemporary carbon source contributions to atmospheric carbon. Because of the limited sensitivity of these techniques, however, such measurements are restricted to 'bulk' samples comprising at least 10-100 μg of carbon. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) offers an important complementary opportunity to investigate the chemical nature of individual particles as small as 0.1 μm in diameter. Although there is little hope to measure 14 C/ 12 C in such small samples, the compositional and structural information available with the laser microprobe is of interest for possible source discrimination. Also, the analysis of individual particles, which may reflect individual sources, yields significant potential increases in spatial, temporal and source resolution, in comparison to bulk sample analysis. Results of our exploratory investigation of known sources of carbonaceous particles, using LMMS, are presented. By applying multivariate techniques to laser mass spectra of soot from the combustion of heptane and wood, we found striking differences in the alkali metals (notably potassium) in the positive ion mass spectra. For ambient particles, 14 C has proved to be a crucial adjunct for the development and validation of the LMMS approach to single particle source assignment via carbon cluster pattern recognition. The combined techniques offer great promise for objective modeling (number and types of carbon sources) and for extension of the dichotomous carbon apportionment (fossil, contemporary) to subclasses such as soot from wood and agricultural burning, and that from coal and petroleum combustion. (orig.)

  4. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peláez-Cid, A A; Tlalpa-Galán, M A; Herrera-González, A M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C; CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C; lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H 3 PO 4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  6. Notas sobre o autotelismo discursivo em ciências humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Lopes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O Ateliê de Semiótica Discursiva, coordenado por Denis Bertrand, propôs focalizar, no ano letivo 1991-1992, a " Estética do Discurso Erudito", no quadro da temática "Estética da Ética" do Seminário de Semântica Geral, de A.J . Greimas, na Escola de Altos Estudos em Ciências Sociais de Paris (E. H. E. S. S.. Bertrand distribuiu cópias de trechos de textos célebres em ciências humanas (Lévi-Strauss, Deleuze e Guattari, Greimas, Barthes, Foucault e outros, sobre os quais os participantes deveriam realizar análises que tomassem como modelo, por exemplo, aquelas praticadas por Greimas e Landowski em lntroduction à L 'Analyse du Discours en Sciences Sociales ( 1979.

  7. Preparation of 1 Ci of europium 155 without carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, N.; Radicella, R.

    1968-01-01

    High activity 'point' sources of 155 Eu are used for medical and industrial applications. For this purpose we have studied a method of obtaining I Ci of carrier free 155 Eu, with a solid residue smaller than 5 mg per Ci. In order to separate the 155 Eu from several grams of a 154 Sm enriched target we propose a procedure which is based on the work of Bouissieres and David, Onstott, and Takekoshi et al. The separation is carried out by electrolysis on a mercury cathode followed by purification on ion exchange resin. The yields of the europium separation and target recovery are 80 per cent and 90 per cent respectively. The time required for the procedure is three days. (authors) [fr

  8. Earth-approaching asteroids: Populations, origin, and compositional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    Origin, physical properties, and discovery history of smaller asteroids are reviewed. They appear to link the main belt objects, namely the comets and meteorites. Physical observations suggest that a wide variety of compositional types are represented among the near-earth asteroids; the apparent rarity of carbonaceous objects is stated.

  9. O Jornal Nacional e a Ciência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andres Salcedo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Entendendo a informação científica como aquela capaz de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma cultura científica, analisamos neste trabalho aspectos relacionados à presença da informação sobre ciência no Jornal Nacional (JN, da Rede Globo de Televisão. A partir da observação do noticiário veiculado de 1º de janeiro a 31 de março de 2007, foi possível identificar 88 matérias que traziam informações relacionadas à ciência. O corpus nos permitiu categorizar os tipos de inserção da ciência no JN, esboçar o interesse do JN pelos temas científicos e discutir seu papel na formação de uma cultura científica do povo brasileiro.

  10. Skinner: sobre ciência e comportamento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Augusto Silva Sampaio

    Full Text Available Atualmente, não se pode pensar no estudo do comportamento humano sem considerar a abordagem científica a este objeto: o campo da Psicologia científica. Esse campo é disputado por diversos enfoques teóricos que divergem quanto ao modo como definem ciência e comportamento humano. A abordagem de B. F. Skinner foi bastante proeminente no século XX, mas ainda continua a ser mal-entendida. Partindo do desenvolvimento histórico de sua obra, o presente texto visa a iluminar alguns aspectos relacionados às noções de ciência e comportamento humano desse autor e ressaltar as transformações por que passaram. Analisam-se três tópicos da obra de Skinner: seu período inicial (de 1930 a cerca de 1938, a obra "Ciência e Comportamento Humano" de 1953, e as influências da Biologia. São enfatizados aspectos relevantes da sua teorização sobre o tema: busca por relações funcionais, ênfase nos dados empíricos, operacionismo, externalismo, multideterminação do comportamento, experimentalismo, previsão e controle, ética.

  11. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-01-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  12. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-11-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  13. Source apportionment of the summer time carbonaceous aerosol at Nordic rural background sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp and elemental carbon (EC have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm collected at four Nordic rural background sites [Birkenes (Norway, Hyytiälä (Finland, Vavihill (Sweden, Lille Valby, (Denmark] during late summer (5 August–2 September 2009. Levels of source specific tracers, i.e. cellulose, levoglucosan, mannitol and the 14C/12C ratio of total carbon (TC, have been used as input for source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol, whereas Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS was used to statistically treat the multitude of possible combinations resulting from this approach. The carbonaceous aerosol (here: TCp; i.e. particulate TC was totally dominated by natural sources (69–86%, with biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA being the single most important source (48–57%. Interestingly, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP were the second most important source (20–32%. The anthropogenic contribution was mainly attributed to fossil fuel sources (OCff and ECff (10–24%, whereas no more than 3–7% was explained by combustion of biomass (OCbb and ECbb in this late summer campaign i.e. emissions from residential wood burning and/or wild/agricultural fires. Fossil fuel sources totally dominated the ambient EC loading, which accounted for 4–12% of TCp, whereas <1.5% of EC was attributed to combustion of biomass. The carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment showed only minor variation between the four selected sites. However, Hyytiälä and Birkenes showed greater resemblance to each other, as did Lille Valby and Vavihill, the two latter being somewhat more influenced by anthropogenic sources. Ambient levels of organosulphates and nitrooxy-organosulphates in the Nordic rural

  14. Carbonaceous particle record in lake sediments from the Arctic and other remote areas of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    Lake sediments, including spheroidal carbonaceous particles produced by high temperature combustion of fossil fuels, contain a record of lake, catchment and atmospheric deposition history. The spatial and temporal distributions of these particles can indicate the extent to which a single lake or a region has been contaminated by airborne pollutants (e.g. sulfur, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) derived from fossil fuels. The carbonaceous particle records of two Arctic lakes, Shuonijavr and Stepanovichjarvi, close to local pollution sources on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, are compared with the record of a remote lake on Svalbard and with mid-latitude remote mountain lakes in Europe and Asia. Although, Shuonijavr and Stepanovichjarvi show relatively high levels of contamination, as expected, the presence of carbonaceous particles at all of the remote sites studied suggests there is a hemispherical background of these particles. Other less remote mountain lakes in Europe have been found to contain significant concentrations of particles and these may represent regional deposition patterns. Carbonaceous particle analysis may provide an effective assessment of whether a lake site is receiving local, regional or background levels of deposition

  15. The carbonaceous matter in the uraniferous dequartzified and albitized leucogranite of Saraya (Senegal): an example of superimposed hydrothermal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthier, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two superimposed early hydrothermal alterations have been recognized in the Proterozoic Saraya leucogranite. Successively are described a major dequartzification leading to an episyenite infilled with carbonaceous matter and sulfate during an interruption of the system, succeeded by a mobilization of U and other elements during an albitization. A dolomite filling up followed by a silicopotassic feed-back alteration, close down the system [fr

  16. Sources of increase in lowermost stratospheric sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999–2008 derived from CARIBIC flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Friberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on sulphurous and carbonaceous aerosol, the major constituents of particulate matter in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, based on in situ measurements from 1999 to 2008. Aerosol particles in the size range of 0.08–2 µm were collected monthly during intercontinental flights with the CARIBIC passenger aircraft, presenting the first long-term study on carbonaceous aerosol in the LMS. Elemental concentrations were derived via subsequent laboratory-based ion beam analysis. The stoichiometry indicates that the sulphurous fraction is sulphate, while an O/C ratio of 0.2 indicates that the carbonaceous aerosol is organic. The concentration of the carbonaceous component corresponded on average to approximately 25% of that of the sulphurous, and could not be explained by forest fires or biomass burning, since the average mass ratio of Fe to K was 16 times higher than typical ratios in effluents from biomass burning. The data reveal increasing concentrations of particulate sulphur and carbon with a doubling of particulate sulphur from 1999 to 2008 in the northern hemisphere LMS. Periods of elevated concentrations of particulate sulphur in the LMS are linked to downward transport of aerosol from higher altitudes, using ozone as a tracer for stratospheric air. Tropical volcanic eruptions penetrating the tropical tropopause are identified as the likely cause of the particulate sulphur and carbon increase in the LMS, where entrainment of lower tropospheric air into volcanic jets and plumes could be the cause of the carbon increase.

  17. Modelling decreased food chain accumulation of HOCs due to strong sorption to carbonaceous materials and metabolic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Traas, T.P.; Roessink, I.; Veltman, K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The predictive power of bioaccumulation models may be limited when they do not account for strong sorption of organic contaminants to carbonaceous materials (CM) such as black carbon, and when they do not include metabolic transformation. We tested a food web accumulation model, including sorption

  18. Fabricating eco-friendly nanocomposites of SiC with morphologically-different nano-carbonaceous phases 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candelario, Victor M.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Guiberteau, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    A route based on aqueous colloidal processing followed by liquid-phase assisted spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) is described for fabricating eco-friendly nanocomposites of SiC with nano-carbonaceous phases (nanotubes, nanoplatelets, or nanoparticles). To this end, the conditions optimizing the aqueo...

  19. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  20. Filosofia da ciência, ensino de ciências e psicanálise: Explorando analogias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveremos um esquema referente às atitudes dos cientistas frente ao conhecimento científico, tendo como referência, de um lado, o debate entre Kuhn, Pepper, Lakatos e Feyerabend e, de outro, conceitos da psicanálise lacaniana. Em seguida, exploraremos esse esquema com uma analogia que nos permitirá elaborar novas interpretações para a educação em Ciências.

  1. Organic free radicals and micropores in solid graphitic carbonaceous matter at the Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigali, M.J.; Nagy, B.

    1997-01-01

    The presence, concentration, and distribution of organic free radicals as well as their association with specific surface areas and microporosities help characterize the evolution and behavior of the Oklo carbonaceous matter. Such information is necessary in order to evaluate uranium mineralization, liquid bitumen solidification, and radio nuclide containment at Oklo. In the Oklo ore deposits and natural fission reactors carbonaceous matter is often referred to as solid graphitic bitumen. The carbonaceous parts of the natural reactors may contain as much as 65.9% organic C by weight in heterogeneous distribution within the clay-rich matrix. The solid carbonaceous matter immobilized small uraninite crystals and some fission products enclosed in this uraninite and thereby facilitated radio nuclide containment in the reactors. Hence, the Oklo natural fission reactors are currently the subjects of detailed studies because they may be useful analogues to support performance assessment of radio nuclide containment at anthropogenic radioactive waste repository sites. Seven carbonaceous matter rich samples from the 1968 ± 50 Ma old natural fission reactors and the associated Oklo uranium ore deposit were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and by measurements of specific surface areas (BET method). Humic acid, fulvic acid, and fully crystalline graphite standards were also examined by ESR spectroscopy for comparison with the Oklo solid graphitic bitumens. With one exception, the ancient Oklo bitumens have higher organic free radical concentrations than the modem humic and fulvic acid samples. The presence of carbon free radicals in the graphite standard could not be determined due to the conductivity of this material. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Electron spin resonance and its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, Francisco Guilherme

    1993-01-01

    This work presents the basic characteristics of the electron spin resonance technique, also called paramagnetic resonance, being discussed its application to heat treated carbonaceous materials. In the low heat treatment temperature (HTT) range (below 700 deg C) the organic free radical are the predominant unpaired spin center, which play a key role in the process of carbonization and meso phase formation. At higher temperatures, it is possible to make correlations between the low H T T range and the high HTT range (above 130 deg C), where the predominant unpaired spin center are the free charge carriers (free electrons) of the graphite like crystallites of the material, which are formed by the carbonization process. (author)

  3. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Margaret E.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis....... Incorporating this ACX complex and enzymes from diverse organisms, we introduced an isopropanol degradation pathway in E. coli, optimized induction conditions, and decoupled enzyme expression to probe pathway bottlenecks. Our engineered E. coli consumed 65% of isopropanol compared to no-cell controls......We report an engineered strain of Escherichia coli that catabolizes the carbonaceous component of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sarin. Enzymatic decomposition of sarin generates isopropanol waste that, with this engineered strain, is then transformed into acetyl-CoA by enzymatic...

  4. Influence of hydrothermal carbonization and treatment by microwave on morphology of carbonaceous materials obtained from lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.B.; Barin, G.B.; Barreto, L.S.; Santos, M.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of biomass into carbon materials with special morphologies via hydrothermal carbonization presents itself as a potential route for the use of renewable precursors in obtaining carbonaceous structures. In the present study the influence of the hydrothermal carbonization (250 ° C / 4 h) followed by microwave treatment (1-2-4 hours at 25 and 40 mL) in morphology and structure of lignin. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The plaque morphology of lignin was preserved during the hydrothermal process. However, when treated by microwave can be observed partial dissolution of lignin leading to the formation of microspheres on the surface. XRD presence of an amorphous halo 2θ = 23 ° attributed to the (002) network of the amorphous carbon was observed. (author)

  5. Carbonaceous particles and aerosol mass closure in PM2.5 collected in a port city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genga, A.; Ielpo, P.; Siciliano, T.; Siciliano, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mass concentrations of PM2.5, mineral dust, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), sea salts and anthropogenic metals have been studied in a city-port of south Italy (Brindisi). This city is characterized by different emission sources (ship, vehicular traffic, biomass burning and industrial emissions) and it is an important port and industrial site of the Adriatic sea. Based on diagnostic ratios of carbonaceous species we assess the presence of biomass burning emissions (BBE), fossil fuel emissions (FFE) and ship emission (SE). Our proposed conversion factors from OC to OM are higher than those reported in the literature for urban site: the reason of this could be due to the existence of aged combustion aerosols during the sampling campaign (WSOC/OC = 0.6 ± 0.3).

  6. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of carbonaceous chondritic clasts in the LEW 85300 polymict eucrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Hewins, R. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Xiao, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed petrologic and mineralogic study of two chondritic clasts from the polymict eucrite Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85300, and performed chemical analyses by INAA and RNAA on one of these. Petrologically, the clasts are identified and are composed of dispersed aggregates, chondrules, and chondrule fragments supported by matrix. The aggregates and chondrules are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, plus some diopside. The matrix consists of fine-grained olivine, and lesser orthopyroxene and augite. Fine-grained saponite is common in the matrix. The bulk major composition of the clast studied by INAA and RNAA shows unusual abundance patterns for lithophile, siderophile and chalcophile elements but is basically chondritic. The INAA/RNAA data preclude assignment of the LEW 85300,15 clast to any commonly accepted group of carbonaceous chondrite.

  7. Nitrogen-Doped Carbonaceous Materials for Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hofman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous material (brown coal modified by pyrolysis, activation, and enrichment in nitrogen, with two different factor reagents, have been used as adsorbent of phenol from liquid phase. Changes in the phenol content in the test solutions were monitored after subsequent intervals of adsorption with selected adsorbents prepared from organic materials. Significant effect of nitrogen present in the adsorbent material on its adsorption capacity was noted. Sorption capacity of these selected materials was found to depend on the time of use, their surface area, and pore distribution. A conformation to the most well-known adsorption isotherm models, Langmuir, and Freundlich ones, confirms the formation of mono- and heterolayer solute (phenol coverage on the surface of the adsorbent applied herein. The materials proposed as adsorbents of the aqueous solution contaminants were proved effective, which means that the waste materials considered are promising activated carbon precursors for liquid phase adsorbents for the environmental protection.

  8. Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol particles by dual carbon isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceburnis, D.; Garbaras, A.; Szidat, S.; Rinaldi, M.; Fahrni, S.; Perron, N.; Wacker, L.; Leinert, S.; Remeikis, V.; Facchini, M. C.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Dual carbon isotope analysis has been performed for the first time demonstrating a potential in organic matter apportionment between three principal sources: marine, terrestrial (non-fossil) and fossil fuel due to unique isotopic signatures. The results presented here, utilising combinations of dual carbon isotope analysis, provides a conclusive evidence of a dominant biogenic organic fraction to organic aerosol over biologically active oceans. In particular, the NE Atlantic, which is also subjected to notable anthropogenic influences via pollution transport processes, was found to contain 80% organic aerosol matter of biogenic origin directly linked to plankton emissions. The remaining carbonaceous aerosol was of fossil-fuel origin. By contrast, for polluted air advecting out from Europe into the NE Atlantic, the source apportionment is 30% marine biogenic, 40% fossil fuel, and 30% continental non-fossil fuel. The dominant marine organic aerosol source in the atmosphere has significant implications for climate change feedback processes.

  9. Carbowaste: treatment and disposal of irradiated graphite and other carbonaceous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Lensa, W.; Rizzato, C.; Baginski, K.; Banford, A.W.; Bradbury, D.; Goodwin, J.; Grambow, B.; Grave, M.J.; Jones, A.N.; Laurent, G.; Pina, G.; Vulpius, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European Project on 'Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste (CARBOWASTE)' addressed the retrieval, characterization, treatment, reuse and disposal of irradiated graphite with the following main results: - I-graphite waste features significantly depend on the specific manufacture process, on the operational conditions in the nuclear reactor (neutron dose, atmosphere, temperature etc.) and on radiolytic oxidation leading to partial releases of activation products and precursors during operation. - The neutron activation process generates significant recoil energies breaking pre-existing chemical bonds resulting in dislocations of activation products and new chemical compounds. - Most activation products exist in different chemical forms and at different locations. - I-graphite can be partly purified by thermal and chemical treatment processes leaving more leach-resistant waste products. - Leach tests and preliminary performance analyses show that i-graphite can be safely disposed of in a wide range of disposal systems, after appropriate treatment and/or conditioning. (authors)

  10. Possible superlattice formation in high-temperature treated carbonaceous MgB2 at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschauner, Oliver; Errandonea, Daniel; Serghiou, George

    2006-01-01

    We report indications of a phase transition in carbonaceous MgB 2 above 9 GPa at 300 K after stress relaxation by laser heating. The transition was detected using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The observed changes are consistent with a second-order structural transition involving a doubling of the unit cell along c and a reduction of the boron site symmetry. Moreover, the Raman spectra suggest a reduction in electron-phonon coupling in the slightly modified MgB 2 structure consistent with the previously proposed topological transition in MgB 2 . However, further attributes including deviatoric stress, lattice defects, and compositional variation may play an important role in the observed phenomena

  11. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  12. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  13. BIOGRAMY POLSKICH MYŚLICIELI NIERUCHOMOŚCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łazarowicz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fragment artykułu: [b]Andrzej Bieniek[/b] (1895-1944, doktor, urodził się 17 października 1895 r. w Bratucicach (powiat Bochnia, rozstrzelany 26 lipca 1944 roku w ruinach getta w Warszawie. (...Doktor A. Bieniek zajmował się głównie problemami organizacji księgowości w przedsiębiorstwach oraz rachunkiem kosztów. Był autorem m.in. następujących publikacji: Polska metoda księgowości oparta na ekonomicznym systemie Taylora (Biblioteka Państwowej Szkoły Handlowej Męskiej w Łodzi, Łódź 1927, Kantor wzorowy w szkołach handlowych (Biblioteka Państwowej Szkoły Handlowej Męskiej w Łodzi, Warszawa-Łódź 1928, Księgowość w przedsiębiorstwach przemysłowych (Biblioteka Rady Głównej Zrzeszeń Księgowych i Rzeczoznawców Księgowości w Polsce, Warszawa 1935, Zasady inwentaryzacji i bilansowania (Związek Księgowych w Polsce, Warszawa 1936, Organizacja rachunkowości w przedsiębiorstwach przemysłowych ((Związek Księgowych w Polsce, Warszawa 1939, Zasady analizy bilansów (Stowarzyszenie Nauczycieli Szkół Zawodowych. Sekcja Główna Handlowa, Warszawa 1939. [b]Zygmunt Stefan Kossut[/b] (1922–1984 profesor doktor habilitowany, syn Wiktora Kossuta i Henryki Serafin, urodził się 16 kwietnia 1922 r. (.. Do dzisiaj znane jest profesjonalistom zdanie E. Terebuchy, że „on pierwszy (Z. Kossut – M.G. przeorał ugór w naszej nauce rachunkowości, wykonując próbę sformułowania nowych poglądów na metody badawcze w dziedzinie teorii rachunkowości.” [b]Kazimierz Sowa[/b] (1915–1972, profesor nadzwyczajny, doktor, urodził się 2 października 1915 roku w Krakowie w rodzinie chłopskiej, zmarł 17 grudnia 1972 r. w Krakowie. Był żonaty, bezdzietny. (... Okres pracy zawodowej Kazimiera Sowy (1938–1972 był bardzo zróżnicowany i przebiegał wielotorowo. Była to praca naukowo-dydaktyczna w szkolnictwie wyższym, praca redakcyjno-popularyzatorska, organizacyjno-kierownicza w Stowarzyszeniu Księgowych w

  14. I-Xe dating of aqueous alteration in the CI chondrite Orgueil: I. Magnetite and ferromagnetic separates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Krot, A. N.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    The I-Xe system was studied in a ferromagnetic sample separated from the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite with a hand-held magnet and in two magnetite samples, one chemically separated before and the other one after neutron irradiation. This work was done in order to investigate the effects of chemical separation by LiCl and NaOH on the I-Xe system in magnetite. Our test demonstrated that the chemical separation of magnetite before irradiation using either LiCl or NaOH, or both, does not contaminate the sample with iodine and thus cannot lead to erroneous I-Xe ages due to introduction of uncorrelated 128∗Xe. The I-Xe ages of two Orgueil magnetite samples are mutually consistent within experimental uncertainties and, when normalized to an absolute time scale with the reevaluated Shallowater aubrite standard, place the onset of aqueous alteration on the CI parent body at 4564.3 ± 0.3 Ma, 2.9 ± 0.3 Ma after formation of the CV Ca-AI-rich inclusions (CAIs). The I-Xe age of the ferromagnetic Orgueil separate is 3.4 Ma younger, corresponding to a closure of the I-Xe system at 4560.9 ± 0.2 Ma. These and previously published I-Xe data for Orgueil (Hohenberg et al., 2000) indicate that aqueous alteration on the CI parent body lasted for at least 5 Ma. Although the two magnetite samples gave indistinguishable I-Xe ages, their temperature release profiles differed. One of the two Orgueil magnetites released less radiogenic Xe than the other, 80% of it corresponding to the low-temperature peak of the release profile, compared to only 6% in case of the second Orgueil magnetite sample. This could be due to the difference in iodine trapping efficiencies for magnetite grains of different morphologies. Alternatively, the magnetite grains with the lower radiogenic Xe concentrations may have formed at a later stage of alteration when iodine in an aqueous solution was depleted.

  15. Empiryczna weryfikacja hipotezy o przenośności modelu Altmana na warunki polskiej gospodarki oraz uniwersalności sektorowej modeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Iwanowicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem artykułu jest próba udzielenia odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy istnieje uzasadnienie dla mechanicznego przenoszenia modelu Altmana na warunki polskiej gospodarki oraz sprawdzenie, czy wśród testowanych modeli istnieje model wykazujący dla każdego typu przedsiębiorstwa (przemysłowe, handlowe, usługo- we najwyższą skuteczność i najlepsze wartości zastosowanych metod porównawczych. W artykule porównano trzynaście testowanych modeli używając macierzy klasyfikacji, ilorazu szans, krzywej kon- centracji CAP i wskaźnika dokładności Giniego, będących metodami oceny sprawności, oraz wskaźnika Briera będącego metodą oceny modeli z punktu widzenia kryterium kalibracji. Badania zostały przepro- wadzone na bazie 439 sprawozdań finansowych opublikowanych przez 139 spółek kapitałowych zarejestrowanych w warszawskich sądach okręgowych i rejonowych (w tym 79 spółek, które w rzeczywistości ogłosiły upadłość. Przeprowadzone badania obaliły mit o przenośności modelu Altmana na warunki polskiej gospodarki oraz uniwersalności sektorowej modeli. Wykazano, że sprawność modeli różni się dla spółek produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych oraz określono te sprawności. Ponadto udowodniono, że istnieją modele dyskryminacyjne różniące się zestawem zmiennych oraz współczynnikami wagowymi, które wykazują zbliżone skuteczności predykcyjne. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question about the validity of mechanical transfer of the Alt- man model to Polish economy and to check if among the tested models there is a model with the highest efficiency and best outcomes for the used comparative methods for each type of enterprise (manufactur- ing, trading, service. Thirteen tested models were compared using the classification matrix, odds ratio, CAP concentration curve and Gini accuracy index, which are efficiency evaluation methods, as well as using the Brier index, which is a method of evaluating models

  16. Laboratory Studies of the Formation of Carbonaceous Cosmic Dust from PAH Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, C. S.

    2012-05-01

    The study of the formation and destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. PAHs are important chemical building blocks of interstellar dust. They are detected in interplanetary dust particles and in meteoritic samples and are an important, ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, it is imperative that laboratory experiments be conducted to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation from PAH precursors. Studies of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include O, N, and S, have recently been performed using the COSmIC facility in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We report the measurements obtained in these experiments. Studies with hydrocarbon precursors show the feasibility of specific molecules to form PAHs, while studies with carbon ring systems (benzene and derivatives, PAHs) precursors provide information on pathways toward larger carbonaceous molecules. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of interstellar dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgements: This research is

  17. Molecular and isotope constraints on the formation of the insoluble organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2017-04-01

    The origin of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the carbonaceous meteorites remains an unsolved issue despite major achievements in the knowledge of its chemical structure. The latter led us to propose a model for its molecular structure. Based on the relationship between the aromatic moieties of the macromolecular structure and their aliphatic linkages, it was recently suggested that, its synthesis has taken place in the gas phase of the disk surrounding the Sun in its early T-Tauri phase and that organic radicals have played a central role in this organo-synthesis. To test experimentally this pathway, we submitted short hydrocarbons (methane, pentane, octane) to a microwave plasma discharge so as to produce in situ CHx radicals. The black organic residue deposited contained both soluble and insoluble OM. The comparison at the molecular level between the thus synthesized IOM and that of meteorite led to strong similarities thus supporting the proposed pathway for its organo-synthesis. Moreover, in the meteorite IOM, systematic deuterium enrichment relative to the protosolar value is observed at the bulk sample scale and micrometer-sized grains exhibit dramatic enrichments in deuterium interpreted as a heritage of the interstellar medium or resulting from ion-molecule reactions taking place in the diffuse part of the solar disk. In the aforementioned synthesized IOM, NanoSIMS analyses revealed large variations at a sub-micrometric spatial resolution. They likely reflect the differences in the D/H ratios of the CHx radicals whose polymerization is at the origin of the IOM. These isotopic heterogeneities are commensurable with those observed in meteorite IOM. As a consequence, the appearance of organic radicals in the ionized regions of the T-Tauri solar disk may have triggered the formation of organic compounds. This laboratory synthesis thus shed a new light on the formation conditions and pathways of the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites.

  18. Farmakogenetyczne uwarunkowania lekooporności w padaczce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kozera-Kępniak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Padaczka jest jedną z najczęstszych chorób ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, występującą u około 1% populacji na świecie. Charakteryzuje się występowaniem nawracających napadów o różnej symptomatologii. Szacuje się, że u 30% pacjentów mimo prowadzonego właściwego leczenia przeciwpadaczkowego nadal występują napady drgawkowe. Jest to tak zwane zjawisko lekooporności. W Polsce problem ten dotyczy około 100 000–120 000 chorych. Czynnikami predysponującymi do wystąpienia padaczki lekoopornej są: ujawnienie się choroby przed 1. rokiem życia, duża częstotliwość napadów przed rozpoczęciem leczenia oraz zmiany strukturalne mózgu, w tym wady rozwojowe kory mózgowej. Niekontrolowane napady padaczkowe pogarszają jakość życia chorych, zwiększając ryzyko urazów, wpływając negatywnie na samopoczucie fizyczne oraz funkcjonowanie psychospołeczne. Chociaż znane są potencjalne czynniki ryzyka, to nadal nie wiadomo, dlaczego u dwóch pacjentów z tym samym rodzajem padaczki lub tym samym typem napadów skuteczność leczenia lekami przeciwpadaczkowymi może być skrajnie różna. Wśród możliwych przyczyn tego zjawiska wymienia się czynniki genetyczne, zmieniające właściwości farmakodynamiczne i farmakokinetyczne stosowanych leków. Do grupy tych czynników zalicza się: genetycznie uwarunkowany polimorfizm niektórych enzymów mikrosomalnych (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, glikoproteiny P, białka MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein oraz zaburzenia funkcji farmakodynamicznych receptorów GABA (GABAA i kana- łów jonowych. Wydaje się, że badania nad mechanizmami lekooporności mogą skutkować wprowadzeniem nowych strategii terapeutycznych. Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu przedstawienie wpływu powyżej wymienionych czynników genetycznych na brak skuteczności leczenia w padaczce.

  19. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  20. On the nature of the symbiotic binary CI Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Oliversen, N.A.; Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.; Stencel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy is presented for the symbiotic binary CI Cyg. This system contains an M5 II asymptotic branch giant Mg of about 1.5 solar mass, transfering material at a few times 0.00001 solar mass/yr into a large accretion disk surrounding a main-sequence star with Mh of about 0.5 solar mass. A boundary layer at the inner edge of the disk photoionizes a small nebula approximately confined to the Roche volume of the accreting star. An extended, more highly ionized region forms when material ejected from the disk interacts with the red giant wind. 115 refs

  1. Diversidade sexual e ensino de ciências: buscando sentidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Jorge Coelho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo desse estudo foi analisar os sentidos atribuídos por professores de Ciências e alunos à diversidade sexual. Foram utilizados: questionário, entrevista, produção de textos, análise documental e a técnica de grupo focal para a coleta de dados. De modo geral, os alunos possuem sentidos que reconhecem Lésbicas, Gays, Bissexuais e Transgêneros (LGBT como "estranhos", mesmo assim, acreditam que têm o dever de respeitar as escolhas de cada um. As travestis foram declaradamente apresentadas com repúdio por eles, sendo a homossexualidade e bissexualidade aparentemente mais aceitas. Os professores parecem manter aulas que não abordam estas questões, mesmo o Ensino de Ciências, sendo um momento privilegiado para problematizações sobre diversidade sexual e gênero. É necessário investir em discussões sobre esses temas na formação inicial e continuada de professores, buscando a construção de novos sentidos e práticas que se preocupem com o desvelamento de significados preconceituosos sobre gênero e diversidade sexual.

  2. The radiation shielding potential of CI and CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel T.

    2017-03-01

    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) pose a serious limit on the duration of deep space human missions. A shield composed of a bulk mass of material in which the incident particles deposit their energy is the simplest way to attenuate the radiation. The cost of bringing the sufficient mass from the Earth's surface is prohibitive. The shielding properties of asteroidal material, which is readily available in space, are investigated. Solution of Bethe's equation is implemented for incident protons and the application in composite materials and the significance of various correction terms are discussed; the density correction is implemented. The solution is benchmarked and shows good agreement with the results in literature which implement more correction terms within the energy ranges considered. The shielding properties of CI and CM asteroidal taxonomy groups and major asteroidal minerals are presented in terms of stopping force. The results show that CI and CM chondrites have better stopping properties than Aluminium. Beneficiation is discussed and is shown to have a significant effect on the stopping power.

  3. Lifetime broadening and CI-resonances observed in ESCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, S.; Maartensson, N.; Basilier, E.; Malmquist, P.Aa.; Gelius, U.; Siegbahn, K.

    1976-03-01

    The electron spectrum of the M 2 and M 3 levels in bromine and krypton have been studied by high resolution ESCA. The M 1 Msub(2,3) super Coster-Kronig transitions become energetically forbidden for Z >approximately 36 (Kr) and recent calculations therefore predict a decrease in the M 2 and M 3 natural linewidths around krypton in the periodic system. The experiment shows that the 3psub(3/2) linewidth is smaller in Kr than in Br. It is, however, also found that this decrease in linewidth is followed by configuration interaction (CI) between 3p 2 P and 3d 2 nl * 2 P states. Several discrete CI resonances are observed in the Kr 3p spectrum. Such resonances are also studied in the N shell for the elements from Te(Z=52) to Ba(Z=56). For these elements the effect is found to be much larger due to the strong collective character of 4d-nf* excitations. (Auth.)

  4. Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Running with a Range of Biodiesel Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Tesfa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, alternative fuels are being investigated in detail for application in compression ignition (CI engines resulting in exciting potential opportunities to increase energy security and reduce gas emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biodiesel types and biodiesel fraction on the emission characteristics of a CI engine. The experimental work was carried out on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI and turbocharged diesel engine by using biodiesel made from waste oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil and comparing them to normal diesel. The fuels used in the analyses are B10, B20, B50, B100 and neat diesel. The engine was operated over a range of engine speeds. Based on the measured parameters, detailed analyses were carried out on major regulated emissions such as NOx, CO, CO2, and THC. It has been seen that the biodiesel types (sources do not result in any significant differences in emissions. The results also clearly indicate that the engine running with biodiesel and blends have higher NOx emission by up to 20%. However, the emissions of the CI engine running on neat biodiesel (B100 were reduced by up to 15%, 40% and 30% for CO, CO2 and THC emissions respectively, as compared to diesel fuel at various operating conditions.

  5. Structural and functional properties of chimeric EspA-FliCi filaments of EPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Valerie F; Martinez, Eric; Shaw, Robert K; Frankel, Gad; Daniell, Sarah J

    2008-04-18

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli utilise a filamentous type III secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host gut epithelial cells. The primary constituent of the extracellular component of the filamentous type III secretion system is EspA. This forms a long flexible helical conduit between the bacterium and host and has a structure almost identical to that of the flagella filament. We have inserted the D3 domain of FliCi (from Salmonella typhimurium) into the outer domain of EspA and have studied the structure and function of modified filaments when expressed in an enteropathogenic E. coli espA mutant. We found that the chimeric protein EspA-FliCi filaments were biologically active as they supported protein secretion and translocation [assessed by their ability to trigger actin polymerisation beneath adherent bacteria (fluorescent actin staining test)]. The expressed filaments were recognised by both EspA and FliCi antisera. Visualisation and analysis of the chimeric filaments by electron microscopy after negative staining showed that, remarkably, EspA filaments are able to tolerate a large protein insertion without a significant effect on their helical architecture.

  6. Estudos de Comunidade e ciências sociais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemuel da Silva Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é fazer um balanço da literatura sobre os Estudos de Comunidade (EC no Brasil, destacando o contexto intelectual em que foram produzidos e os debates que suscitaram, especialmente entre as décadas de 1940 e 1960. Método de pesquisa em comunidades, oriundo da Antropologia, em investigações sobre o processo de mudança social, os EC estiveram em voga nos Estados Unidos entre os anos 1920 e 1950, tendo papel fundamental na institucionalização das Ciências Sociais no Brasil. Destacamos três aspectos na produção desses estudos no país, iniciando com uma abordagem conceitual: definições, origem e sua relação com temáticas marcantes nos anos 1950. Em seguida, privilegiamos os aspectos relacionados ao papel dos EC na história das Ciências Sociais no Brasil, com destaque para o processo de institucionalização das Ciências Sociais. Por fim, revisitamos os debates que tais estudos geraram entre os cientistas sociais quanto ao padrão de trabalho sociológico a ser desenvolvido naquele momento.The purpose of this article is to examine the literature about Community Studies(CS in Brazil, highlighting their intellectual context of production and the debates evoked by them, especially between the 1940's and 1960's. As a research method arising from Anthropology on communities in social change process, CS was used in United States between 1920's and 1950's, and played a fundamental role in the institutionalization of Social Sciences in Brazil. Three aspects are highlighted on CS production: first, in a conceptual approach, we discuss their definitions, origins and relation to main topics in the 1950's. The second aspect is related to the role of CS in the history of Social Sciences, especially their institutionalization process. By the end, we revisit the debates between social scientists about the sociological work standard to be developed at that time.

  7. Korzyści karmienia piersią dla matki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gibas-Dorna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Powszechnie wiadomo, że karmienie piersią pozytywnie wpływa na zdrowie dziecka oraz jego rozwój intelek‑ tualny. światowa Organizacja Zdrowia (World Health Organization, WHO zaleca rozpoczęcie karmienia piersią od pierwszej godziny po porodzie i jego kontynuację przez okres co najmniej 6 miesięcy, a w miarę urozmaicania diety dziecka rekomenduje utrzymanie tego sposobu żywienia mniej więcej do 2. roku życia, traktując mleko matki jako najlepszy jakościowo pokarm uzupełniający. Coraz częściej podkreśla się protek‑ cyjną rolę karmienia naturalnego w rozwoju różnych chorób u matek oraz potencjalne skutki unikania prze‑ dłużonej laktacji. Wydaje się, że korzyści dla matki mają charakter wczesny (podczas połogu oraz długofa‑ lowy. Tuż po porodzie karmienie piersią przyspiesza obkurczanie macicy, zapobiega nadmiernej utracie krwi, chroni przed niedokrwistością z niedoboru żelaza, przeciwdziała wystąpieniu depresji poporodowej, umacnia więź matka – dziecko oraz poprawia zaburzoną w tym okresie jakość snu. Korzyści długofalowe wiążą się z obniżeniem ryzyka wystąpienia niektórych chorób nowotworowych (rak sutka, rak endometrium, rak jajni‑ ka, chorób sercowo‑naczyniowych (choroba niedokrwienna serca, nadciśnienie tętnicze, zaburzeń metabo‑ licznych (cukrzyca, nietolerancja glukozy, otyłość, hiperlipidemia, hiperinsulinemia, reumatoidalnego zapa‑ lenia stawów czy osteoporozy. Przedłużenie okresu laktacji i karmienia piersią ma również wymierną korzyść ekonomiczną i stanowi darmową naturalną antykoncepcję. Poniższa praca podsumowuje aktualny stan wie‑ dzy na temat wpływu karmienia piersią na zdrowie matek karmiących.

  8. Rola aktywności ruchowej w zapobieganiu zaburzeniom poznawczym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej W. Ziemba

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Regularna aktywność ruchowa wywołuje szereg zmian adaptacyjnych, zwłaszcza w układzie krążenia i przemianie materii. W licznych pracach na temat pojedynczego wysiłku i wzmożonej aktywności fizycznej pojawia się coraz więcej potwierdzeń ich korzystnego wpływu na kształtowanie funkcji poznawczych. U podstaw mechanizmów związanych z tym wpływem leżą zmiany anatomiczne i funkcjonalne, m.in. zwiększenie przepływu krwi przez mózg, angiogenezy i neurogenezy, objętości istoty szarej w korze czołowej i skroniowej. Wysiłek pobudza wydzielanie czynników troficznych, wśród których dla procesów poznawczych, plastyczności synaptycznej, poprawy szlaków sygnałowych neurogenezy i funkcji naczyniowych kluczowe są czynnik troficzny pochodzenia mózgowego i insulinopodobny czynnik wzrostowy. Aktywność ruchowa wywołuje wzmożoną ekspresję czynnika troficznego pochodzenia mózgowego, co pozytywnie wpływa na procesy energetyczne i aktywuje w mózgu wiele układów energetycznych, które korzystnie modyfikują potencjał synaptyczny przetwarzania informacji ważnych w kształtowaniu funkcji poznawczych. Wysiłek redukuje stan zapalny przez obniżenie we krwi stężenia cytokin prozapalnych, mogących się przyczyniać do rozwoju procesów neurodegeneracyjnych. Redukuje czynniki ryzyka zespołu metabolicznego, a zwłaszcza nadciśnienie i insulinooporność, więc zmniejsza ryzyko wystąpienia zaburzeń czynności poznawczych, poprawia funkcjonowanie mózgu, opóźnia początek i spowalnia rozwój zaburzeń w chorobach neurodegeneracyjnych, a wśród nich w chorobie Alzheimera i chorobie Parkinsona. Za sprawą wymienionych mechanizmów aktywność ruchowa wydaje się niezbędna do zachowania prawidłowych funkcji poznawczych w każdym wieku.

  9. Alguns efeitos do discurso da ciência na atualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóvão Giovani Burgarelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discutir um dos desdobramentos da ciência em especial: a tecnociência, considerada aqui como marca da contemporaneidade que dita o imperativo da técnica e de seu aparato como aquilo que, supostamente, a tudo responde, preenche e satisfaz. O meio acadêmico, inserido no contexto cultural atravessado pela lógica tecnocientífica, não está livre de seus efeitos e da dinâmica consumista que tende a considerar o saber como um bem de consumo. Ao contrário, tanto as escolas quanto as universidades aderem a essa lógica e expulsam de seu arcabouço a possibilidade de subjetivação, ou seja, o modo singular de um sujeito se haver, diferentemente, com as marcas que o constituem.

  10. Ciência da Computação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Henriques Librantz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um sistema de navegação autônoma de robôs construídos com kits Lego Mindstorms, para cálculo de trajetórias. Esse sistema pode ser utilizado como instrumento pedagógico multidisciplinar no curso de Ciência da Computação, uma vez que, para o seu desenvolvimento são necessários conhecimentos de algoritmos, linguagem de programação, lógica computacional, estrutura de dados, inteligência artificial (IA, redes de computadores, computação gráfica e robótica.

  11. PENGUASAAN KERAJAAN TARUMANEGARA TERHADAP KAWASAN HULU CI SADANE THE CONTROL OF TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM TO THE CI SADANE UPSTREAM AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Widyastuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As we know that the oldest kingdom in West Java is the Kingdom Tarumanegara. Authentic evidence of the existence of such is the kingdom of seven inscriptions, of which five were found in the upstream region is now administratively Cisadane including Bogor regency. Three of the five inscriptions indicate the possession of territory by Tarumanegara kingdom. This indicates that the upstream region Cisadane is an area that is quite important and has the potential to be controlled by Tarumanegara.   Key words:upstream of Ci Sadane, Tarumanegara kingdom, control area   ABSTRAK Sebagaimana diketahui bahwa kerajaan tertua di Jawa Barat adalah Kerajaan Tarumanegara. Bukti otentik mengenai keberadaan kerajaan tersebut adalah adanya tujuh prasasti, yang lima diantaranya ditemukan di kawasan Hulu Cisadane yang sekarang secara administratif termasuk wilayah Kabupaten Bogor. Tiga diantara kelima prasasti tersebut menunjukkan penguasaan wilayah tersebut oleh Kerajaan Tarumanegara. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa kawasan hulu cisadane merupakan kawasan yang cukup penting dan mempunyai potensi yang harus dikuasai oleh Tarumanegara.   Kata Kunci:hulu Ci Sadane, Kerajaan Tarumanegara, penguasaan wilayah.

  12. Convergências entre a Ciência da Informação e as Ciências Cognitivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Varela Varela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se as convergências entre a Ciência da Informação e as Ciências Cognitivas, buscando argumentos, fundamentos para fomentar e produzir o saber e o fazer, potencializando estudos e aproximações. Para tal, reflete-se sobre conhecimentos e necessidades, os principais representantes das correntes cognitivas, como substrato aos processos de recuperação, compreensão, reflexão e criticidade essenciais à construção do conhecimento científico, com destaque para o domínio dos vários níveis de leitura para buscar e usar a informação. Utiliza-se como metodologia revisão bibliográfica, com estabelecimento de diálogos com autores clássicos e contemporâneos das áreas em questão. Conclui-se que é preciso se destacar o caráter paradigmático, bem como outras dimensões das construções conceituais e práticas das duas áreas em foco, principalmente os concentrar as pesquisas nos estudos cognitivos para subsidiar a busca da informação com autonomia e garantia de desenvolvimento pessoal, com maior contribuição num contexto de constantes mudanças.

  13. Fazer ciência: o lugar do conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Garcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto visa abrir uma discussão acerca da pesquisa contemporânea, investindo o enfoque no discurso científico para uma abordagem dinâmica de estratégias discursivas. Tento realizar uma reflexão crítica sobre a produção do saber em alguns procedimentos conceituais. Neste caso, remeto o olhar a uma consideração teórico-metodológica que pretende contribuir à atualização do discurso da ciência, hoje, e permita propor maior flexibilidade e deslocamento diante das diferentes produções de conhecimento. Este trabalho, portanto, não pretende expor, diretamente, idéias sobre ciência, mas sobre o discurso dito científico. Nesta investigação crítica, apresento sucintamente a noção de pós-(desconstrução. Utilizo os estudos contemporâneos como eixo teórico-metodológico para este desenvolvimento argumentativo. Os estudos contemporâneos pesquisam as atualizações de conceitos, que se organizam mediante a produção de atualidades e vasculham uma (redimensão teórica e política, associada ao sistema flexível da linguagem. Essas atualizações esboçam a área dos estudos contemporâneos em sua intensidade descritiva, quando aciona um olhar investigativo sobre as inovações no discurso científico, hoje.

  14. Acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterial with large surface area: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption properties for cationic and anionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kai; Ma, Chun–Fang; Ling, Yuan; Li, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Qiang, E-mail: gaoqiang@cug.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Luo, Wen–Jun, E-mail: heartnohome@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Nanostructured carbonaceous materials are extremely important in the nano field, yet developing simple, mild, and “green” methods that can make such materials possess large surface area and rich functional groups on their surfaces still remains a considerable challenge. Herein, a one-pot and environment-friendly method, i.e., thermal treatment (180 °C; 18 h) of water mixed with glucose and chitosan (CTS), has been proposed. The resultant carbonaceous nanomaterials were characterized by field emitting scanning electron microscope, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta-potential analysis. It was found that, in contrast to the conventional hydrothermally carbonized product from pure glucose, with low surface area (9.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and pore volume (0.016 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}), the CTS-added carbonaceous products showed satisfactory textural parameters (surface area and pore volume up to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 0.701 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, respectively). Moreover, it was also interestingly found that these CTS-added carbonaceous products possessed both acidic (–COOH) and basic (–NH{sub 2}) groups on their surfaces. Taking the advantages of large surface area and –COOH/–NH{sub 2} bifunctional surface, the carbonaceous nanomaterials exhibited excellent performance for adsorptions of cationic compound (i.e., methylene blue) at pH 10 and anionic compound (i.e., acid red 18) at pH 2, respectively. This work not only provides a simple and green route to prepare acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterials with large surface area but also well demonstrates their potential for application in adsorption. - Highlights: • A simple and green method was proposed to prepare carbon nanomaterials. • The carbon product showed acid/base bifunctional surface with large surface area. • The carbon material could efficiently adsorb both cationic and anionic compounds.

  15. Porous nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous material from marine waste: chitosan-derived layered CNX catalyst for aerial oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chitosan-derived, porous and layered nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous CNx catalyst (PLCNx) has been synthesized from marine waste and its use demonstrated in a...

  16. Isotope source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol as a function of particle size and thermal refractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalaite, Agne; Holzinger, Rupert; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Röckmann, Thomas; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The stable carbon isotopes can be used to get information about sources and processing of carbonaceous aerosol. We will present results from source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol as a function of particle size thermal refractiveness. Separate source apportionment for particles smaller than 200 nm and for different carbon volatility classes are rarely reported and give new insights into aerosol sources in the urban environment. Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for the organic carbon (OC) fraction and total carbon (TC) of MOUDI impactor samples that were collected on a coastal site (Lithuania) during the winter 2012 and in the city of Vilnius (Lithuania) during the winter of 2009. The 11 impactor stages spanned a size range from 0.056 to 18 μm, but only the 6 stages in the submicron range were analysed. The δ13C values of bulk total carbon (δ13CTC) were determined with an elemental analyser (Flash EA 1112) coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (EA - IRMS). Meanwhile δ13COC was measured using thermal-desorption isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) system. This allows a rough separation of the more volatile OC fraction (desorbed in the oven of IRMS up to 250 0C) from the more refractory fraction (desorbed up to 400 0C). In this study we investigated the composition of organic aerosol desorbed from filter samples at different temperatures using the thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS) technique. During winter-time in Lithuania we expect photochemistry and biogenic emissions to be of minor importance. The main sources of aerosol carbon should be fossil fuel and biomass combustion. In both sites, the coastal and the urban site, δ13C measurements give a clear indication that the source contributions differ for small and large particles. Small particles < 200 nm are depleted in 13C with respect to larger particles by 1 - 2 ‰Ṫhis shows that OC in small particle

  17. Trophic analysis of the fish community in the Ciénega Churince, Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish diets were analyzed to evaluate the dynamic trophs of the fish community in the Churince wetland system of the Cuatro Ciénegas, where the fauna consists of nine species: endemic, native and introduced. In nine sampling events (between February 2011 and May 2014 556 specimens of all nine species were collected. Stomach contents were analyzed and the Relative Importance Index (IRI was calculated. The feed coefficient (Q of the diets and the accumulated trophic diversity (Hk, as well as the amplitude of the trophic niche were evaluated. Feeding strategies in the fish community were found to be eurifagic. The main foods in general were insects, crustaceans, gastropods, plants and teleosts. According to the average linkage method, four functional trophic groups were defined, with no higher consumption species; nevertheless all were regulators, mainly invertebrates. Therefore, the chain reaction in food control was higher from top to bottom, meaning a downwards dietary control.

  18. Culturas das Ciências Naturais Cultures of Natural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta subsídios para o ensino de História das Ciências, considerando particularmente o campo da História da História Natural e das Ciências Naturais. Sem ser uma revisão completa da historiografia desses campos de conhecimento sobre o mundo natural, retoma alguns traços gerais desses longos processos de definição de campos disciplinares que se configuram desde a Renascença até o final do século XVIII. Considera diversas tradições culturais e historiográficas que contribuíram para os nossos entendimentos atuais, de como a História Natural do Renascimento foi abandonando seus antigos quadros conceituais, assumindo novas práticas e se constituindo nas tradições da História Natural do século XVIII. Comenta esses processos, em que tanto a Botânica, a Zoologia, a Mineralogia se individualizam como áreas de conhecimentos apoiadas em práticas locais e coleções globais, indo além de sua subordinação à utilidade médica; bem como suas organizações em áreas de conhecimento, por começarem a se colocar questões relativas à origem e à historicidade dos seres e processos naturais, dados os avanços das temáticas classificatórias e das discussões envolvendo temporalidades.This paper provides insights into the teaching of the History of Science, especially the field of the History of Natural History and Natural Sciences. Although not claiming to be a complete historiographic review of these areas of knowledge about the natural world, it outlines the general traits of the long process of definition of disciplines that were shaped from the Renaissance to the end of the XVIII century. It encompasses various cultural and historiographic traditions that contributed to our present understanding of how Renaissance Natural History abandoned its ancient conceptual frameworks and assumed new practices and shaped itself in the tradition of XVIII century Natural History. The paper comments on these processes by which

  19. Ética, ciência e tecnologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Domingues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa pensar a relação entre ética, ciência e tecnologia, enfatizando o problema de sua revinculação depois da cisão entre os juízos de fato e os juízos de valor, ocorrida no início dos tempos modernos. Uma vez examinada a ética da aristocracia guerreira e a moral do santo, procura-se delinear o caminho tomando como referência a ética da responsabilidade, cujo protótipo é a moral do sábio, desaparecido no curso dos tempos modernos, em razão da fragmentação do saber e do advento do especialista. Ao fim do estudo, é discutida a relação entre a ética e a metafísica, com o intuito de ajustar a questão antropológica à perspectiva cosmológica, bem como de fornecer as bases de um novo humanismo, objetivando a humanização da técnica e a geração de um novo homem, alfabetizado em ciência, tecnologia e humanidades.The article aims at thinking the relation among ethics, science and technology, emphasizing the problem of their re-tying, after the division into judgments of fact and judgments of value, wich happened in the begininning of modern times. Since the warlike aristocracy's ethics and the saint man's moral are examined, it tries to outline its way, taking as a reference the ethics of responsability, whose prototype is the wise man's moral, which disappeared in the course of modern times, due to the fragmentation of knowing and the advent of the specialist. At the end of the study, the relationship between ethics and metaphysics is discussed, aiming at adjusting the anthropological question to the cosmological perspective, as well as at providing the bases of a new humanism, objectifying the humanization of the technique and the generation of a new man, literate at science, technology and the humanities.

  20. Cloning and Functional Analysis of the MADS-box CiMADS9 Gene from Carya illinoinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiyu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A MADS-box gene, CiMADS9, was cloned from the male flowers of Carya illinoinensis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene was 1 077 bp with a 768 bp open reading frame encoding 255 amino acids. Multiple sequence comparisons revealed that CiMADS9 is a typical MIKC-type MADS-box gene with a MADS-box domain and a K semi-conserved region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CiMADS9 belongs to the AGL15 group of the MADS-box gene family. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression levels in reproductive organs (i.e., flowers and young fruits were considerably higher than in vegetative tissues (i.e., leaves and branches. The highest expression levels were observed in male flowers. An overexpression vector for CiMADS9 was constructed and the gene was inserted into the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. CiMADS9 expression was confirmed in all transgenic lines. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic A. thaliana plants overexpressing CiMADS9 exhibited delayed flowering and an increased number of leaves.

  1. Characterization of Chiral Carbonaceous Nanotubes Prepared from Four Coiled Tubular 4,4'-biphenylene-silica Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four dipeptides derived from phenylalanine were synthesized, which can self-assemble into twisted nanoribbon in deionized water. The handedness of the organic self-assemblies was controlled by the chirality of the phenylalanine at the terminals. Coiled 4,4'-biphenylene bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons were prepared using the organic self-assemblies as the templates. The circular dichroism spectra indicated that the biphenylene rings preferred to twist in one-handedness within the walls of the samples. After carbonization and removal of silica, single-handed coiled carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons were obtained. The Raman spectra indicated that the carbon was amorphous. The diffuse reflectance circular dichroism spectra indicated the tubular carbonaceous nanoribbons exhibited optical activity.

  2. Carbonaceous PM(2.5) and secondary organic aerosol across the Veneto region (NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Di Gilio, Alessia; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pavoni, Bruno

    2016-01-15

    Organic and elemental carbon (OC-EC) were measured in 360 PM2.5 samples collected from April 2012 to February 2013 at six provinces in the Veneto region, to determine the factors affecting the carbonaceous aerosol variations. The 60 daily samples have been collected simultaneously in all sites during 10 consecutive days for 6 months (April, June, August, October, December and February). OC ranged from 0.98 to 22.34 μg/m(3), while the mean value was 5.5 μg/m(3), contributing 79% of total carbon. EC concentrations fluctuated from 0.19 to 11.90 μg/m(3) with an annual mean value of 1.31 μg/m(3) (19% of the total carbon). The monthly OC concentration gradually increased from April to December. The EC did not vary in accordance with OC. However the highest values for both parameters were recorded in the cold period. The mean OC/EC ratio is 4.54, which is higher than the values observed in most of the other European cities. The secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributed for 69% of the total OC and this was confirmed by both the approaches OC/EC minimum ratio and regression. The results show that OC, EC and SOC exhibited higher concentration during winter months in all measurement sites, suggesting that the stable atmosphere and lower mixing play important role for the accumulation of air pollutant and hasten the condensation or adsorption of volatile organic compounds over the Veneto region. Significant meteorological factors controlling OC and EC were investigated by fitting linear models and using a robust procedure based on weighted likelihood, suggesting that low wind speed and temperature favour accumulation of emissions from local sources. Conditional probability function and conditional bivariate probability function plots indicate that both biomass burning and vehicular traffic are probably the main local sources for carbonaceous particulate matter emissions in two selected cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  4. COMBINED THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MECHANISMS AND KINETICS OF VAPOR-PHASE MERCURY UPTAKE BY CARBONACEOUS SURFACES; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisav D. Vidic; Eric V. Borguet; Karl J. Johnson

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this research program is to gain fundamental understanding of the important chemistry and physics involved in mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces. This knowledge will then be used to optimize adsorption processes and operating conditions to maximize the uptake of mercury within the required contact time. An additional long-term benefit of this research is the basic understanding of the Hg adsorption process, which may facilitate the design of new adsorbents for more efficient and cost-effective removal of Hg from a variety of effluent streams. Molecular modeling of the adsorption of Hg on carbonaceous surfaces will greatly increase the insight into the physics of the adsorption process and combined with in situ rate measurements of mercury adsorption and desorption (conventional and pulsed laser) on graphite using linear and nonlinear optical probes with real time optical resolution have the potential to provide fundamental insight into the process of mercury uptake by carbonaceous surfaces. Besides accurate assessment of key parameters influencing adsorption equilibrium, fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mercury adsorption, desorption, and diffusion will be developed in this study. These key physical and chemical processes postulated through molecular modeling efforts and verified by in situ measurements will be utilized to select (or develop) promising sorbents for mercury control, which will be tested under dynamic conditions using simulated flue gas

  5. Structure and isotopic ratios of aliphatic side chains in the insoluble organic matter of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Wang, Yi

    2007-07-01

    We report in this paper the first molecular and isotopic characterization of individual aliphatic side chains from the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite using a novel combined approach of RuO 4 oxidation and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The aliphatic side chains in the IOM of Murchison were first released by oxidizing aromatic structures using RuO 4. Because the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites contains predominantly short (C 1 to C 9) aliphatic substitutions, the resulting low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) are highly volatile and water-soluble. The conventional aqueous extraction and derivatization procedures following RuO 4 oxidation are unable to recover MCAs for subsequent analyses. We overcame this problem by employing SPME to directly capture the MCAs from the aqueous solution. We selected a SPME fiber with greater affinity for longer chain monoacids to compensate for the exponential decline of monoacid concentrations with increasing carbon numbers in meteorite IOM, allowing more accurate identification and quantification for the less abundant monoacids. We also determined the carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of individual MCAs derived from Murchinson IOM. Our results reveal significant similarity in both molecular structures and hydrogen isotopic ratios between the IOM aliphatic side chains and water-soluble MCAs in Murchison, suggesting that these compounds had common precursors. Our combined new approach of RuO 4 oxidation-SPME provides a new way to probe the molecular and isotopic characteristics of aliphatic side chains in carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. -- Highlights: •Composition of SOM significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs. •Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil largely control the transport of PAHs. •The classic enrichment theory is invalid if anthropogenic CMs are abundant in the soil. •Organic petrology analysis introduced to study the fate and transport of PAHs. -- Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil, especially black carbon, largely control the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

  7. Organochemical characteristics of carbonaceous materials as indicators of heat recorded on an ancient plate-subduction fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Sampei, Y.; Ikehara, M.

    2016-07-01

    Coseismic shear stress and slip distance affect subduction-related earthquake processes. They need to be understood to evaluate the earthquake's mechanism and the tsunami generation potential near trenches. The amount of frictional heat generated depends on the shear stress and slip distance, which are therefore able to be derived from the temperature recorded in the fault. Here we developed a new temperature proxy for carbonaceous materials by performing spectroscopic, thermogravimetric, and organic elemental analyses in conjunction with heating experiments. We found marked anomalies in the infrared and Raman spectra and atomic compositions of carbonaceous materials retrieved from the slip zone of an ancient megasplay fault in the Cretaceous Shimanto accretionary complex, Japan: the infrared spectra show extinction of aliphatic C-H bonding and very weak aromatic C=C bonding, and the Raman spectra show a slightly elevated ratio of disordered band intensity to graphitic band intensity and relatively low H/C and O/C ratios. These correlate well with the spectral and elemental features of host-rock carbonaceous materials after heating to 600°C. Thus, we conclude that the slip zone experienced a temperature of 600°C during a past earthquake event, indicating coseismic slip of 2-9 m, which could have generated a large tsunami if the ruptures propagated to the seafloor.

  8. A Biblioteconomia e a Ciência da Informação na taxionomia das ciências de Charles Sanders Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cândido de Almeida

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostra a taxionomia das ciências desenvolvida por Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 que divide as ciências em três ramos: ciências teóricas, ciências da revisão e ciências aplicadas. Detalha principalmente as ciências teóricas: a Matemática, a Filosofia e a Idioscopia. Discute também o conceito de Biblioteconomia e de Ciência da Informação e que segundo as definições e características, encontradas na literatura consultada, estão na condição de ciências aplicadas, direcionadas a problemas práticos da sociedade, ou seja, o problema de controle e disseminação da informação.

  9. Evaluation of the growth of carbonaceous deposit in steady state Tore Supra using infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.; Guilhem, D.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C.; Roche, H.; Buravand, Y.; Chantant, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Grosman, A.; Chappuis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion devices with carbon as the main armour material are experiencing a growth in carbonaceous deposits at the surface of the plasma facing components. Tore Supra presents such deposits, and has specific features which influence their growth: long pulse operation and cooled walls. Deposits have a low thermal transfer to the cooled structure so that they appear as hot areas with the infrared imaging system looking at the elements surface temperature during plasma discharges. A 'degree of (carbon) deposit' on the toroidal pumped limiter is estimated by establishing the ratio between the apparent power on the limiter derived from the infrared measure and the actual one, deduced from a power balance analysis between the injected and the radiated power. This criterion is used to monitor the evolution of the deposit average thermal resistance. Successive shots have a similar 'degree of deposit', showing that the evaluation makes sense. Two years of data have been compiled (2003 and 2004), representing 3000 discharges (13 h of plasma, including 30 discharges longer than one minute). A three-fold increase in the 'degree of deposit' over six months is evidenced, following a limiter clean-up early in 2003. A comparison with calorimetric data produces a similar result, albeit less pronounced. Large steps in the degree of deposit are sometimes observed, usually correlated with identified events such as disruption, vessel opening, conditioning or plasma parameters change. It indicates that the deposit thermal resistance can change rapidly, although a systematic correlation with the above mentioned events could not be established

  10. Kinetics of the hydrothermal treatment of tannin for producing carbonaceous microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiroli, F L; Fierro, V; Izquierdo, M T; Parmentier, J; Pizzi, A; Celzard, A

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of condensed tannins were submitted to hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) in a stainless steel autoclave, and the kinetics of hydrothermal carbon formation was investigated by changing several parameters: amount of tannin (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g in 16 mL of water), HTC temperature (130, 160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction times (from 1 to 720 h). The morphology and the structure of the tannin-based hydrothermal carbons were studied by TEM, krypton adsorption at -196°C and helium pycnometry. These materials presented agglomerated spherical particles, having surface areas ranging from 0.6 to 10.0 m(2) g(-1). The chemical composition of the hydrothermal carbons was found to be constant and independent of reaction time. HTC kinetics of tannin were determined and shown to correspond to first-order reaction. Temperature-dependent measurements led to an activation energy of 91 kJ mol(-1) for hydrothermal conversion of tannin into carbonaceous microspheres separable by centrifugation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  12. Comparative evaluation for the sorption capacity of four carbonaceous sorbents to phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Feng Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorption kinetics and isotherms of phenol by four carbonaceous sorbents (activated carbon (AC, mesoporous carbon (MPC, bamboo biochar (BBC and oak wood biochar (OBC were compared in this study. MPC has the fastest sorption rate and initial sorption potential, which were indicated by sorption rate constants and initial sorption rate “h” in a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The ordered and straight pore structure of MPC facilitated the accessibility of phenol. The AC showed the greatest sorption capacity towards phenol with maximum sorption of 123 mg/g as calculated by the Langmuir model. High surface area, complexity of pore structure, and the strong binding force of the π–π electron-donor-acceptor interaction between phenol molecules and AC were the main mechanisms. The BBC and OBC had much slower sorption and lower sorption capacity (33.04 and 29.86 mg/g, respectively, compared to MPC (73.00 mg/g and AC, indicating an ineffective potential for phenol removal from water.

  13. Adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds onto a hydrophobic carbonaceous geosorbent in the presence of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Keller, Arturo A

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs; atrazine and diuron) onto lampblack was studied in the presence of nonionic, cationic, and anionic surfactants (Triton(R) X-100), benzalkonium chloride [BC], and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS]) to determine the effect of the surfactant on HOC adsorption onto a hydrophobic carbonaceous geosorbent. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate showed an adsorption capacity higher than that of BC but similar to that of Triton X-100, implying the charge property of a surfactant is not a useful indicator for predicting the surfactant's adsorption onto a hydrophobic medium. The results also indicated that the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) of a surfactant is not a good predictor of that surfactant's sorption onto a hydrophobic medium. Under subsaturation adsorption conditions (i.e., before sorption saturation is reached), surfactant adsorption reduced HOC adsorption to a significant extent, with the reduction in HOC adsorption increasing monotonically with the amount of surfactant adsorbed. Among the three surfactants, Triton X-100 was the most effective in reducing HOC adsorption, whereas BC and LAS showed similar effectiveness in this regard. Under the same amount of the surfactant sorbed, the reduction in atrazine adsorption was consistently greater than that for diuron because of atrazine's lower hydrophobicity. No significant difference was observed in the amount of the HOC adsorbed under different adsorption sequences. Our results showed that the presence of surfactant can significantly decrease HOC adsorption onto hydrophobic environmental media and, thus, is important in predicting HOC fate and transport in the environment.

  14. Significant influence of fungi on coarse carbonaceous and potassium aerosols in a tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhisheng; Tao, Jun; Engling, Guenter; Zhang, Leiming; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Renjian; Chan, Chuen-yu; Li, Yide

    2015-01-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere, especially in the environment of tropical rainforests with intense biological activities. To assess the impact of fungi on chemical components of atmospheric aerosols at a Chinese tropical rainforest site, size-segregated fungal spore tracers (i.e. arabitol and mannitol) were measured along with major aerosol components, including carbonaceous species and water-soluble inorganic ions. The fungal spore tracers were found to be predominately associated with coarse particles, in which organic carbon (OC) and potassium (K + ) were also present at significant levels. Enhanced amounts of fungal spore tracers were closely linked to rainfall events. Moreover, fungal spore tracers exhibited positive correlations with relative humidity and negative correlations with wind speed, temperature or radiation. The relationships between fungal spore tracers and meteorological factors are consistent with the emission features of actively discharged fungal spores, which are generally associated with sugar alcohols and by-products such as the inorganic ion K + . The excellent correlations between fungal spore tracers and OC or K + in the coarse particles further suggested their common emission sources. Absolute principal factor analysis further identified fungi as the largest contributor to coarse OC and K + (both at ∼66%) in this rainforest. (letter)

  15. The Effect of Carbonaceous Reductant Selection on Chromite Pre-reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E. L. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Bunt, J. R.; Nkosi, N. S. B.; Venter, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ferrochrome (FeCr) production is an energy-intensive process. Currently, the pelletized chromite pre-reduction process, also referred to as solid-state reduction of chromite, is most likely the FeCr production process with the lowest specific electricity consumption, i.e., MWh/t FeCr produced. In this study, the effects of carbonaceous reductant selection on chromite pre-reduction and cured pellet strength were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effect of reductant characteristics on the aforementioned two parameters. This yielded mathematical solutions that can be used by FeCr producers to select reductants more optimally in future. Additionally, the results indicated that hydrogen (H)- (24 pct) and volatile content (45.8 pct) were the most significant contributors for predicting variance in pre-reduction and compressive strength, respectively. The role of H within this context is postulated to be linked to the ability of a reductant to release H that can induce reduction. Therefore, contrary to the current operational selection criteria, the authors believe that thermally untreated reductants ( e.g., anthracite, as opposed to coke or char), with volatile contents close to the currently applied specification (to ensure pellet strength), would be optimal, since it would maximize H content that would enhance pre-reduction.

  16. Pair distribution functions of carbonaceous solids, determined using energy filtered diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, T.C.; McCulloch, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The structures of various carbonaceous solids were investigated using energy filtered diffraction patterns collected in two dimensions using a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF). In order to reduce multiple scattering and eliminate inelastic scattering effects, the diffraction patterns were filtered using an energy -selecting slit around the zero-loss peak. Software has been developed for the extraction of radially averaged pair distributions functions from the diffraction data. This entails finding the position of the un-scattered beam, radially averaging the two dimensional intensity distributions, calibrating the resulting one dimensional intensity profiles and finally normalising the data to obtain structure factors. Techniques for improving and assessing data quality, pertaining to the methodology used here, have also been explored. Structure factors and radial distribution functions generated using this analysis will be discussed and, for the commercial V25 glassy carbon samples, compared to previous, work of one of the authors'. In order to answer questions regarding multiple scattering effects and structural homogeneity of the samples, neutron scattering was performed on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer (MRPD), at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology's (ANSTO) facility. A critical comparison of the neutron scattering and electron diffraction generated structure factors will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  17. Carbonaceous Materials Obtained from Sewage Sludge for NO2 Removal under Wet Conditions at Room Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the processes of carbonisation and activation on adsorbents obtained from sewage sludge and their sorption properties towards NO 2 were studied. Carbonaceous adsorbents were obtained by carbonisation of sewage sludge at 600 o C for four different times 30, 60, 90 and 120 min followed by activation of the carbonisates by CO 2 at 800 o C for 60 min. Adsorption of NO 2 was carried out in wet air. It has been shown that by appropriate thermal and chemical treatment of sludge, mesoporous adsorbents capable of NO 2 removal can be obtained. The sorption abilities of the carbonised and activated samples to adsorb NO 2 have been shown to increase with increased time of carbonisation and reach maximum for the carbonisation maintained for 90 min. Further increase in this time causes a decrease in the adsorption abilities of the samples. The sorption properties of the carbonisates have been proved to be determined by the chemical character of the surface, while those of the activated samples - by the porous structure. (author)

  18. Optimizing Carbonaceous Nanostructure Composition as a Substrate to Grow Co Electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pourreza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and other adverse environmental effects of fossil fuels have forced humans to consider clean and renewable energy resources. In this context, hydrogen production from water splitting reaction is a key approach. In order to reduce required overpotential for water oxidation reaction, it is necessary to use low cost and earth abundant electrocatalysts like Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn nanostructures. Herein, cobalt nanostructures on steel-mesh substrate were applied. Electrochemical method was used for growth of Co nanoflakes because of its simplicity and scalability for commercial approach. On the other hand, using carbonaceous support layers including nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, can reduce overpotential and increase efficiency of the electrocatalyst.  According to the results, 40 wt% of graphene oxide and 60 wt% of carbon nanotubes in prepared carbon paste led to better growth for cobalt oxide nanoflakes. For the mentioned layer, cobalt was detected in metallic crystalline phase and the overpotential and electrical resistance measured 305 mV and 20 Ω, respectively.

  19. Removal of mercury from water by carbonaceous sorbents derived from walnut shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihi, M.; Ahmadpour, A.; Asl, A. Haghighi

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbon (PAC) derived from walnut shell was investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbent for the control of Hg(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from Iranian walnut shell (WS) were prepared by chemical activation method using ZnCl 2 as an activating reagent. To the best of our knowledge, this adsorbent was not used before for removing mercury from water. Adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was carried out under different experimental conditions by varying treatment time, metal ion concentration, adsorbent amount, pH and solution temperature. It was determined that Hg(II) adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as pseudo-second-order kinetics. It was also shown that Hg(II) uptake decreases with increasing pH of the solution. The proper choice of preparation conditions resulted in a microporous activated carbon with 0.45 g/cm 3 density, 737 mg/g iodine number and 780 m 2 /g BET surface area. The monolayer sorption capacity of this optimum adsorbent was obtained as 151.5 mg/g.

  20. Evaluation of the growth of carbonaceous deposit in steady state Tore Supra using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteau, R.; Guilhem, D.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J. C.; Roche, H.; Buravand, Y.; Chantant, M.; Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Grosman, A.; Chappuis, P.

    2006-03-01

    Fusion devices with carbon as the main armour material are experiencing a growth in carbonaceous deposits at the surface of the plasma facing components. Tore Supra presents such deposits, and has specific features which influence their growth: long pulse operation and cooled walls. Deposits have a low thermal transfer to the cooled structure so that they appear as hot areas with the infrared imaging system looking at the elements surface temperature during plasma discharges. A 'degree of (carbon) deposit' on the toroidal pumped limiter is estimated by establishing the ratio between the apparent power on the limiter derived from the infrared measure and the actual one, deduced from a power balance analysis between the injected and the radiated power. This criterion is used to monitor the evolution of the deposit average thermal resistance. Successive shots have a similar 'degree of deposit', showing that the evaluation makes sense. Two years of data have been compiled (2003 and 2004), representing 3000 discharges (13 h of plasma, including 30 discharges longer than one minute). A three-fold increase in the 'degree of deposit' over six months is evidenced, following a limiter clean-up early in 2003. A comparison with calorimetric data produces a similar result, albeit less pronounced. Large steps in the degree of deposit are sometimes observed, usually correlated with identified events such as disruption, vessel opening, conditioning or plasma parameters change. It indicates that the deposit thermal resistance can change rapidly, although a systematic correlation with the above mentioned events could not be established.

  1. Hydrolysis of Selected Tropical Plant Wastes Catalyzed by a Magnetic Carbonaceous Acid with Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tong-Chao; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jia; Li, Xing-Kang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, magnetic carbonaceous acids were synthesized by pyrolysis of the homogeneous mixtures of glucose and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and subsequent sulfonation. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a catalyst with both high acid density (0.75 mmol g-1) and strong magnetism [magnetic saturation, Ms = 19.5 Am2 kg-1]. The screened catalyst (C-SO3H/Fe3O4) was used to hydrolyze ball-milled cellulose in a microwave reactor with total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 25.3% under the best conditions at 190 °C for 3.5 h. It was cycled for at least seven times with high catalyst recovery rate (92.8%), acid density (0.63 mmol g-1) and magnetism (Ms = 12.9 Am2 kg-1), as well as high TRS yield (20.1%) from the hydrolysis of ball-milled cellulose. The catalyst was further successfully tested for the hydrolysis of tropical biomass with high TRS and glucose yields of 79.8% and 58.3% for bagasse, 47.2% and 35.6% for Jatropha hulls, as well as 54.4% and 35.8% for Plukenetia hulls.

  2. Biomineralization-Inspired Synthesis of Cerium-Doped Carbonaceous Nanoparticles for Highly Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shenqiang; Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lirong; Guo, Fan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Tan, Youwen; Gong, Aihua; Fang, Zhengzou; Ju, Huixiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Du, Fengyi

    2018-03-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles recently have received extensive attention in biomedical applications due to their excellent anti-oxidation performance. In this study, a simple, mild, and green approach was developed to synthesize cerium-doped carbonaceous nanoparticles (Ce-doped CNPs) using bio-mineralization of bull serum albumin (BSA) as precursor. The resultant Ce-doped CNPs exhibited uniform and ultrasmall morphology with an average size of 14.7 nm. XPS and FTIR results revealed the presence of hydrophilic group on the surface of Ce-doped CNPs, which resulted in excellent dispersity in water. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that Ce-doped CNPs possessed favorable biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity. Using H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) as model, Ce-doped CNPs showed highly hydroxyl radical scavenging capability. Furthermore, flow cytometry and live-dead staining results indicated that Ce-doped CNPs protected cells from H2O2-induced damage in a dose-dependent effect, which provided a direct evidence for anti-oxidative performance. These findings suggest that Ce-doped CNPs as novel ROS scavengers may provide a potential therapeutic prospect in treating diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  3. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez S, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na + and Fe 3+ solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous material

  4. Fundamental adsorption characteristics of carbonaceous adsorbents for 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in a model gas of an incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2005-08-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents such as activated carbon have been used to reduce the emission of organic pollutants from incineration plants. However, with this method, the amount and type of adsorbent to be used are based only on empirical results, which may lead to overuse of the adsorbents. The fundamental adsorption characteristics of several kinds of activated carbon, activated coke, and carbide wood were examined using 1 ,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene as an adsorbate. The removal performance and various equilibrium adsorption characteristics of these adsorbents were analyzed using laboratory-scale adsorption equipment. The equilibrium adsorption amount increased by a factor of 1.9-3.2 at 150 degrees C compared with that at 190 degrees C. The effect of the moisture content on adsorption capacity was relatively small in comparison with that of the temperature. The micropore volume for pore diameters of 2 nm or less was the most important factor governing the adsorption capacity for all adsorbents. Activated carbon showed superior adsorption ability compared to activated coke and carbide wood, although all adsorbents were sufficient for practical use.

  5. Direct Simple Shear Test Data Analysis using Jupyter Notebooks on DesignSafe-CI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, M.; Esteva, M.; Brandenberg, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the large number of files and their complex structure, managing data generated during natural hazards experiments requires scalable and specialized tools. DesignSafe-CI (https://www.designsafe-ci.org/) is a web-based research platform that provides computational tools to analyze, curate, and publish critical data for natural hazards research making it understandable and reusable. We present a use case from a series of Direct Simple Shear (DSS) experiments in which we used DS-CI to post-process, visualize, publish, and enable further analysis of the data. Current practice in geotechnical design against earthquakes relies on the soil's plasticity index (PI) to assess liquefaction susceptibility, and cyclic softening triggering procedures, although, quite divergent recommendations on recommended levels of plasticity can be found in the literature for these purposes. A series of cyclic and monotonic direct simple shear experiments was conducted on three low-plasticity fine-grained mixtures at the same plasticity index to examine the effectiveness of the PI in characterization of these types of materials. Results revealed that plasticity index is an insufficient indicator of the cyclic behavior of low-plasticity fine-grained soils, and corrections for pore fluid chemistry and clay minerology may be necessary for future liquefaction susceptibility and cyclic softening assessment procedures. Each monotonic, or cyclic experiment contains two stages; consolidation and shear, which include time series of load, displacement, and corresponding stresses and strains, as well as equivalent excess pore-water pressure. Using the DS-CI curation pipeline we categorized the data to display and describe the experiment's structure and files corresponding to each stage of the experiments. Two separate notebooks in Python 3 were created using the Jupyter application available in DS-CI. A data plotter aids visualizing the experimental data in relation to the sensor from which it was

  6. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows

  7. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows the

  8. Investigation of Carbonaceous Aerosol Optical Properties to Understand Impacts on Air Quality and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael R.

    The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols were investigated to understand the impact source emissions and ambient particulate matter (PM) have on atmospheric radiative forcing. Black carbon (BC) is a strong absorber of visible light and contributes highly to atmospheric radiative forcing, therefore it is important to link BC properties to combustion emission sources. Brown carbon (BrC) is poorly understood and may be an important contributor to both positive and negative radiative forcing. The research investigates these primary knowledge gaps. The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols were investigated to understand the impact source emissions and ambient particulate matter (PM) have on atmospheric radiative forcing. Black carbon (BC) is a strong absorber of visible light and contributes highly to atmospheric radiative forcing, therefore it is important to link BC properties to combustion emission sources. Brown carbon (BrC) is poorly understood and may be an important contributor to both positive and negative radiative forcing. The research investigates these primary knowledge gaps. Multiple methods were developed and applied to quantify the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) at multiple wavelengths of source and ambient samples. The MAC of BC was determined to be approximately 7.5 m2g-1 at 520nm. However, the MAC was highly variable with OC fraction and wavelength. The BrC MAC was similar for all sources, with the highest absorption in the UV at 370nm; the MAC quickly decreases at larger wavelengths. In the UV, the light absorption by BrC could exceed BC contribution by over 100 times, but only when the OC fraction is large (>90%) as compared to the total carbon. BrC was investigated by measuring the light absorption of solvent extracted fractions in water, dichloromethane, and methanol. Source emissions exhibited greater light absorption in methanol extractions as compared to water and DCM extracts. The BrC MAC was 2.4 to 3.7 m2g-1 at 370nm in

  9. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from various carbonaceous feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, P.; Czernichowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Pure Hydrogen or its mixture with Carbon Monoxide (called Synthesis Gas) will be massively extracted from various fossil or renewable feedstocks. Such matters contain contaminants (principally Sulphur) that make conventional catalytic reforming technologies very difficult to run without a prior deep cleaning of the feeds in order to avoid the reformer's catalyst poisoning. We propose a non-catalytic process in which almost any carbonaceous feed is converted into the Synthesis Gas in a presence of high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc) that assist the exothermic Partial Oxidation POX). The unique oxidant is air. This contribution presents some of our tests with natural gas, cyclohexane, heptane, toluene, various gasolines, and various diesel oils (including logistic ones). In two separate contributions to this Conference we present our more expanded studies on the GlidArc-assisted POX reforming of commercial propane and rapeseed oil (canola). Our reactors (1- or 2-Liter scale) work at atmospheric pressure and need less than 0.5 kW electric power (rather about 0.1 kW) to produce up to 9 m 3 (n)/h of Nitrogen-diluted SynGas containing up to 27% of H 2 and up to 23% of CO. Such assisting power represents roughly less than 5% (rather around 2%) with respect to the Lower Heating Value of produced Synthesis Gas (up to 11 kW). Recycling such relatively small portion of the power is an acceptable compromise. All tested feeds are totally reformed. No soot is observed at a sufficient O/C ratio. (author)

  10. Sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in two largest cities in Pearl River Delta Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Cheng, Dingxi; Bi, Xinhui; Deng, Wenjing; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Wong, M. H.

    PM 2.5 samples were collected at five sites in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, Pearl River Delta Region (PRDR), China in both summer and winter during 2004-2005. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in these samples were measured. The OC and EC concentrations ranked in the order of urban Guangzhou > urban Hong Kong > background Hong Kong. Total carbonaceous aerosol (TCA) contributed less to PM 2.5 in urban Guangzhou (32-35%) than that in urban Hong Kong (43-57%). The reason may be that, as an major industrial city in South China, Guangzhou would receive large amount of inorganic aerosol from all kinds of industries, however, as a trade center and seaport, urban Hong Kong would mainly receive organic aerosol and EC from container vessels and heavy-duty diesel trucks. At Hong Kong background site Hok Tsui, relatively lower contribution of TCA to PM 2.5 may result from contributions of marine inorganic aerosol and inland China pollutant. Strong correlation ( R2=0.76-0.83) between OC and EC indicates minor fluctuation of emission and the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in urban Guangzhou. Weak correlation between OC and EC in Hong Kong can be related to the impact of the long-range transported aerosol from inland China. Averagely, secondary OC (SOC) concentrations were 3.8-5.9 and 10.2-12.8 μg m -3, respectively, accounting for 21-32% and 36-42% of OC in summer and winter in Guangzhou. The average values of 4.2-6.8% for SOA/ PM 2.5 indicate that SOA was minor component in PM 2.5 in Guangzhou.

  11. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m 2 between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m 2 depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  12. Occurrence of nitrogenous and carbonaceous disinfection byproducts in drinking water distributed in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Zhu, Haihui; Gan, Wenhui; Chen, Xue; Yang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    A 12-month sampling program was conducted throughout a drinking water distribution system in Shenzhen and the data from 251 samples provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of 17 species disinfection by-products (DBPs) in a city with subtropical monsoon climate. The carbonaceous disinfection by-product (C-DBPs) included four trihalomethanes (THMs), three trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs) and two haloketones (HKs). Their median concentrations over the entire period were 19.9 μg/L, 3.4 μg/L and 1.4 μg/L, respectively. The nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) monitored were four haloacetonitriles (HANs) and four haloacetamides (HAcAms). Their median levels were 2.0 μg/L and 1.5 μg/L, respectively. Low levels of brominated DBP species (bromine substitution factors ≤ 0.5) were observed. The BSF of each DBP class followed the trend: THMs ≈ DHAcAms > DHANs > THAs. All the DBP concentrations showed clear seasonal variations with the highest average concentrations in spring. Correlation analyses showed that the THMs and CH levels in Shenzhen drinking water could be used as statistical indicators of the levels of unregulated N-DBPs (0.4 water in China, and provide an important reference data set for DBP occurrence in cities with a subtropical monsoon climate around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Global Modeling Study on Carbonaceous Aerosol Microphysical Characteristics and Radiative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S. E.; Menon, S.; Koch, D.; Bond, T. C.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, indirect and semi-direct aerosol effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and the way that mixed, aged aerosols interact with clouds and radiation. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the GISS climate model is used in this study to present a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative effects. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative flux change between 1750 and 2000 is -0.56 W/m2. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are quite sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative flux change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m2 depending on these carbonaceous particle properties at emission. Taking into account internally mixed black carbon particles let us simulate correct aerosol absorption. Absorption of black carbon aerosols is amplified by sulfate and nitrate coatings and, even more strongly, by organic coatings. Black carbon mitigation scenarios generally showed reduced radiative fluxeswhen sources with a large proportion of black carbon, such as diesel, are reduced; however reducing sources with a larger organic carbon component as well, such as bio-fuels, does not necessarily lead to a reduction in positive radiative flux.

  14. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Zaveri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The US Department of Energy (DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites – one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area – were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and "aged" urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: (a the scientific background and motivation for the study, (b the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, (c an overview of key observations and initial findings from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and (d a roadmap

  15. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, M.; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D. B.; Baidar, S.; Banta, R. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Beranek, J.; Berg, L. K.; Brechtel, F.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, J. F.; Cairns, B.; Cappa, C. D.; Chand, D.; China, S.; Comstock, J. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Easter, R. C.; Erickson, M. H.; Fast, J. D.; Floerchinger, C.; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, E.; Gaffney, J. S.; Gilles, M. K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, W. I.; Gyawali, M.; Hair, J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, S.; Hiranuma, N.; Hostetler, C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, B. T.; Kassianov, E. I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, C.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, C.; Kubátová, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, A.; Laulainen, N.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mei, F.; Moffet, R. C.; Nelson, D.; Obland, M. D.; Oetjen, H.; Onasch, T. B.; Ortega, I.; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, M.; Prather, K. A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, R. R.; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, A.; Senff, C. J.; Senum, G.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J. E.; Shrivastava, M.; Song, C.; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Volkamer, R.; Wallace, H. W.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Yu, X. -Y.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites – one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area – were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and “aged” urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial findings from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of

  16. Carbonaceous Chondrite Meteorites: the Chronicle of a Potential Evolutionary Path between Stars and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Shock, Everett

    2017-09-01

    The biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, P and S, have a long cosmic history, whose evolution can still be observed in diverse locales of the known universe, from interstellar clouds of gas and dust, to pre-stellar cores, nebulas, protoplanetary discs, planets and planetesimals. The best analytical window into this cosmochemical evolution as it neared Earth has been provided so far by the small bodies of the Solar System, some of which were not significantly altered by the high gravitational pressures and temperatures that accompanied the formation of larger planets and may carry a pristine record of early nebular chemistry. Asteroids have delivered such records, as their fragments reach the Earth frequently and become available for laboratory analyses. The Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorites (CC) are a group of such fragments with the further distinction of containing abundant organic materials with structures as diverse as kerogen-like macromolecules and simpler compounds with identical counterparts in Earth's biosphere. All have revealed a lineage to cosmochemical synthetic regimes. Several CC show that asteroids underwent aqueous alteration of their minerals or rock metamorphism but may yet yield clues to the reactivity of organic compounds during parent-body processes, on asteroids as well as larger ocean worlds and planets. Whether the exogenous delivery by meteorites held an advantage in Earth's molecular evolution remains an open question as many others regarding the origins of life are. Nonetheless, the natural samples of meteorites allow exploring the physical and chemical processes that might have led to a selected chemical pool amenable to the onset of life. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Organic composition of carbonaceous aerosols in an aged prescribed fire plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Aged smoke from a prescribed fire (dominated by conifers impacted Atlanta, GA on 28 February 2007 and dramatically increased hourly ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and organic carbon (OC up to 140 and 72 μg m−3, respectively. It was estimated that over 1 million residents were exposed to the smoky air lasting from the late afternoon to midnight. To better understand the processes impacting the aging of fire plumes, a detailed chemical speciation of carbonaceous aerosols was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis. Ambient concentrations of many organic species (levoglucosan, resin acids, retene, n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids associated with wood burning emission were significantly elevated on the event day. Levoglucosan increased by a factor of 10, while hopanes, steranes, cholesterol and major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs did not show obvious increases. Strong odd over even carbon number predominance was found for n-alkanes versus even over odd predominance for n-alkanoic acids. Alteration of resin acids during transport from burning sites to monitors is suggested by the observations. Our study also suggests that large quantities of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs were released both as products of combustion and unburned vegetation heated by the fire. Higher leaf temperature can stimulate biogenic VOC and SVOC emissions, which enhanced formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the atmosphere. This is supported by elevated ambient concentrations of secondary organic tracers (dicarboxylic acids, 2-methyltetrols, pinonic acid and pinic acid. An approximate source profile was built for the aged fire plume to help better understand evolution of wood smoke emission and for use in source impact assessment.

  18. The significant role of carboxylated carbonaceous fragments in the electrochemistry of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Jia, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Liande

    2014-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely employed as electrode materials in diverse branches of electrochemistry, which are claimed to display dramatically improved electrochemical behaviour compared to the conventional carbon materials. But a series of recent publications have demonstrated that the electrocatalysis of CNTs might be due to the presence of some impurities, such as metallic catalysts, nanographitic particles and amorphous carbon. For this reason, CNTs are usually purified or treated with nitric acid or nitric and sulphuric acid prior to their versatile applications. However, the strong acidic and oxidative conditions are so aggressive that serious erosion of the tube structures has inevitably taken place, which creates defects on the sidewalls and gives rise to numerous molecular byproducts, commonly referred as carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (CCFs). The adsorption of CCFs on CNTs greatly alters the surface conditions of CNTs which may significantly impact on their electrochemical properties. To this end, we wish to disclose whether the electrocatalysis of the nitric acid purified CNTs is affected by the adsorption of the CCFs. Ascorbic acid (AA) and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as selected as the targeting benchmarks that are known to be insensitive to the presence of metallic impurities, which may guarantee the preclusion of the promoting contributions from the metallic catalysts resident in CNTs. We have demonstrated that the electrocatalytic activities of the CNTs are actually dominated by the adsorbed CCFs generated during the acidic pre-treatment. After removal of the CCFs by base rinse, the electrocatalytic properties of CNTs are greatly deteriorated and degraded to the level similar to the conventional graphite powder. We believe this finding is particularly meaningful to uncover the mysterious electrocatalysis of CNTs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Korzyści z podejmowania regularnej aktywności fizycznej przez osoby starsze = The benefits of regular physical activity for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kaźmierczak

    2015-01-01

    3Wydział Kultury Fizycznej, Zdrowia i Turystyki, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy   Słowa kluczowe: regularna aktywność fizyczna, osoby starsze.   Keywords: regular physical activity, elderly.   Abstrakt W państwach rozwiniętych i rozwijających się coraz większą grupę społeczeństw stanowią seniorzy. Świadomość problemu spowodowała podjęcie powszechnej dyskusji ekspertów i praktyków z dziedzin medycznych na temat konieczności działań niezbędnych dla zapewnienia społeczeństwom pomyślnej starości. Od dawna wskazuje się, że brak aktywności ruchowej jest dla zdrowia niebezpieczny. Starzeniu się układu sercowo-naczyniowego towarzyszy dużo niekorzystnych zmian strukturalnych, czynnościowych i biochemicznych. Za typowe dla tego okresu zmiany uważa się osłabienie możliwości relaksacji włókien mięśniowych, co może być przyczyną rozkurczowej niewydolności serca. Trening zdrowotny – jest rodzajem aktywności fizycznej wykonywanej z powodów medycznych. Celem jest uzyskanie efektów fizycznych oraz psychicznych przeciwdziałających zmniejszaniu się zdolności adaptacyjnych organizmu. Eksperci przekonują osoby starsze o korzyściach płynących z aktywnego fizycznie stylu życia. Bogate piśmiennictwo poruszające tematykę medycznych aspektów procesu starzenia, mówi o niezaprzeczalnym znaczeniu ruchu dla toczących się w ludzkim ciele procesów inwolucyjnych. Aktywność fizyczna odpowiednio dozowana jest w stanie wyraźnie zmniejszyć negatywny wpływ tych zmian i jak najdłużej pozwolić utrzymać zdrowie fizyczne, psychiczne i społeczne. Zauważono, że systematycznie dozowany wysiłek fizyczny zmniejsza ryzyko wystąpienia wielu chorób np. cukrzycy, miażdżycy, choroby niedokrwiennej serca. Liczne badania naukowe i bogate piśmiennictwo gerontologiczne przedstawiają najnowsze doniesienia specjalistów o tym, jak należy prawidłowo przygotować i prowadzić trening fizyczny z osobami starszymi

  20. Isolating Weakly and Strongly-Absorbing Classes of Carbonaceous Aerosol: Optical Properties, Abundance and Lifecycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Rood, Mark J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Riemer, Nicole [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The goal of this project was to evaluate climate-relevant properties of carbonaceous particles and the transformations of those particles in the atmosphere, with the purpose of developing lumped classes of carbonaceous particles suitable for use in large-scale models. These climate-relevant properties included light absorption and hygroscopicity. Hygroscopicity is a measure of water affinity, which governs particle growth at humid conditions and absorption and scattering under those conditions. It also controls particles’ activation into cloud droplets, which in turn affects cloud albedo and particle removal. This project used laboratory measurements of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosol, and predictions of properties using a particle-resolved model, to identify sensitivities. The focus in this project was on aerosol from biomass pyrolysis, abbreviated BrC (“brown carbon”). We measured absorption by aerosol from biomass pyrolysis from two sources with very different composition: wood and corn stalk. For both sources, the greatest light absorption occurred at the highest generation temperature, and this maximum absorption was very similar to that of wood-generated aerosol. We suggest that pyrolysis products can be considered surrogates for a wide range of biomass aerosol. We captured aerosol emitted from biomass pyrolysis on filters and exposed it to ultraviolet radiation, to the atmospheric trace gases ozone, ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxide; and to aqueous saturated salt solutions of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Absorption increased, but by only small amounts for all of these treatments, with one exception: after aging with ammonia, absorption increased by almost a factor of four. Absorption increased more at visible wavelengths. We confirmed that a significant change occurred in the aerosol phase, by measuring absorption by suspended particles after aging with NH3 and finding doubled aerosol

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: Assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G; Del Águila, A; Cazorla, A; Lyamani, H; Casquero-Vera, J A; Colombi, C; Cuccia, E; Gianelle, V; Močnik, G; Alastuey, A; Olmo, F J; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. The Aethalometer model takes advantage of the different spectral behavior of BB and fossil fuel (FF) combustion aerosols. The model was found to be more sensitive to the assumed value of the aerosol Ångström exponent (AAE) for FF (AAE ff ) than to the AAE for BB (AAE bb ). As result of various sensitivity tests the model was optimized with AAE ff =1.1 and AAE bb =2. The Aethalometer model and levoglucosan tracer estimates were in good agreement. The Aethalometer model was further applied to data from three sites in Granada urban area to evaluate the spatial variation of CM ff and CM bb (carbonaceous matter from FF or BB origin, respectively) concentrations within the city. The results showed that CM bb was lower in the city centre while it has an unexpected profound impact on the CM levels measured in the suburbs (about 40%). Analysis of BB tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that BB was dominated by sources outside the city, to the west in a rural area. Distinguishing whether it corresponds to agricultural waste burning or with biomass burning for domestic heating was not possible. This study also shows that although traffic restrictions measures contribute to reduce carbonaceous concentrations, the extent of the reduction is very local. Other sources such as BB, which can contribute to CM as much as traffic emissions, should be targeted to reduce air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM{sub 2.5} from Sanya, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingzhi [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Ho, Steven Sai Hang [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Cao, Junji, E-mail: cao@loess.llqg.ac.cn [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Huang, Rujin [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Zhou, Jiamao [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhao, Youzhi [College of Science and Technology, Qiongzhou University, Sanya (China); Xu, Hongmei [Department of Environmntal Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liu, Suixin; Wang, Gehui [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); and others

    2015-10-15

    PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in Sanya, China in summer and winter in 2012/2013. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (n-C{sub 14}-n-C{sub 40}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified. The concentrations of these carbonaceous matters were generally higher in winter than summer. The estimated secondary organic carbon (OC{sub sec}) accounted for 38% and 54% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in winter and summer, respectively. The higher value of OC{sub sec} in addition to the presences of photochemically-produced PAHs in summer supports that photochemical conversions of organics are much active at the higher air temperatures and with stronger intense solar radiation. Carbon preference index (CPI) and percent contribution of wax n-alkanes suggest that anthropogenic sources were more dominant than derivation from terrestrial plants in Sanya. Diagnostic ratios of atmospheric PAHs further indicate that there was a wide mix of pollution sources in winter while fossil fuel combustion was the most dominant in summer. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis with 18 PAHs in the winter samples found that motor vehicle emissions and biomass burning were the two main pollution sources, contributing 37.5% and 24.6% of the total quantified PAHs, respectively. - Highlights: • The first comprehensive study to investigate carbonaceous PM{sub 2.5} in Sanya, China • Higher carbonaceous levels in winter while more SOC formation in summer • Anthropogenic emission is the dominant sources of n-alkanes • Vehicle emission and biomass burning contributed ≥60% of the total PAHs in winter • The result supports better air quality in Sanya than most megacities in China.

  3. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Lu, Xixi; Qian, Yun; Paudyal, Rukumesh; Wang, Shijin; Shi, Xiaofei; Yan, Xingguo

    2018-05-01

    Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016) of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ) basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m-3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC / EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l. ) of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC / EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g-1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol-climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC) source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 %) to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  4. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  5. Uranium, yttrium, and rare earth elements accumulation during the Cretaceous anoxic events in carbonaceous rocks in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Olga; Philosofova, Tatyana; Bergal-Kuvikas, Olga; Savelyeva, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the carbonate-siliceous section of paleooceanic Albian-Cenomanian deposits on the Kamchatsky Mys peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia) [1].The section is represented by a rhythmic alternation of planktonic limestones and jaspers, accumulated in the open ocean environment. The rhythmicity can be attributed to climate variations that reflect a fluctuation of astronomical parameters (Milankovitch cycles) [2, 3].The section contains two beds enriched in organic carbon, corresponding to the two oceanic anoxic events - MCE and OAE2 [3]. The maximum content of organic matter in those beds reaches 68%. Our geochemical studies revealed an enrichment of the carbonaceous rocks in some major and trace elements including PGE, in comparison with the surrounding limestone and jasper [4].The accumulation of the ore elements in carbonaceous beds is caused by euxinic conditions during sedimentation.The content of uranium, yttrium, and rare earth elements in carbonaceous rocks is up to 60, 142 and 312 ppm respectively. Phosphate grains (bone detritus) with microinclusions of yttrium and uranium minerals were revealed in the carbonaceous rocks using the scanning electron microscope. These data prove the hypothesis of the sorbtion of U and Y by phosphate detritus from seawater. Microprobe analysis also showed an increased content of Cu, Zn, V in some pyrite framboids, which indicates that these elements are fixed in rocks by Fe-sulphide phase or organic matter under euxinic conditions. Our research may bring us closer to understanding the mechanism of syngenetic accumulation of metals in the black shales. This work was supported by the RFBR (No. 16-05-00546). [1] Palechek, T.N., Savelyev, D.P., Savelyeva, O.L. (2010) Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 18, (1) 63-82. [2] Savelyeva, O.L. (2010). Vestnik Kraunts. Nauki o zemle 1 (15), 45-55 (in Russian). [3] Savelyev, D.P., Savelyeva, O.L., Palechek, T.N., Pokrovsky, B.G. (2012) Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU

  6. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    We interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a 12 yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain specially compiled for this article. Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Conversely, results show marked differences in average concentrations from the cleanest, most remote sites (around 1 μg m-3 of non-mineral carbon (nmC), mostly made of organic carbon (OC) with very little elemental carbon (EC), around 0.1 μg m-3; OC / EC = 12-15), to the highly polluted major cities (8-10 μg m-3 of nmC; 3-4 μg m-3 of EC; 4-5 μg m-3 of OC; OC / EC = 1-2). Thus, urban (and very specific industrial) pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning and of biogenic emissions. Correlations between yearly averaged OC / EC and EC concentrations adjust very well to a potential equation (OC = 3.37 EC0.326, R2 = 0.8). A similar equation is obtained when including average concentrations obtained at other European sites (OC = 3.60EC0.491, R2 = 0.7). A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during the warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance from road, traffic volume and density, mixing-layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between 1999 and 2011 at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions. This has resulted in some cases in an increasing trend for

  7. The use of halogen carriers and buffers in the spectrographic determination of boron in carbonaceous materials and their combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M.I.; Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1992-01-01

    For the determination of boron in carbonaceous materials (high purity graphite, coals and their processed products, such as ashes and slags from thermoelectric power plants) by atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current arc excitation and photographic recording, the behaviour of the analyte in the presence of halide compounds or spectrochemical buffers has been studied. Among the halides, cupric fluoride at a low concentration (2%) becomes very suitable for the graphite analysis, and at a higher concentration (25%) for coals being necessary in this case to carry out a dilution of samples with graphite. Strontium carbonate as a spectrochemical buffer allows to analyse satisfactorily coals and their combustion products. (author)

  8. The use of halogen carriers and buffers in the spectrographic determination of boron in carbonaceous materials and their combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1992-01-01

    For the determination of boron in carbonaceous materials (high purity graphite, coals and their processed products, such as ashes and slags from thermoelectric power plants) by atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic recording, the behaviour of the analyte in the presence of halide compounds or spectrochemical buffers has been studied. Among the halides, cupric fluoride at a low concentration (2%) becomes very suitable for the graphite analysis, and at a higher concentration (25 %) for coals, being necessary in this case to carry out a dilution of samples with graphite. Strontium carbonate as a spectrochemical buffer allows to analyse satisfactorily coals and their combustion products. (Author) 13 refs

  9. Quality evaluation of carbonaceous industrial by-products and its effect on properties of autoclave aerated concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomina, E. V.; Lesovik, V. S.; Fomin, A. E.; Kozhukhova, N. I.; Lebedev, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Argillite is a carbonaceous industrial by-product that is a potential source in environmentally friendly and source-saving construction industry. In this research, chemical and mineral composition as well as particle size distribution of argillite were studied and used to develop autoclave aerated concrete as partial substitute of quartz sand. Effect of the argillite as a mineral admixture in autoclave aerated concrete was investigated in terms of compressive and tensile strength, density, heat conductivity etc. The obtained results demonstrated an efficiency of argillite as an energy-saving material in autoclave construction composites.

  10. Process and apparatus for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A

    1933-09-18

    A process is described for pyrolytic decomposition and coking of mixtures of finely divided solid and semi-solid carbonaceous material and hydrocarbon oils, whereby the mixture is first heated to a high temperature; the heated products are introduced into a coking zone, where vapors are separated from nonvaporous residue afterwards to be cracked and condensed, characterized in that the mixture is heated to a high temperature under substantially noncoking conditions and that nonvaporous residue obtained in the coking zone is coked as a relatively thin layer on an externally intensely heated surface, preferably of heat-conducting, fireproof material, such as carborundum, fused-aluminum oxide, or clay.

  11. Catalytic production of Jatropha biodiesel and hydrogen with magnetic carbonaceous acid and base synthesized from Jatropha hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Fang, Zhen; Shah, Mazloom; Wang, Yi-Tong; Jiang, Wen; Yao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Jatropha seeds were extracted oil for biodiesel production and the hulls were carbonized to load active sites as magnetic carbonaceous solid acid and base catalysts. Crude Jatropha oil was esterified to decrease its acid value to 1.3 from 17.2 mg KOH/g by the solid acid, and subsequently transesterified to biodiesel (96.7% yield) catalyzed by the solid base. After 3 cycles and magnetically separated, the deactivated base was catalyzed the hydrothermal gasification of biodiesel by-product (crude glycerol) with gasification rate of 81% and 82% H_2 purity. - Highlights: • High acid value (AV) crude oil was extracted from Jatropha seeds with waste hulls produced. • Carbonizing the hulls and loading active sites produced magnetic carbonaceous acid and base. • The acid reduced AV of crude oil to 1.3 from 17.2 mg KOH/g and separated for 3 cycles. • The base achieved 97.5% biodiesel yield and magnetically separated for recycles. • After 3 cycles, the deactivated base catalyzed the hydrothermal gasification of glycerol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbonaceous solid acid (C-SO_3H@Fe/JHC) and base (Na_2SiO_3@Ni/JRC) catalysts were synthesized by loading active groups on the carbonaceous supporters derived from Jatropha-hull hydrolysate and hydrolysis residue. Characterization of their morphology, magnetic saturation, functional groups and total acid/base contents were performed by various techniques. Additional acidic functional groups that formed with Jatropha-hull hydrolysate contributed to the high acidity of C-SO_3H@Fe/JHC catalyst for the pretreatment (esterification) of crude Jatropha oil with high acid values (AV). The AV of esterified Jatropha oil dropped down from 17.2 to 1.3 mg KOH/g, achieving a high biodiesel yield of 96.7% after subsequent transesterification reaction with Na_2SiO_3@Ni/JRC base that was cycled at least 3 times with little loss of catalysis activity. Both solid acid and base catalysts were easily recovered by magnetic force

  12. Kinetic-energy matrix elements for atomic Hylleraas-CI wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Frank E., E-mail: harris@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Hylleraas-CI is a superposition-of-configurations method in which each configuration is constructed from a Slater-type orbital (STO) product to which is appended (linearly) at most one interelectron distance r{sub ij}. Computations of the kinetic energy for atoms by this method have been difficult due to the lack of formulas expressing these matrix elements for general angular momentum in terms of overlap and potential-energy integrals. It is shown here that a strategic application of angular-momentum theory, including the use of vector spherical harmonics, enables the reduction of all atomic kinetic-energy integrals to overlap and potential-energy matrix elements. The new formulas are validated by showing that they yield correct results for a large number of integrals published by other investigators.

  13. Long-term (2001-2012) trends of carbonaceous aerosols from a remote island in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mozammel Haque, M.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports on long-term trends of carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected at Chichijima in the western North Pacific during 2001-2012. Seasonal variations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations showed maxima in winter to spring and minima in summer. These seasonal differences in the concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were associated with the outflows of polluted air masses from East Asia, which are clearly distinguishable from pristine air masses from the central Pacific. The higher concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols during winter to spring are associated with long-range atmospheric transport of East Asian continental polluted air masses, whereas lower concentrations may be due to pristine air masses from the central Pacific in summer. The annual trends of OC / EC (+0.46 % yr-1), WSOC (+0.18 % yr-1) and WSOC / OC (+0.08 % yr-1) showed significant (p Asia.

  14. Spectral reflectance "deconstruction" of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and implications for spectroscopic investigations of dark asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Pietrasz, Valerie B.; Kiddell, Cain; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Vernazza, Pierre; Burbine, Thomas H.; DeMeo, Francesca; Tait, Kimberly T.; Bell, James F.; Mann, Paul; Applin, Daniel M.; Reddy, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) are important materials for understanding the early evolution of the solar system and delivery of volatiles and organic material to the early Earth. Presumed CC-like asteroids are also the targets of two current sample return missions: OSIRIS-REx to asteroid Bennu and Hayabusa-2 to asteroid Ryugu, and the Dawn orbital mission at asteroid Ceres. To improve our ability to identify and characterize CM2 CC-type parent bodies, we have examined how factors such as particle size, particle packing, and viewing geometry affect reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 CC. The derived relationships have implications for disc-resolved examinations of dark asteroids and sampleability. It has been found that reflectance spectra of slabs are more blue-sloped (reflectance decreasing toward longer wavelengths as measured by the 1.8/0.6 μm reflectance ratio), and generally darker, than powdered sample spectra. Decreasing the maximum grain size of a powdered sample results in progressively brighter and more red-sloped spectra. Decreasing the average grain size of a powdered sample results in a decrease in diagnostic absorption band depths, and redder and brighter spectra. Decreasing porosity of powders and variations in surface texture result in spectral changes that may be different as a function of viewing geometry. Increasing thickness of loose dust on a denser powdered substrate leads to a decrease in absorption band depths. Changes in viewing geometry lead to different changes in spectral metrics depending on whether the spectra are acquired in backscatter or forward-scatter geometries. In backscattered geometry, increasing phase angle leads to an initial increase and then decrease in spectral slope, and a general decrease in visible region reflectance and absorption band depths, and frequent decreases in absorption band minima positions. In forward scattering geometry, increasing phase angle leads to small non-systematic changes in spectral slope

  15. As ciências naturais e as ciências do espírito na era da globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeschke, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, o autor apresenta, primeiramente, reflexões de cunho histórico sobre a relação entre as Ciências Naturais e as Ciências do Espírito, seguidas de observações, de caráter mais sistemático, sobre o conceito das próprias Ciências do Espírito. Com fundamento nessas observações, tece algumas reflexões sobre até que ponto podemos esperar da globalização efeitos sobre as Ciências Naturais e as Ciências do Espírito

  16. COMETARY ORIGIN OF THE ZODIACAL CLOUD AND CARBONACEOUS MICROMETEORITES. IMPLICATIONS FOR HOT DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorny, David; Levison, Harold F.; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter; Vokrouhlicky, David; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    The zodiacal cloud is a thick circumsolar disk of small debris particles produced by asteroid collisions and comets. Their relative contribution and how particles of different sizes dynamically evolve to produce the observed phenomena of light scattering, thermal emission, and meteoroid impacts are unknown. Until now, zodiacal cloud models have been phenomenological in nature, composed of ad hoc components with properties not understood from basic physical processes. Here, we present a zodiacal cloud model based on the orbital properties and lifetimes of comets and asteroids, and on the dynamical evolution of dust after ejection. The model is quantitatively constrained by Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations of thermal emission, but also qualitatively consistent with other zodiacal cloud observations, with meteor observations, with spacecraft impact experiments, and with properties of recovered micrometeorites (MMs). We find that particles produced by Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) are scattered by Jupiter before they are able to orbitally decouple from the planet and drift down to 1 AU. Therefore, the inclination distribution of JFC particles is broader than that of their source comets and leads to good fits to the broad latitudinal distribution of fluxes observed by IRAS. We find that 85%-95% of the observed mid-infrared emission is produced by particles from JFCs and 100 μm undergo a further collisional cascade with smaller fragments being progressively more affected by Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag. Upon reaching D -1 mean for D = 100-200 μm with ∼12 km s -1 being the most common case), many JFC grains should survive frictional heating and land on Earth's surface. This explains why most MMs collected in antarctic ice have primitive carbonaceous composition. The present mass of the inner zodiacal cloud at 19 g, mainly in D = 100-200 μm particles. The inner zodiacal cloud should have been >10 4 times brighter during the Late Heavy Bombardment

  17. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  18. Ultraviolet reflectance spectroscopy measurements of carbonaceous meteorites and planetary analog materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, Charles A.; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen; Takir, Driss

    2017-10-01

    The compositions of airless solar system objects tell us about the origin and evolutionary processes that are responsible for the current state of our solar system and that shape our environment. Spectral reflectance measurements in the ultraviolet are being used more frequently for providing compositional information of airless solid surfaces. Most minerals absorb in the UV making studying surface composition both informative but also challenging [e.g. 1]. The UV region is sensitive to atomic and molecular electronic absorptions such as the ligand-metal charge transfer band that is present in oxides and silicates and the conduction band at vacuum UV wavelengths. At the JHU-APL, bidirectional UV reflectance measurements are obtained under vacuum using a McPherson monochrometer with a PMT detector to achieve measurements over the range from ~ 140 nm to ~ 570 nm. Sample temperature can also be controlled from ~ 100K to ~ 600K, which enables the exploring the interaction of water ice and other volatiles with refractory samples. We have measured the UV spectra of many carbonaceous chondrites, including Mokoia, Vigarano, Warrenton, Orgueil, SaU290, and Essebi. In addition to being dark, some also possess on OMCT band. We have also obtained IR measurement of these meteorites to explore possible correlations between their UV and IR spectral signatures. In addition, we have also measured the UV spectra of low water content lunar analog glasses and have found a correlation between the spectral nature of the OMCT band and the abundance of iron [3]. Also, the spectral signature of mineralic and adsorbed water in the UV has been investigated. While water-ice has a known strong absorption feature near 180 nm (e.g. 4], adsorbed molecular and disassociatively adsorbed OH appear to not be optically active in this spectral region [5]. References: [1] Wagner et al. (1987) Icarus, 69, 14-28.1987; [2] Cloutis et al. (2008) Icarus, 197, 321-347; [3] Greenspon et al. (2012), 43rd LPSC

  19. Mineral associations and character of isotopically anomalous organic material in the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Busemann, Henner; Nittler, Larry R.; Hoppe, Peter; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Young, Andrea F.

    2010-10-01

    We report a coordinated analytical study of matrix material in the Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite in which the same small (⩽20 μm) fragments were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). SIMS analysis reveals H and N isotopic anomalies (hotspots), ranging from hundreds to thousands of nanometers in size, which are present throughout the fragments. Although the differences in spatial resolution of the SIMS techniques we have used introduce some uncertainty into the exact location of the hotspots, in general, the H and N isotopic anomalies are spatially correlated with C enrichments, suggesting an organic carrier. TEM analysis, enabled by site-specific extraction using a focused-ion-beam scanning-electron microscope, shows that the hotspots contain an amorphous component, Fe-Ni sulfides, serpentine, and mixed-cation carbonates. TEM imaging reveals that the amorphous component occurs in solid and porous forms, EDS indicates that it contains abundant C, and EELS and XANES at the C K edge reveal that it is largely aromatic. This amorphous component is probably macromolecular C, likely the carrier of the isotopic anomalies, and similar to the material extracted from bulk samples as insoluble organic matter. However, given the large sizes of some of the hotspots, the disparity in spatial resolution among the various techniques employed in our study, and the phases with which they are associated, we cannot entirely rule out that some of the isotopic anomalies are carried by inorganic material, e.g., sheet silicates. The isotopic composition of the organic matter points to an initially primitive origin, quite possibly within cold interstellar clouds or the outer reaches of the solar protoplanetary disk. The association of organic material with secondary phases, e.g., serpentine

  20. Crystallography of refractory metal nuggets in carbonaceous chondrites: A transmission Kikuchi diffraction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Luke; Bland, Phil A.; Dyl, Kathryn A.; Forman, Lucy V.; Saxey, David W.; Reddy, Steven M.; Fougerouse, Denis; Rickard, William D. A.; Trimby, Patrick W.; Moody, Steve; Yang, Limei; Liu, Hongwei; Ringer, Simon P.; Saunders, Martin; Piazolo, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) is a relatively new technique that is currently being developed for geological sample analysis. This technique utilises the transmission capabilities of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to rapidly and accurately map the crystallographic and geochemical features of an electron transparent sample. TKD uses a similar methodology to traditional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), but is capable of achieving a much higher spatial resolution (5-10 nm) (Trimby, 2012; Trimby et al., 2014). Here we apply TKD to refractory metal nuggets (RMNs) which are micrometre to sub-micrometre metal alloys composed of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) found in primitive carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. TKD allows us to analyse RMNs in situ, enabling the characterisation of nanometre-scale variations in chemistry and crystallography, whilst preserving their spatial and crystallographic context. This provides a complete representation of each RMN, permitting detailed interpretation of their formation history. We present TKD analysis of five transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamellae containing RMNs coupled with EBSD and TEM analyses. These analyses revealed textures and relationships not previously observed in RMNs. These textures indicate some RMNs experienced annealing, forming twins. Some RMNs also acted as nucleation centres, and formed immiscible metal-silicate fluids. In fact, each RMN analysed in this study had different crystallographic textures. These RMNs also had heterogeneous compositions, even between RMNs contained within the same inclusion, host phase and even separated by only a few nanometres. Some RMNs are also affected by secondary processes at low temperature causing exsolution of molybdenite. However, most RMNs had crystallographic textures indicating that the RMN formed prior to their host inclusion. TKD analyses reveal most RMNs have been affected by processing in the protoplanetary disk. Despite this

  1. Sources of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Husain, Tahir; Pasha, Mohammad J.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m-3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00-08:00 LT and 20:00-22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC / EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m-3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63), suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with high densities of oil fields and refineries as well as a

  2. Contribution of Biomass Burning to Carbonaceous Aerosols in Mexico City during may 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzompa Sosa, Z. A.; Sullivan, A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is one of the largest megacities in the world with a population of 20 million people. Emissions transported from outside the basin, such as wildfires and agricultural burning, represent a potentially large contribution to air quality degradation. This study analyzed PM10 filter samples from six different stations located across the MCMA from May, 2013, which represented the month with the most reported fire counts in the region between 2002-2013. Two meteorological regimes were established considering the number of satellite derived fire counts, changes in predominant wind direction, ambient concentrations of CO, PM10 and PM2.5, and precipitation patterns inside MCMA. The filter samples were analyzed for biomass burning tracers including levoglucosan (LEV), water-soluble potassium (WSK+); and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Results of these analyses show that LEV concentrations correlated positively with ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (R2=0.61 and R2=0.46, respectively). Strong correlations were also found between WSOC and LEV (R2=0.94) and between WSK+ and LEV (R2=0.75). An average LEV/WSOC ratio of 0.0147 was estimated for Regime 1 and 0.0062 for Regime 2. Our LEV concentrations and LEV/WSOC ratios are consistent with results found during the MILAGRO campaign (March, 2006). To the best of our knowledge, only total potassium concentrations have been measured in aerosol samples from MCMA. Therefore, this is the first study in MCMA to measure ambient concentrations of WSK+. Analysis of gravimetric mass concentrations showed that PM2.5 accounted for 60% of the PM10 mass concentration with an estimated PM10/PM2.5 ratio of 1.68. Estimates from our laboratory filter sample characterization indicated that we measured 37% of the total PM10 mass concentration. The missing mass is most likely crustal material (soil or dust) and carbonaceous aerosols that were not segregated into WSOC fraction. Assuming that LEV is

  3. Enhanced methane emission during carbonaceous sediment-basalt interactions as a mechanism for mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, A. I.; Day, J. M.; Ryabov, V. V.; Taylor, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Precise dating techniques have established the contemporaneous eruption of the Siberian Traps at the beginning of the Permian faunal mass extinction at 248 ± 2 Ma. Within a relatively limited time-period ( 1 Ma), the Siberian Traps expelled approximately ninety percent of its total volume ( 1.5 Mkm3), each episode of volcanism adding substantial amounts of CO2, CH4, and SO2 to the atmosphere. The Permian-Triassic Boundary shows average organic carbon isotope excursions of -6.4 ± 4.4‰ (253 Ma), from a long-term average δ13Corg of -25‰. Retallack and Jahren [2008; Journal of Geology] suggested that eruption into C-rich sediments and resulting methane degassing would satisfy necessary conditions to cause such large, variable perturbations in the carbon isotope record. To test this hypothesis, we measured C isotope variations in upper crustal sediments and metalliferous basalts from the Khungtukun and Dzhatul Intrusions, of the Siberian Traps. We find that δ13C values for Siberian coal and sandstones are restricted at -23 to -25‰, with similar values measured in the metalliferous basalts. Anticipated thermogenic methane from disassociation of these sources would be considerably lighter and consistent with low δ13C isotopic values. We further test this mechanism by employing a zero dimensional energy balance model to examine three key parameters: eruption duration, amounts of CO2 and CH4 emission, and the frequency of eruptions. Greater methane emissions than previously estimated due to carbonaceous sediment-basalt interactions have a sustained temperature effect due to high global warming potential (GWP), between 28 and 36 over 100 years compared to the CO2 reference value. Our model predicts that a quick succession of massive effusive eruptions would cause a sustained and substantial temperature effect consistent with estimated equatorial levels of 40°C during the Permian-Triassic Boundary. This mechanism could explain the deficit between the amount of

  4. Sequence specificity of mutagenesis in the cI gene of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopek, T.R.; Wood, R.D.; Hutchinson, F.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of DNA base sequence alterations have shown that for every agent the mutagenic process is specific with respect to the types of base changes induced and the location of the changes in the DNA. Analysis of the types of mutations produced by mutagenic agents can provide insight into the mechanism of mutation and can suggest which DNA lesions may be involved in the actual mutagenic event. We have developed a system for the analysis of chemically induced base sequence alterations in the cI repressor gene of bacteriophage lambda using DNA sequencing techniques. To illustrate the utility of this type of analysis, we present the results obtained with ultraviolet light (UV). Irradiation of target DNA with UV alone, or UV followed by photoreactivating light (which removes dimers), produces mostly transitions at pyrimidine-pyrimidine sites. Conversely, irradiation with 313 nm light plus acetophenone (which produces only thymine dimers) produces mostly transversions at low efficiency. This and other evidence suggests that the actual premutagenic UV lesion in E. coli may not be pyrimidine-pyrimidine dimers, but rather pyr(6-4)pyo photoproducts

  5. Characterization and performance of carbonaceous materials obtained from exhausted sludges for the anaerobic biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalathil, S.; Stüber, F.; Bengoa, C.; Font, J. [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalunya (Spain); Fortuny, A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Catalunya (Spain); Fabregat, A., E-mail: azael.fabregat@urv.cat [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbonaceous materials were prepared from exhausted sludge materials. • High surface area and good physicochemical properties were achieved. • Utilization of waste sludge materials and mixed anaerobic cultures were used in a continuous anaerobic UPBR system (upflow packed bed biological reactor). • Effective treatment of dye contaminated wastewater in a cheapest and environmental friendly method was demonstrated. - Abstract: This work presents the preliminary study of new carbonaceous materials (CMs) obtained from exhausted sludge, their use in the heterogeneous anaerobic process of biodecolorization of azo dyes and the comparison of their performance with one commercial active carbon. The preparation of carbonaceous materials was conducted through chemical activation and carbonization. Chemical activation was carried out through impregnation of sludge-exhausted materials with ZnCl{sub 2} and the activation by means of carbonization at different temperatures (400, 600 and 800 °C). Their physicochemical and surface characteristics were also investigated. Sludge based carbonaceous (SBC) materials SBC400, SBC600 and SBC800 present values of 13.0, 111.3 and 202.0 m{sup 2}/g of surface area. Biodecolorization levels of 76% were achieved for SBC600 and 86% for SBC800 at space time (τ) of 1.0 min, similar to that obtained with commercial activated carbons in the continuous anaerobic up-flow packed bed reactor (UPBR). The experimental data fit well to the first order kinetic model and equilibrium data are well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. Carbonaceous materials show high level of biodecolorization even at very short space times. Results indicate that carbonaceous materials prepared from sludge-exhausted materials have outstanding textural properties and significant degradation capacity for treating textile effluents.

  6. Escrevendo em aulas de ciências Writing in science classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Alvarenga de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos uma análise dos registros escritos dos alunos do 3° ano do Ensino Fundamental nas aulas de Ciências, em que a professora utilizou as atividades de conhecimento físico, criadas pelo Laboratório de Pesquisa e Ensino de Física da Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo. Os registros analisados foram coletados na Escola de Aplicação da Feusp, no ano de 2001, durante o acompanhamento de três aulas de Ciências: o problema do submarino, o problema do barquinho e o problema da pressão. O artigo procura mostrar um panorama de como aparecem os registros realizados pelos alunos, após uma aula de Ciências em que eles são levados a resolver situações problemáticas por meio da experimentação, argumentar e escrever sobre os fenômenos físicos. Durante a análise, levou-se em consideração os tipos de textos que os alunos escrevem, o uso da primeira pessoa, o uso de verbos de ação, o respeito à ordem cronológica dos eventos e quais os tipos de explicações os alunos atribuem aos fenômenos trabalhados.This article analyzed the written records of Third Grade students of Elementary School at Escola de Aplicação, Universidade de São Paulo, gathered during the Science classes of the 2001 school year, in which activities about physical understanding were used. Created by the Laboratory of Research and Teaching of Physics - LAPEF, of the College of Education of USP, the activities "The Problem of the Submarine", "The Problem of the Little Boat" and "The Problem of the Pressure" required the students to solve problematic situations through experimentation, developing arguments and write about the phenomena. The study developed a framework of how the records are presented by the students, considering the types of texts they produce, the use of the first person, the use of verbs of action, the respect of the chronological order of events and the types of explanations the students give for the

  7. Solar radiation synthesis of functional carbonaceous materials using Al2O3/TiO2-Cu-HA doped catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Elena Manuela; Pascu, Alexandru; Roată, Ionut Claudiu; Croitoru, Cătălin; Tierean, Mircea; Rosca, Julia Mirza; Hulka, Iosif

    2018-04-01

    Single carbon nanotubes were synthesized through a physical vapor deposition method, using concentrated solar radiation as means of vaporization and promoting the formation of carbonaceous plasma plume. A novel catalyst, containing multiple hybrid ceramic/metal phases has been obtained through flame spraying. In conjunction with this catalyst, good quality nanomaterials, such as long single-walled nanotubes and nanoparticles have been obtained and characterized by both morphological (SEM, TEM) as well as structural means on analysis (XRD, FTIR). A mild oxidation of the carbonaceous phase has been reported, which could prove useful in applications in conjunction with metals or hydrophilic polymers as potential matrices for nanocomposites obtaining.

  8. Development of a preparation system for the radiocarbon analysis of organic carbon in carbonaceous aerosols in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.L.; Liu, D.; Shen, C.D.; Ding, P.; Zhang, G.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols comprising a large fraction of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are considered to affect both global climate and human health. Radiocarbon measurements have been proved to be a useful isotopic tracer for distinguishing contemporary and fossil emissions. An optimized system of a two-step thermal preparation system for radiocarbon ( 14 C) measurement of OC/TC is firstly established in China. In this system, OC/TC are converted into carbon dioxide under a pure oxygen flow at 340 o C/650 o C and then reduced to graphite for AMS target using the method of zinc reduction. Afterwards, radiocarbon measurements of the targets performed by the NEC Compact AMS System at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The measured results for estimated reference martial including HOx I, HOx II and IAEA-C6 are consistent with internationally accepted values. The radiocarbon-based source appointment of carbonaceous aerosols in China would be much more convenient and faster with the preparation system developed in this work.

  9. Electro-desalination of sulfate contaminated carbonaceous sandstone – risk for salt induced decay during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-sulphate is known to cause severe stone damage. This paper is focused on removal of this salt from carbonaceous sandstone by electro-desalination (ED). The research questions are related to possible stone damage during ED and subsequently suction cycles are made in distilled water before......, during and after ED. During suction in water the salts are concentrated in the upper part of the sandstone. After 2 days of treatment the average water soluble SO42- concentration was half the initial and for this sample corners were damaged as was the case for the reference stone. After 4 days of ED...... in the poultice with carbonate. The acid would be highly damaging to the carbonaceous sandstone as the binder-CaCO3 is soluble in acid. From pH measurements of the poultice it seems as if the acid is buffered well, as pH is still slightly alkaline after ED, but this is a measurement of the average pH and thus...

  10. Melanin-originated carbonaceous dots for triple negative breast cancer diagnosis by fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chuan; Huang, Yuan; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2017-07-01

    Carbonaceous dots exhibit increasing applications in diagnosis and drug delivery due to excellent photostability and biocompatibility properties. However, relative short excitation and emission of melanin carbonaceous dots (MCDs) limit the applicability in fluorescence bioimaging. Furthermore, the generally poor spatial resolution of fluorescence imaging limits potential in vivo applications. Due to a variety of beneficial properties, in this study, MCDs were prepared exhibiting great potential in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode bioimaging. The MCDs exhibited a long excitation peak at 615nm and emission peak at 650nm, further highlighting the applicability in fluorescence imaging, while the absorbance peak at 633nm renders MCDs suitable for photoacoustic imaging. In vivo, the photoacoustic signal of MCDs was linearly correlated with the concentration of MCDs. Moreover, the MCDs were shown to be taken up into triple negative breast cancer cell line 4T1 in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of subcutaneous 4T1 tumor demonstrated that MCDs could passively target triple negative breast cancer tissue by enhanced permeability and retention effects and may therefore be used for tumor dual-mode imaging. Furthermore, fluorescence distribution in tissue slices suggested that MCDs may distribute in 4T1 tumor with high efficacy. In conclusion, the MCDs studied offer potential application in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanism of NH{sub 3} desorption during the reaction of H{sub 2} with nitrogen containing carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan F. Espinal; Thanh N. Truong; Fanor Mondragon [University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia). Institute of Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    The continued increase in demand for natural gas has stimulated the interest in coal conversion to methane as synthetic natural gas by hydropyrolysis of coal (pyrolysis in a H{sub 2} atmosphere). Because the produced raw gas contains considerable amounts of gaseous N-containing products that have to be removed before delivering to final users, the information on distribution of coal-N is important for designing purification processes. It has been reported in the literature that NH{sub 3} is the main nitrogen containing gas that is released during the hydropyrolysis process. Other gases such as HCN and N{sub 2} are also released but in a much smaller amount. To the best of our knowledge, the mechanism for NH{sub 3} desorption during hydrogen reaction with carbonaceous materials has not been studied. We carried out a molecular modeling study using Density Functional Theory in order to get an insight of the mechanism and thermodynamics for NH{sub 3} evolution using pyridinic nitrogen as a model of N-containing carbonaceous material. We propose a mechanism that involves consecutive hydrogenation steps that lead to C-N bond breakage and NH{sub 3} desorption to the gas phase. It was found that the first hydrogenation reaction is highly exothermic. However, further hydrogenations are endothermic. Several pathways for NH{sub 3} evolution were proposed and most of them show high exothermicity. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Molecular and elemental analyses of the carbonaceous matter in the gold and uranium bearing Vaal Reef carbon seams, Witwatersrand sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumberge, J.E.; Sigleo, A.C.; Nagy, B.

    1978-01-01

    The thin Vaal Reef carbon seams consist of a complex, solid, and solvent insoluble, polymer-like substance, containing mainly hydrocarbons and some organic sulphur and oxygen compounds. These carbon seams are not pure carbon, e.g. graphite, and do not contain only hydrocarbons. According to modern terminology the Vaal Reef carbonaceous matter is most appropriately referred to as kerogen rather than carbon or thucholite. This kerogen is not the result of the polymerization of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons, but rather of the polymerization of biochemicals from decayed, primitive Precambrian micro-organisms. These microbiota formed mats in which uranium minerals and gold became incorporated before burial under younger sediments. Organic geochemistry was first developed as a means to elucidate the nature and composition of petroleum and coal. Later it was successfully used in lunar sample, planetary surface, and meteorite studies as well as in investigations of kerogens in terrestrial sediments of various ages. Considering economic geology, organic geochemistry holds promise for elucidating the origin and helping in the exploration of carbonaceous ore deposits. The purpose of this report is to review some of the major current organic geochemical methods and to illustrate these by the analysis of the Vaal Reef kerogen. The samples were analysed by a directly connected high vacuum pyrolysis system-gas chromatograph-organic mass spectrometer. Additional analyses were performed by a combined scanning electron microscope-electron microprobe, by the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and by neutron activation analysis

  13. Detection and formation scenario of citric acid, pyruvic acid, and other possible metabolism precursors in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Reed, Chris; Nguyen, Dang; Carter, Malika; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites deliver a variety of organic compounds to Earth that may have played a role in the origin and/or evolution of biochemical pathways. Some apparently ancient and critical metabolic processes require several compounds, some of which are relatively labile such as keto acids. Therefore, a prebiotic setting for any such individual process would have required either a continuous distant source for the entire suite of intact precursor molecules and/or an energetic and compact local synthesis, particularly of the more fragile members. To date, compounds such as pyruvic acid, oxaloacetic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid (all members of the citric acid cycle) have not been identified in extraterrestrial sources or, as a group, as part of a “one pot” suite of compounds synthesized under plausibly prebiotic conditions. We have identified these compounds and others in carbonaceous meteorites and/or as low temperature (laboratory) reaction products of pyruvic acid. In meteorites, we observe many as part of three newly reported classes of compounds: keto acids (pyruvic acid and homologs), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (citric acid and homologs), and tricarboxylic acids. Laboratory syntheses using 13C-labeled reactants demonstrate that one compound alone, pyruvic acid, can produce several (nonenzymatic) members of the citric acid cycle including oxaloacetic acid. The isotopic composition of some of the meteoritic keto acids points to interstellar or presolar origins, indicating that such compounds might also exist in other planetary systems. PMID:21825143

  14. Oops, My Tests Broke the Build : An Explorative Analysis of Travis CI with GitHub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.M.; Gousios, Giorgos; Zaidman, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    AbContinuous Integration (CI) has become a best practice of modern software development. Yet, at present, we have a shortfall of insight into the testing practices that are common in CI-based software development. In particular, we
    seek quantifiable evidence on how central testing is to the CI

  15. CI in the work place: does involving the HRM function make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Paul; Becker, Karen; Sload, Terry

    2008-01-01

    benefit the organisation's performance. The HRM function is often given the task of championing cultural change and managing aspects of training and learning, and it would appear that involvement of HRM professionals would enhance CI efforts and assist in the timely solution of issues within the CI......People are central to successful Continuous Improvement (CI), and in larger organisations a Human Resource Management (HRM) function is responsible for people related issues. Central to CI is learning and a culture that supports CI. Learning needs to be both individual and organisational, and must...

  16. Elemental and isotopic characterization of organic particles in carbonaceous chondrites by NanoSIMS imaging: assessment on the origin, accretion and preservation of organic matter in chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Chondrites accreted primitive components, including organic compounds sampled from the proto-solar nebula. However, the molecular and isotopic fingerprints of organic matter extracted from chondrites are also potentially influenced by complex evolution on the parent bodies. We have performed NanoSIMS in situ characterisation of organic matter in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil (CI), Murchison (CM), Tagish Lake (C2), Renazzo (CR) and Allende (CV) with a spatial resolution of ~200 nm; we could also constrains textural relationships between organic constituents and other phases. Those meteorites have undergone a diverse set of parent body processes. I.e., CI, C2 and CM meteorites have undergone aqueous alteration, and the CV’s are thermally metamorphosed. The CR’s are inferred to be the least altered class of chondrites. Despite these differences in parent body modification, the distributions of organic carbon in these meteorites is similar: in all cases it can be found as micron-size, randomly distributed organic particles that are surrounded by the clay minerals that dominate the matrix material, but are not specifically associated with sulfides, sulfates or oxides. In addition, there is a “diffuse” fraction of organic carbon intimately associated with the clay-rich matrix. We hypothesize that the C particles we identify are hosts of insoluble organic matter that co-accreted with other primitive constituents of these materials, whereas the diffuse C fraction is the soluble component (i.e., soluble in laboratory organic and aqueous solvents). Our analytical technique lacks the spatial resolution required to analyze the diffuse organic matter without contamination by associated clays. But we are able to analyze the compositions of the interiors of relatively large C-rich particles (>500 nm) without such contamination. Some fraction of the C-rich particles in all of the examined meteorites but Allende exhibit a very high enrichment in deuterium

  17. As tendências atuais dos paradigmas: ciência, tecnologia e sociedade e ensino de ciências indígena no VII ENPEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Delourdes Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O Encontro Nacional de Pesquisas em Educação em Ciências é um evento bianual organizada pelos pesquisadores do ensino de Ciências. O objetivo principal desse encontro é reunir os professores e pesquisadores da área, para socializarem os relatos de experiência e pesquisas no ensino de Ciências. Nesse presente trabalho, foi realizado um mapeamento dos artigos apresentados nas seções de comunicação oral do VII ENPEC, somando um total de 425 artigos selecionados, procurou-se identificar os relacionados com a abordagem Ciências, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS no ensino de Ciências sua estrutura de organização e o numero de pesquisadores dessa área do Ensino de Ciências. Para esse estudo foi realizado uma pesquisa qualitativa de caráter bibliográfico, e para a análise dos dados buscou-se subsídios teóricos em Fiorentini (2002 e Bardin (2006 porque assim seria possível comparar minuciosamente os diferentes resultados obtidos. Conclui-se que a linha de pesquisa com a temática CTS apresentou 28 trabalhos cerca de 7% de trabalhos apresentados, confirmando uma sinalização nessa área de pesquisa pelos pesquisadores do ensino de Ciências e a temática sobre ensino de ciências indígena representou cerca de 1% dos trabalhos apresentados.

  18. The functional significance of cortical reorganization and the parallel development of CI therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward eTaub

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the 19th and the better part of the 20th centuries two correlative beliefs were strongly held by almost all neuroscientists and practitioners in the field of neurorehabilitation. The first was that after maturity the adult CNS was hardwired and fixed, and second that in the chronic phase after CNS injury no substantial recovery of function could take place no matter what intervention was employed. However, in the last part of the 20th century evidence began to accumulate that neither belief was correct. First, in the 1960s and 1970s, in research with primates given a surgical abolition of somatic sensation from a single forelimb, which rendered the extremity useless, it was found that behavioral techniques could convert the limb into an extremity that could be used extensively. Beginning in the late 1980s, the techniques employed with deafferented monkeys were translated into a rehabilitation treatment, termed Constraint Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy, for substantially improving the motor deficit of the upper and lower extremities in the chronic phase after stroke. CI therapy has been applied successfully to other types of damage to the CNS such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury, and it has also been used to improve function in focal hand dystonia and for aphasia after stroke. As this work was proceeding, it was being shown during the 1980s and 1990s that sustained modulation of afferent input could alter the structure of the CNS and that this topographic reorganization could have relevance to the function of the individual. The alteration in these once fundamental beliefs has given rise to important recent developments in neuroscience and neurorehabilitation and holds promise for further increasing our understanding of CNS function and extending the boundaries of what is possible in neurorehabilitation.

  19. A Science Centre as a Geoturism promoter - the Lagos Ciência Viva examples (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis; Leote, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Science outreach and engagement are crucial core objectives of the Lagos Ciência Viva Science Centre (CCVL). By engaging audiences in the real world a link is made between their science centre experience and the environment in which they live. Therefore, it has been an option of the CCVL to offer geological outdoor activities, both in the natural environment and urban context. Dinosaurs are an appealing science subject for both students and tourists. Thus, the CCVL has a long tradition in organizing and guiding field trips to two dinosaur track sites - Salema and Santa beaches (Vila do Bispo, southwest Algarve). These sites, both from the Lower Cretaceous reveal at least two types of tracks - theropod and iguanodontian footprints. Often in combination with the paleontology field trips, the CCVL also offers different geological field trips both for formal (school) and informal (tourism) education. This allows students and tourists to be introduced to dinosaur paleobiology and ichnology and to the structural geology and stratigraphy of the area. Our science outreach is being further developed by contractual agreement with a regional tour operator, in which the CCVL is responsible for the scientific content and guidance of the visits. Aiming at an urban context, the CCVL produced three Urban Geology and Paleontology Guide Books for three Algarve cities (Lagos, Faro and Tavira), which can be acquired in the three Ciência Viva Science Centres shops as well as in the tourist information offices serving this way as a basis for guided urban tours also offered by the CCVL. Based on our experience, we review and contextualise these geoscience activities and their potential for science outreach, communication and tourism. We discuss and propose a classification of different possibilities in geoscience communication and outreach based on three vertices: Science, Heritage and Geotourism. Some particularities of these visits, such as the merge between geosciences and other

  20. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2 and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC emissions from these two countries for the period 1996–2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %–17 % due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be −16 %–17 %, −43 %–93 %, and −43 %–80 % for China, and −15 %–16 %, −41 %–87 %, and −44 %–92

  1. Sources of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Bian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m−3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00–08:00 LT and 20:00–22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC ∕ EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m−3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63, suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with

  2. Seasonal variability of carbonaceous aerosols in an urban background area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D.; Merico, E.; Dinoi, A.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Contini, D.

    2018-02-01

    Organic (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) are important components of atmospheric aerosol particles, playing a key role in climate system and potentially affecting human health. There is a lack of data reported for Southern Italy and this work aims to fill this gap, focusing the attention on the long-term trends of OC and EC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10, and on atmospheric processes and sources influencing seasonal variability. Measurements were taken at the Environmental-Climate Observatory of Lecce (SE Italy, 40°20‧8″N-18°07‧28″E, 37 m a.s.l.), regional station of the Global Atmosphere Watch program (GAW-WMO). Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between July 2013 and July 2016. In addition, starting in December 2014, simultaneous equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations in PM10 were measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer. A subset of 722 PM samples (361 for each size fraction) was analysed by using a thermo-optical method with a Sunset Laboratory OC/EC analyser, to determine elemental and organic carbon concentrations. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 μg/m3 and 17.5 μg/m3. The average OC and EC concentrations in PM10 were 5.4 μg/m3 and 0.8 μg/m3, in PM2.5 these were 4.7 μg/m3 and 0.6 μg/m3. Carbonaceous content was larger during cold season with respect to warm season as well as secondary organic carbon (SOC) that was evaluated using the OC/EC minimum ratio method. SOC was mainly segregated in PM2.5 and represented 53% - 75% of the total OC. A subset of EC data was compared with eBC measurements, showing a good correlation (R2 = 0.80), however, eBC concentrations were higher than EC concentrations of an average factor of 1.95 (+/- 0.55 standard deviation). This could be explained by the presence of a contribution of Brown Carbon (BrC), for example from biomass burning, in eBC measurements. Weekly patterns showed a slight decrease of carbon content during weekends with respect to weekdays especially

  3. Composition and sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Northern Europe during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, M.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Claeys, M.; Henzing, J. S.; Jedynska, A. D.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kistler, M.; Kristensen, K.; Martinsson, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Spindler, G.; Stenström, K. E.; Swietlicki, E.; Szidat, S.; Simpson, D.; Yttri, K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Sources of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in atmospheric aerosols (carbonaceous aerosols) were investigated by collection of weekly aerosol filter samples at six background sites in Northern Europe (Birkenes, Norway; Vavihill, Sweden; Risoe, Denmark; Cabauw and Rotterdam in The Netherlands; Melpitz, Germany) during winter 2013. Analysis of 14C and a set of molecular tracers were used to constrain the sources of EC and OC. During the four-week campaign, most sites (in particular those in Germany and The Netherlands) were affected by an episode during the first two weeks with high concentrations of aerosol, as continental air masses were transported westward. The analysis results showed a clear, increasing north to south gradient for most molecular tracers. Total carbon (TC = OC + EC) at Birkenes showed an average concentration of 0.5 ± 0.3 μg C m-3, whereas the average concentration at Melpitz was 6.0 ± 4.3 μg C m-3. One weekly mean TC concentration as high as 11 μg C m-3 was observed at Melpitz. Average levoglucosan concentrations varied by an order of magnitude from 25 ± 13 ng m-3 (Birkenes) to 249 ± 13 ng m-3 (Melpitz), while concentrations of tracers of fungal spores (arabitol and mannitol) and vegetative debris (cellulose) were very low, showing a minor influence of primary biological aerosol particles during the North European winter. The fraction of modern carbon generally varied from 0.57 (Melpitz) to 0.91 (Birkenes), showing an opposite trend compared to the molecular tracers and TC. Total concentrations of 10 biogenic and anthropogenic carboxylic acids, mainly of secondary origin, were 4-53 ng m-3, with the lowest concentrations observed at Birkenes and the highest at Melpitz. However, the highest relative concentrations of carboxylic acids (normalized to TC) were observed at the most northern sites. Levels of organosulphates and nitrooxy organosulphates varied more than two orders of magnitude, from 2 to 414 ng m-3, between

  4. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and

  5. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacier region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016 of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m−3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC ∕ EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l.  of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC ∕ EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based method, was 6.82±0.73 m2 g−1, comparable with the results from other studies. Strong seasonal and spatial variations of EC MAE were largely related to the OC abundance. Source attribution analysis using a global aerosol–climate model, equipped with a black carbon (BC source tagging technique, suggests that East Asia emissions, including local sources, have the dominant contribution (over 50 % to annual mean near-surface BC in the Mt. Yulong area. There is also a strong seasonal variation in the regional source apportionment. South Asia has the largest contribution to near-surface BC during the pre-monsoon season, while East Asia dominates the monsoon season and post-monsoon season. Results in this study have great implications for accurately evaluating the influences of carbonaceous matter on glacial melting and water resource supply in glacierization areas.

  6. Characterization of emissions from South Asian biofuels and application to source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth A.; Schauer, James J.; Pradhan, Bidya Banmali; Dangol, Pradeep Man; Habib, Gazala; Venkataraman, Chandra; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-03-01

    This study focuses on improving source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in South Asia and consists of three parts: (1) development of novel molecular marker-based profiles for real-world biofuel combustion, (2) application of these profiles to a year-long data set, and (3) evaluation of profiles by an in-depth sensitivity analysis. Emissions profiles for biomass fuels were developed through source testing of a residential stove commonly used in South Asia. Wood fuels were combusted at high and low rates, which corresponded to source profiles high in organic carbon (OC) or high in elemental carbon (EC), respectively. Crop wastes common to the region, including rice straw, mustard stalk, jute stalk, soybean stalk, and animal residue burnings, were also characterized. Biofuel profiles were used in a source apportionment study of OC and EC in Godavari, Nepal. This site is located in the foothills of the Himalayas and was selected for its well-mixed and regionally impacted air masses. At Godavari, daily samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected throughout the year of 2006, and the annual trends in particulate mass, OC, and EC followed the occurrence of a regional haze in South Asia. Maximum concentrations occurred during the dry winter season and minimum concentrations occurred during the summer monsoon season. Specific organic compounds unique to aerosol sources, molecular markers, were measured in monthly composite samples. These markers implicated motor vehicles, coal combustion, biomass burning, cow dung burning, vegetative detritus, and secondary organic aerosol as sources of carbonaceous aerosol. A molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (CMB) model provided a quantitative assessment of primary source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol. The new profiles were compared to widely used biomass burning profiles from the literature in a sensitivity analysis. This analysis indicated a high degree of stability in estimates of source

  7. Seasonal variation and light absorption property of carbonaceous aerosol in a typical glacieri region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hewen; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Lu, Xixi; Qian, Yun; Paudyal, Rukumesh; Wang, Shijin; Shi, Xiaofei; Yan, Xingguo

    2018-05-07

    Deposition and accumulation of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on glacier surfaces can alter the energy balance of glaciers. In this study, 2 years (December 2014 to December 2016) of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the glacierized region of the Mt. Yulong and Ganhaizi (GHZ) basin are analyzed. The average elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were 1.51±0.93 and 2.57±1.32 µg m−3, respectively. Although the annual mean OC ∕ EC ratio was 2.45±1.96, monthly mean EC concentrations during the post-monsoon season were even higher than OC in the high altitudes (approximately 5000 m a. s. l. ) of Mt. Yulong. Strong photochemical reactions and local tourism activities were likely the main factors inducing high OC ∕ EC ratios in the Mt. Yulong region during the monsoon season. The mean mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC, measured for the first time in Mt. Yulong, at 632 nm with a thermal-optical carbon analyzer using the filter-based