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Sample records for chz1p regulates h2b

  1. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes.

  2. Histone H2B ubiquitylation represses gametogenesis by opposing RSC-dependent chromatin remodeling at the ste11 master regulator locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, Philippe; Vázquez, Enrique; Sánchez, Mar; Yague-Sanz, Carlo; Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Migeot, Valerie; Antequera, Francisco; Hermand, Damien

    2016-01-01

    In fission yeast, the ste11 gene encodes the master regulator initiating the switch from vegetative growth to gametogenesis. In a previous paper, we showed that the methylation of H3K4 and consequent promoter nucleosome deacetylation repress ste11 induction and cell differentiation (Materne et al., 2015) but the regulatory steps remain poorly understood. Here we report a genetic screen that highlighted H2B deubiquitylation and the RSC remodeling complex as activators of ste11 expression. Mechanistic analyses revealed more complex, opposite roles of H2Bubi at the promoter where it represses expression, and over the transcribed region where it sustains it. By promoting H3K4 methylation at the promoter, H2Bubi initiates the deacetylation process, which decreases chromatin remodeling by RSC. Upon induction, this process is reversed and efficient NDR (nucleosome depleted region) formation leads to high expression. Therefore, H2Bubi represses gametogenesis by opposing the recruitment of RSC at the promoter of the master regulator ste11 gene. PMID:27171419

  3. Histone H2B ubiquitylation represses gametogenesis by opposing RSC-dependent chromatin remodeling at the ste11 master regulator locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, Philippe; Vázquez, Enrique; Sánchez, Mar; Yague-Sanz, Carlo; Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Migeot, Valerie; Antequera, Francisco; Hermand, Damien

    2016-01-01

    In fission yeast, the ste11 gene encodes the master regulator initiating the switch from vegetative growth to gametogenesis. In a previous paper, we showed that the methylation of H3K4 and consequent promoter nucleosome deacetylation repress ste11 induction and cell differentiation (Materne et al., 2015) but the regulatory steps remain poorly understood. Here we report a genetic screen that highlighted H2B deubiquitylation and the RSC remodeling complex as activators of ste11 expression. Mechanistic analyses revealed more complex, opposite roles of H2Bubi at the promoter where it represses expression, and over the transcribed region where it sustains it. By promoting H3K4 methylation at the promoter, H2Bubi initiates the deacetylation process, which decreases chromatin remodeling by RSC. Upon induction, this process is reversed and efficient NDR (nucleosome depleted region) formation leads to high expression. Therefore, H2Bubi represses gametogenesis by opposing the recruitment of RSC at the promoter of the master regulator ste11 gene.

  4. Substrate Recognition of Histone H2B by DUBm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Berndsen, Christopher; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    The SAGA complex is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes via histone acetylation and deubiquitination, which are crucial for transcription. Our lab is investigating the SAGA-dependent deubiquitination of histone H2B. The deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of SAGA is comprised of a ubiquitin-specific protease, Ubp8, and three other proteins. It is known that Ubp8 cleaves ubiquitin from histone H2B, however, the specific way in which the enzyme binds to the substrate remains elusive. In order to unravel this mechanism, we attempted to determine the crystal structure of the substrate binding complex. We obtained this substrate by exploiting the techniques of intein chemistry to artificially ubiquitinate a histone H2B peptide, which we then co-crystallized with DUBm. Additionally, we synthesized Ub-K63R-linked chains and Ub-K48-linked chains and co-crystallized them with DUBm.

  5. Solution structure of the isolated histone H2A-H2B heterodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Yoshihito; Yamane, Tsutomu; Ohtomo, Hideaki; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Kurita, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Masahiko; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Shimojo, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    During chromatin-regulated processes, the histone H2A-H2B heterodimer functions dynamically in and out of the nucleosome. Although detailed crystal structures of nucleosomes have been established, that of the isolated full-length H2A-H2B heterodimer has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the solution structure of human H2A-H2B by NMR coupled with CS-Rosetta. H2A and H2B each contain a histone fold, comprising four α-helices and two β-strands (α1-β1-α2-β2-α3-αC), together with the long disordered N- and C-terminal H2A tails and the long N-terminal H2B tail. The N-terminal αN helix, C-terminal β3 strand, and 310 helix of H2A observed in the H2A-H2B nucleosome structure are disordered in isolated H2A-H2B. In addition, the H2A α1 and H2B αC helices are not well fixed in the heterodimer, and the H2A and H2B tails are not completely random coils. Comparison of hydrogen-deuterium exchange, fast hydrogen exchange, and {(1)H}-(15)N hetero-nuclear NOE data with the CS-Rosetta structure indicates that there is some conformation in the H2A 310 helical and H2B Lys11 regions, while the repression domain of H2B (residues 27-34) exhibits an extended string-like structure. This first structure of the isolated H2A-H2B heterodimer provides insight into its dynamic functions in chromatin. PMID:27181506

  6. 77 FR 28764 - Temporary Non-agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... published a Final Rule amending the H-2B regulations at 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. 77 FR 10038, February 21... Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers), and Other Technical Changes, 73 FR... H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ]...

  7. 77 FR 24225 - Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Final Rule. See 77 FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. DATES: On April 8....gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR Web site. Copies of this notice may be obtained..., 2012. See 77 FR 10038. The purpose of the Final Rule was to amend the H-2B regulations at 20 CFR...

  8. 78 FR 24047 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ..., housekeeping cleaner, forestry worker, and amusement park worker). There is no basis, under the existing... regulations DOL issued on February 21, 2012, (77 FR 10038) (2012 H-2B rule) implementing its consultative... challenge to DOL's rulemaking authority with respect to an H-2B wage rule issued on January 19, 2011 (76...

  9. Histone H2B-IFI16 Recognition of Nuclear Herpesviral Genome Induces Cytoplasmic Interferon-β Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jawed; Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Kumar, Binod; Dutta, Dipanjan; Roy, Arunava; Chikoti, Leela; Pisano, Gina; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Chandran, Bala

    2016-01-01

    IFI16 (gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16), a predominantly nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation, also functions as an innate immune response DNA sensor and induces the IL-1β and antiviral type-1 interferon-β (IFN-β) cytokines. We have shown that IFI16, in association with BRCA1, functions as a sequence independent nuclear sensor of episomal dsDNA genomes of KSHV, EBV and HSV-1. Recognition of these herpesvirus genomes resulted in IFI16 acetylation, BRCA1-IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic translocation, and IL-1β generation. Acetylated IFI16 also interacted with cytoplasmic STING and induced IFN-β. However, the identity of IFI16 associated nuclear proteins involved in STING activation and the mechanism is not known. Mass spectrometry of proteins precipitated by anti-IFI16 antibodies from uninfected endothelial cell nuclear lysate revealed that histone H2B interacts with IFI16. Single and double proximity ligation microscopy, immunoprecipitation, EdU-genome labeled virus infection, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that H2B is associated with IFI16 and BRCA1 in the nucleus in physiological conditions. De novo KSHV and HSV-1 infection as well as latent KSHV and EBV infection induces the cytoplasmic distribution of H2B-IFI16, H2B-BRCA1 and IFI16-ASC complexes. Vaccinia virus (dsDNA) cytoplasmic replication didn’t induce the redistribution of nuclear H2B-IFI16 or H2B into the cytoplasm. H2B is critical in KSHV and HSV-1 genome recognition by IFI16 during de novo infection. Viral genome sensing by IFI16-H2B-BRCA1 leads to BRCA1 dependent recruitment of p300, and acetylation of H2B and IFI16. BRCA1 knockdown or inhibition of p300 abrogated the acetylation of H2B-IFI16 or H2B. Ran-GTP protein mediated the translocation of acetylated H2B and IFI16 to the cytoplasm along with BRCA1 that is independent of IFI16-ASC inflammasome. ASC knockdown didn’t affect the acetylation of H2B, its cytoplasmic

  10. MAPKs and Mst1/Caspase-3 pathways contribute to H2B phosphorylation during UVB-induced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly coordinated or programmed cell suicide mechanism in eukaryotes.Histone modification is associated with nuclear events in apoptotic cells.Specifically H2B phosphorylation at serine 14 (Ser14) catalyzed by Mst1 kinase has been linked to chromatin condensation during apoptosis.We report that activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2,JNK1/2 and p38) together with Mst1 and caspase-3 is required for phosphorylation of H2B (Ser14) during ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis.UVB can trigger activation of MAPKs and induce H2B phosphorylation at Ser14 but not acetylation in a time-dependent manner.Inhibition of ERK1/2,JNK1/2 or p38 activity blocked H2B phosphorylation (Ser14).Furthermore,caspase-3 was activated by UVB to regulate Mst1 activity,which phosphorylates H2B at Ser14,leading to chromatin condensation.Full inhibition of caspase-3 activity reduced Mst1 activation and partially inhibited H2B phosphorylation (Ser14),but ERK1/2,JNK1/2 and p38 activities were not affected.Taken together,these data revealed that H2B phosphorylation is regulated by both MAPKs and caspase-3/Mst1 pathways during UVB-induced apoptosis.

  11. MED23: a new Mediator of H2B monoubiquitylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Gundula; Bracken, Adrian P

    2015-12-01

    The Mediator multiprotein complex physically links transcription factors to RNA polymerase II and the basal transcription machinery. While the Mediator complex has been shown to be required for transcriptional initiation and elongation, the understanding of its interplay with histone modifying enzymes and post‐translational modifications remains elusive. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Yao et al (2015) report that the MED23 subunit of the Mediator complex physically associates with the heterodimeric RNF20/40 E3‐ligase complex to facilitate the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B on gene bodies of actively transcribed genes. PMID:26438725

  12. Nucleosome adaptability conferred by sequence and structural variations in histone H2A-H2B dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaytan, Alexey K; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-06-01

    Nucleosome variability is essential for their functions in compacting the chromatin structure and regulation of transcription, replication and cell reprogramming. The DNA molecule in nucleosomes is wrapped around an octamer composed of four types of core histones (H3, H4, H2A, H2B). Nucleosomes represent dynamic entities and may change their conformation, stability and binding properties by employing different sets of histone variants or by becoming post-translationally modified. There are many variants of histones H2A and H2B. Specific H2A and H2B variants may preferentially associate with each other resulting in different combinations of variants and leading to the increased combinatorial complexity of nucleosomes. In addition, the H2A-H2B dimer can be recognized and substituted by chaperones/remodelers as a distinct unit, can assemble independently and is stable during nucleosome unwinding. In this review we discuss how sequence and structural variations in H2A-H2B dimers may provide necessary complexity and confer the nucleosome functional variability.

  13. The dependence receptor UNC5H2/B triggers apoptosis via PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of DAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenebeaud, Céline; Goldschneider, David; Castets, Marie; Guix, Catherine; Chazot, Guillaume; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital; Shohat, Galit; Zhang, Mingjie; Laudet, Vincent; Kimchi, Adi; Bernet, Agnès; Mehlen, Patrick

    2010-12-22

    The UNC5H dependence receptors promote apoptosis in the absence of their ligand, netrin-1, and this is important for neuronal and vascular development and for limitation of cancer progression. UNC5H2 (also called UNC5B) triggers cell death through the activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase DAPk. While performing a siRNA screen to identify genes implicated in UNC5H-induced apoptosis, we identified the structural subunit PR65β of the holoenzyme protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). We show that UNC5H2/B recruits a protein complex that includes PR65β and DAPk and retains PP2A activity. PP2A activity is required for UNC5H2/B-induced apoptosis, since it activates DAPk by triggering its dephosphorylation. Moreover, netrin-1 binding to UNC5H2/B prevents this effect through interaction of the PP2A inhibitor CIP2A to UNC5H2/B. Thus we show here that, in the absence of netrin-1, recruitment of PP2A to UNC5H2/B allows the activation of DAPk via a PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation and that this mechanism is involved in angiogenesis regulation. PMID:21172653

  14. File list: His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell mm9 Histone H2B Pluripotent stem cell SRX1034714,SRX1034721,...SRX1034715,SRX1034720 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell.bed ...

  15. Coupling of glucose deprivation with impaired histone H2B monoubiquitination in tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Urasaki

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming is associated with tumorigenesis. However, glucose metabolism in tumors is poorly understood. Here, we report that glucose levels are significantly lower in bulk tumor specimens than those in normal tissues of the same tissue origins. We show that mono-ubiquitinated histone H2B (uH2B is a semi-quantitative histone marker for glucose. We further show that loss of uH2B occurs specifically in cancer cells from a wide array of tumor specimens of breast, colon, lung and additional 23 anatomic sites. In contrast, uH2B levels remain high in stromal tissues or non-cancerous cells in the tumor specimens. Taken together, our data suggest that glucose deficiency and loss of uH2B are novel properties of cancer cells in vivo, which may represent important regulatory mechanisms of tumorigenesis.

  16. Genes involved in protein metabolism of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo, A P; da Silva, D F; De Oliveira, M N V; Borges, A C; De Carvalho, A F; De Moraes, C A

    2011-09-01

    A basic requirement for the prediction of the potential use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the dairy industry is the identification of specific genes involved in flavour-forming pathways. The probiotic Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 was submitted to a genetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of genes involved in protein catabolism. Eight genes belonging to this system were identified, which possess a closely phylogenetic relationship to NCFM strains representative, as it was demonstrated for oppC and oppBII, encoding oligopeptide transport system components. PepC, PepN, and PepX might be essential for growth of LAB, probiotic or not, since the correspondent genes are always present, including in L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 genome. For pepX gene, a probable link between carbohydrate catabolism and PepX expression may exists, where it is regulated by PepR1/CcpA-like, a common feature between Lactobacillus strains and also in L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20. The well conserved evolutionary history of the ilvE gene is evidence that the pathways leading to branched-chain amino acid degradation, such as isoleucine and valine, are similar among L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20. Thus, the involvement of succinate in flavour formation can be attributed to IlvE activity. The presence of aminopeptidase G in L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 genome, which is absent in several strains, might improve the proteolytic activity and effectiveness. The nucleotide sequence encoding PepG revealed that it is a cysteine endopeptidase, belonging to Peptidase C1 superfamily; sequence analysis showed 99% identity with L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 pepG, whereas protein sequence analysis revealed 100% similarity with PepG from the same organism. The present study proposes a schematic model to explain how the proteolytic system of the probiotic L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 works, based on the components identified so far.

  17. Sperm nuclear histone H2B: correlation with sperm DNA denaturation and DNA stainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armand Zini; Xiaoyang Zhang; Maria San Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm nuclear histone (H2B) staining. Methods:We evaluated sperm samples from 14 consecutive asthenoteratozoospermic infertile men and six consecutive fertile controls. Sperm nuclear histone (H2B) staining and sperm chromatin integrity (assessed by sperm chromatin structure assay and expressed using the percentage of (I) DNA fragmentation index [%DFI] and (ii) high DNA stainability [%HDS)]) were evaluated. Results: Histone H2B immunocytochemistry demonstrated two nuclear staining patterns: (I) focal punctate staining; and (ii) diffuse staining. Infertile men had a higher mean percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting diffuse H2B staining than did fertile men (7.7% ± 4.6% vs. 1.6% ± 1.2%, respectively, P < 0.01). We observed significant relationships between the proportion of spermatozoa with diffuse nuclear histone staining and both sperm %DFI (r= 0.63, P < 0.01) and sperm %HDS (r= 0.63, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The data demonstrate that infertile men have a higher proportion of spermatozoa with diffuse histone H2B than do fertile men and suggest that sperm DNA damage might, at least in part, be due to abnormally high histone H2B levels.

  18. Histone crosstalk directed by H2B ubiquitination is required for chromatin boundary integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiji Kit-Wan Ma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic maps of chromatin modifications have provided evidence for the partitioning of genomes into domains of distinct chromatin states, which assist coordinated gene regulation. The maintenance of chromatin domain integrity can require the setting of boundaries. The HS4 insulator element marks the 3' boundary of a heterochromatin region located upstream of the chicken β-globin gene cluster. Here we show that HS4 recruits the E3 ligase RNF20/BRE1A to mediate H2B mono-ubiquitination (H2Bub1 at this insulator. Knockdown experiments show that RNF20 is required for H2Bub1 and processive H3K4 methylation. Depletion of RNF20 results in a collapse of the active histone modification signature at the HS4 chromatin boundary, where H2Bub1, H3K4 methylation, and hyperacetylation of H3, H4, and H2A.Z are rapidly lost. A remarkably similar set of events occurs at the HSA/HSB regulatory elements of the FOLR1 gene, which mark the 5' boundary of the same heterochromatin region. We find that persistent H2Bub1 at the HSA/HSB and HS4 elements is required for chromatin boundary integrity. The loss of boundary function leads to the sequential spreading of H3K9me2, H3K9me3, and H4K20me3 over the entire 50 kb FOLR1 and β-globin region and silencing of FOLR1 expression. These findings show that the HSA/HSB and HS4 boundary elements direct a cascade of active histone modifications that defend the FOLR1 and β-globin gene loci from the pervasive encroachment of an adjacent heterochromatin domain. We propose that many gene loci employ H2Bub1-dependent boundaries to prevent heterochromatin spreading.

  19. The Histone H2B Monoubiquitination Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Differentiation of Multipotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpiuk, Oleksandra; Najafova, Zeynab; Kramer, Frank;

    2012-01-01

    Extensive changes in posttranslational histone modifications accompany the rewiring of the transcriptional program during stem cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms controlling the changes in specific chromatin modifications and their function during differentiation remain only poorly...... understood. We show that histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) significantly increases during differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and various lineage-committed precursor cells and in diverse organisms. Furthermore, the H2B ubiquitin ligase RNF40 is required for the induction of...... during the transition from an inactive to an active chromatin conformation. Thus, these data indicate that H2Bub1 is required for maintaining multipotency of hMSCs and plays a central role in controlling stem cell differentiation....

  20. Detection of histone acetylation levels in the dorsal hippocampus reveals early tagging on specific residues of H2B and H4 histones in response to learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bousiges

    Full Text Available The recent literature provides evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are crucial to gene transcription linked to synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain--notably in the hippocampus--and memory formation. We measured global histone acetylation levels in the rat hippocampus at an early stage of spatial or fear memory formation. We found that H3, H4 and H2B underwent differential acetylation at specific sites depending on whether rats had been exposed to the context of a task without having to learn or had to learn about a place or fear therein: H3K9K14 acetylation was mostly responsive to any experimental conditions compared to naive animals, whereas H2B N-terminus and H4K12 acetylations were mostly associated with memory for either spatial or fear learning. Altogether, these data suggest that behavior/experience-dependent changes differently regulate specific acetylation modifications of histones in the hippocampus, depending on whether a memory trace is established or not: tagging of H3K9K14 could be associated with perception/processing of testing-related manipulations and context, thereby enhancing chromatin accessibility, while tagging of H2B N-terminus tail and H4K12 could be more closely associated with the formation of memories requiring an engagement of the hippocampus.

  1. Detection of histone acetylation levels in the dorsal hippocampus reveals early tagging on specific residues of H2B and H4 histones in response to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousiges, Olivier; Neidl, Romain; Majchrzak, Monique; Muller, Marc-Antoine; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Pereira de Vasconcelos, Anne; Schneider, Anne; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The recent literature provides evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are crucial to gene transcription linked to synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain--notably in the hippocampus--and memory formation. We measured global histone acetylation levels in the rat hippocampus at an early stage of spatial or fear memory formation. We found that H3, H4 and H2B underwent differential acetylation at specific sites depending on whether rats had been exposed to the context of a task without having to learn or had to learn about a place or fear therein: H3K9K14 acetylation was mostly responsive to any experimental conditions compared to naive animals, whereas H2B N-terminus and H4K12 acetylations were mostly associated with memory for either spatial or fear learning. Altogether, these data suggest that behavior/experience-dependent changes differently regulate specific acetylation modifications of histones in the hippocampus, depending on whether a memory trace is established or not: tagging of H3K9K14 could be associated with perception/processing of testing-related manipulations and context, thereby enhancing chromatin accessibility, while tagging of H2B N-terminus tail and H4K12 could be more closely associated with the formation of memories requiring an engagement of the hippocampus.

  2. Resveratrol induces cellular senescence with attenuated mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Michael S.; Barnett, Tamara L. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Xu, C. Wilson, E-mail: wxu@nvcancer.org [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Resveratrol induces cellular senescence in glioma cell. {yields} Resveratrol inhibits mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120. {yields} Depletion of RNF20, phenocopies the inhibitory effects of resveratrol. {yields} Mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 is a novel target of resveratrol. {yields} RNF20 inhibits cellular senescence in proliferating glioma cells. -- Abstract: Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenol naturally occurring in grapes and other plants, has cancer chemo-preventive effects and therapeutic potential. Although resveratrol modulates multiple pathways in tumor cells, how resveratrol or its affected pathways converge on chromatin to mediate its effects is not known. Using glioma cells as a model, we showed here that resveratrol inhibited cell proliferation and induced cellular hypertrophy by transforming spindle-shaped cells to enlarged, irregular and flatten-shaped ones. We further showed that resveratrol-induced hypertrophic cells expressed senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase, suggesting that resveratrol-induced cellular senescence in glioma cells. Consistent with these observations, we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited clonogenic efficiencies in vitro and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we found that acute treatment of resveratrol inhibited mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B at K120 (uH2B) in breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung, brain tumor cells as well as primary human cells. Chronic treatment with low doses of resveratrol also inhibited uH2B in the resveratrol-induced senescent glioma cells. Moreover, we showed that depletion of RNF20, a ubiquitin ligase of histone H2B, inhibited uH2B and induced cellular senescence in glioma cells in vitro, thereby recapitulated the effects of resveratrol. Taken together, our results suggest that uH2B is a novel direct or indirect chromatin target of resveratrol and RNF20 plays an important role in inhibiting cellular

  3. RNF20 Links Histone H2B Ubiquitylation with Inflammation and Inflammation-Associated Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcic, Ohad; Pateras, Ioannis S.; Cooks, Tomer; Shema, Efrat; Kanterman, Julia; Ashkenazi, Hadas; Boocholez, Hana; Hubert, Ayala; Rotkopf, Ron; Baniyash, Michal; Pikarsky, Eli; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Oren, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Summary Factors linking inflammation and cancer are of great interest. We now report that the chromatin-targeting E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20/RNF40, driving histone H2B monoubiquitylation (H2Bub1), modulates inflammation and inflammation-associated cancer in mice and humans. Downregulation of RNF20 and H2Bub1 favors recruitment of p65-containing nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) dimers over repressive p50 homodimers and decreases the heterochromatin mark H3K9me3 on a subset of NF-κB target genes to augment their transcription. Concordantly, RNF20+/− mice are predisposed to acute and chronic colonic inflammation and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer, with excessive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that may quench antitumoral T cell activity. Notably, colons of human ulcerative colitis patients, as well as colorectal tumors, reveal downregulation of RNF20/RNF40 and H2Bub1 in both epithelium and stroma, supporting the clinical relevance of our tissue culture and mouse model findings. PMID:26854224

  4. RNF20 Links Histone H2B Ubiquitylation with Inflammation and Inflammation-Associated Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad Tarcic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Factors linking inflammation and cancer are of great interest. We now report that the chromatin-targeting E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20/RNF40, driving histone H2B monoubiquitylation (H2Bub1, modulates inflammation and inflammation-associated cancer in mice and humans. Downregulation of RNF20 and H2Bub1 favors recruitment of p65-containing nuclear factor κB (NF-κB dimers over repressive p50 homodimers and decreases the heterochromatin mark H3K9me3 on a subset of NF-κB target genes to augment their transcription. Concordantly, RNF20+/− mice are predisposed to acute and chronic colonic inflammation and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer, with excessive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs that may quench antitumoral T cell activity. Notably, colons of human ulcerative colitis patients, as well as colorectal tumors, reveal downregulation of RNF20/RNF40 and H2Bub1 in both epithelium and stroma, supporting the clinical relevance of our tissue culture and mouse model findings.

  5. H2B ubiquitylation is part of chromatin architecture that marks exon-intron structure in budding yeast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shieh, Grace S.

    2011-12-22

    Abstract Background The packaging of DNA into chromatin regulates transcription from initiation through 3\\' end processing. One aspect of transcription in which chromatin plays a poorly understood role is the co-transcriptional splicing of pre-mRNA. Results Here we provide evidence that H2B monoubiquitylation (H2BK123ub1) marks introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A genome-wide map of H2BK123ub1 in this organism reveals that this modification is enriched in coding regions and that its levels peak at the transcribed regions of two characteristic subgroups of genes. First, long genes are more likely to have higher levels of H2BK123ub1, correlating with the postulated role of this modification in preventing cryptic transcription initiation in ORFs. Second, genes that are highly transcribed also have high levels of H2BK123ub1, including the ribosomal protein genes, which comprise the majority of intron-containing genes in yeast. H2BK123ub1 is also a feature of introns in the yeast genome, and the disruption of this modification alters the intragenic distribution of H3 trimethylation on lysine 36 (H3K36me3), which functionally correlates with alternative RNA splicing in humans. In addition, the deletion of genes encoding the U2 snRNP subunits, Lea1 or Msl1, in combination with an htb-K123R mutation, leads to synthetic lethality. Conclusion These data suggest that H2BK123ub1 facilitates cross talk between chromatin and pre-mRNA splicing by modulating the distribution of intronic and exonic histone modifications.

  6. 77 FR 10037 - Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... construction workers on Guam, has determined that prevailing wages for construction workers on Guam will be... appropriate for OFLC to issue H-2B prevailing wages for all workers, including construction workers on Guam... affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6).......

  7. 20 CFR 655.22 - Obligations of H-2B employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provided for in DHS regulations at 8 CFR 214.2(h)(5)(xi)(A). This provision does not prohibit employers or..., salary, or benefits), kickbacks, bribes, tributes, in kind payments, and free labor. (k) If the...

  8. Monoassociation with Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2b20 stimulates the immune defense mechanisms of germfree mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are formulations containing live microorganisms or microbial stimulants that have some beneficial influence on the maintenance of a balanced intestinal microbiota and on the resistance to infections. The search for probiotics to be used in prevention or treatment of enteric infections, as an alternative to antibiotic therapy, has gained significant impulse in the last few years. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria in controlling infection by intestinal pathogens and in boosting the host's nonspecific immune response. Here, we studied the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2b20, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from a human newborn from Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, as a probiotic. A suspension containing 108 cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2b20 was inoculated into groups of at least five conventional and germfree Swiss mice to determine its capacity to stimulate the host mononuclear phagocytic activity. We demonstrate that this strain can survive the stressing conditions of the intestinal tract in vivo. Moreover, the monoassociation of germfree mice with this strain for seven days improved the host's macrophage phagocytic capacity, as demonstrated by the clearance of a Gram-negative bacterium inoculated intravenously. Monoassociated mice showed an undetectable number of circulating E. coli, while 0.1% of the original inoculum was still present in germfree animals. Mice treated with viable or heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2b20 presented similarly improved clearance capacity when compared with germfree controls. In addition, monoassociated mice had twice the amount of Kupffer cells, which are responsible for the clearance of circulating bacteria, compared to germfree controls. These results suggest that the L. acidophilus strain used here stimulates a nonspecific immune response and is a strong candidate to be used as a probiotic.

  9. Phosphoramidate-Supported Cp*Ir(III) Aminoborane H2 B=NR2 Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Solution Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drover, Marcus W; Bowes, Eric G; Schafer, Laurel L; Love, Jennifer A; Weller, Andrew S

    2016-05-10

    Reaction of aminoboranes H2 B=NR2 (R=iPr or Cy) with the cationic Cp*Ir(III) phosphoramidate complex [IrCp*{κ(2) -N,O-Xyl(N)P(O)(OEt)2 }][BAr(F) 4 ] generates the aminoborane complexes [IrCp*(H){κ(1) -N-η(2) -HB-Xyl(N)P(OBHNR2 )(OEt)2 }][BAr(F) 4 ] (R=iPr or Cy) in which coordination of a P=O bond with boron weakens the B=N multiple bond. For these complexes, solution- and solid-state, as well as DFT computational techniques, have been employed to substantiate B-N bond rotation of the coordinated aminoborane.

  10. Proteome Profiling of Urinary Exosomes Identifies Alpha 1-Antitrypsin and H2B1K as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Urothelial Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, His-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chan; Chang, Kai-Po; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF spectrometry has not been used for urinary exosome analysis. We used it for determining UC biomarkers. From 2012 to 2015, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients with UC and 62 participants without UC. Exosomes from their urine were isolated, and analyzed through MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of another 122 UC and 26 non-UC tissues was conducted to verify the discovered biomarkers. Two peaks at m/z 5593 (fragmented peptide of alpha-1-antitrypsin; sensitivity, 50.4%; specificity, 96.9%) and m/z 5947 (fragmented peptide of histone H2B1K sensitivity, 62.0%; specificity, 92.3%) were identified as UC diagnosis exosome biomarkers. UC patients with detectable histone H2B1K showed 2.29- and 3.11-fold increased risks of recurrence and progression, respectively, compared with those with nondetectable histone H2B1K. Verification results of IHC staining revealed significantly higher expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin (p = 0.038) and H2B1K (p = 0.005) in UC tissues than in normal tissues. The expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin and H2B1K in UC tissues was significantly correlated with UC grades (p exosome proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin and histone H2B1K, which are identified through MALDI-TOF analysis, could facilitate rapid diagnosis and prognosis of UC. PMID:27686150

  11. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G; Turner, Stephen J; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D; Rao, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4(+) T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4(+) T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  12. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L.; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R.; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C. Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J.; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J.; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G.; Turner, Stephen J.; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4+ T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4+ T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  13. Protection by Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2B20 against experimental oral infection with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Ser. Typhimurium in gnotobiotic and conventional mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Lilian Nobre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Lactobacillus acidophilus UFV-H2B20 to antagonize Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Typhimurium and to reduce the pathological consequences for the host was determining using conventional and gnotobiotic animals. Conventional NIH mice received daily by gavage a 0.1 ml suspension containing about 10(8 cfu L. acidophilus UFV-H2B20 and germfree animals received a single 0.1 ml dose. The gnotobiotic and conventional groups were infected orally with 10² and 10(5 cfu of S. Typhimurium, respectively, 7 days after the beginning of treatment. Control groups were treated with sterile saline instead of Lactobacillus. Survival data showed a protective effect against the pathogenic bacteria in both conventional and gnotobiotic Lactobacillus-treated mice. L. acidophilus UFV-H2B20 colonized the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice and the number of viable cells ranged from 10(9 to 10(10 cfu/g of faeces. In both experimental and control gnotobiotic animals, S. Typhimurium became rapidly established at a level ranging from 10(8 to 10(10 cfu/g of faeces and remained at high levels until the animals died or were sacrificed. In conclusion, the previous treatment of mice with L. acidophilus UFV-H2B20 protects the animals against the experimental infection with S. Typhimurium but this protection was not due to the reduction of the pathogenic populations in the intestines.

  14. Genes involved in lactose catabolism and organic acid production during growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in skimmed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo, A P; De Oliveira, M N V; Da Silva, D F; Castro, S B; Borges, A C; De Carvalho, A F; De Moraes, C A

    2012-03-01

    There are three main reasons for using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures in industrial food fermentation processes: food preservation due to lactic acid production; flavour formation due to a range of organic molecules derived from sugar, lipid and protein catabolism; and probiotic properties attributed to some strains of LAB, mainly of lactobacilli. The aim of this study was to identify some genes involved in lactose metabolism of the probiotic Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20, and analyse its organic acid production during growth in skimmed milk. The following genes were identified, encoding the respective enzymes: ldh - lactate dehydrogenase, adhE - Ldb1707 acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, and ccpA-pepR1 - catabolite control protein A. It was observed that L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 cultivated in different media has the unexpected ability to catabolyse galactose, and to produce high amounts of succinic acid, which was absent in the beginning, raising doubts about the subspecies in question. The phylogenetic analyses showed that this strain can be compared physiologically to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, which are able to degrade lactose and can grow in milk. L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 sequences have grouped with L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365, strengthening the classification of this probiotic strain in the NCFM group proposed by a previous study. Additionally, L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 presented an evolutionary pattern closer to that of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, corroborating the suggestion that this strain might be considered as a new and unusual subspecies among L. delbrueckii subspecies, the first one identified as a probiotic. In addition, its unusual ability to metabolise galactose, which was significantly consumed in the fermentation medium, might be exploited to produce low-browning probiotic Mozzarella cheeses, a desirable property

  15. A loss-of-function and H2B-Venus transcriptional reporter allele for Gata6 in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Freyer, Laina; Schröter, Christian; Saiz, Néstor; Schrode, Nadine; Nowotschin, Sonja; Martinez-Arias, Alfonso; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Background The GATA-binding factor 6 (Gata6) gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that often functions as a key regulator of lineage specification during development. It is the earliest known marker of the primitive endoderm lineage in the mammalian blastocyst. During gastrulation, GATA6 is expressed in early cardiac mesoderm and definitive endoderm progenitors, and is necessary for development of specific mesoderm and endoderm-derived organs including the heart, liver, and pancrea...

  16. Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 induces type 1 cytokine production by mouse cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Neumann

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 has been shown to increase clearance of bacteria injected into the blood of germ-free mice. Moreover, it induces the production of type 1 cytokines by human peripheral mononuclear cells. The objective of the present study was to investigate the production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-12 (IL-12 p40, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ] triggered in vitro by live, heat-killed or lysozyme-treated L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 and in vivo by a live preparation. Germ-free, L. delbrueckii-monoassociated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice were used as experimental models. UFV-H2b20 induced the production of IL-12 p40 and TNF-α by peritoneal cells and IFN-γ by spleen cells from germ-free or monoassociated Swiss/NIH mice and LPS-hyporesponsive mice (around 40 ng/mL for IL-12 p40, 200 pg/mL for TNF-α and 10 ng/mL for IFN-γ. Heat treatment of L. delbrueckii did not affect the production of these cytokines. Lysozyme treatment decreased IL-12 p40 production by peritoneal cells from C3H/HeJ mice, but did not affect TNF-α production by these cells or IFN-γ production by spleen cells from the same mouse strain. TNF-α production by peritoneal cells from Swiss/NIH L. delbrueckii-monoassociated mice was inhibited by lysozyme treatment. When testing IL-12 p40 and IFN-γ levels in sera from germ-free or monoassociated Swiss/NIH mice systemically challenged with Escherichia coli we observed that IL-12 p40 was produced at marginally higher levels by monoassociated mice than by germ-free mice (40 vs 60 ng/mL, but IFN-γ was produced earlier and at higher levels by monoassociated mice (monoassociated 4 and 14 ng/mL 4 and 8 h after infection, germfree 0 and 7.5 ng/mL at the same times. These results show that L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 stimulates the production of type 1 cytokines in vitro and in vivo, therefore suggesting that L. delbrueckii might have adjuvant properties in infection

  17. Sequence-dependent nucleosome structural and dynamic polymorphism. Potential involvement of histone H2B N-terminal tail proximal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolob, Andrei; Lavelle, Christophe; Prunell, Ariel

    2003-02-01

    Relaxation of nucleosomes on an homologous series (pBR) of ca 350-370 bp DNA minicircles originating from plasmid pBR322 was recently used as a tool to study their structure and dynamics. These nucleosomes thermally fluctuated between three distinct DNA conformations within a histone N-terminal tail-modulated equilibrium: one conformation was canonical, with 1.75 turn wrapping and negatively crossed entering and exiting DNAs; another was also "closed", but with these DNAs positively crossed; and the third was "open", with a lower than 1.5 turn wrapping and uncrossed DNAs. In this work, a new minicircle series (5S) of similar size was used, which contained the 5S nucleosome positioning sequence. Results showed that DNA in pBR nucleosomes was untwisted by approximately 0.2 turn relative to 5S nucleosomes, which DNase I footprinting confirmed in revealing a approximately 1 bp untwisting at each of the two dyad-distal sites where H2B N-terminal tails pass between the two gyres. In contrast, both nucleosomes showed untwistings at the dyad-proximal sites, i.e. on the other gyre, which were also observed in the high-resolution crystal structure. 5S nucleosomes also differ with respect to their dynamics: they hardly accessed the positively crossed conformation, but had an easier access to the negatively crossed conformation. Simulation showed that such reverse effects on the conformational free energies could be simply achieved by slightly altering the trajectories of entering and exiting DNAs. We propose that this is accomplished by H2B tail untwisting at the distal sites through action at a distance ( approximately 20 bp) on H3-tail interactions with the small groove at the nucleosome entry-exit. These results may help to gain a first glimpse into the two perhaps most intriguing features of the high-resolution structure: the alignment of the grooves on the two gyres and the passage of H2B and H3 N-terminal tails between them. PMID:12547190

  18. Raman and nuclear inelastic scattering study of the lattice dynamics of the [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(phen)] spin crossover complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat, Sylvain; Mikolasek, Mirko; Costá, José Sánchez; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2016-06-01

    We report on a combined nuclear inelastic scattering and metal isotope substitution based Raman spectroscopic investigation of lattice dynamics changes associated with the spin transition in the ferrous complex [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(phen)] (pz = pyrazolyl, phen = 1,10-phenantroline). These techniques allowed us to identify Raman active metal - ligand stretching vibrations in the high spin (vHS = 232 cm-1) and low spin (vLS = 390 cm-1) states as well as to calculate associated changes of the Debye temperature (ΘDHS = 140 K, ΘDLS = 146 K), Debye sound velocity (vHS = 1282 m/s, vLS = 1300 m/s) and Young's modulus (EHS = 4.7 GPa, ELS = 5.2 GPa).

  19. IMAC fractionation in combination with LC-MS reveals H2B and NIF-1 peptides as potential bladder cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzi, Maria; Zoidakis, Jerome; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Zürbig, Petra; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Lazaris, Andreas; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Ploumidis, Achilles; Mischak, Harald; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia

    2013-09-01

    Improvement in bladder cancer (BC) management requires more effective diagnosis and prognosis of disease recurrence and progression. Urinary biomarkers attract special interest because of the noninvasive means of urine collection. Proteomic analysis of urine entails the adoption of a fractionation methodology to reduce sample complexity. In this study, we applied immobilized metal affinity chromatography in combination with high-resolution LC-MS/MS for the discovery of native urinary peptides potentially associated with BC aggressiveness. This approach was employed toward urine samples from patients with invasive BC, noninvasive BC, and benign urogenital diseases. A total of 1845 peptides were identified, corresponding to a total of 638 precursor proteins. Specific enrichment for proteins involved in nucleosome assembly and for zinc-finger transcription factors was observed. The differential expression of two candidate biomarkers, histone H2B and NIF-1 (zinc finger 335) in BC, was verified in independent sets of urine samples by ELISA and by immunohistochemical analysis of BC tissue. The results collectively support changes in the expression of both of these proteins with tumor progression, suggesting their potential role as markers for discriminating BC stages. In addition, the data indicate a possible involvement of NIF-1 in BC progression, likely as a suppressor and through interactions with Sox9 and HoxA1.

  20. Aquifer-test data for wells H-1, H-2A, H-2B, H-2C, and H-3 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Gregory, Angela

    2006-01-01

    A series of aquifer tests was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey on geologic units of Permian age at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site between February 1979 and July 1980 in wells H-1, H-2 complex (H-2A, H-2B, and H-2C), and H-3. The tested geologic units included the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, and the contact zone between the Rustler and Salado Formations. Selected information on the tested formations, test dates, pre-test static water levels, test configurations, and raw data collected during these tests are tabulated in this report.

  1. Two large-scale analyses of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon de novo insertion events indicate that Ty1 targets nucleosomal DNA near the H2A/H2B interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridier-Nahmias Antoine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years, a number of reports have revealed that Ty1 integration occurs in a 1-kb window upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes with an approximate 80-bp periodicity between each integration hotspot and that this targeting requires active Pol III transcription at the site of integration. However, the molecular bases of Ty1 targeting are still not understood. Findings The publications by Baller et al. and Mularoni et al. in the April issue of Genome Res. report the first high-throughput sequencing analysis of Ty1 de novo insertion events. Their observations converge to the same conclusion, that Ty1 targets a specific surface of the nucleosome at he H2A/H2B interface. Conclusion This discovery is important, and should help identifying factor(s involved in Ty1 targeting. Recent data on transposable elements and retroviruses integration site choice obtained by large-scale analyses indicate that transcription and chromatin structure play an important role in this process. The studies reported in this commentary add a new evidence of the importance of chromatin in integration selectivity that should be of interest for everyone interested in transposable elements integration.

  2. Toeplitz and composition operators on H~2 (B_n)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广福; 孙顺华

    1997-01-01

    The composition operators with closed range on H2( Bn) are characterized, and the Frcdholmness of products of Toeplitz and composition operators discussed. Moreover, using composition operators, the spectra of Toeplitz operators are studied.

  3. Spectral unfolding of HERMES III H%2B beam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, Andrew Clinton

    2010-08-01

    The objective is to deconvolve radiochromic film data into ion energy spectrum. The purpose is to: (1) Experiment - Utilize HERMES III as a pulsed neutron source; and (2) Unfolding - Ion energy spectrum gives insight into when the H{sup +} ions form and Spectrum is needed to predict neutron production. Conclusions are: (1) the majority of ions are high energy, therefore they form during the main beam pulse; (2) image processing worked; and (3) unfolding proved to be relatively stable.

  4. 76 FR 3451 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... conditions below the established minimum levels, citing examples of high unemployment rates in industries in... unemployment rates among specific groups of vulnerable low-wage workers: Youth, Hispanics, and African..., offered arguments that wage tiers appropriately reflect the level of skill, education, experience...

  5. Menin and RNF20 recruitment is associated with dynamic histone modifications that regulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1-activated transcription of the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buro Lauren J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT activation of gene expression is both rapid and transient, and when properly executed it affects growth, differentiation, homeostasis and the immune response, but when dysregulated it contributes to human disease. Transcriptional activation is regulated by alterations to the chromatin template. However, the role of histone modification at gene loci that are activated for transcription in response to STAT signaling is poorly defined. Results Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we profiled several histone modifications during STAT1 activation of the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF1. Methylated lysine histone proteins H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K79me3, H3K36me3 and monoubiquitinated histone ubH2B are dynamic and correlate with interferon (IFNγ induction of STAT1 activity. Chemical inhibition of H3K4 methylation downregulates IRF1 transcription and decreases RNA polymerase II (Pol II occupancy at the IRF1 promoter. MEN1, a component of a complex proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS-like complex and the hBRE1 component, RNF20, are localized to IRF1 in the uninduced state and are further recruited when IRF1 is activated. RNAi-mediated depletion of RNF20 lowers both ubH2B and H3K4me3, but surprisingly, upregulates IFNγ induced IRF1 transcription. The dynamics of phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Pol II are disrupted during gene activation as well. Conclusions H2B monoubiquitination promotes H3K4 methylation, but the E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF20, is repressive of inducible transcription at the IRF1 gene locus, suggesting that ubH2B can, directly or indirectly, affect Pol II CTD phosphorylation cycling to exert control on ongoing transcription.

  6. 76 FR 15129 - Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    .... 1-95, 60 FR 7216, Feb. 7, 1995, which laid out the processing of applications, first at the State... application. ETA issued Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) No. 21-06, 72 FR 19961, Apr. 20, 2007.... 70 FR 3984, Jan. 27, 2005; 70 FR 3993, Jan. 27, 2005. This set of proposed rules suggested...

  7. 76 FR 14679 - Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction Occupations on Guam for Purposes of the H-2B Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA98 Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction... employment will adversely affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers (i.e... market test on Guam is a determination whether the wages and working conditions offered to U.S....

  8. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  9. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  10. Telomerase Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Dorothy E Shippen

    2011-01-01

    The intimate connection between telomerase regulation and human disease is now well established. The molecular basis for telomerase regulation is highly complex and entails multiple layers of control. While the major target of enzyme regulation is the catalytic subunit TERT, the RNA subunit of telomerase is also implicated in telomerase control. In addition, alterations in gene dosage and alternative isoforms of core telomerase components have been described. Finally, telomerase localization,...

  11. Regulating Transplants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Legislation to determine brain death is viewed as essential in controlling the organ transplant industry Organ transplant represents a very sensitive and complicated issue. Experts say the temporary administrative regulations recently promulgated by the Central Government are an important step, but relevant laws and regulations must follow. Among these, the

  12. 77 FR 59670 - Electronic Filing of H-2A and H-2B Labor Certification Applications Through the iCERT Visa Portal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... application preparation stage and again, in summary form, at the final pre- submission stage of application...CERT System located at http://icert.doleta.gov . Using this system, agricultural associations... Management. An agricultural association, employer, or authorized representative will be able to create an...

  13. NOISE REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Voican; Constantin Stanescu

    2012-01-01

    Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address generally rising ambient noise, enforceable...

  14. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  15. Regulation of Neuronal Cell Death by c-Abl-Hippo/MST2 Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lei; Bai, Yujie; Qu, Aiqin; Zheng, Zheng; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammalian Ste20-like kinases (MSTs) are the mammalian homologue of Drosophila hippo and play critical roles in regulation of cell death, organ size control, proliferation and tumorigenesis. MSTs exert pro-apoptotic function through cleavage, autophosphorylation and in turn phosphorylation of downstream targets, such as Histone H2B and FOXO (Forkhead box O). Previously we reported that protein kinase c-Abl mediates oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death through phosphorylating MST1 at Y433, which is not conserved among mammalian MST2, Drosophila Hippo and C.elegans cst-1/2. Methodology/Principal Findings Using immunoblotting, in vitro kinase and cell death assay, we demonstrate that c-Abl kinase phosphorylates MST2 at an evolutionarily conserved site, Y81, within the kinase domain. We further show that the phosphorylation of MST2 by c-Abl leads to the disruption of the interaction with Raf-1 proteins and the enhancement of homodimerization of MST2 proteins. It thereby enhances the MST2 activation and induces neuronal cell death. Conclusions/Significance The identification of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase as a novel upstream activator of MST2 suggests that the conserved c-Abl-MST signaling cascade plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. PMID:22590567

  16. Nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, 112 nuclear power plants, 22 facilities that support these plants, 54 reactors used in research, and approximately 23,000 organizations hold licenses from either the Nuclear Regulator Commission or various states to use radioactive material; other facilities are operated by various government agencies. Eventually most of these facilities will be decommissioned, which involves removing the radioactive material and terminating the license. NRC needs to ensure that licensees appropriately decontaminate their facilities because, under current regulations, NRC cannot specifically require additional cleanup once it terminates a license. This paper presents a GAO report on NRC's decommissioning procedures. In two of eight cases GAO reviewed, NRC fully or partially released sites for unrestricted use where radioactive contamination was higher than its guidelines allowed; in the other cases, NRC's information was inadequate or incomplete. Further, NRC lacks information on the types and amounts of radioactive waste buried on-site. At five sites reviewed by GAO, groundwater has been found to be contaminated by radioactive waste

  17. Regulating Rho GTPases and their regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Richard G; Ridley, Anne J

    2016-08-01

    Rho GTPases regulate cytoskeletal and cell adhesion dynamics and thereby coordinate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell migration, cell polarity and cell cycle progression. Most Rho GTPases cycle between a GTP-bound active conformation and a GDP-bound inactive conformation to regulate their ability to activate effector proteins and to elicit cellular responses. However, it has become apparent that Rho GTPases are regulated by post-translational modifications and the formation of specific protein complexes, in addition to GTP-GDP cycling. The canonical regulators of Rho GTPases - guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GTPase-activating proteins and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors - are regulated similarly, creating a complex network of interactions to determine the precise spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases. PMID:27301673

  18. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  19. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised. The Commission has the authority to regulate advertising that delivers health-related information to consumers to ensure that it is not false or misleading. Top of page FDA Regulation and ...

  20. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor

  1. Hepcidin: regulation of the master iron regulator

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient, is required for many diverse biological processes. The absence of a defined pathway to excrete excess iron makes it essential for the body to regulate the amount of iron absorbed; a deficiency could lead to iron deficiency and an excess to iron overload and associated disorders such as anaemia and haemochromatosis respectively. This regulation is mediated by the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the only known iron export protein, ferroportin (FP...

  2. Views of the regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dealing with a challenging problem in occupational exposure the nuclear regulator in South Africa concluded that the involvement of stake holders was critical. Valuable lessons were learnt in the process. These related to co-operation amongst regulators, the involvement of regulators in addressing occupational exposure problems, the training of workers by the regulator and the need for technical training of the workers. In general, it was also learnt that regulators should establish mechanisms to measure and continuously improve the satisfaction of their stake holders. (author)

  3. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Regulations for Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Safety Codes for Nuclear Pressure Retaining Components were issued by the NNSA in 1995. The Atomic Act and Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Transportation of Radioactive Materials have been finished and submitted to the State Council in 1995. At the same time the NNSA organized a revised collection of regulations on nuclear safety in both Chinese and English, titled 'The Collection of Regulations on Nuclear Safety of the People's Republic of China'. To enhance the implementation of newly issued nuclear safety regulations, the NNSA conducted seven times of propagating activities in relation to the regulations for nuclear pressure retaining components and research reactors design and operating in 1995

  4. Genome-wide integration on transcription factors, histone acetylation and gene expression reveals genes co-regulated by histone modification patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani

    Full Text Available N-terminal tails of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 histone families are subjected to posttranslational modifications that take part in transcriptional regulation mechanisms, such as transcription factor binding and gene expression. Regulation mechanisms under control of histone modification are important but remain largely unclear, despite of emerging datasets for comprehensive analysis of histone modification. In this paper, we focus on what we call genetic harmonious units (GHUs, which are co-occurring patterns among transcription factor binding, gene expression and histone modification. We present the first genome-wide approach that captures GHUs by combining ChIP-chip with microarray datasets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our approach employs noise-robust soft clustering to select patterns which share the same preferences in transcription factor-binding, histone modification and gene expression, which are all currently implied to be closely correlated. The detected patterns are a well-studied acetylation of lysine 16 of H4 in glucose depletion as well as co-acetylation of five lysine residues of H3 with H4 Lys12 and H2A Lys7 responsible for ribosome biogenesis. Furthermore, our method further suggested the recognition of acetylated H4 Lys16 being crucial to histone acetyltransferase ESA1, whose essential role is still under controversy, from a microarray dataset on ESA1 and its bypass suppressor mutants. These results demonstrate that our approach allows us to provide clearer principles behind gene regulation mechanisms under histone modifications and detect GHUs further by applying to other microarray and ChIP-chip datasets. The source code of our method, which was implemented in MATLAB (http://www.mathworks.com/, is available from the supporting page for this paper: http://www.bic.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pathway/natsume/hm_detector.htm.

  5. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  6. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  7. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of nuclear safety regulations in 1996 is mainly focused on the preparation of related regulations, and safety guides for nuclear materials control, the reprocessing installations of spent fuels, the treatment and disposal for radioactive waste. The NNSA also assists the departments concerned of the State Council for modification on the 'Atomic Energy Act' (draft) and the' Regulations on the Safety Supervision and Control of Radioactive Materials Transportation' (draft)

  8. Emotional regulation and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Zaccagnini, J.L.; Ruiz-Aranda, D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has been shown that emotional regulation facilitates the establishment and maintenance of social relations (Dodge Garber, 1991; Saarni, 1999). The objective of the present study was to analyze the influence of emotional regulation (Gross y John, 2003) in positive friendship (Berscheid, 2003), specifically at the level of intimacy with friends. In addition, we examined the mediating role of positive emotions in the relationship between the emotional regulation and the leve...

  9. Accounting Regulation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Hora, Michal; Chyzevska, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the regulation and organization of accounting in Ukraine under the changes in the national economic system development and impact of IFRS implementation. The system of legal regulation of accounting in Ukraine is presented by five levels, each comprised of a number of corresponding subjects of regulation and documents. Typical Chart of Accounts is evidence of the continental accounting model in Ukraine. The accounting standards provide freedom of choice as ...

  10. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  11. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Aalbers

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets. Mortgag

  12. Emotion-regulation choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we hypothesiz

  13. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    nchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The applica......nchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  14. Regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caen, J P; Han, Z C; Bellucci, S; Alemany, M

    1999-09-01

    After 35 years of research, a physiological regulator of platelet production has been identified and the recombinant protein is available. With the discovery of thrombopoietin (TPO), its potential use in a wide variety of clinical megakaryocytic and platelet disorders has been expected and clinical trials have been undertaken. To date, the reported encouraging pre-clinical studies indicate that, as with erythropoietin or G-CSF, minimal toxicity can be expected. A potential limiting side-effect of TPO could be the induction of thrombosis. Nevertheless, it is too early to know whether this cytokine will be of major therapeutic importance for patients with life-threatening thrombocytopenia, such as patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation or subjected to a high dose of chemotherapy. Several experimental and clinical studies are still needed to determine the efficacy of TPO in the prevention or the amelioration of bleeding, which is the ultimate goal for the appropriate use of cytokines with haemostatic benefit. Basic and clinical studies on regulators of megakaryocytopoiesis have rapidly progressed. Now, there is no doubt that some of these regulators are effective in correcting haematopoietic disorders of various aetiologies. Studies on negative regulators not only are important to understand the regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis in normal and pathological states but also have a potential clinical application. Some of these regulators have been shown to be effective in the treatment of essential thrombocythaemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. Platelet factor 4 (PF4) and some other chemokines are also capable of protecting progenitor cells from the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, detailed investigations are still required to determine the precise mechanism(s) of action of these regulators and to establish the optimal clinical protocols of negative regulators alone or in association with positive regulators for the treatment of various

  15. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  16. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  17. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  18. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  19. Optimal Regulation of Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Marco; Immordino, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    We study regulation of the auditing profession in a model where audit quality is unobservable and enforcing regulation is costly. The optimal audit standard falls short of the first-best audit quality, and is increasing in the riskiness of firms and in the amount of funding they seek. The model can encompass collusion between clients and auditors, arising from the joint provision of auditing and consulting services: deflecting collusion requires less ambitious standards. Finally, banning the ...

  20. Financial Regulation Going Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Allen; Elena Carletti

    2010-01-01

    The financial sector is heavily regulated in order to prevent financial crises. The recent crisis showed how ineffective this regulation and other types of government intervention were in achieving this aim. We argue that the crisis was primarily caused by housing price bubbles. These occurred because of too loose monetary policies and the easy availability of credit resulting from the build up of large foreign exchange reserves by Asian central banks. A number of regulatory reforms are sugge...

  1. Regulating energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of sector-based regulation takes on significant importance in the context of market liberalization. The overall aim is to conciliate, in the considered sector, fair competition with the achievement of public service missions. However, the nature of the authority in charge of this regulation is not prone to harmonized clauses, even in Europe. For electricity for example, the 96/92/CE directive of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the inner electricity market, does not state this and Germany, which has not designed any sector-based regulator, applies the general procedure of litigation settlement by the equivalent of the competition Council. In France, the law Nr 2000-108 of 10 February 2000 defines the CRE (Electricity Regulation Commission) is article 28 as including six members, three of which are appointed by Government and the three others respectively by each of the presidents of the parliamentary assemblies. Many other countries have made the same choice. However, the scope of the missions given to these specialized authorities varies considerably according to the country. At European level, what are the different models of organisation of sector-based regulation in the energy field? How are the new regulators organised in relation with the competition authorities? Will the new models converge on the medium term or on the long term? Must we anticipate the creation of European regulation authorities to rule the problems concerning several national markets? What can we learn from the recent electricity crisis in California? To try and answer these questions, Mr Michel Matheu presented a European comparative study and before the debate started, Mr Pierre Couveinhes suggested a reflection on the practical implications of the analyses carried out. (authors)

  2. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  3. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  4. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  5. ANTICIPATING AND REGULATING BIOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Iorga Siman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulating biosystems closely related to human beings are structures still difficult to understand.Numerous intimate processes taking place in these systems, even their actual constitution, are insufficiently decoded, and that they have populated the world long before man invented the first regulator, appears not to have contributed much to their knowledge. This work is intended to highlight what regulating biosystems are.There is no secret that somatic muscles perform control operations which no act of moving would be possible without. All actions are the result of dynamic controlled processes adjusted to strict control laws. By treating them very seriously may lead to knowledge of processes occurring in complex systems

  6. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  7. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  8. Regulation as Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Györy, Csaba

    This paper analyses the way regulatory agencies strategically use public ‘rhetoric’ and ‘management of appearance’ to strengthen their regulation. It reports a comparative study of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which is the US federal securities regulator and the Danish Tax and...... environment, these two agencies apply strategies that appear to be strikingly similar, and these similarities are worth investigating not despite, but exactly because of the differing political and social environment. We track recent shifts in organizational practice at these two agencies and argue that both...

  9. Nuclear regulations and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an historical overview of the nuclear regulation system in Argentina a description is made of the country's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and of its regulation and control functions. Its organic structure is also outlined. A detailed report is given of the environmental monitoring activities in the sites of the operating Argentine nuclear power plants as well as those of the nuclear research centres. A special reference is made of the monitoring of the relevant uranium mining districts in Argentina. The radon determination in houses of several regions of the country is also mentioned

  10. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  11. Volume Regulation in Epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...

  12. Cyberplagiarism in University Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cavanillas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the legal framework for plagiarism, and its twofold nature of illicit appropriation (from the author of the plagiarized work and fraud (with regard to the target audience of the plagiarism. Based on these premises, academic cyberplagiarism is analysed as a form of plagiarism carried out using electronic tools in the university setting. The question of responsibility (who can regulate the legal consequences of plagiarism? before and after the Ley Orgánica de Universidades (organic law on universities, LOU is studied, as is the disciplinary handling of cyberplagiarism with the limited regulations currently in place at universities.

  13. Regulation, Competition, and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad Javed

    2002-01-01

    You know it is very hard after the Governor, State Bank, to make a presentation but I will try to do it in a very mundane way. You know the Regulatory Bodies specially in the Economic Sector in recent times. There has been a sort of resurgence, leaving aside the regulation of the financial sector, which has been doing very well. Our old memory of regulation is not so pleasant. Long ago, there used to be a transport Authority which used to dole out “Route Permits” as political favours, and the...

  14. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  15. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Departmental Rules and The Safety Guides were issued by the NNSA in 1998. The NNSA performed the activities of propagation and implementation of nuclear safety regulations at QTNPP in order to improve the nuclear safety culture of operating organization and construct and contract organizations

  16. Situated bio-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago, both authors engaged in research into bioscience and biomedical regulation in Asian countries. One of us (BP) explored why the regulatory and discursive embedding of human embryonic stem cell in Israel was much more permissive than elsewhere. The other author (AW) sought to und...

  17. Regulating the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Byron

    2007-01-01

    The Internet's breakthrough to primetime usage beginning in the mid-1990s evolved in an era of openness. Unfettered access seemed key to Internet development. An important foundation for the 1996 Telecommunications Act was the theory that the telecom industry would work best if it were free of government regulation, a guiding principle that has…

  18. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max;

    2016-01-01

    instruments. However, solving the open-access externality problem also affects CO2 emissions. By using a bio-economic model covering Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, it is shown that regulations of the open-access externality problem have a large effect on both economic performance...

  19. Jordan Corporate Governance Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Institute of Directors

    2013-01-01

    As the importance of Corporate Governance increases, an awareness and understanding of the different relevant regulations becomes of paramount value. The importance and value of Corporate Governance is not the core of this publication. The publication is built around the premise that Corporate Governance is important and increasingly becoming of significant importance for growth, continued...

  20. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  1. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  2. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  3. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    expressed ICl, swell will decrease proliferation in several cell types, including Ehrlich cells. A differentiated expression of ICl, swell in the cell cycle has been described in different cell types indicating a regulating role. In Ehrlich Lettré ascites (ELA) cells we suggest the differentiated expression...

  4. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  5. International telecommunications market regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 23 February 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred international telecommunic-ations market regulation for inquiry and report within six months. The report focused on the reform of international telecommunications markets, in particular on the payment arrangements between providers of international telecommunications services.

  6. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  7. The volatile 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one from Trichoderma atroviride regulates Arabidopsis thaliana root morphogenesis via auxin signaling and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Vergara, Amira; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; Muñoz-Parra, Edith; Raya-González, Javier; Méndez-Bravo, Alejandro; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Bucio, José

    2016-03-01

    Plants interact with root microbes via chemical signaling, which modulates competence or symbiosis. Although several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fungi may affect plant growth and development, the signal transduction pathways mediating VOC sensing are not fully understood. 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6-PP) is a major VOC biosynthesized by Trichoderma spp. which is probably involved in plant-fungus cross-kingdom signaling. Using microscopy and confocal imaging, the effects of 6-PP on root morphogenesis were found to be correlated with DR5:GFP, DR5:VENUS, H2B::GFP, PIN1::PIN1::GFP, PIN2::PIN2::GFP, PIN3::PIN3::GFP and PIN7::PIN7::GFP gene expression. A genetic screen for primary root growth resistance to 6-PP in wild-type seedlings and auxin- and ethylene-related mutants allowed identification of genes controlling root architectural responses to this metabolite. Trichoderma atroviride produced 6-PP, which promoted plant growth and regulated root architecture, inhibiting primary root growth and inducing lateral root formation. 6-PP modulated expression of PIN auxin-transport proteins in a specific and dose-dependent manner in primary roots. TIR1, AFB2 and AFB3 auxin receptors and ARF7 and ARF19 transcription factors influenced the lateral root response to 6-PP, whereas EIN2 modulated 6-PP sensing in primary roots. These results indicate that root responses to 6-PP involve components of auxin transport and signaling and the ethylene-response modulator EIN2. PMID:26568541

  8. Modification of histones by sugar β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) occurs on multiple residues, including histone H3 serine 10, and is cell cycle-regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suisheng; Roche, Kevin; Nasheuer, Heinz-Peter; Lowndes, Noel Francis

    2011-10-28

    The monosaccharide, β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), can be added to the hydroxyl group of either serines or threonines to generate an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residue (Love, D. C., and Hanover, J. A. (2005) Sci. STKE 2005 312, 1-14; Hart, G. W., Housley, M. P., and Slawson, C. (2007) Nature 446, 1017-1022). This post-translational protein modification, termed O-GlcNAcylation, is reversible, analogous to phosphorylation, and has been implicated in many cellular processes. Here, we present evidence that in human cells all four core histones of the nucleosome are substrates for this glycosylation in the relative abundance H3, H4/H2B, and H2A. Increasing the intracellular level of UDP-GlcNAc, the nucleotide sugar donor substrate for O-GlcNAcylation enhanced histone O-GlcNAcylation and partially suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10ph). Expression of recombinant H3.3 harboring an S10A mutation abrogated histone H3 O-GlcNAcylation relative to its wild-type version, consistent with H3S10 being a site of histone O-GlcNAcylation (H3S10glc). Moreover, O-GlcNAcylated histones were lost from H3S10ph immunoprecipitates, whereas immunoprecipitation of either H3K4me3 or H3K9me3 (active or inactive histone marks, respectively) resulted in co-immunoprecipitation of O-GlcNAcylated histones. We also examined histone O-GlcNAcylation during cell cycle progression. Histone O-GlcNAcylation is high in G(1) cells, declines throughout the S phase, increases again during late S/early G(2), and persists through late G(2) and mitosis. Thus, O-GlcNAcylation is a novel histone post-translational modification regulating chromatin conformation during transcription and cell cycle progression.

  9. Regulating the private security industry

    CERN Document Server

    Percy, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The under-regulation of the private security industry has increasingly become a topic of media and academic interest. This Adelphi Paper enters the debate by explaining why the industry requires further regulation, and what is wrong with the current system. It begins by briefly defining the industry and explaining the need for more effective regulation, before analysing three types of regulation: domestic, international and informal (including self-regulation).

  10. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace......Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...

  11. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  12. POTENT REGULATORS OF METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Brun, Pierre-Jacques; Yang, Kryscilla Jian Zhang; Lee, Seung-Ah; Yuen, Jason J.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its analogs) are highly potent regulators of cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Because of these activities, retinoids have been most extensively studied in the contexts of embryonic development and of proliferative diseases, especially cancer and skin disease. Recently, there has been considerable new research interest focused on gaining understanding of the roles that retinoids and/or retinoid-related proteins may have in the development of met...

  13. Beyond State Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Madanat, Philip; Pies, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Holding the news media accountable has traditionally been a task of the state in Jordan. Media laws and regulations are numerous and do not leave too much space for self-regulatory practices on a national basis. The Jordan Press Association (JPA) is the core of so-called established media accountability institutions. It conducted a law-like code of ethics in 2003 and runs ombuds committees (currently three) dealing with mishaps of the media to prevent journalists from legal liability. Thou...

  14. Fibronectin Mechanobiology Regulates Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Karin; Seo, Bo Ri; Fischbach, Claudia; Gourdon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin (Fn) is an essential extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein involved in both physiological and pathological processes. The structure–function relationship of Fn has been and is still being studied, as changes in its molecular structure are integral in regulating (or dysregulating) its biological activities via its cell, matrix component, and growth factor binding sites. Fn comprises three types of repeating modules; among them, FnIII modules are mechanically unstable domains that...

  15. Iron regulation by hepcidin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that is involved in the control of iron homeostasis in the body. Physiologically, hepcidin is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoiesis. The regulation of hepcidin expression by iron is a complex process that requires the coordination of multiple proteins, including hemojuvelin, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP receptors, and transferrin. Misregulati...

  16. Human telomerase activity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtyla, Aneta; Gladych, Marta; Rubis, Blazej

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase has been recognized as a relevant factor distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells. Thus, it has become a very promising target for anticancer therapy. The cell proliferative potential can be limited by replication end problem, due to telomeres shortening, which is overcome in cancer cells by telomerase activity or by alternative telomeres lengthening (ALT) mechanism. However, this multisubunit enzymatic complex can be regulated at various levels, including expression control b...

  17. Cyberplagiarism in University Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Cavanillas

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the legal framework for plagiarism, and its twofold nature of illicit appropriation (from the author of the plagiarized work) and fraud (with regard to the target audience of the plagiarism). Based on these premises, academic cyberplagiarism is analysed as a form of plagiarism carried out using electronic tools in the university setting. The question of responsibility (who can regulate the legal consequences of plagiarism?) before and after the Ley Orgánica de Universidad...

  18. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  19. Auditing and Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pettinicchio, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Effective financial reporting has become of critical importance in our economic markets and the international accounting scandals of the last decades have accentuated the role of auditing in protecting stakeholders' interests and contributing to an efficient functioning of financial markets. Auditing regulation has been at the centre of recent international debates (e.g. EU Green paper; 2010) and different regulatory interventions have been put in place in different countries and in different...

  20. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  1. Taiwan Regulation of Biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chien-Te; Hung, Tzu-Hsun; Yeh, Chan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces legal framework and governance structure in relation to the management and development of biobanks in Taiwan. At first, we briefly describe Taiwan's population, political system and health care system. Secondly, this research introduces biobanking framework of Taiwan including 25 biobanks established with the approval of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In those biobanks, "Taiwan Biobank" is the first and the largest government-supported biobank which comprises population-based cohort study and disease- oriented study. Since the collection of information, data, and biological specimen of biobanks often involve highly sensitive personal information, in the legal framework of Taiwan, there is a specific regulation, "Human Biobank Management Act" (HBMA), which plays an important role in regulating biobanks in Taiwan. HBMA, the Personal Information Act and other regulations constitute a comprehensive legal and regulatory privacy framework of biobanks. Through the introduction and analysis of the current legal framework applicable to biobanks, we found that there are several challenges that need to be solved appropriately that involve duplicate review systems, the obstacles in the international collaboration, and data sharing between biobanks in Taiwan.

  2. Ensembl regulation resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, Daniel R; Johnson, Nathan; Juetteman, Thomas; Sheppard, Dan; Wilder, Steven P; Lavidas, Ilias; Nuhn, Michael; Perry, Emily; Raffaillac-Desfosses, Quentin; Sobral, Daniel; Keefe, Damian; Gräf, Stefan; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Kinsella, Rhoda; Pritchard, Bethan; Brent, Simon; Amode, Ridwan; Parker, Anne; Trevanion, Steven; Birney, Ewan; Dunham, Ian; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    New experimental techniques in epigenomics allow researchers to assay a diversity of highly dynamic features such as histone marks, DNA modifications or chromatin structure. The study of their fluctuations should provide insights into gene expression regulation, cell differentiation and disease. The Ensembl project collects and maintains the Ensembl regulation data resources on epigenetic marks, transcription factor binding and DNA methylation for human and mouse, as well as microarray probe mappings and annotations for a variety of chordate genomes. From this data, we produce a functional annotation of the regulatory elements along the human and mouse genomes with plans to expand to other species as data becomes available. Starting from well-studied cell lines, we will progressively expand our library of measurements to a greater variety of samples. Ensembl's regulation resources provide a central and easy-to-query repository for reference epigenomes. As with all Ensembl data, it is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org, from the Perl and REST APIs and from the public Ensembl MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. PMID:26888907

  3. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  4. The international radioactive transportation regulations: A model for national regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab

  5. Nuclear regulation in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key prerequisite to the development of a nuclear program to provide a country's electricity is that governments and the public are confident that a nuclear accident 'will not occur' over the whole life of the program. This can only be achieved by three elements being equally strong: an excellent design, a highly competent and safety conscious operator, and a strong competent regulator with appropriate legal powers. This paper will outline what is necessary to achieve the third of these prerequisites. It will outline the principles by which a Regulatory Agency ensures that licensees meet their responsibility for the safety of their nuclear plant, based on both internationally accepted ideas, the Nuclear Safety Convention, and Canadian practice. The paper will cover legislative principles -- what to include in legislation, what to include in regulations, and what to include in standards and guides. The problem of 'prescriptive requirements' versus 'general performance statements' in regulations will be addressed, and the implications of this problem on ensuring licensees retain responsibility for safety, and on licensees' desire for a high degree of certainty in what is expected of them, both to get a licence and to keep it, in today's economic climate. The paper will also address compliance and the differences between the lawyers' definition of compliance (meeting specific requirements defined by law) and the nuclear safety engineers' view of compliance, (meeting commitments made at the time a licence was given), and how these views can be reconciled. The paper will discuss how Canada's new Nuclear Safety and Control Act has addressed some of these issues, and how the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is implementing the new Act. The issue of transfer of regulatory programs and technology to the regulatory agencies of countries buying a nuclear plant from Canadian companies will be discussed, and examples given of how this has been accomplished to the benefit of

  6. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  7. Regulering og simulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    Dette notat er primært udarbejdet til brug i undervisningen i kurset Energisystemer og Regulering pa civilingeniørlinien lndeklima og Energiøkonomi på Aalborg Universitet, hvilket naturligvis sætter sit spor bade i omfang og udvælgelse af emner. Hensigten er at give en introduktion til det teoret...... teoretiske grundlag for reguleringsteknikken samtidig med en indføring i simulering af dynamiske systemer, således at læseren får en rimelig forståelse af dynamiske systemers virkemåde og karakteristika....

  8. The regulation of hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank

    of the individual harvest. However, information about the individual harvest may be costly to obtain. Thus, we may have to look for alternatives to the existing system. This paper proposes a population tax/subsidy as an alternative which is the difference between the actual and optimal population multiplied...... by an individual, variable tax rate. The variable tax rate is, among other things, based on the difference in marginal value of the population between the hunter and the regulator. The paper shows that the population tax/subsidy secures a first-best optimum. Thus, the population tax is a good alternative...

  9. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  10. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  11. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  12. Public Regulators and CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The social licence to operate (SLO) concept is little developed in the academic literature so far. Deployment of the term was made by the United National (UN) Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and the UN ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework, which apply SLO as an argument...... analysis of an expansion of law into the normative framing of what constitutes responsible business conduct, we demonstrate a process of juridification entailing a legal framing of social expectations of companies, a proliferation of law into the field of business ethics, and an increased regulation by law...

  13. Self-Regulation in School

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Successful self-regulation depends on the ability to regulate the self both motivationally and emotionally in order to protect the self and the learning process against competing personal needs as well as situational distractions. Successful self-regulation further requires students to adequately use metacognitive and cognitive learning strategies to organize the learning process efficiently. The studies presented in this dissertation focus on students' strategies for regulating themselves in...

  14. Mergers in Regulated Industries: Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis W. Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Mergers in any industry can raise complicated questions about the elimination of competition and the achievement of efficiencies. Mergers in regulated industries such as electricity raise even more complicated issues as the analyst needs to grapple with the constraining effects of regulation, multiple levels of regulation, the ability to evade regulation, and the desire for efficiency. This paper discusses the electricity industry in general and one particular electricity merger that the U.S....

  15. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  16. The Quality of Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BĂLAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Good governance also involves the affirmation and practice of some principles that allow the structures of the public space to administrate the general interest in the respect of the democracy and of the state of law pre-requisites, as well as the ones of a good administration: trust and predictability, openness and transparency, responsibility, efficiency and efficacy. The assurance of such desideratum imposes that the rules invested with the force of law, applicable to the juridical rapports to be clear, not equivoques, predictable, to allow both the protection of public interest and the respect of the citizens’ dignity and interests. The evaluation of the quality of regulation represents a necessary process of the appreciation of the impact that juridical norms are intended to produce and measures in which the outcomes of the implementation correspond to the ones established during the stage of formulating the public policy. The study tries to identify ways of evaluating the quality of regulation, valid in a social and political space governed by democratic rules and principles.

  17. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last grant period, we have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism in sage and peppermint, and have, by several lines of evidence, deciphered the rate-limiting step of each pathway. We have at least partially purified and characterized the relevant enzymes of each pathway. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation depends upon the balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally-regulated and very closely associated with senescence of the oil glands. Oil gland ontogeny has been characterized at the ultrastructural level. We have exploited foliar-applied bioregulators to delay gland senescence, and have developed tissue explant and cell culture systems to study several elusive aspects of catabolism. We have isolated pure gland cell clusters and localized monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism within these structures, and have used these preparations as starting materials for the purification to homogeneity of target regulatory'' enzymes. We have thus developed the necessary background knowledge, based on a firm understanding of enzymology, as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of monoterpene metabolism at the molecular level. Furthermore, we are now in a position to extend our systematic approach to other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15]-C[sub 30]) produced by oil glands.

  18. Regulation as delegation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the conception of reverse delegation when the government acts a principal and an individual ndash an agent from the point of view of behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory. Methods statistical method sociological polling. Results In diverse areas ndash from retirement savings to consumer credit to prescription drug use to fuel economy and energy efficiency rules to tobacco consumption to food and beverage consumption ndash government makes decisions for us or endeavors to help us make better decisions thus serving as our agent. From the point of view of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory a great deal of modern regulation can be helpfully evaluated as a hypothetical delegation. Shifting from personal decisions to public goods problems the authors view the idea of reverse delegation with the government as principal and the individuals as agents. They show that the essence of delegation changes depending on the context. The article describes conditions under which various approaches will make sense. Scientific novelty the paper is devoted to the foreign experience of regulation through delegation by the example of a country with developed market economy the USA. It shows the prospects of such approach in solving both the public and the private tasks. Application of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory is viewed to distinguish between such types of hypothetical delegation as information default rules incentives precommitments mandates and prohibitions. The article considers the benefits and costs of delegation and circumstances in which one or another approach makes sense. Practical significance PrincipalAgent Theory is widely used in economics and political science and can serve as a convenient tool to consider the optimal scale and essence of the assistance rendered to us by the government as our agent. The paper is of interest for the Russian legal science as the institution of

  19. A pressure regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for regulating the pressure of a gas in a glove box comprises a resiliently biassed pressure sensitive diaphragm and a spool valve operable by deflection of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is arranged to be exposed on one side to atmospheric pressure and on the other side to the pressure of the gas in the glove box, and the spool valve is used to control simultaneously the rates at which gas is pumped in and out of the glove box. The valve spool has two axially spaced circumferential grooves A, B which provide communication between conduits C, D and E, F respectively, the flow control along each path being effected by means of apertures in a sleeve within which the spool slides. (author)

  20. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna;

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  1. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    Summary There is emerging focus on the gut microbiota’s (GM) effects on health. GM is suggested to be a contributing factor to the rapid development of obesity and its related diseases like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The omposition of the GM has been associated with weight, insulin...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human......-armed parallel four weeks intervention study with W8 (1010 CFU) or placebo capsules was performed on young, normal to overweight participants. In the four weeks intervention study the effects of W8 on appetite, blood lipids, SCD1 activity and fecal microbiota were also investigated. Finally, associations between...

  2. Regulation of melanopsin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are adjusted daily to the environmental day/night cycle by photic input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the RHT constitute a separate light-detecting system in the mammalian retina used for irradiance detection and for transmission to the circadian system and other non-imaging forming processes in the brain. The RGCs of the RHT are intrinsically photosensitive due to the expression of melanopsin, an opsin-like photopigment. This notion is based on anatomical and functional data and on studies of mice lacking melanopsin. Furthermore, heterologous expression of melanopsin in non-neuronal mammalian cell lines was found sufficient to render these cells photosensitive. Even though solid evidence regarding the function of melanopsin exists, little is known about the regulation of melanopsin gene expression. Studies in albino Wistar rats showed that the expression of melanopsin is diurnal at both the mRNA and protein levels. The diurnal changes in melanopsin expression seem, however, to be overridden by prolonged exposure to light or darkness. Significant increase in melanopsin expression was observed from the first day in constant darkness and the expression continued to increase during prolonged exposure in constant darkness. Prolonged exposure to constant light, on the other hand, decreased melanopsin expression to an almost undetectable level after 5 days of constant light. The induction of melanopsin by darkness was even more pronounced if darkness was preceded by light suppression for 5 days. These observations show that dual mechanisms regulate melanopsin gene expression and that the intrinsic light-responsive RGCs in the albino Wistar rat adapt their expression of melanopsin to environmental light and darkness.

  3. TFEB regulates lysosomal proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wensi; Wang, Fan; Savini, Marzia; Ake, Ashley; di Ronza, Alberto; Sardiello, Marco; Segatori, Laura

    2013-05-15

    Loss-of-function diseases are often caused by destabilizing mutations that lead to protein misfolding and degradation. Modulating the innate protein homeostasis (proteostasis) capacity may lead to rescue of native folding of the mutated variants, thereby ameliorating the disease phenotype. In lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), a number of highly prevalent alleles have missense mutations that do not impair the enzyme's catalytic activity but destabilize its native structure, resulting in the degradation of the misfolded protein. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity enables rescuing the native, biologically functional structure of these unstable mutated enzymes. However, proteostasis modulators specific for the lysosomal system are currently unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and function, in modulating lysosomal proteostasis in LSDs. We show that TFEB activation results in enhanced folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of a severely destabilized glucocerebrosidase (GC) variant associated with the development of Gaucher disease (GD), the most common LSD. TFEB specifically induces the expression of GC and of key genes involved in folding and lysosomal trafficking, thereby enhancing both the pool of mutated enzyme and its processing through the secretory pathway. TFEB activation also rescues the activity of a β-hexosaminidase mutant associated with the development of another LSD, Tay-Sachs disease, thus suggesting general applicability of TFEB-mediated proteostasis modulation to rescue destabilizing mutations in LSDs. In summary, our findings identify TFEB as a specific regulator of lysosomal proteostasis and suggest that TFEB may be used as a therapeutic target to rescue enzyme homeostasis in LSDs. PMID:23393155

  4. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-11-09

    Terpenoid oils, resins, and waxes from plants are important renewable resources. The objective of this project is to understand the regulation of terpenoid metabolism using the monoterpenes (C[sub 10]) as a model. The pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis and catabolism have been established, and the relevant enzymes characterized. Developmental studies relating enzyme levels to terpene accumulation within the oil gland sites of synthesis, and work with bioregulators, indicate that monoterpene production is controlled by terpene cyclases, the enzymes catalyzing the first step of the monoterpene pathway. As the leaf oil glands mature, cyclase levels decline and monoterpene biosynthesis ceases. Yield then decreases as the monoterpenes undergo catabolism by a process involving conversion to a glycoside and transport from the leaf glands to the root. At this site, the terpenoid is oxidatively degraded to acetate that is recycled into other lipid metabolites. During the transition from terpene biosynthesis to catabolism, the oil glands undergo dramatic ultrastructural modification. Degradation of the producing cells results in mixing of previously compartmentized monoterpenes with the catabolic enzymes, ultimately leading to yield decline. This regulatory model is being applied to the formation of other terpenoid classes (C[sub 15] C[sub 20], C[sub 30], C[sub 40]) within the oil glands. Preliminary investigations on the formation of sesquiterpenes (C[sub 15]) suggest that the corresponding cyclases may play a lesser role in determining yield of these products, but that compartmentation effects are important. From these studies, a comprehensive scheme for the regulation of terpene metabolism is being constructed. Results from this project wail have important consequences for the yield and composition of terpenoid natural products that can be made available for industrial exploitation.

  5. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  6. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  7. Uniform Practical Nonlinear Output Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, Lorenzo; Praly, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we present a solution to the problem of asymptotic and practical semiglobal regulation by output feedback for nonlinear systems. A key feature of the proposed approach is that practical regulation is achieved uniformly with respect to the dimension of the internal model and to the gain of the stabilizer near the zero error manifold. This property renders the approach interesting for a number of real cases by bridging the gap between output regulation t...

  8. Platelets actively sequester angiogenesis regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Lakka Klement, Giannoula; Yip, Tai-Tung; Cassiola, Flavia; Kikuchi, Lena; Cervi, David; Podust, Vladimir; Italiano, Joseph E.; Wheatley, Erin; Abou-Slaybi, Abdo; Bender, Elise; Almog, Nava; Kieran, Mark W.; Folkman, Judah

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials with antiangiogenic agents have not been able to validate plasma or serum levels of angiogenesis regulators as reliable markers of cancer presence or therapeutic response. We recently reported that platelets contain numerous proteins that regulate angiogenesis. We now show that accumulation of angiogenesis regulators in platelets of animals bearing malignant tumors exceeds significantly their concentration in plasma or serum, as well as their levels in platelets from non–tumor...

  9. Regulations on Open Government Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU XUEYUN

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 24, 2007 the State Council promulgated Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Open Government Information (referred to as Regulations below), which will become effective on May 1, 2008. As the first administrative rule of the central government of China that aims to safeguard the public's right to know, the Regulations are of great significance in China's democratization and its establishment of the rule of law.

  10. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  11. Auditing and bank capital regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Simpson Prescott

    2004-01-01

    Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...

  12. Strategic automation of emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger-Gallo, Inge; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i...

  13. Self-Regulated Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, I T; Shapiro, P R; Pen, U L; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Shapiro, Paul R.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have presented the first large-scale radiative transfer simulations of reionization. Here we present new simulations which extend the source halo mass range downward to 10^8M_solar, to capture the full range of halo masses thought to be primarily responsible for reionization by their star formation following atomic hydrogen radiative cooling and gravitational collapse. Haloes below about 10^9M_solar, however, are subject to Jeans-mass filtering in the ionized regions, which suppresses their baryonic content and their ability to release ionizing radiation. By including these smaller-mass haloes but accounting for their suppression, too, we find that reionization is ``self-regulating,'' as follows. As the mean ionized fraction rises, so does the fraction of the volume within which suppression occurs. Hence, the degree of suppression is related to the mean ionized fraction. Since low-mass haloes with high emissivity achieve a given mean ionized fraction earlier than do those with low efficiency, Jea...

  14. Regulation of sphingomyelin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienias, Kamil; Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sadowska, Anna; Prokopiuk, Sławomir; Car, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids (SFs) represent a large class of lipids playing diverse functions in a vast number of physiological and pathological processes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant SF in the cell, with ubiquitous distribution within mammalian tissues, and particularly high levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS). SM is an essential element of plasma membrane (PM) and its levels are crucial for the cell function. SM content in a cell is strictly regulated by the enzymes of SM metabolic pathways, which activities create a balance between SM synthesis and degradation. The de novo synthesis via SM synthases (SMSs) in the last step of the multi-stage process is the most important pathway of SM formation in a cell. The SM hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases (SMases) increases the concentration of ceramide (Cer), a bioactive molecule, which is involved in cellular proliferation, growth and apoptosis. By controlling the levels of SM and Cer, SMSs and SMases maintain cellular homeostasis. Enzymes of SM cycle exhibit unique properties and diverse tissue distribution. Disturbances in their activities were observed in many CNS pathologies. This review characterizes the physiological roles of SM and enzymes controlling SM levels as well as their involvement in selected pathologies of the Central Nervous System, such as ischemia/hypoxia, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), depression, schizophrenia and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). PMID:26940196

  15. The next restructuring: Environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From oil, to natural gas, and now electricity, the regulation of energy markets has been successively restructured to allow greater scope to market forces. The likely next domain for restructuring, environmental regulation, may seem far-fetched now, but it is no more so than the restructuring of electric utility regulation would have seemed to be twenty years ago. The grand experiment with emissions trading under the US acid rain program has set a propitious example by showing that markets in environmental goods can be constructed and that the explicit recognition of property rights in the use of the environment is compatible with effective and non-intrusive environmental regulation

  16. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  17. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  18. The economics of bank regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sudipto; Arnoud W.A. Boot; Anjan V. Thakor

    1995-01-01

    The object of this paper is to survey and synthesize the literature on the regulation of financial intermediaries, including the theoretical framework and also the applied literature on specific regulations such as deposit insurance, capital controls, line of business restrictions, etc.

  19. Regulating Pornography: A Public Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines attitudes toward sex and pornography by means of a telephone survey of Dane County, Wisconsin, adults. Describes survey questions about sexual attitudes, perceived effects of pornography, and pornography regulation. Concludes that adults who feel more strongly that pornography has negative effects are more opposed to its regulation. (SG)

  20. Splicing regulators: targets and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Gene Wei-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Silencing of splicing regulators by RNA interference, combined with splicing-specific microarrays, has revealed a complex network of distinct alternative splicing events in Drosophila, while a high-throughput screen of more than 6,000 compounds has identified drugs that interfere specifically and directly with one class of splicing regulators in human cells.

  1. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  2. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The topics of regulation and risk assessment of nanomaterials have never been more relevant and controversial in Europe than they are at this point in time. In this entry, we present and discuss a number of major pieces of legislation relevant for the regulation of nanomaterials, including REACH......, the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...... a number of limitations specific to nanomaterials, i.e., the fact that mass might not be the proper metric to describe the dose in dose–response assessment. These limitations are not easily overcome despite the fact that a lot of effort is being put into investigating the applicability of each...

  3. REGULATION OF NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Muravyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.

  4. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  5. Strategic automation of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Keil, Andreas; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted or frightened, respectively, this goal intention furnished with an implementation intention (i.e., an if-then plan), and a no-self-regulation control group. Only implementation-intention participants succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions as compared to goal-intention and control participants. In Study 3, electrocortical correlates (using dense-array electroencephalography) revealed differential early visual activity in response to spider slides in ignore implementation-intention participants, as reflected in a smaller P1. Theoretical and applied implications of the present findings for emotion regulation via implementation intentions are discussed. PMID:19210061

  6. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  7. Precipitated silica as flow regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anne-Kathrin; Ruppel, Joanna; Drexel, Claus-Peter; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2008-08-01

    Flow regulators are added to solid pharmaceutical formulations to improve the flow properties of the powder mixtures. The primary particles of the flow regulators exist in the form of huge agglomerates which are broken down into smaller aggregates during the blending process. These smaller aggregates adsorb at the surface of the solid's grains and thus diminish attractive Van-der-Waals-forces by increasing the roughness of the host's surface. In most cases amorphous silica is used as flow additive but material properties like particle size or bond strength influence the desagglomeration tendency of the agglomerates and thus the flow regulating potency of each silica. For some silica types we will show that the differences in their flow regulating potency are due to the rate and extent by which they are able to cover the surface of the host particles. Binary powder mixtures consisting of a pharmaceutical excipient and an added flow regulator were blended in a Turbula mixer for a defined period of time. As pharmaceutical excipient corn starch was used. The flow regulators were represented by a selection of amorphous silicon dioxide types like a commercial fumed silica and various types of SIPERNAT precipitated silica provided by Evonik-Degussa GmbH, Hanau, Germany. Flowability parameters of the mixtures were characterized by means of a tensile strength tester. The reduction of tensile strength with the blending time can be correlated with an increase in fragmentation of the flow regulator. PMID:18595668

  8. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  9. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  10. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  11. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan; Melody, William H.

    2003-01-01

    This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions...... to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi...

  12. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  13. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lecture notes contain an overview of basic problems of the International Radio Regulations. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on radio, especially in poor, remote and sparsely populated regions with under-developed telecommunication infrastructure. How the spectrum of radio frequencies is regulated has profound impact on the society, its security, prosperity, and culture. The radio regulations represent a very important framework for an adequate use of radio and should be known by all of those working in the field

  14. Assessing self-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Stok, Marijn;

    2014-01-01

    participants were aged between 10 and 17 years. Results: Study 1 resulted in a 24-item questionnaire assessing adolescent-reported use of six specific strategies for healthy eating that represent three general self-regulation approaches. Study 2 showed that the easy-to-administer theory-based TESQ-E has...... general self-regulation and motivation measures. Conclusions: The TESQ-E provides a reliable and valid measure to assess six theory-based self-regulation strategies that adolescents may use to ensure their healthy eating.......Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self...

  15. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to Z ... public health needs enforces regulations to prevent the introduction or spread of communicable diseases within the country ...

  16. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  17. Comparison of some European regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriadis, K. [Germanisher Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Fatigue calculations are an essential part in certification of a wind turbine. Manufacturers have to fulfill recommendations of several different regulations throughout Europe with the result that the design has often to be altered to satisfy them. In general three national (D/GL, NL, DK), and two international (GL, IEC) regulations are in use, with the IEC standard getting more importance with wind energy deploying to more in regions with no yet clearly defined national standards (India, Spain). The Germanischer Lloyd made calculations for wind turbines they are certifying and in one case we compared the resulting damages for different regulations and classes on a 600 kW, three bladed, stall regulated wind turbine. (EG) 18 refs.

  18. Lipid Regulation of Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avanzo, N

    2016-01-01

    The lipid landscapes of cellular membranes are complex and dynamic, are tissue dependent, and can change with the age and the development of a variety of diseases. Researchers are now gaining new appreciation for the regulation of ion channel proteins by the membrane lipids in which they are embedded. Thus, as membrane lipids change, for example, during the development of disease, it is likely that the ionic currents that conduct through the ion channels embedded in these membranes will also be altered. This chapter provides an overview of the complex regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic voltage-dependent sodium (Nav) channels by fatty acids, sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cannabinoids. The impact of lipid regulation on channel gating kinetics, voltage-dependence, trafficking, toxin binding, and structure are explored for Nav channels that have been examined in heterologous expression systems, native tissue, and reconstituted into artificial membranes. Putative mechanisms for Nav regulation by lipids are also discussed. PMID:27586290

  19. EPA's Environmental Laws and Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web page provides access to search and read the environmental laws and regulations related to EPA's mission. Regulatory guidance documents and rulemaking...

  20. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......, it will be shown that there frequently exists a trade-off between the creation of incentives for distributed generators and for distribution system operators to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based...

  1. Corporate governance and banking regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kern

    2004-01-01

    The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation. The traditional principal-agent framework will be used to analyse some of the major issues involving corporate governance and banking institutions. It begins by analysing the emerging international regime of bank corporate governance. This has been...

  2. How should Bitcoin be regulated ?

    OpenAIRE

    SHCHERBAK, Sergii

    2014-01-01

    The lack of clarity about Bitcoin’s legal framework has meant that none of the regulators across the EU have yet achieved sufficient clarity in the legal treatment of Bitcoin and its stakeholders. This uncertainty poses a number of substantial risks to Bitcoin stakeholders and creates challenges for regulatory authorities. Therefore, there is a need for a clear strategy for Bitcoin’s regulation aiming to ensure the maximum possible balance between the interests of Bitcoin stakeholders longing...

  3. Money laundering and its regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto; López-de-Silanes, Florencio

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  4. Money Laundering and its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto E.; Florencio López-de-Silanes

    2007-01-01

    The recent wave of terrorist attacks has increased the attention paid to money laundering activities. Using several methodologies, this paper investigates empirically the determinants of money laundering and its regulation in over 80 countries by assembling a cross-country dataset on proxies for money laundering and the prevalence of feeding activities. The paper additionally constructs specific money laundering regulation indices based on available information on laws and their mechanisms of...

  5. Regulation and Corporate Board Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Staubo, Siv

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is in the field of corporate governance. The corporate governance structure involves laws, rules, and regulations on the distribution of rights and responsibilities among the different stakeholders in the firm. Due to several financial crises in the late 1990s and early 2000s, there has been an increased interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In particular, the composition of the corporate board has achieved extensive attention. The first essay in the thesis inve...

  6. Quality of government regulated goods

    OpenAIRE

    Moszoro, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Regulators face the difficult task of determining the sets of price and quality of government-regulated goods. While the profit-maximizing monopoly always produces less in quantity than under free competition, the level of quality produced by the monopoly is not unequivocal: it depends on its cost and demand functions. The social effect of quality change is not unequivocal either, because it depends, apart from the cost function change, on the shift and tilt change of the demand curve. The pr...

  7. Civilsamfundets ABC: R for Regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til R for Regulering....

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY REGULATIONS AND THE WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Ian M.; Josling, Timothy E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the regulation of trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by the World Trade Organization (WTO). Despite rapid adoption of GMOs by a few exporters, many importers have developed relatively restrictive procedures for pre-market approval of GMOs, and are introducing mandatory labeling. While exporters have yet to seek a ruling from the WTO on these regulations, a trade dispute over GMOs is likely to occur before too long. Exporting countries will likely argue that imp...

  9. Dividend Policy in Regulated Firms

    OpenAIRE

    rondi, laura; Cambini, Carlo; bremberger, francisca; GUGLER, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of different regulatory and ownership regimes on the dividend policy of regulated firms. Using a panel of 106 publicly traded European electric utilities in the period 1986-2010, we link payout and smoothing decisions to the implementation of different regulatory mechanisms (cost plus vs. incentive regulation) and to firm ownership (state vs. private). After controlling for the potential endogeneity of the regulatory mechanism, our results show that utilities subject to i...

  10. International Competitiveness and Environmental Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Babool, Md. Ashfaqul Islam; Michael R. Reed

    2005-01-01

    This study follows the standard factor endowment approach to explain the effects of environmental regulations on net exports in different product-based industries. It constructs an econometric model which includes factor endowments and environmental regulations to examine how strict environmental policy impact export competitiveness. Cross-sectional and time series (panel) data for 6 countries and 17 years were used in this model. In this study, capital services increase net exports in labor-...

  11. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  12. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety...

  13. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  14. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S. L.; Bigman, Cabral A.; Mello, Susan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. Methods Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. Results A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. Discussion This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. Implications Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public. PMID:27517716

  15. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  16. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ... tribes, and many other partners. Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  17. 77 FR 43082 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0095, Commerce Patent Regulations, by any...

  18. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  19. Progress toward risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    For the last several years, the NRC, with encouragement from the industry, has been moving in the direction of risk informed regulation. This is consistent with the regulatory principle of efficiency, formally adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1991, which requires that regulatory activities be consistent with the degree of risk reduction they achieve. Probabilistic risk analysis has become the tool of choice for selecting the best of several alternatives. Closely related to risk informed regulation is the development of performance based rules. Such rules focus on the end result to be achieved. They do not specify the process, but instead establish the goals to be reached and how the achievement of those goals is to be judged. The inspection and enforcement activity is based on whether or not the goals have been met. The author goes on to offer comments on the history of the development of this process and its probable development in the future. He also addresses some issues which must be resolved or at least acknowledged. The success of risk informed regulation ultimately depends on having sufficiently reliable data to allow quantification of regulatory alternatives in terms of relative risk. Perhaps the area of human reliability and organizational performance has the greatest potential for improvement in reactor safety. The ability to model human performance is significantly less developed that the ability to model mechanical or electrical systems. The move toward risk informed, performance based regulation provides an unusual, perhaps unique, opportunity to establish a more rational, more effective basis for regulation.

  20. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  1. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  2. Cellular regulation by protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edmond H

    2013-01-11

    A historical account of the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation is presented. This process was uncovered in the mid 1950s in a study undertaken with Edwin G. Krebs to elucidate the complex hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Contrary to the known activation of this enzyme by AMP which serves as an allosteric effector, its hormonal regulation results from a phosphorylation of the protein by phosphorylase kinase following the activation of the latter by Ca(2+) and ATP. The study led to the establishment of the first hormonal cascade of successive enzymatic reactions, kinases acting on kinases, initiated by cAMP discovered by Earl Sutherland. It also showed how two different physiological processes, carbohydrate metabolism and muscle contraction, could be regulated in concert.

  3. Molecular regulation of osteoclast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Baron, Roland

    2006-06-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors that are primarily responsible for the degradation of mineralized bone during bone development, homeostasis and repair. In various skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, tumor metastases and Paget's disease, bone resorption by osteoclasts exceeds bone formation by osteoblasts leading to decreased bone mass, skeletal fragility and bone fracture. The overall rate of osteoclastic bone resorption is regulated either at the level of differentiation of osteoclasts from their monocytic/macrophage precursor pool or through the regulation of key functional proteins whose specific activities in the mature osteoclast control its attachment, migration and resorption. Thus, reducing osteoclast numbers and/or decreasing the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts are two common therapeutic approaches for the treatment of hyper-resorptive skeletal diseases. In this review, several of the key functional players involved in the regulation of osteoclast activity will be discussed. PMID:16951988

  4. Medical device regulation for manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, P; Jeswiet, J

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers of medical devices are held to a higher standard than manufacturers of many other products due to the potential severity of the consequences of introducing inferior or unsafe products to the market-place. In Canada, the medical device industry is regulated by Health Canada under the Medical Device Regulations of the Food and Drug Act. The Medical Device Regulations define requirements of medical device design, development and manufacture to ensure that products reaching the public are safe and effective. Health Canada also requires that medical device manufacturers maintain distribution records to ensure that devices can be traced to the source and consumers can be contacted successfully in the event that a device is recalled. Medical devices exported from Canada must be compliant with the regulations of the country of import. The Canadian Medical Device Regulations were based on the Medical Device Directives of the European Union thus facilitating approval of Canadian devices for the European market. The United States Food and Drug Administration has separate and distinct requirements for safety and quality of medical devices. While effort has been made to facilitate approval and trade of Canadian medical devices in the United States and the European Union, obtaining approval from multiple regulatory bodies can result in increased device development time and cost. The Global Harmonization Task Force is an organization composed of members from Japanese, Australian, European, Canadian and American medical device regulatory bodies. This organization was formed with the objective of harmonizing medical device regulations in an effort to facilitate international trade and standardize the quality of medical devices available to all countries. This paper discusses the requirements that must be met by manufacturers when designing and manufacturing medical devices.

  5. Positively regulated bacterial expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautaset, Trygve; Lale, Rahmi; Valla, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Regulated promoters are useful tools for many aspects related to recombinant gene expression in bacteria, including for high-level expression of heterologous proteins and for expression at physiological levels in metabolic engineering applications. In general, it is common to express the genes of interest from an inducible promoter controlled either by a positive regulator or by a repressor protein. In this review, we discuss established and potentially useful positively regulated bacterial promoter systems, with a particular emphasis on those that are controlled by the AraC-XylS family of transcriptional activators. The systems function in a wide range of microorganisms, including enterobacteria, soil bacteria, lactic bacteria and streptomycetes. The available systems that have been applied to express heterologous genes are regulated either by sugars (L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, xylose and sucrose), substituted benzenes, cyclohexanone-related compounds, ε-caprolactam, propionate, thiostrepton, alkanes or peptides. It is of applied interest that some of the inducers require the presence of transport systems, some are more prone than others to become metabolized by the host and some have been applied mainly in one or a limited number of species. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the AraC-XylS family of regulators contains a large number of different members (currently over 300), but only a small fraction of these, the XylS/Pm, AraC/P(BAD), RhaR-RhaS/rhaBAD, NitR/PnitA and ChnR/Pb regulator/promoter systems, have so far been explored for biotechnological applications.

  6. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  7. Epigenetic regulation in cardiac fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ming; Yu; Yong; Xu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis represents an adoptive response in the heart exposed to various stress cues. While resolution of the fibrogenic response heralds normalization of heart function, persistent fibrogenesis is usually associated with progressive loss of heart function and eventually heart failure. Cardiac fibrosis is regulated by a myriad of factors that converge on the transcription of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, a process the epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances regarding the epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis focusing on the role of histone and DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs.

  8. Introduction to international radio regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes introduce the ITU Radio Regulations and related UN and WTO agreements that specify how terrestrial and satellite radio should be used in all countries over the planet. Access to the existing information infrastructure, and to that of the future Information Society, depends critically on these regulations. The paper also discusses few problems related to the use of the radio frequencies and satellite orbits. The notes are extracted from a book under preparation, in which these issues are discussed in more detail. (author)

  9. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic...... and ecological parts of the harvesting system affect the optimal choice of instrument for regulating harvesters. I bring prior results into a unified framework and add to these by showing that: 1) quotas are preferred under ecological uncertainty if there are substantial diseconomies of scale in harvesting, 2...

  10. The role of food intake regulating peptides in cardiovascular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulášková, B; Maletínská, L; Zicha, J; Kuneš, J

    2016-11-15

    Obesity is a risk factor that worsens cardiovascular events leading to higher morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of relation between obesity and cardiovascular events are unclear. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that pharmacological therapy for obesity has great potential to improve some cardiovascular problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the common mechanisms regulating both food intake and blood pressure. Several hormones produced by peripheral tissues work together with neuropeptides involved in the regulation of both food intake and blood pressure. Anorexigenic (food intake lowering) hormones such as leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin cooperate with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated peptide as well as prolactin-releasing peptide. Curiously their collective actions result in increased sympathetic activity, especially in the kidney, which could be one of the factors responsible for the blood pressure increases seen in obesity. On the other hand, orexigenic (food intake enhancing) peptides, especially ghrelin released from the stomach and acting in the brain, cooperates with orexins, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin, which leads to decreased sympathetic activity and blood pressure. This paradox should be intensively studied in the future. Moreover, it is important to know that the hypothalamus together with the brainstem seem to be major structures in the regulation of food intake and blood pressure. Thus, the above mentioned regions might be essential brain components in the transmission of peripheral signals to the central effects. In this short review, we summarize the current information on cardiovascular effects of food intake regulating peptides.

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  12. The regulation of climate engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Intentional interventions in global physical, chemical, and biological systems on a massive scale are receiving increasing attention in hopes of reducing the threat of anthropogenic climate change. Known as climate engineering, or geoengineering, research is moving forward, but regulation remains in

  13. Regulating Collaboration in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobber, Marjolein; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Verloop, Nico; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration in teacher education can be seen as a way to prepare student teachers for future social practices at school. When people collaborate with each other, they have to regulate their collaboration. In the Dutch teacher education programme that was investigated, student teachers were members of different types of groups, each of which had…

  14. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Pava, Matthew J.; Alexandros Makriyannis; Lovinger, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid t...

  15. The Organization of Regulated Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Jeon, Doh-Shin; Menicucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    and weak positive (respectively, strong positive) correlation. Second, if the firms can collude under VS and know all costs, then VS is equivalent to VI. However, if firms collude under asymmetric information, then collusion does not affect the choice between VS and VI, since the regulator takes advantage...... of the transaction costs created by asymmetric information....

  16. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Martynova

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges i

  17. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  18. Regulated Childhood: Equivalence with Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallberg Roth, Ann-Christine; Mansson, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The overriding aim of this article is to make a contribution to the discussion on individual development plans (IDPs) in Sweden as an expression of a regulated childhood and institutional practice. Individual development plans are seen as a phenomenon linked to the emergence of an auditing society. In sum, children are studied as subjects in…

  19. Phytochrome-regulated Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter H. Quail

    2007-01-01

    Identification of all genes involved in the phytochrome (phy)-mediated responses of plants to their light environment is an important goal in providing an overall understanding of light-regulated growth and development. This article highlights and integrates the central findings of two recent comprehensive studies in Arabidopsis that have identified the genome-wide set of phy-regulated genes that respond rapidly to red-light signals upon first exposure of dark-grown seedlings, and have tested the functional relevance to normal seedling photomorphogenesis of an initial subset of these genes. The data: (a) reveal considerable complexity in the channeling of the light signals through the different phy-family members (phyA to phyE) to responsive genes; (b) identify a diversity of transcription-factor-encoding genes as major early, if not primary, targets of phy signaling, and, therefore, as potentially important regulators in the transcriptional-network hierarchy; and (c) identify auxin-related genes as the dominant class among rapidly-regulated, hormone-related genes. However, reverse-genetic functional profiling of a selected subset of these genes reveals that only a limited fraction are necessary for optimal phy-induced seedling deetiolation.

  20. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...

  1. Regulation of microtubule dynamic instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Vaart (Babet); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); A. Straube (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProper regulation of MT (microtubule) dynamics is essential for various vital processes, including the segregation of chromosomes, directional cell migration and differentiation. MT assembly and disassembly is modulated by a complex network of intracellular factors that co-operate or ant

  2. Mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the activation of disparate client proteins. This implicates Hsp90 in diverse biological processes that require a variety of co-ordinated regulatory mechanisms to control its activity. Perhaps the most important regulator is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is primarily responsible for upregulating Hsp90 by binding heat shock elements (HSEs) within Hsp90 promoters. HSF1 is itself subject to a variety of regulatory processes and can directly respond to stress. HSF1 also interacts with a variety of transcriptional factors that help integrate biological signals, which in turn regulate Hsp90 appropriately. Because of the diverse clientele of Hsp90 a whole variety of co-chaperones also regulate its activity and some are directly responsible for delivery of client protein. Consequently, co-chaperones themselves, like Hsp90, are also subject to regulatory mechanisms such as post translational modification. This review, looks at the many different levels by which Hsp90 activity is ultimately regulated. PMID:27515256

  3. Allosteric Regulation of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    The liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is responsible for conversion of excess phenylalanine in the diet to tyrosine. Phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by phenylalanine; this activation is inhibited by the physiological reducing substrate tetrahydrobiopterin. Phosphorylation of Ser16 lowers the concentration of phenylalanine for activation. This review discusses the present understanding of the molecular details of the allosteric regulation of the enzyme.

  4. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...

  5. Liquidity regulation and bank behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2007-08 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed two liquidity standards to reinforce banks’ resilience to liquidity risks. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of liquidity regulation on bank behavior. The first of four main chapters an

  6. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  7. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  8. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL DYSBACTERIOSIS OF BURNED RATS BY MICROECOSYSTEM REGULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using synbiotics and probiotics to prevent and cure intestinal dysbacteriosis after burn. Methods Burned rats were fed with synbiotics and probiotics reagents, and the amounts of major intestinal florae in caecal contents were detected. Results The major physiological anaerobes were mostly stable, and the conditioned pathogens had no abnormal. Conclusion The micro-ecosystem regulator can quickly supplement the decreased physiological anaerobes caused by burning,and avoid the occurrence of dysbacteriosis.

  9. Targeted genome regulation via synthetic programmable transcriptional regulators

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka Anna

    2016-04-19

    Regulation of gene transcription controls cellular functions and coordinates responses to developmental, physiological and environmental cues. Precise and efficient molecular tools are needed to characterize the functions of single and multiple genes in linear and interacting pathways in a native context. Modular DNA-binding domains from zinc fingers (ZFs) and transcriptional activator-like proteins (TALE) are amenable to bioengineering to bind DNA target sequences of interest. As a result, ZF and TALE proteins were used to develop synthetic programmable transcription factors. However, these systems are limited by the requirement to re-engineer proteins for each new target sequence. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated 9 (Cas9) genome editing tool was recently repurposed for targeted transcriptional regulation by inactivation of the nuclease activity of Cas9. Due to the facile engineering, simplicity, precision and amenability to library construction, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is poised to revolutionize the functional genomics field across diverse eukaryotic species. In this review, we discuss the development of synthetic customizable transcriptional regulators and provide insights into their current and potential applications, with special emphasis on plant systems, in characterization of gene functions, elucidation of molecular mechanisms and their biotechnological applications. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  10. Hawking radiation and ultraviolet regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambli, N.; Burgess, C. P.

    1996-05-01

    Polchinski has argued that the prediction of Hawking radiation must be independent of the details of unknown high-energy physics because the calculation may be performed using ``nice slices,'' for which the adiabatic theorem may be used. If this is so, then any calculation using a manifestly covariant-and so slice-independent-ultraviolet regularization must reproduce the standard Hawking result. We investigate the dependence of the Hawking radiation on such a short-distance regulator by calculating it using a Pauli-Villars regularization scheme. We find that the regulator scale Λ only contributes to the Hawking flux by an amount that is exponentially small in the large variable Λ/TH>>1, where TH is the Hawking temperature, in agreement with Polchinski's arguments. Using the techniques of effective Lagrangians, we demonstrate the robustness of our results. We also solve a technical puzzle concerning the relation between the short-distance singularities of the propagator and the Hawking effect.

  11. Astrocytes: Key Regulators of Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Emanuela; Farina, Cinthia

    2016-09-01

    Astrocytes are crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses in the injured central nervous system. Depending on timing and context, astrocyte activity may exacerbate inflammatory reactions and tissue damage, or promote immunosuppression and tissue repair. Recent literature has unveiled key factors and intracellular signaling pathways that govern astrocyte behavior during neuroinflammation. Here we have re-visited in vivo studies on astrocyte signaling in neuroinflammatory models focusing on evidences obtained from the analysis of transgenic mice where distinct genes involved in ligand binding, transcriptional regulation and cell communication have been manipulated in astrocytes. The integration of in vivo observations with in vitro data clarifies precise signaling steps, highlights the crosstalk among pathways and identifies shared effector mechanisms in neuroinflammation.

  12. Epigenetic microRNA Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman

    2011-01-01

    and confirming transcriptional start sites can be difficult. Epigenetics, gene regulatory and DNA modification mechanisms not involving a change to the primary sequence, have been implied in the regulation of a number of miRNA loci. Both epigenetic and miRNA signatures are broadly altered in cancer......, and are thought to play essential roles in cancer etiology and progression. Here, we aimed to identify epigenetic miRNA deregulation in bladder and oral carcinoma, and to develop a robust approach to epigenetic miRNA prediction and detection. In addition, non-canonical epigenetic functions directed by a nuclear...... miRNA were investigated. In summary, we report that the miR-200 family and miR-205 are coordinately epigenetically regulated in a variety of cell lines, tumors and normal tissues. MiR-200c expression is correlated with bladder cancer disease progression, and miR-375 levels in oral rinse can...

  13. Nongenomic Mechanisms of PTEN Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmie E. Fata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of data supports the view that PTEN is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene. However, recent evidence suggests that derailment of cellular localization and expression levels of functional nonmutated PTEN is a determining force in inducing abnormal cellular and tissue outcomes. As the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal PTEN enzymatic activity resolve, it is evident that deregulation of these mechanisms can alter cellular processes and tissue architecture and ultimately lead to oncogenic transformation. Here we discuss PTEN ubiquitination, PTEN complex formation with components of the adherens junction, PTEN nuclear localization, and microRNA regulation of PTEN as essential regulatory mechanisms that determine PTEN function independent of gene mutations and epigenetic events.

  14. The grammar of transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Segal, Eran

    2014-06-01

    Eukaryotes employ combinatorial strategies to generate a variety of expression patterns from a relatively small set of regulatory DNA elements. As in any other language, deciphering the mapping between DNA and expression requires an understanding of the set of rules that govern basic principles in transcriptional regulation, the functional elements involved, and the ways in which they combine to orchestrate a transcriptional output. Here, we review the current understanding of various grammatical rules, including the effect on expression of the number of transcription factor binding sites, their location, orientation, affinity and activity; co-association with different factors; and intrinsic nucleosome organization. We review different methods that are used to study the grammar of transcription regulation, highlight gaps in current understanding, and discuss how recent technological advances may be utilized to bridge them. PMID:24390306

  15. Endocrine regulation of circadian physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Anthony H; Astiz, Mariana; Friedrichs, Maureen; Oster, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks regulate 24-h rhythms of behavior and physiology to align with external time. The endocrine system serves as a major clock output to regulate various biological processes. Recent findings suggest that some of the rhythmic hormones can also provide feedback to the circadian system at various levels, thus contributing to maintaining the robustness of endogenous rhythmicity. This delicate balance of clock-hormone interaction is vulnerable to modern lifestyle factors such as shiftwork or high-calorie diets, altering physiological set points. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the communication between the circadian timing and endocrine systems, with a focus on adrenal glucocorticoids and metabolic peptide hormones. We explore the potential role of hormones as systemic feedback signals to adjust clock function and their relevance for the maintenance of physiological and metabolic circadian homeostasis. PMID:27106109

  16. Various Themes of Myosin Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-05-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are actin-based molecular motors that are indispensable for cellular homeostasis. The vast functional and structural diversity of myosins accounts for the variety and complexity of the underlying allosteric regulatory mechanisms that determine the activation or inhibition of myosin motor activity and enable precise timing and spatial aspects of myosin function at the cellular level. This review focuses on the molecular basis of posttranslational regulation of eukaryotic myosins from different classes across species by allosteric intrinsic and extrinsic effectors. First, we highlight the impact of heavy and light chain phosphorylation. Second, we outline intramolecular regulatory mechanisms such as autoinhibition and subsequent activation. Third, we discuss diverse extramolecular allosteric mechanisms ranging from actin-linked regulatory mechanisms to myosin:cargo interactions. At last, we briefly outline the allosteric regulation of myosins with synthetic compounds.

  17. International comparison of taxi regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sytze Rienstra, Peter Bakker, Johan Visser

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionIn 2014, research was conducted to evaluate the changes made in 2011 to the taxi regulations contained in the national Passenger Transport Act 2000. During the course of this research, Uber’s introduction in the taxi market emerged as an increasingly important focal point. In particular, UberPOP – a service connecting customers to private drivers (operating their own vehicles) via a smartphone app – generated much debate. It is in this context that the Directorate General Accessib...

  18. Hawking Radiation and Ultraviolet Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Hambli, N.; Burgess, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    Polchinski has argued that the prediction of Hawking radiation must be independent of the details of unknown high-energy physics because the calculation may be performed using `nice slices', for which the adiabatic theorem may be used. If this is so, then any calculation using a manifestly covariant --- and so slice-independent --- ultraviolet regularization must reproduce the standard Hawking result. We investigate the dependence of the Hawking radiation on such a short-distance regulator by...

  19. Tbx1 regulates brain vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Sara; Martucciello, Stefania; Fulcoli, Filomena Gabriella; Bilio, Marchesa; Ferrentino, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; Illingworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is the major gene involved in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Using mouse models of these diseases, we have previously shown that TBX1 activates VEGFR3 in endothelial cells (EC), and that this interaction is critical for the development of the lymphatic vasculature. In this study, we show that TBX1 regulates brain angiogenesis. Using loss-of-function genetics and molecular approaches, we show that TBX1 regulates the VEGFR3 and DLL4 genes in brain ECs. In mice, loss of TBX1 causes global brain vascular defects, comprising brain vessel hyperplasia, enhanced angiogenic sprouting and vessel network disorganization. This phenotype is recapitulated in EC-specific Tbx1 conditional mutants and in an EC-only 3-dimensional cell culture system (matrigel), indicating that the brain vascular phenotype is cell autonomous. Furthermore, EC-specific conditional Tbx1 mutants have poorly perfused brain vessels and brain hypoxia, indicating that the expanded vascular network is functionally impaired. In EC-matrigel cultures, a Notch1 agonist is able to partially rescue microtubule hyperbranching induced by TBX1 knockdown. Thus, we have identified a novel transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis that exerts its effect in brain by negatively regulating angiogenesis through the DLL4/Notch1-VEGFR3 regulatory axis. Given the similarity of the phenotypic consequences of TBX1 mutation in humans and mice, this unexpected role of TBX1 in murine brain vascularization should stimulate clinicians to search for brain microvascular anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients and to evaluate whether some of the anatomical and functional brain anomalies in patients may have a microvascular origin. PMID:23945394

  20. Financial Regulation in General Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhart, Ch. A. E.; Kashyap, A. K.; D. P. Tsomocos; Vardoulakis, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how different types of financial regulation could combat many of the phenomena that were observed in the financial crisis of 2007 to 2009. The primary contribution is the introduction of a model that includes both a banking system and a "shadow banking system" that each help households finance their expenditures. Households sometimes choose to default on their loans, and when they do this triggers forced selling by the shadow banks. Because the forced selling comes when ne...

  1. Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is critical for many biological processes, and both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have adverse clinical consequences. Only a very small percentage (1%) of total body phosphate is present in the extracellular fluid, which is measured by routine laboratory assays and does not reflect total body phosphate stores. Phosphate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the transcellular route [sodium phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b)] and acros...

  2. Privacy Regulation and Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine E. Tucker

    2011-01-01

    Advertisers use online customer data to target their marketing appeals. This has heightened consumers' privacy concerns, leading governments to pass laws designed to protect consumer privacy by restricting the use of data and by restricting online tracking techniques used by websites. We use the responses of 3.3 million survey takers who had been randomly exposed to 9,596 online display (banner) advertising campaigns to explore how privacy regulation in the European Union (EU) has influenced ...

  3. Regulation Mechanisms of Stomatal Oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Min YANG; Jian-Hua ZHANG; Xiao-Yan ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Stomata function as the gates between the plant and the atmospheric environment. Stomatal movement, including stomatal opening and closing, controls CO2 absorption as the raw material for photosynthesis and water loss through transpiration. How to reduce water loss and maintain enough CO2 absorption has been an interesting research topic for some time. Simple stomatal opening may elevate CO2 absorption,but, in the meantime, promote the water loss, whereas simple closing of stomatal pores may reduce both water loss and CO2 absorption, resulting in impairment of plant photosynthesis. Both processes are not economical to the plant. As a special rhythmic stomatal movement that usually occurs at smaller stomatal apertures, stomatal oscillation can keep CO2 absorption at a sufficient level and reduce water loss at the same time, suggesting a potential improvement in water use efficiency. Stomatal oscillation is usually found after a sudden change in one environmental factor in relatively constant environments. Many environmental stimuli can induce stomatal oscillation. It appears that, at the physiological level, feedback controls are involved in stomatal oscillation. At the cellular level, possibly two different patterns exist: (i) a quicker responsive pattern; and (ii) a slower response. Both involve water potential changes and water channel regulation, but the mechanisms of regulation of the two patterns are different. Some evidence suggests that the regulation of water channels may play a vital and primary role in stomatal oscillation. The present review summarizes studies on stomatal oscillation and concludes with some discussion regarding the mechanisms of regulation of stomatal oscillation.

  4. A Shot at Regulating Securitization

    OpenAIRE

    Kiff, John; Kisser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In order to incentivize stronger issuer due diligence effort, European and U.S. authorities are amending securitization-related regulations to force issuers to retain an economic interest in the securitization products they issue. The idea is that if loan originators and securitizers have more skin in the game they will more diligently screen the loans they originate and securitize. This paper uses a simple model to explore the economics of equity and mezzanine tranche retention in the contex...

  5. Human trafficking and regulating prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Samuel; Persson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    We study sex trafficking in a marriage market model of prostitution. When traffickers can coerce women to sell sex, trafficked prostitutes constitute a non-zero share of supply in any unregulated market for sex. We ask if regulation can eradicate trafficking and restore the equilibrium that would arise in an unregulated market without traffickers. While all existing approaches – criminalization of prostitutes (“the traditional model”), licensed prostitution (“the Dutch model”), and criminaliz...

  6. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  7. Lipid Regulation of Acrosome Exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roy; Mukai, Chinatsu; Travis, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are critical regulators of mammalian sperm function, first helping prevent premature acrosome exocytosis, then enabling sperm to become competent to fertilize at the right place/time through the process of capacitation, and ultimately triggering acrosome exocytosis. Yet because they do not fit neatly into the "DNA--RNA-protein" synthetic pathway, they are understudied and poorly understood. Here, we focus on three lipids or lipid classes-cholesterol, phospholipids, and the ganglioside G(M1)--in context of the modern paradigm of acrosome exocytosis. We describe how these various- species are precisely segregated into membrane macrodomains and microdomains, simultaneously preventing premature exocytosis while acting as foci for organizing regulatory and effector molecules that will enable exocytosis. Although the mechanisms responsible for these domains are poorly defined, there is substantial evidence for their composition and functions. We present diverse ways that lipids and lipid modifications regulate capacitation and acrosome exocytosis, describing in more detail how removal of cholesterol plays a master regulatory role in enabling exocytosis through at least two complementary pathways. First, cholesterol efflux leads to proteolytic activation of phospholipase B, which cleaves both phospholipid tails. The resultant changes in membrane curvature provide a mechanism for the point fusions now known to occur far before a sperm physically interacts with the zona pellucida. Cholesterol efflux also enables G(M1) to regulate the voltage-dependent cation channel, Ca(V)2.3, triggering focal calcium transients required for acrosome exocytosis in response to subsequent whole-cell calcium rises. We close with a model integrating functions for lipids in regulating acrosome exocytosis. PMID:27194352

  8. Utility Regulators : Roles and Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Warrick

    1997-01-01

    There are three main issues in defining a utility regulator's role: the scope of its coverage, its role in relation to ministers, and its role in relation to other regulatory entities such as the competition agency or agencies dealing with environment or health and safety. The author makes a case for multi-industry agencies covering everything from power to water to transport. Multi-industry ...

  9. Modeling Auxin-regulated Development

    OpenAIRE

    Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays an essential role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Its patterning, intercellular transport, and means of signaling have been extensively studied both in experiments and computational models. Here, we present a review of models of auxin-regulated development in different plant tissues. This includes models of organ initiation in the shoot apical meristem, development of vascular strands in leafs and stems, and auxin-related functioning in roots. The...

  10. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  11. The mother as hidden regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Panzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A human baby is born with a decidedly immature brain, and is absolutely dependent on an intense relationship with its mother (or primary caregiver for brain maturation. In the short term, maternal regulation contributes to a more joyful baby, while in the long term it leads to the internalisation and development of self-regulatory capabilities. The ability to regulate one’s own emotional states is based on the development of right orbitofrontal dominance of dual limbic circuits, i.e. the excitatory sympathetic ventral tegmental circuit, and the inhibitory parasympathetic lateral tegmental circuit. Thus the child will be able to calm down after nigh overwhelming emotions by activating the parasympathetic system, but also to bounce back after setbacks by activating the sympathetic system. The mother influences the parcellation of the two limbic systems and thus the permanent excitation-inhibition autonomic balance of its prefrontal regulatory system. Repeated unregulated emotional states in the practicing period from 12-18 months pave the way for various psychological and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. It is worrisome that many children pass through this critical time in nursery schools, where a shortage of adult staff may lead to the scenario where a child’s emotions are repeatedly not modulated, with dire consequences for the internalisation of its future self-regulating capabilities.

  12. Actin cytoskeleton regulates Hippo signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Reddy

    Full Text Available Hippo pathway controls the organ size by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the upstream regulation of hippo signaling by actin cytoskeleton is not clear. To elucidate the role of actin as an upstream regulator of Hippo signaling, the levels of F (filamentous-actin in cells were elevated using jasplakinolide, an actin-stabilizing drug. Induction of F-actin formation in HeLa cells resulted in decreased phosphorylation of YAP, a key effector molecule for Hippo signaling. The activated YAP is localized to the cell nucleus and YAP increase was associated with increased expression of downstream CCN growth factors CCN1/CYR61 and CCN2/CTGF. The effect of the actin-stabilizing drug was blocked when YAP levels were suppressed in YAP "knock-down" cells. In summary, using an actin-stabilizing drug we show that actin cytoskeleton is one of the upstream regulators of Hippo signaling capable of activating YAP and increasing its downstream CCN growth factors.

  13. Detecting aquaporin function and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Ana; Moura, Teresa; Soveral, Graça

    2016-02-01

    Water is the major component of cells and tissues throughout all forms of life. Fluxes of water and solutes through cell membranes and epithelia are essential for osmoregulation and energy homeostasis. Aquaporins are membrane channels expressed in almost every organism and involved in the bidirectional transfer of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Aquaporins have important biological roles and have been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions suggesting a great translational potential in aquaporin-based diagnostic and therapeutics. Detecting aquaporin function is critical for assessing regulation and screening for new activity modulators that can prompt the development of efficient medicines. Appropriate methods for functional analysis comprising suitable cell models and techniques to accurately evaluate water and solute membrane permeability are essential to validate aquaporin function and assess short-term regulation. The present review describes established assays commonly used to assess aquaporin function in cells and tissues, as well as the experimental biophysical strategies required to reveal functional regulation and identify modulators, the first step for aquaporin drug discovery.

  14. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  15. Epigenetic regulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Catherine; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Ross, Owen A

    2016-10-01

    Recent efforts have shed new light on the epigenetic mechanisms driving gene expression alterations associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Changes in gene expression are a well-established cause of PD, and epigenetic mechanisms likely play a pivotal role in regulation. Studies in families with PD harboring duplications and triplications of the SNCA gene have demonstrated that gene dosage is associated with increased expression of both SNCA mRNA and protein, and correlates with a fulminant disease course. Furthermore, it is postulated that even subtle changes in SNCA expression caused by common variation is associated with disease risk. Of note, genome-wide association studies have identified over 30 loci associated with PD with most signals located in non-coding regions of the genome, thus likely influencing transcript expression levels. In health, epigenetic mechanisms tightly regulate gene expression, turning genes on and off to balance homeostasis and this, in part, explains why two cells with the same DNA sequence will have different RNA expression profiles. Understanding this phenomenon will be crucial to our interpretation of the selective vulnerability observed in neurodegeneration and specifically dopaminergic neurons in the PD brain. In this review, we discuss epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, involved in regulating the expression of genes relevant to PD, RNA-based mechanisms, as well as the effect of toxins and potential epigenetic-based treatments for PD.

  16. Endocannabinoid Regulation of Neuroendocrine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Jeffrey G; Chen, Chun; Fisher, Marc O; Fu, Xin; Rainville, Jennifer R; Weiss, Grant L

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that is critical for sustaining life through its homeostatic control and integrative regulation of the autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine systems. Neuroendocrine function in mammals is mediated mainly through the control of pituitary hormone secretion by diverse neuroendocrine cell groups in the hypothalamus. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed throughout the hypothalamus, and endocannabinoids have been found to exert pronounced regulatory effects on neuroendocrine function via modulation of the outputs of several neuroendocrine systems. Here, we review the physiological regulation of neuroendocrine function by endocannabinoids, focusing on the role of endocannabinoids in the neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response, food intake, fluid homeostasis, and reproductive function. Cannabis sativa (marijuana) has a long history of recreational and/or medicinal use dating back to ancient times. It was used as an analgesic, anesthetic, and antianxiety herb as early as 2600 B.C. The hedonic, anxiolytic, and mood-elevating properties of cannabis have also been cited in ancient records from different cultures. However, it was not until 1964 that the psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, was isolated and its chemical structure determined (Gaoni & Mechoulam, 1964). PMID:26638767

  17. Deregulation, a challenge for regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation and competitiveness in the electricity market invites the plant owner/operator to reduce operating cost with a potential reduction in maintenance, degradation of investment in safety, reduction of operating staff and a downgrading in research and development. On the other side, deregulation and competitiveness brings the social and industrial benefit of reducing the electricity cost. Regulatory organisations have to watch that the safety level of the plant does not go beyond the established level, while recognising the benefits of the new situation; therefore they have the moral responsibility of regulating nuclear energy effectively and efficiently and in eliminating unnecessary regulatory burdens. Regulation has evolved with time and in accordance with the knowledge gained from research and the analysis of operating experience. The knowledge gained has made it possible to follow the path of other modern advanced technologies, where risk is quantified and the system approved when the risk becomes lower than an accepted level. The regulatory use of this advanced tool is being now developed by the most advanced regulatory organisations, under the name of risk informed regulation, where the reference level is the expected frequency of core damage. Deregulation and competitiveness will not change the basis of the already well established procedure to verify compliance. Nevertheless, the contents of Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory documents, such as Technical Specifications for Operation, offer room for improvement in the sense of being more to the roots of the matter and becoming more efficient tools in the verification process. The contents of these documents have been evolving along the time and they have become unnecessary voluminous and rather burdensome. Much work has been done to improve the efficiency of regulatory inspections by concentrating on basic aspects. As a partial application of the already mentioned risk-informed regulation

  18. Securities regulation and implicit penalties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghua; Chen; Yuyan; Guan; Gang; Zhao; Feifei; Wu

    2011-01-01

    The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets,but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined.This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering(IPO) market.Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market.We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines.We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government.To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work,we investigate(1) the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and(2) the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure.To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty,we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters.Overall,there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China.Instead,the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.

  19. Future of Radiation Protection Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Mohan

    2016-03-01

    THERE IS considerable disagreement in the scientific community regarding the carcinogenicity of low-dose radiation (LDR), with publications supporting opposing points of view. However, major flaws have been identified in many of the publications claiming increased cancer risk from LDR. The data generally recognized as the most important for assessing radiation effects in humans, the atomic bomb survivor data, are often cited to raise LDR cancer concerns. However, these data no longer support the linear no-threshold (LNT) model after the 2012 update but are consistent with radiation hormesis. Thus, a resolution of the controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of LDR appears to be imminent, with the rejection of the LNT model and acceptance of radiation hormesis. Hence, for setting radiation protection regulations, an alternative approach to the present one based on the LNT model is needed. One approach would be to determine the threshold dose for the carcinogenic effect of radiation from existing data and establish regulations to ensure radiation doses are kept well below the threshold dose. This can be done by setting dose guidelines specifying safe levels of radiation doses, with the requirement that these safe levels, referred to as guidance levels, not be exceeded significantly. Using this approach, a dose guidance level of 10 cGy for acute radiation exposures and 10 cGy y for exposures over extended periods of time are recommended. The concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, known as ALARA, would no longer be required for low-level radiation exposures not expected to exceed the dose guidance levels significantly. These regulations would facilitate studies using LDR for prevention and treatment of diseases. Results from such studies would be helpful in refining dose guidance levels. The dose guidance levels would be the same for the public and radiation workers to ensure everyone's safety. PMID:26808881

  20. Regulated polyploidy in halophilic archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Breuert

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a single copy of a circular chromosome and are therefore monoploid. We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1 cell lysis in agarose blocks and Southern blot analysis, and 2 Real-Time quantitative PCR. Fast growing H. salinarum cells contain on average about 25 copies of the chromosome in exponential phase, and their ploidy is downregulated to 15 copies in early stationary phase. The chromosome copy number is identical in cultures with a twofold lower growth rate, in contrast to the results reported for several other prokaryotic species. Of three additional replicons of H. salinarum, two have a low copy number that is not growth-phase regulated, while one replicon even shows a higher degree of growth phase-dependent regulation than the main replicon. The genome copy number of H. volcanii is similarly high during exponential phase (on average 18 copies/cell, and it is also downregulated (to 10 copies as the cells enter stationary phase. The variation of genome copy numbers in the population was addressed by fluorescence microscopy and by FACS analysis. These methods allowed us to verify the growth phase-dependent regulation of ploidy in H. salinarum, and they revealed that there is a wide variation in genome copy numbers in individual cells that is much larger in exponential than in stationary phase. Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general than previously assumed. Moreover, the presence of so many genome copies in a prokaryote raises questions about the evolutionary significance of this strategy.

  1. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  2. Working without limits – reconsidering regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2001-01-01

    In the light ofthe development of industry and working conditions present challenges to regulation is presented.......In the light ofthe development of industry and working conditions present challenges to regulation is presented....

  3. Liechtenstein: New Regulation for the Gymnasium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western European Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    In 1981 the Liechtenstein government issued a regulation concerning the gymnasium or secondary school. The educational objectives and administrative structure of and teacher obligations to the gymnasium under the new regulation are described. (RM)

  4. Feedback regulation between autophagy and PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Quiroz, Francisco; Filteau, Marie; Landry, Christian R

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) controls diverse cellular processes and homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Many processes and substrates of PKA have been described and among them are direct regulators of autophagy. The mechanisms of PKA regulation and how they relate to autophagy remain to be fully understood. We constructed a reporter of PKA activity in yeast to identify genes affecting PKA regulation. The assay systematically measures relative protein-protein interactions between the regulatory and catalytic subunits of the PKA complex in a systematic set of genetic backgrounds. The candidate PKA regulators we identified span multiple processes and molecular functions (autophagy, methionine biosynthesis, TORC signaling, protein acetylation, and DNA repair), which themselves include processes regulated by PKA. These observations suggest the presence of many feedback loops acting through this key regulator. Many of the candidate regulators include genes involved in autophagy, suggesting that not only does PKA regulate autophagy but that autophagy also sends signals back to PKA.

  5. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  6. 77 FR 11191 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., 58 FR 12545, NHTSA amended 49 CFR part 582, Insurance Cost Information Regulation, to require all... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Insurance Cost Information Regulation AGENCY: National... insurance cost information booklet that all car dealers must make available to prospective...

  7. Ventilation measurements at underground-mine regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.L.; Haney, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate practical and accurate methods for computing the air volumes passing through underground mine regulators and rectangular openings in stoppings. The first series of tests produced a revised regulator formula using the static pressure drop at the regulator and the area of the opening to calculate the volumetric flow through the regulator. An overall discharge coefficient was determined experimentally for all pressure losses at regulators. The second set of observations used 4-inch rotating vane anemometers to develop methods factors for velocity readings at underground regulators. Methods factors were determined by comparing the corrected measured velocity at the centerline of the openings with the average air velocity passing through the regulators. Methods factors were dependent on the size of the opening, the location of the reading (inlet or discharge side of the regulator), and the type of instrument support (rod-mounted or hand-held); they showed little dependence on the air velocity.

  8. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: Summer Fishing Regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes the summer fishing regulation for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge as submitted to the Federal Register. This regulation defines areas...

  9. Cholinergic regulation of airway inflammation and remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Gosens, Reinoud

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway disease

  10. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  11. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  12. Mathematical Models of Gene Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-03-01

    This talk will focus on examples of mathematical models for the regulation of repressible operons (e.g. the tryptophan operon), inducible operons (e.g. the lactose operon), and the lysis/lysogeny switch in phage λ. These ``simple" gene regulatory elements can display characteristics experimentally of rapid response to perturbations and bistability, and biologically accurate mathematical models capture these aspects of the dynamics. The models, if realistic, are always nonlinear and contain significant time delays due to transcriptional and translational delays that pose substantial problems for the analysis of the possible ranges of dynamics.

  13. Content delivery network and regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jiu-sheng; LIANG Xiong-jian

    2006-01-01

    First, this article provides an introduction to the content delivery network (CDN), which has wide prospects but is still in its early stages in China. Second, this article depicts the present situation and the developing characteristics of CDN in China. Elaborating on the above-mentioned two points, this article identifies the numerous problems that are encountered during the development of CDN, such as indistinct service positioning and the hidden troubles of information security.Finally, this article presents several countermeasures for handling the problems, such as opening the market widely,making a rational service positioning, strengthening the regulation on information security, and punishing illegal operations and unfair competition.

  14. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...

  15. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  16. Histaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U P

    1990-01-01

    Histamine (HA), which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, participates in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion. HA has a predominant stimulatory effect which is mediated via H2-receptors following central administration and via H1-receptors following......, while the PRL-inhibitory effect of HA may involve other transmitters than DA. In contrast to its stimulatory effect in men, HA had no effect on basal PRL secretion in women, but enhanced the PRL response to TRH. In rats or in humans the PRL stimulatory effect of HA is not caused by the cardiovascular...

  17. VLSI Hybrid DC-DC Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Cosp Vilella, Jordi; Martínez García, Herminio

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid DC-DC regulators are structures that combine both a linear voltage regulator and a switching DC-DC converter. The main objective of this hybrid topology is to converge, in a single circuit topology, the best of both alternatives: a small voltage output ripple, which is a common characteristic of linear regulator circuits, and good energy efficiency, as in switching alternatives. While the linear regulator fixes the required output voltage to a fixed value with negligible steady-state r...

  18. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  19. Nonlinear internal models for output regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, C. I.; Isidori, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we show how nonlinear internal models can be effectively used in the design of output regulators for nonlinear systems. This result provides a significant enhancement of the non-equilibrium theory for output regulation, which we have presented in the recent paper entitled "Limit Sets, Zero Dynamics, and Internal Models in the Problem of Nonlinear Output Regulation".

  20. Self-Regulation and Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of research-based interventions that incorporate self-regulation strategies to improve mathematics performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). Self-regulation is a metacognitive function essential to academic success. Students with LD are notoriously poor at self-regulation and…

  1. The financial regulations of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 14 September 1994, the Board of Governors approved revised Financial Regulations of the Agency, with implementation of these Regulations beginning 1 January 1995. The Financial Regulations, as revised, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States

  2. Good Practice Standards – a Regulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the considerations weighed in regulation with good practice standards. In this article, potential due process problems with regulation via legal standards are identified and compared to other considerations, which this regulation technique meets....

  3. Becoming an Engaged, Self-Regulated Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sherri L.; Shwery, Craig S.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how students self-regulate while reading, describing students' personal beliefs of self-efficacy, task value, and motivation and how these beliefs influence their self- regulated reading; discussing the processes of self-regulated reading (goal setting; selection, use, and monitoring of reading strategies; and self-evaluation); and…

  4. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.150 Section 983.150..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No handler shall ship for domestic human consumption, pistachios that exceed an aflatoxin level of 15...

  5. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  6. 76 FR 62630 - Information Security Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... 32 CFR Part 1902 Information Security Regulations AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Central Intelligence agency is removing certain information security regulations... Information security regulations. PART 1902 Sec. 1902.13 0 Accordingly, under the authority of Executive...

  7. Identification of let-7-regulated oncofetal genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyerinas, Benjamin; Park, Sun-Mi; Shomron, Noam;

    2008-01-01

    -regulated at the end of embryonic development. Let-7 is often down-regulated early during cancer development, suggesting that let-7-regulated oncofetal genes (LOG) may become reexpressed in cancer cells. Using comparative bioinformatics, we have identified 12 conserved LOGs that include HMGA2 and IMP-1/CRD-BP. IMP-1...

  8. Regulations Protect Right of Disabled to Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING LILI

    2007-01-01

    @@ On February 14, 2007, the 169th Executive Meeting of the State Council, China's central government, adopted the Regulations on Employment of the Disabled (hereinafter referred to as the Regulations). The Regulations, which became effective on May 1,comes as an important guarantee for the right of the disabled to work.

  9. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  10. Multiplexing regulated traffic streams: design and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumaran, Krishnan; Mandjes, Michel

    2001-01-01

    The main network solutions for supporting QoS rely on traf- fic policing (conditioning, shaping). In particular, for IP networks the IETF has developed Intserv (individual flows regulated) and Diffserv (only ag- gregates regulated). The regulator proposed could be based on the (dual) leaky-bucket me

  11. 7 CFR 984.49 - Volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 984.49 Volume regulation. (a) Free, reserve, and export percentages... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... during a marketing year will tend to effectuate the declared policy of the act, he shall establish a...

  12. NRC regulation of DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), its contractors, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are in for major changes if the DOE follows through on its intentions announced December 20, 1996. The DOE is seeking legislation to establish the NRC as the regulatory agency with jurisdiction over nuclear health, safety, and security at a wide range of DOE facilities. At this stage, it appears that as many as 200 (though not all) DOE facilities would be affected. On March 28, 1997, the NRC officially endorsed taking over the responsibility for regulatory oversight of DOE nuclear facilities as the DOE had proposed, contingent upon adequate funding, staffing resources, and a clear delineation of NRC authority. This article first contrasts the ways in which the NRC and the DOE carry out their basic regulatory functions. Next, it describes the NRC's current authority over DOE facilities and the status of the DOE's initiative to expand that authority. Then, it discusses the basic changes and impacts that can be expected in the regulation of DOE facilities. The article next describes key lessons learned from the recent transition of the GDPs from DOE oversight to NRC regulation and the major regulatory issues that arose in that transition. Finally, some general strategies are suggested for resolving issues likely to arise as the NRC assumes regulatory authority over DOE facilities

  13. Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeman, Larissa; McIlhatton, Michael A.; Grierson, Patrick; Groden, Joanna; Acharya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. PMID:27657136

  14. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the article has been the steadily increasing focus particularly from EU, on increased competition in the natural gas markets. This could influence the profit distribution between the gas producing and consuming counties which is an important problem situation for Norway as a gas producer. The gas market value chain consist of three parts (production, transport and distribution). How the countries may use strategic regulation of the transport tariff for the transport and distribution systems in order to move as much as possible of the total profit to the part of the value chain in control is studied. The focus has been on how increased competition influences the incentives of the authorities through low or high transport tariff and to what extent increased competition influences the welfare level in the producer and consumer counties when strategic regulations of the transport occur. The analysis is based on a theoretical model developed in 2005. Some central mechanisms related to the natural gas market are mapped and Norway may counteract some negative effects of liberalisation of the European gas market through strategic adaptation of the transport tariff to the Norwegian gas transport systems

  15. CPG OLIGONUCLEOTIDES REGULATE OSTEOCLAST DIFFERENTIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Weigong; Han Xuezhe; Li Xinyou; Guo Xong; Liu Miao

    2005-01-01

    Objective Bacterial DNA is a pathogen-derived molecule which can regulate the innate immune system by stimulating NF-κB activation. The activity of bacterial DNA relies on its content of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in particular base contexts("CpG motif"). In light of the pivotal role played by NF-κB in osteoclast differentiation, the ability of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) coming from bacterial DNA to modulate osteoclastogenesis was studied. Methods Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMM) were purified from Balb/c mice, cultured in α-MEM media containing 10% FCS in the presence of mouse M-CSF, with either RANKL or ODNs for 5 days. Osteoclast formation was evaluated on day 5 according to TRAP and May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining. Results CpG ODN alone could induce osteoclast formation in the low degree in BMM culture. The relationship between CpG ODN and RANKL was that CpG ODN could inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis when present from the beginning of BMM culture, but strongly increased RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-pretreated BMMs. Conclusion The mechanism of CpG ODN regulating osteoclast differentiation was bidirectional, which might be a potential therapy for treating metabolic bone disease.

  16. Brainstem Circuits Regulating Gastric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagli, R. Alberto; Hermann, Gerlinda E.; Browning, Kirsteen N.; Rogers, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstem parasympathetic circuits that modulate digestive functions of the stomach are comprised of afferent vagal fibers, neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the efferent fibers originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). A large body of evidence has shown that neuronal communications between the NTS and the DMV are plastic and are regulated by the presence of a variety of neurotransmitters and circulating hormones as well as the presence, or absence, of afferent input to the NTS. These data suggest that descending central nervous system inputs as well as hormonal and afferent feedback resulting from the digestive process can powerfully regulate vago-vagal reflex sensitivity. This paper first reviews the essential “static” organization and function of vago-vagal gastric control neurocircuitry. We then present data on the opioidergic modulation of NTS connections with the DMV as an example of the “gating” of these reflexes, i.e., how neurotransmitters, hormones, and vagal afferent traffic can make an otherwise static autonomic reflex highly plastic. PMID:16460274

  17. VOLTAGE REGULATORS OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical power autonomous electrosupply systems, including backup systems. They are also used in a structure of rotating electricity converters and are widely used in renewable energy as part of wind power plants of small, mini and micro hydroelectric plants. Increasing the speed and the accuracy of the system of the voltage regulation of synchronous generators is possible due to the development of combined systems containing more stabilizers. The article illustrates the functional schemes of circuit voltage stabilizers and frequency synchronous generators (with electromagnetic excitation and permanent magnet excitation and describes the features of their work, including two and three-aggregate rotating converters of electricity used in uninterruptible power supply systems. To improve the technical characteristics of the system of stabilization we have proposed functional solutions for stabilizers of synchronous generators made on the base of direct frequency converters and using a transformer with a rotating magnetic field. To improve the reliability of and to improve the operational characteristics of the autonomous independent sources of electricity we suggest creating the main functional blocks and the elements of the stabilization system in a modular way. The functional circuit solutions of voltage regulators of synchronous generators and the characteristics of their work considered in the article, are able to improve the efficiency of pre-design work in the development of new technical solutions for stabilizing the voltage and the frequency in synchronous generators of electrosupply autonomous systems

  18. Chromatin structure regulates gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jason Cummings

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vlambda pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205, expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vlambda donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vlambda array, and altered the outcome of Vlambda diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences.

  19. A laser tube position regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyitiro, A.; Norio, K.

    1984-03-26

    An improved design is patented for a mechanism and method of regulating, with a high degree of accuracy, the position of a laser tube in a gas laser inside the optical resonator formed by external mirrors. The laser tube is held in two holders. Each holder contains an L shaped bracket which supports a semitransparent plate. The plate is positioned so that its center is over the center of the end of the tube which is in the form of a Brewster window. A narrow parallel beam is directed along the tube axis from an external auxiliary laser. The beam passes through the semitransparent mirror of the optical resonator in the adjusted laser, through the first Brewster window, the tube itself, and the second Brewster window and is reflected back in the reverse direction from a fully reflecting mirror in the optical resonator. This provides partial reflection of the beam from the external Brewster mirror surface. The tube position in the holders is regulated continuously so that the luminous spots from the beams reflected off the Brewster windows fall on the semitransparent plates in the center of the latter which is designated as the point of intersection.

  20. The undertow of de-regulation : re-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, Ontario and New Brunswick each initiated steps to deregulate their electric power industries in order to remain competitive with lower electricity rates in certain American states where the industry was also moving towards deregulation. This paper considers how the original sweep of deregulation policy goals succumbed to electricity re regulation policies. The decision by British Columbia to re-examine its deregulation plans in light of the experience in Canada's 3 other province's was also examined. The paper describes the electric power industry from 1900 to 1960s, before the deregulation wave hit the industry and then proceeds to the 1970s which was marked by the oil embargo. The 1980s saw a new era of policy shifts towards deregulation and privatization activity which was intended to introduce competition into regulated industries. Technological advances were taking place in the electricity sector, improving the viability of small gas turbines and making cogeneration possible. In the 1990s, Alberta was the first Canadian province to introduce competition to its electricity industry in an effort to remain competitive with neighbouring U.S. jurisdictions. By the 1990s Ontario's vertically integrated electricity industry was in trouble and recommendations were made to dissolve Ontario's Hydro One monopoly, particularly in power generation. In 1999, New Brunswick restructured its electricity industry to remain competitive with New England's electricity industry. The paper describes the gradual pull back from deregulation by all three provinces and the measures taken to impose price controls. Both industry and consumers paid a price for major policy changes. Complete competition in New Brunswick never materialized. It was suggested that controlled competition will likely move the electricity industry in the future. 40 refs

  1. Corruption and optimal regulation under common agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hemsley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I show that it is optimal to separate non-benevolent regulators when regulated projects are large. Separation prevents regulators from coordinating to appropriate all of the agent's informational rent when they know the type of the latter; therefore, there is a trade-off between saving on informational rent and efficiency, since the game between the regulators induced by separation causes further distortions when compared to the allocation under one regulator. When the informational rent at stake is large due to the size of the project, separation is the optimal institutional answer.

  2. Nuclear energy regulation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority was established as an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina by Act known as the Nuclear Activity National Act, and is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. This report details functions and competence of the regulatory body in order to preserve its own independent criterion regarding every aspect of radiological and nuclear safety, and the global strategy of the regulatory system, which are concentrated in the following basics aspects: issue of the corresponding standards; execution of regulatory inspections and audits to verify the compliance with granted licenses and authorisations; independent execution of analyses and studies for the licensing process of nuclear installations; development of technical and scientific aspects associated to radiological and nuclear safety; training of personnel involved in radiological and nuclear safety, either belonging to the Regulatory Body or those working in installations, which perform practices under control. The regulatory control activities are carried out with independence of technical opinions and decisions; administrative autarchy; legal capacity to act in the field of public and private rights, and qualified personnel. The regulatory system complies with the concept of safety culture and its development, and the commitment to nuclear power plants' safety is made clear in design or operation concepts giving priority to safety over economic rentability of the installations. The compliance with Maintenance Programs, In-service Inspection Programs and good operation practices are also part of the commitment. This paper describes the organisational structure of the regulatory body, its human resources, personnel qualification and training, and the necessary financial resources. The regulatory body issues and establishes the standards, which regulate and

  3. Transport regulations for radioactive materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials are taken as a basis for our national regulations to secure the safe transport of radioactive materials in Japan. The requirements for packaging and packages that are used to transport radioactive materials are based on the IAEA Regulations. Furthermore, in addition to the IAEA Regulations, the relative international regulations such as the IMDG code of IMO etc. are reviewed by our national authorities and applied to the conveyance such as the transport vehicle/vessel etc. that is used for the shipment. The transport system such as a transport caravan in Japan is intended to provide even greater safety during transport. The future activities to be discussed in the IAEA are how to adopt the IAEA Regulations to Member States as soon as possible and to evaluate the safety margin of the IAEA Regulations to the assumed accidents. (author)

  4. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  5. Large-scale river regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent concern over human impacts on the environment has tended to focus on climatic change, desertification, destruction of tropical rain forests, and pollution. Yet large-scale water projects such as dams, reservoirs, and inter-basin transfers are among the most dramatic and extensive ways in which our environment has been, and continues to be, transformed by human action. Water running to the sea is perceived as a lost resource, floods are viewed as major hazards, and wetlands are seen as wastelands. River regulation, involving the redistribution of water in time and space, is a key concept in socio-economic development. To achieve water and food security, to develop drylands, and to prevent desertification and drought are primary aims for many countries. A second key concept is ecological sustainability. Yet the ecology of rivers and their floodplains is dependent on the natural hydrological regime, and its related biochemical and geomorphological dynamics. (Author)

  6. Long noncoding RNAs regulate adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Goff, Loyal A; Trapnell, Cole; Alexander, Ryan; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Hacisuleyman, Ezgi; Sauvageau, Martin; Tazon-Vega, Barbara; Kelley, David R; Hendrickson, David G; Yuan, Bingbing; Kellis, Manolis; Lodish, Harvey F; Rinn, John L

    2013-02-26

    The prevalence of obesity has led to a surge of interest in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying adipocyte development. Many protein-coding genes, mRNAs, and microRNAs have been implicated in adipocyte development, but the global expression patterns and functional contributions of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during adipogenesis have not been explored. Here we profiled the transcriptome of primary brown and white adipocytes, preadipocytes, and cultured adipocytes and identified 175 lncRNAs that are specifically regulated during adipogenesis. Many lncRNAs are adipose-enriched, strongly induced during adipogenesis, and bound at their promoters by key transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα). RNAi-mediated loss of function screens identified functional lncRNAs with varying impact on adipogenesis. Collectively, we have identified numerous lncRNAs that are functionally required for proper adipogenesis.

  7. Cyberspace regulation: cesurist and traditionalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the amazing Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Professor L. Lessig writes "that something fundamental has changed" with cyberspace with regard to the state's ability to enforce the law. On the one hand, the structure and characteristics of cyberspace pose some difficulties related to jurisdiction and the choice of applicable law. On the other, it raises questions about the very concept of sovereignty as we know it. This paper examines the arguments of those who advocate a regulation of cyberspace on the edges of state sovereignty or within a new concept of sovereignty and capacity to enforce the law, and the arguments of those who reject this exceptional treatment of cyberspace.

  8. Molecular Regulation of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.

  9. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  10. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  11. New insights into receptor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poste, G

    1984-11-01

    This review provides a brief summary of certain recent advances in our understanding of receptor regulation, signal transduction, and the diverse pathways by which receptor-ligand complexes are internalized and delivered to specific organelles, together with recycling of receptors back to the cell surface. Emphasis is also given to the importance of methodological advances in receptor isolation, immunologic analysis of receptor structure and function, the development of new instrumentation for microchemical characterization of very small amounts of receptor material, and the increasing use of genetic engineering techniques to isolate the genes for receptors and their regulatory subunits, to transfer such genes between cells, and to study receptor function by creating structurally modified receptors via subtle changes in gene structure. PMID:6151557

  12. Maximum Power Point Regulator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.

    2011-10-01

    The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied

  13. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  14. Metallochaperones regulate intracellular copper levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lee Pang

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important enzyme co-factor that is also extremely toxic at high intracellular concentrations, making active efflux mechanisms essential for preventing Cu accumulation. Here, we have investigated the mechanistic role of metallochaperones in regulating Cu efflux. We have constructed a computational model of Cu trafficking and efflux based on systems analysis of the Cu stress response of Halobacterium salinarum. We have validated several model predictions via assays of transcriptional dynamics and intracellular Cu levels, discovering a completely novel function for metallochaperones. We demonstrate that in addition to trafficking Cu ions, metallochaperones also function as buffers to modulate the transcriptional responsiveness and efficacy of Cu efflux. This buffering function of metallochaperones ultimately sets the upper limit for intracellular Cu levels and provides a mechanistic explanation for previously observed Cu metallochaperone mutation phenotypes.

  15. Lignification: Flexibility, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Lignin is a complex phenolic polymer that is deposited in the secondary cell wall of all vascular plants. The evolution of lignin is considered to be a critical event during vascular plant development, because lignin provides mechanical strength, rigidity, and hydrophobicity to secondary cell walls to allow plants to grow tall and transport water and nutrients over a long distance. In recent years, great research efforts have been made to genetically alter lignin biosynthesis to improve biomass degradability for the production of second-generation biofuels. This global focus on lignin research has significantly advanced our understanding of the lignification process. Based on these advances, here I provide an overview of lignin composition, the biosynthesis pathway and its regulation. PMID:27131502

  16. Analog regulation of metabolic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskhelishvili Georgi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3D structure of the chromosome of the model organism Escherichia coli is one key component of its gene regulatory machinery. This type of regulation mediated by topological transitions of the chromosomal DNA can be thought of as an analog control, complementing the digital control, i.e. the network of regulation mediated by dedicated transcription factors. It is known that alterations in the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA lead to a rich pattern of differential expressed genes. Using a network approach, we analyze these expression changes for wild type E. coli and mutants lacking nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs from a metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network perspective. Results We find a significantly higher correspondence between gene expression and metabolism for the wild type expression changes compared to mutants in NAPs, indicating that supercoiling induces meaningful metabolic adjustments. As soon as the underlying regulatory machinery is impeded (as for the NAP mutants, this coherence between expression changes and the metabolic network is substantially reduced. This effect is even more pronounced, when we compute a wild type metabolic flux distribution using flux balance analysis and restrict our analysis to active reactions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the regulatory control exhibited by DNA supercoiling is not mediated by the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN, as the consistency of the expression changes with the TRN logic of activation and suppression is strongly reduced in the wild type in comparison to the mutants. Conclusions So far, the rich patterns of gene expression changes induced by alterations of the superhelical density of chromosomal DNA have been difficult to interpret. Here we characterize the effective networks formed by supercoiling-induced gene expression changes mapped onto reconstructions of E. coli's metabolic and transcriptional regulatory network. Our

  17. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D. Mydlarz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  18. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  19. Xenotransplantation--ethics and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Tracy

    2006-11-01

    Healthcare workers, researchers, and policy makers find themselves in challenging times, being required to make (often prompt) decisions in the face of novel ethical dilemmas. Moral theory may assist with decision-making in complex areas of medicine such as the xenotransplantation of insulin-producing cells to reverse diabetes. Moral theory attempts to capture intuitions about whether an action is right or wrong and it may gives us a deeper understanding of moral claims as it gives us an account as to why an action is good or bad. We may opt to choose different ethical frameworks such as consequentialism, principlism or a duty-based approach, to assist with deciding a certain action in a particular scenario. The xenotransplantation of porcine insulin-producing cells is a potential solution to the shortage of human tissue. It is crucial for the advancement of xenotransplantation that the benefits to society outweigh the risks and whilst there is enormous potential to assist mankind, there are unique bioethical challenges and dilemmas. New treatment strategies should be regulated appropriately to minimize risks to patients, their relatives and the wider community. There are specific regulations (such as those developed by the FDA) that provide a robust framework for the safe implementation of xenotransplantation and more generally applicable ones such as the Declaration of Helsinki. Xenotransplantation is either morally acceptable or not to an individual. Patients must ultimately decide as to whether they would accept a certain form of treatment or not, a decision which would take into account their religious beliefs and categorical objections. There is no point in developing a treatment option unless there is good patient support. To that end, a study was conducted to ascertain the acceptance of tissue from different animal sources, by diabetic patients in England and Australia. Interviews were conducted to ensure that patients' views were reflected in their answers

  20. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF DROSOPHILA IMMIGRANS SPECIES GROUP BASED ON H2a-H2b SPACER AND Cyt b SEQUENCES%伊米果蝇种组(Drosophila immigrans pecies group)H2a-H2b和Cyt b分子系统发育关系(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秀英; 曾庆韬; 杨勇; 钱远槐

    2006-01-01

    @@ 伊米果蝇种组(Drosophila immigrans species group)是果蝇科(Drosophilidae)、果蝇属(Drosophila)、果蝇亚属(Drosophila)中数量最多的一个类群,主要分布于东洋区.在分类学上该种组分为nasuta、immigrans、hypocausta、quadrilineata和curviceps五个种亚组(species subgroup)[1],东洋区果蝇区系中伊米果蝇种组中包括94个种,其中有45个种分布在中国[2].而且curviceps种亚组是1992年新建立的中国特有果蝇类群[3].迄今,对伊米果蝇种组分子系统关系的报道还很少,有些物种的归属仍存在争议.伊米果蝇种组还有些问题需要探讨[4].

  1. The Recast Brussels I Regulation and Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The revision of the Brussels I Regulation has come to an end. During the revision process the exclusion of arbitration from the scope of the Regulation has been much debated. This debate was not only ignited by the revision of the Regulation, but also by the decision of the European Court...... of Justice (ECJ) in the West Tankers case. The predominant interpretation of the existing exclusion of arbitration from the scope of the Regulation entails that a judgment disregarding or breaching an arbitration agreement will circulate in the European Union according to the rules of the Regulation....... This entails an increased risk of parallel proceedings and conflicting decisions because the parties race to pursue both court litigation and arbitration proceedings. These implications have not been amended by the recast Regulation, which keeps the existing exclusion of arbitration from the scope...

  2. Hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dae eKim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of energy homeostasis is fundamental for life. In animal species and humans, the Central Nervous System (CNS plays a critical role in such regulation by integrating peripheral signals and modulating behavior and the activity of peripheral organs. A precise interplay between CNS and peripheral signals is necessary for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in the maintenance of energy balance. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus is a critical center for monitoring, processing and responding to peripheral signals, including hormones such as ghrelin, leptin and insulin. Once in the brain, peripheral signals regulate neuronal systems involved in the modulation of energy homeostasis. The main hypothalamic neuronal circuit in the regulation of energy metabolism is the melanocortin system. This review will give a summary of the most recent discoveries on the hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the control of energy homeostasis.

  3. Cap and trade offsets regulation - consultation paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Due to increasing concerns about the environment, British Columbia has committed to reducing its 2007 greenhouse gas emissions levels by 33% in 2020 and 80% in 2050. To reach those objectives, emissions trading and offset regulations are being developed by the Climate Action Secretariat. The aim of this document is to present a first draft of the regulations to the various stakeholders, including First Nations and the general public, together with the proposed offset eligibility criteria and related process, and to get their feedback. This document is itself part of the 5-phase process of developing the regulations. Following the 45 days during which comments on the proposed regulation were sought, the climate action secretariat will complete legal drafting of the regulations, drawing on help from this stakeholder input, and the regulation will subsequently be implemented. An accompanying response form was attached to this consultation paper.

  4. World experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Bila Iryna S.; Salatiuk Nina M.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses tendencies of state regulation of entrepreneurship in EU countries, USA and Japan and identifies state regulation of entrepreneurship as a system, which consists of certain elements, unity and interaction of which determine its efficiency and functionality. Analysis, systematisation and generalisation of experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship in these countries allow making a conclusion that the existing differences in the role of the state in economy are not ...

  5. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesi...

  6. Evaluation of Money Laundering Regulations in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Tontoh, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify and appraise within the Ghanaian environment the level of regulations in combat of money laundering and terrorism financing, the extent of the regulation and the effectiveness of the regulations or laws. Method: Research methodology will be based on qualitative data collection and analysis approach which will consider the gathering of information personally by the researcher including interviews based on structured or semi-structures question...

  7. Interconnection and incentive regulation in network industries

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Major; Károly M. Kiss

    2013-01-01

    The price regulation of network industries has changed tremendously all over the world recently. Theoretical contributions specifically advocate and telecommunications, energy and other market regulators in various parts of the world practice cost-based pricing for inter-firm network access services. Cost-based pricing is performed under the assumption that the regulator has perfect information regarding the costs of producing the services. We show that — under fairly general conditions — cos...

  8. The staff regulations of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the first comprehensive review of the Provisional Staff Regulations conducted by the Secretariat, the Board of Governors approved on 12 June 2002 amendments to the Provisional Staff Regulations including the removal of the attribute 'provisional' from their title. The revised Staff Regulations of the Agency are set forth in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. There is a subject index at the end of the document

  9. Self-regulation in European Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Cafaggi, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses self-regulation as a complementary means to harmonize and regulate European Contract Law. In the context of the paper SR is conceived as a complementary device to legislation and as a monitoring device to verify ECL implementation. Within self-regulation different players and forms of rule.making are examined. In relation to players different private organizations are considered: independent organizations and self-interested organizations, which will be fur...

  10. Medical devices regulations, standards and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishna, Seeram; Wang, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Medical Devices and Regulations: Standards and Practices will shed light on the importance of regulations and standards among all stakeholders, bioengineering designers, biomaterial scientists and researchers to enable development of future medical devices. Based on the authors' practical experience, this book provides a concise, practical guide on key issues and processes in developing new medical devices to meet international regulatory requirements and standards. Provides readers with a global perspective on medical device regulationsConcise and comprehensive information on how to desig

  11. Hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung D.; Leyva, Stephanie; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of energy homeostasis is fundamental for life. In animal species and humans, the Central Nervous System (CNS) plays a critical role in such regulation by integrating peripheral signals and modulating behavior and the activity of peripheral organs. A precise interplay between CNS and peripheral signals is necessary for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in the maintenance of energy balance. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus is a critical center for monitoring, proce...

  12. Regulating Tobacco in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2002-01-01

    There has been a dramatic turn of events against the tobacco industry in the past few years, raising the question of the appropriate future path for smoking policy in the US. This paper discusses the theory and evidence on regulation of smoking. The author begins by reviewing the background on this industry. He then turns to a discussion of the motivations for regulating smoking. He argues that the available evidence suggests that we move from the traditional model, which ties regulation to c...

  13. Autokrine Regulation von Hepcidin in der Leber

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide and the central regulator of iron metabolism. Hepcidin is evidentially upregulated by iron overload as well as inflammation and downregulated by hypoxia or iron deficiency. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepcidin regulation are not completely understood yet. This study analyzed an autocrine regulation of hepcidin in human liver cells. METHODS: Human liver cells (HepG2, Hep3B) were stimulated with synthetic hepcidi...

  14. Insect Growth Regulators for Insect Pest Control*

    OpenAIRE

    TUNAZ, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    Insecticides with growth regulating properties (IGR) may adversely affect insects by regulating or inhibiting specific biochemical pathways or processes essential for insect growth and development. Some insects exposed to such compounds may die due to abnormal regulation of hormone-mediated cell or organ development. Other insects may die either from a prolonged exposure at the developmental stage to other mortality factors (susceptibility to natural enemies, environmental conditions etc) or ...

  15. Circadian clock proteins in mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo ePartonen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood regulation is known to be affected by the change of seasons. Recent research findings have suggested that mood regulation may be influenced by the function of circadian clocks. In addition, the activity of brown adipocytes has been hypothesized to contribute to mood regulation. Here, the overarching link to mood disorders might be the circadian clock protein NR1D1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1.

  16. Exploration on ecological regulation of the reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir regulation process in the Yangtze River basin is mainly divided into two types of flood regulation and initiating benefit regulation. The present reservoir management system and operation mode are mainly for dealing with or coordinating of flood control and benefit initiation as well as benefit distribution among various beneficial functions. From the view point of river ecosystem protection, the current regulation mode has two kinds of problems: firstly, most of the reservoir regulation plans do not consider ecosystem protection at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas; secondly, integrated regulation or management of water resources is ignored. It is very necessary to improve reservoir regulation mode, bearing problems faced by regulation of the Three Gorges reservoir and issues related to cascade development and regulation in Tuojiang and Minjiang River basins in mind. In accordance with the concept of scientific development, and the philosophy of "ensuring a healthy Yangtze River and promoting the har-mony between human and water", taking flood control, benefit initiation and eco-system as a whole, this paper put for-ward the basic consideration to improve reservoir regulation as follows : on the basis of requirements of ecosystem protec-tion at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas, we should bring the functions of res-ervoir such as flood control and benefit initiation into full play, control the negative influence to the ecosystem at down-stream of dams and the environment in reservoir areas in an endurable scope, and restore the ecosystem and the environ-ment step by step. This paper put forward the relevant regulation process aiming at the idiographic problems such as pro-tection of ecosystem at downstream of dams and environment in reservoir areas, protection of aquatic wildlife species and fish species, regulation of sediment and protection of wetland.

  17. Cell cycle regulation in Trypanosoma brucei

    OpenAIRE

    Tansy C Hammarton

    2007-01-01

    Cell division is regulated by intricate and interconnected signal transduction pathways that precisely coordinate, in time and space, the complex series of events involved in replicating and segregating the component parts of the cell. In Trypanosoma brucei, considerable progress has been made over recent years in identifying molecular regulators of the cell cycle and elucidating their functions, although many regulators undoubtedly remain to be identified, and there is still a long way to go...

  18. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  19. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  20. Proteinase activity regulation by glycosaminoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersariol I.L.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports concerning the biological role and the mechanisms of interaction between proteinases and carbohydrates other than those involved in clotting. It has been shown that the interplay of enzymes and glycosaminoglycans is able to modulate the activity of different proteases and also to affect their structures. From the large number of proteases belonging to the well-known protease families and also the variety of carbohydrates described as widely distributed, only few events have been analyzed more deeply. The term "family" is used to describe a group of proteases in which every member shows an evolutionary relationship to at least one other protease. This relationship may be evident throughout the entire sequence, or at least in that part of the sequence responsible for catalytic activity. The majority of proteases belong to the serine, cysteine, aspartic or metalloprotease families. By considering the existing limited proteolysis process, in addition to the initial idea that the proteinases participate only in digestive processes, it is possible to conclude that the function of the enzymes is strictly limited to the cleavage of intended substrates since the destruction of functional proteins would result in normal tissue damage. In addition, the location as well as the eventual regulation of protease activity promoted by glycosaminoglycans can play an essential role in the development of several physiopathological conditions.

  1. The transcriptional regulation of pluripotency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Chi Yeo; Huck-Hui Ng

    2013-01-01

    The defining features of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are their self-renewing and pluripotent capacities.Indeed,the ability to give rise into all cell types within the organism not only allows ESCs to function as an ideal in vitro tool to study embryonic development,but also offers great therapeutic potential within the field of regenerative medicine.However,it is also this same remarkable developmental plasticity that makes the efficient control of ESC differentiation into the desired cell type very difficult.Therefore,in order to harness ESCs for clinical applications,a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling ESC pluripotency and lineage commitment is necessary.In this respect,through a variety of transcriptomic approaches,ESC pluripotency has been found to be regulated by a system of ESC-associated transcription factors; and the external signalling environment also acts as a key factor in modulating the ESC transcriptome.Here in this review,we summarize our current understanding of the transcriptional regulatory network in ESCs,discuss how the control of various signalling pathways could influence pluripotency,and provide a future outlook of ESC research.

  2. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  3. Lymphatic Regulation of Cellular Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels play vital roles in immune surveillance and immune regulation by conveying antigen loaded dendritic cells, memory T cells, macrophages and neutrophils from the peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes where they initiate as well as modify immune responses. Until relatively recently however, there was little understanding of how entry and migration through lymphatic vessels is organized or the specific molecular mechanisms that might be involved. Within the last decade, the situation has been transformed by an explosion of knowledge generated largely through the application of microscopic imaging, transgenic animals, specific markers and function blocking mAbs that is beginning to provide a rational conceptual framework. This article provides a critical review of the recent literature, highlighting seminal discoveries that have revealed the fascinating ultrastructure of leucocyte entry sites in lymphatic vessels, as well as generating controversies over the involvement of integrin adhesion, chemotactic and haptotactic mechanisms in DC entry under normal and inflamed conditions. It also discusses the major changes in lymphatic architecture that occur during inflammation and the different modes of leucocyte entry and trafficking within inflamed lymphatic vessels, as well as presenting a timely update on the likely role of hyaluronan and the major lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 in leucocyte transit.

  4. Cytoskeletal regulation of dermal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Xanthe L; Cowin, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but lost in mammals; however, there are some instances where glimpses of mammalian regenerative capacity do exist. Here we describe the unlocked potential that exists in mammals that may help us understand the process of regeneration post-injury and highlight the potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process. The precise function and regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to the success of the healing process and its manipulation may therefore facilitate regenerative healing. The gelsolin family of actin remodelling proteins in particular has been shown to have important functions in wound healing and family member Flightless I (Flii) is involved in both regeneration and repair. Understanding the interactions between different cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamic control of processes including cellular adhesion, contraction and motility may assist the development of therapeutics that will stimulate regeneration rather than repair. PMID:24710556

  5. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  6. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  7. Good radiopharmacy practice and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production, control, distribution and clinical application of radiopharmaceuticals have not been subject to the same regulations and legislation developed for conventional pharmaceutical products. Generally the production of radiopharmaceuticals have started up at national nuclear energy research centres, where the products have been regarded more as radioactive tracers than pharmaceutical products. Gradually pharmaceutical philosophy and requirements have been introduced in the field and necessary changes in legislation have been introduced. The registration process to obtain official market authorisation for a radiopharmaceutical have been introduced in most countries. This process of registration is constantly changing with regards to the amount and the type of documentation required by the health authorities. Correspondingly the general requirements for the systems applied in pharmacy for the production, control, quality assurance and medical application have also become an integral part of the field of radiopharmacy. Is the present situation generally satisfactory? The ever increasing demands leads to increasing costs and thereby higher prices on the products for the end users. Do the present requirements generally ensure that the radiopharmaceuticals applied are safe and effective for the patient? (author)

  8. The Regulation of Energy Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, Judy; Esq

    This paper describes the laws and regulations that affect the practice of energy medicine. State law often has more impact on a health care practice than federal law, but federal law provides a common denominator among states. Device law is emphasized here because practitioners of energy medicine are more likely to use devices than drugs. For purposes of this paper, energy medicine is defined as practices that measure or benefit energy flow and overall energy in the body. This broad definition encompasses things as diverse as certain forms of exercise, measurement of meridian resistance, the use of electrical current or magnetic pulses to relieve pain, and the use of light, sound, scent, touch, position, or movement to stimulate the body's own electrical systems. What is of greatest importance in determining legal implications of a practice is whether there are any health-related claims. Two federal entities are pivotal. The Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") is authorized to protect health and safety and the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC") is authorized to protect consumers from false or misleading advertising. There are 5 things that FDA looks at: 1) intended use, 2) claims made in advertising and in labeling, 3) substantial equivalence to a predicate, 4) safety, and 5) effectiveness. A concern regarding any one of these can be the basis for denying clearance to market a device. The FTC looks at whether statements are true and substantiated and whether they might be misleading. The FTC often consults with the FDA on the interpretation of technical information.

  9. Regulation of microgeneration and microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of microgrid (μGrid) has been emerging as a way to integrate microgeneration (μG) in low-voltage (LV) networks and simultaneously improve its potential benefits. Technical requirements to connect μgrids to LV networks have been studied in order to make this concept technologically feasible and safe to operate. However, the regulatory framework for economic integration of μG and μGrids on distribution systems, despite being crucial, is still an open issue. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute for the development of an appropriate economic regulation framework that removes the barriers to μG and μGrid development. To do so, the relevant costs and benefits resulting from the establishment of μG and μGrid are identified and a methodology for sharing those costs and benefits among the involved economic agents is presented. The only pre-requisite of such a methodology is the existence of a net benefit to all economic agents

  10. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  11. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  12. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  13. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  14. Regulation and policy working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The potential environmental impact of offshore platform disposal can be illustrated by both the numbers of platforms and the complexity of their abandonment options. Some 7,000 platforms are in place worldwide. In the US, approximately a quarter of the platforms are more than 25 years old and in sight of their end of service. In addition, 22,000 miles of pipeline are located on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the United States. There are more offshore platforms in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico than in any other single area in the world. It is estimated that between October 1995 and December 2000, approximately 665 of the nearly 3,800 existing structures will be removed. Couple this with the mammoth size, the vagaries of the ocean, and the levels of sometimes conflicting international and federal laws, and the magnitude of the challenge to protect the environment becomes clear. The Offshore International Newsletter (11/06/95) stated, {open_quotes}In three of the last four years, annual Gulf of Mexico platform removals have exceeded installations, a trend that will likely continue.{close_quotes} Between 100 and 150 platforms have been removed from the OCS each year for the past six or seven years. As increasing numbers of wells, pipelines, and platforms are decommissioned and disposed of, it is important that the relevant techniques, policies, and regulations be discussed and evaluated. The goal of this workshop is to facilitate and document this discussion in an open, objective, and inclusive way. Since U.S. practices and policies provide precedents for other countries, international participation is encouraged and anticipated.

  15. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Pava

    Full Text Available The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid tone with a selective inhibitor of monoacyglycerol lipase (JZL184 or fatty acid amide hydrolase (AM3506 produced a transient increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep due to an augmentation of the length of NREM bouts (NREM stability. Similarly, direct activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 receptors with CP47,497 increased NREM stability, but both CP47,497 and JZL184 had a secondary effect that reduced NREM sleep time and stability. This secondary response to these drugs was similar to the early effect of CB1 blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist AM281, which fragmented NREM sleep. The magnitude of the effects produced by JZL184 and AM281 were dependent on the time of day this drug was administered. While activation of CB1 resulted in only a slight reduction in gamma power, CB1 blockade had dramatic effects on broadband power in the EEG, particularly at low frequencies. However, CB1 blockade did not significantly reduce the rebound in NREM sleep following total sleep deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 is necessary for NREM stability but it is not necessary for sleep homeostasis.

  16. Microenvironmental regulation by fibrillin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Sengle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillin-1 is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix molecule that sequesters latent growth factor complexes. A role for fibrillin-1 in specifying tissue microenvironments has not been elucidated, even though the concept that fibrillin-1 provides extracellular control of growth factor signaling is currently appreciated. Mutations in FBN1 are mainly responsible for the Marfan syndrome (MFS, recognized by its pleiotropic clinical features including tall stature and arachnodactyly, aortic dilatation and dissection, and ectopia lentis. Each of the many different mutations in FBN1 known to cause MFS must lead to similar clinical features through common mechanisms, proceeding principally through the activation of TGFβ signaling. Here we show that a novel FBN1 mutation in a family with Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS causes thick skin, short stature, and brachydactyly when replicated in mice. WMS mice confirm that this mutation does not cause MFS. The mutation deletes three domains in fibrillin-1, abolishing a binding site utilized by ADAMTSLIKE-2, -3, -6, and papilin. Our results place these ADAMTSLIKE proteins in a molecular pathway involving fibrillin-1 and ADAMTS-10. Investigations of microfibril ultrastructure in WMS humans and mice demonstrate that modulation of the fibrillin microfibril scaffold can influence local tissue microenvironments and link fibrillin-1 function to skin homeostasis and the regulation of dermal collagen production. Hence, pathogenetic mechanisms caused by dysregulated WMS microenvironments diverge from Marfan pathogenetic mechanisms, which lead to broad activation of TGFβ signaling in multiple tissues. We conclude that local tissue-specific microenvironments, affected in WMS, are maintained by a fibrillin-1 microfibril scaffold, modulated by ADAMTSLIKE proteins in concert with ADAMTS enzymes.

  17. Radiation Safety (General) Regulations 1983 (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provisions of the Regulations cover, inter alia, the general precautions and requirements relating to radiation safety of the public and radiation workers and registration of irradiating apparatus or premises on which such apparatus is operated. In addition, the Regulations set forth requirements for the operation of such apparatus and for the premises involved. (NEA)

  18. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  19. The Lrp family of transcriptional regulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.B.; Ettema, T.J.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Oost, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Genome analysis has revealed that members of the Lrp family of transcriptional regulators are widely distributed among prokaryotes, both bacteria and archaea. The archetype Leucine-responsive Regulatory Protein from Escherichia coli is a global regulator involved in modulating a variety of metabolic

  20. 44 CFR 1.8 - Regulations review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations review. 1.8... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.8 Regulations review. (a) As part... and keep updated a plan for periodic review of existing rules at least within 10 years from date...

  1. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... of Energy (DOE) published a proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department...

  2. Essays on incentives in regulation and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The thesis contains three essays on incentives in regulation and innovation. The first essay analyzes a problem of optimal regulatory design. Key feature of the problem is that there exists asymmetric information between the regulator and the industry concerning the costs of producing complementary

  3. Self-regulation in the mining industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud; Peck, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Many industries have established their own systems for self-regulation. They often do so when companies involved in the industry operate in countries where financial, technical, environmental and social regulation is weak and when the industry is challenged by legitimacy issues related to behavio...

  4. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  5. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    .... 2461 note); Pub. L. 110-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 548 Belarus Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign... Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Belarus Sanctions Regulations in the Code of...

  6. 44 CFR 1.7 - Regulations agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations agendas. 1.7 Section 1.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Regulations published in April and October of each year. (b) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 605, the...

  7. 75 FR 79388 - Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service) will...: The Service Regulations Committee will meet at the Embassy Suites Hotel, Denver--International...

  8. Methylation: a regulator of HIV-1 replication?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang Kuan-Teh; Yedavalli Venkat RK

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Recent characterizations of methyl transferases as regulators of cellular processes have spurred investigations into how methylation events might influence the HIV-1 life cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that protein-methylation can positively and negatively regulate HIV-1 replication. How DNA- and RNA- methylation might impact HIV-1 is also discussed.

  9. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... (50 U.S.C. 1601- 1651) (the ``NEA''), issued Executive Order 13466 (73 FR 36787, June 27, 2008)...

  10. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement... Executive Order 13466 (73 FR 36787, June 27, 2008) (``E.O. 13466''). On August 30, 2010, the...

  11. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  12. Test Review: Anger Regulation and Expression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavlazoglu, Baki; Erdogan, Niyazi; Paine, Taylor; Jones, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the Anger Regulation and Expression Scale (ARES) which was developed by DiGiuseppe and Tafrate (2011) and published by Multi-Health Systems Inc. The ARES was designed to be a self-report measure of anger expression and regulation in youth aged 10 to 17 years and was intended to be used in screening, individual assessment,…

  13. 76 FR 64868 - Orphan Drug Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... preamble to the final rule, ``Orphan Drug Regulations'' (57 FR 62076 at 62084), FDA reiterated that it... Regulations in the Federal Register of December 29, 1992 (57 FR 62076), FDA has reviewed over 3,350 requests... Federal Register of January 29, 1991 (56 FR 3338 at 3339). Because the term ``medically plausible''...

  14. Regulation of intermediary metabolism by protein acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies during the past four decades have identified important roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of nuclear transcription. Recent proteomic analyses on protein acetylation uncovered a large number of acetylated proteins in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, including most enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism. Acetylation regulates metabolic enzymes by multiple mechanisms, including via enzymatic activation or inhibition, and by influencing protein stability. Convers...

  15. Self-regulation within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Jonas; K. Sassenberg; D. Scheepers

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, the study of self-regulation within and between groups has burgeoned into a vibrant field of research. Classic research findings, now substantiated with process analyses, feed back into and inform self-regulation theorizing. This Special Issue presents ten empirical articles that

  16. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of pre-morb

  17. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation...

  18. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...-203 Sec. 1100E, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010). \\2\\ 76 FR 18349 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act... Dodd-Frank Act, and the Board's Regulation M continues to apply to those entities.\\4\\ \\3\\ 76 FR 78500...-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)...

  19. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-203 Sec. 1100E, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010). \\2\\ 76 FR 18349 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act... Dodd-Frank Act, and the Board's Regulation M continues to apply to those entities.\\4\\ \\3\\ 76 FR 78500... CFR Part 213 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation...

  20. 46 CFR 310.67 - Academy regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academy regulations. 310.67 Section 310.67 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy § 310.67 Academy regulations....

  1. Independence of regulator authority of energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 90's the European directives on energy markets have devoted increasing attention to the institution of national independent regulators. This paper aims at underlying the influence that the European law has on the design of national regulators and in particular on the importance and the meaning of their independence. Short reference will be made to the Italian experience as well.

  2. From "smart regulation" to "regulatory arrangements"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossum, Van P.; Arts, B.; Verheyen, K.

    2010-01-01

    When regulators are faced with practical challenges, policy instrument choice theories can help them find the best solution. However, not all such theories are equally helpful. This paper aims to offer regulators a better alternative to the current policy instrument choice theories. We will specific

  3. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770.3... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons possessing the proper state license and Base...

  4. The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the topic of the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid base balance was last reviewed from a teaching perspective (Koeppen BM. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Adv Physiol Educ 20: 132-141, 1998), our understanding of the specific membrane transporters involved in H+, HCO , and NH transport, and especially how these…

  5. 77 FR 40493 - Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 740, 742, 748, 750, 752, and 760 Export Administration Regulations CFR Correction In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to 799, revised as...

  6. Essays on financial fragility and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates various issues in regulation, with three chapters on financial fragility and banking regulation, and one chapter on competition policy. Chapter 2 studies banks’ herding driven by their need for market liquidity, highlighting a trade-off between systemic risk and liquidity cr

  7. Self-Regulation and Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Caroline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the role of autonomous self-regulation as a predictor of academic procrastination. Maintains that academic procrastination is often a motivational problem related to fear of failure. Reveals that students with intrinsic reasons for studying procrastinate less than those with less autonomous reasons (for example, external regulation). (MJP)

  8. The Real World of Power Sector Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    More than twenty countries are now reforming their power sectors. For many politicians, this reform means simply restructuring and privatizing state-owned enterprises. But, what they forget or may not know is that a government cannot regulate private power companies the way it once regulated state enterprises. The author argues that if a government is serious about attracting private inves...

  9. Cellulose synthase complexes: structure and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eLei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is to update the most recent progress on characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes. We will highlight proteins that interact with cellulose synthases, e.g. cellulose synthase-interactive protein 1 (CSI1. The potential regulation mechanisms by which cellulose synthase interact with cortical microtubules in primary cell walls will be discussed.

  10. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  11. 75 FR 79278 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ..., Regulations and Legislation Division, (202) 906-7409; Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW... Regulations AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC); Board of Governors of the... Counsel, Community and Consumer Law Division, (202) 874-5750; or Greg Nagel or Brian Borkowicz,...

  12. The fallacies of network neutrality regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Zenhäusern, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, historical functionalities of the traditional Internet are contrasted with today's Internet functionalities of the 'smart' Internet architecture. It is shown that network neutrality regulation prohibiting congestion management and traffic quality differentiation is contrary to economically founded allocation mechanisms. By access regulation of local loop bottleneck components the transfer of market power from the telecommunications infrastructure into the complementary Internet...

  13. Cardiac Vagal Regulation and Early Peer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 341 5 1/2-year-old children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study was the focus of a study on the relation between cardiac vagal regulation and peer status. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (suppression) to 3 cognitively and emotionally challenging tasks…

  14. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    further newly identified drug-induced differential regulation of Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, Endoplasmin, DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha and Calmodulin 1. The feedback regulation in these and other targets is likely to be relevant for the success or failure of the molecular intervention....

  15. Book review: Regulating code: good governance and better regulation in the information age

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Alison

    2013-01-01

    "Regulating Code: Good Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age." Ian Brown and Chris Marsden. MIT Press. March 2013. --- In issues from online surveillance to social media ethics and piracy, questions of internet governance surround us. In Regulating Code, authors Ian Brown and Chris Marsden make a case for multi-stakeholder co-regulation based around the function of code rather than national geographic boundaries. Alison Powell reviews the argument made through the authors’ f...

  16. Food Irradiation Regulations And Code Of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Official attitude towards irradiated food is determined by factors such as: level of scientific knowledge, consumer habits, food shortages, agricultural production and technological know-how. To date, 39 countries have accepted the process for one or more food items while 27 nations carry out the process on a commercial basis. Regulations and codes of practice is essential for consumer confidence while uniformity of regulations, at the international level, will enhance international trade in irradiated food items. The internationally accepted Codex Standard on irradiated food and Codes of Practice for the operation of irradiation facilities, adopted in 1983, forms the basis for International regulations and a template for nations in the development of regulations. This paper discusses the basic legal requirements for licensing the process, procedures, facility and the operator and suggests a framework for a national regulation based on experiences of Hungary, Brazil and Israel

  17. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    1992-04-01

    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  18. Emotion recognition and regulation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Amy; Sullivan, Sarah; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet

    2009-01-01

    It is recognized that emotional problems lie at the core of eating disorders (EDs) but scant attention has been paid to specific aspects such as emotional recognition, regulation and expression. This study aimed to investigate emotion recognition using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) task and emotion regulation using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in 20 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 20 female healthy controls (HCs). Women with AN had significantly lower scores on RME and reported significantly more difficulties with emotion regulation than HCs. There was a significant negative correlation between total DERS score and correct answers from the RME. These results suggest that women with AN have difficulties with emotional recognition and regulation. It is uncertain whether these deficits result from starvation and to what extent they might be reversed by weight gain alone. These deficits may need to be targeted in treatment.

  19. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth.

  20. The regulator as nuclear communicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early last year the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided on a sea-change in the way it inspects and evaluates the safety performance of the 103 commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States, which together produce about 20 percent of the nation's electricity. The new program takes into account the improvements in performance of the U.S. nuclear industry over the past 20 years and the NRC's desire to apply more objective, timely, safety significant criteria in assessing performance, as well as the need to effectively regulate at a time of shrinking staff and budgets. There also was a desire to increase efficiency and reduce unnecessary regulatory burden on plant operators as they begin to transition from their traditional postures as regional monopolies, with rates fixed by local public utility commissions, into a highly competitive deregulated energy marketplace. A pilot project was decided upon to test the new approach at thirteen power plants at nine sites. At first the pilot was to have run six months, but this was subsequently extended. The current timetable, which itself is subject to change, would review the results of the pilot program, make prudent adjustments, and apply it to the entire industry this spring. To explain the entirely new procedures, the technical staff produced a thick document which Albert Einstein-on his best day-would have had trouble understanding. Thus we found ourselves on the verge of what might have been a public perception disaster undermining faith that the NRC was determined to fulfill our transcendent mission and responsibility to protect public health and safety in the application of nuclear power. The first thing we required was a relatively brief plain language translation, of the highly technical staff paper into something any interested member of the public could readily understand. We urgently needed a clear and simple primer to explain the new program, its rationale, and its advantages over the old approach. In

  1. Receptor regulation of senile phenoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, M V; Severin, F F; Skulachev, V P

    2014-10-01

    , and type II diabetes, which can be regarded as one of the forms of senile phenoptosis. In conclusion, we consider the role of some psychological factors in the regulation of the aging program. PMID:25519059

  2. Public and private interests in regulation : essays in the law and economics of regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    2003-01-01

    The six chapters in this thesis all focus on regulation. Public and private interest theories of regulation are used as a viewpoint and as an instrument to analyse and evaluate particular regulations and policy developments. Furthermore, in the literature there is a debate about the explanatory powe

  3. 78 FR 31551 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... approved information collection requirement concerning Department of Commerce patent regulations. A notice was published in Federal Register at 77 FR 43082, on July 23, 2012. One respondent submitted comments... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations AGENCIES: Department of Defense...

  4. 76 FR 43585 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Proposed Rulemaking, Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses, 74 FR 22129.... 4073. \\18\\ Provision of Banking Services to Money Services Businesses, 71 FR 12308 (March 10, 2006... 31 of the Code of Federal Regulations for the BSA regulations. See 75 FR 65806 (October 26,...

  5. Incentive Mechanism Design for Public Goods Provision: Price Cap Regulation and Optimal Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jun; YIN Hong; WANG Xian-jia

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanism design that induces firms to provide public goods under two regulatory means: price cap regulation and optimal regulation, respectively. We first outline two models of monopoly regulation with unobservable marginal costs and effort, which can be regard as an optimal problem with dual restrictions. By solving this problem, we get the two optimal regulatory mechanisms to induce the provision of public goods. Further, by comparative statics, the conclusion is drawn that the welfare loss associated with price cap regulation, with respective to optimal regulation, increases more with increase of the expense of public goods.

  6. Afferent signals regulating food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, G A

    2000-08-01

    Food intake is a regulated system. Afferent signals provide information to the central nervous system, which is the centre for the control of satiety or food seeking. Such signals can begin even before food is ingested through visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli. One of the recent interesting findings is the demonstration that there are selective fatty acid taste receptors on the tongue of rodents. The suppression of food intake by essential fatty acids infused into the stomach and the suppression of electrical signals in taste buds reflect activation of a K rectifier channel (K 1.5). In animals that become fat eating a high-fat diet the suppression of this current by linoleic acid is less than that in animals that are resistant to obesity induced by dietary fat. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation with either mercaptoacetate (which blocks acetyl-CoA dehydrogenase) or methylpalmoxirate will increase food intake. When animals have a choice of food, mercaptoacetate stimulates the intake of protein and carbohydrate, but not fat. Afferent gut signals also signal satiety. The first of these gut signals to be identified was cholecystokinin (CCK). When CCK acts on CCK-A receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, food intake is suppressed. These signals are transmitted by the vagus nerve to the nucleus tractus solitarius and thence to higher centres including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, amygdala, and other sites. Rats that lack the CCK-A receptor become obese, but transgenic mice lacking CCK-A receptors do not become obese. CCK inhibits food intake in human subjects. Enterostatin, the pentapeptide produced when pancreatic colipase is cleaved in the gut, has been shown to reduce food intake. This peptide differs in its action from CCK by selectively reducing fat intake. Enterostatin reduces hunger ratings in human subjects. Bombesin and its human analogue, gastrin inhibitory peptide (also gastrin-insulin peptide), reduce food intake in obese and lean subjects. Animals

  7. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -exporting cartel it may be more profitable for such a cartel to coordinate their availability pricing policy than their export volumes. Another result shows that increased competition in the import market may be a disadvantage for the exporting countries when the authorities use strategic availability pricing. Consequently the use of strategic availability pricing could contribute to increase the conflict levels between the exporting and importing countries as to competition policy. If all the participants use strategic availability pricing the conflict of interests between the upstream and downstream countries would be complete as the importing country would wish to stimulate increased competition in all parts of the value chain while the exporting countries would wish the opposite. The analysis is based on a theoretical model and is consequently based on several conditions that must be considered when interpreting the results. The authors think however, that the mechanisms revealed are central in the market for natural gas. As long as the national authorities permit a certain degree of flexibility in the regulation of the availability prices for the transport and distribution of natural gas the strategic availability pricing could be an important measure in the battle for as large a part of the profits as possible in a future market for natural gas characterized by increased competition. As to Norway this would mean that possible negative effects of a more liberalised European gas market could be counteracted through strategic adaptation of the availability price in the Norwegian gas transport system

  8. APPLYING CLASSICAL FOREST REGULATION METHODS TO SMALLHOLDINGS WITH COOPERATIVE CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the cooperative regulation process of forestry producers in comparison to the traditional individual regulation of properties. Twenty (20 forest properties are studied as examples of the development of three forest regulation scenarios: 1 individual regulation, 2 group regulation, and 3 cooperative regulation. The Net Present Value (NPV of each of the scenarios is optimized according to mathematical programming models and compared to a baseline scenario without forest regulation. According to the proposed cooperative regulation, properties had a proportion factor for annual net revenue distribution calculated from results of the baseline scenario. By comparing the NPV maximization results from scenarios 1 and 3 with the non-regulation scenario, the cost for individual regulation is on average 25%, while being only 11% for cooperative regulation, that is, a 14% reduction in property regulation costs. Additionally, cooperative regulation had the advantage of dividing properties into fewer areas when compared to individual regulation.

  9. Regulation of chromosomal replication in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Justine

    2012-03-01

    The alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus is characterized by its asymmetric cell division, which gives rise to a replicating stalked cell and a non-replicating swarmer cell. Thus, the initiation of chromosomal replication is tightly regulated, temporally and spatially, to ensure that it is coordinated with cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Waves of DnaA and CtrA activities control when and where the initiation of DNA replication will take place in C. crescentus cells. The conserved DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication by directly binding to sites within the chromosomal origin (Cori), ensuring that DNA replication starts once and only once per cell cycle. The CtrA response regulator represses the initiation of DNA replication in swarmer cells and in the swarmer compartment of pre-divisional cells, probably by competing with DnaA for binding to Cori. CtrA and DnaA are controlled by multiple redundant regulatory pathways that include DNA methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation, temporally regulated proteolysis and the targeting of regulators to specific locations within the cell. Besides being critical regulators of chromosomal replication, CtrA and DnaA are also master transcriptional regulators that control the expression of many genes, thus connecting DNA replication with other events of the C. crescentus cell cycle.

  10. Social Regulation of Emotion: Messy Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid eKappas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008. 2011a, 2011b to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the messy layers.

  11. The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both national and international organisations agree that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies - the regulator's prime purpose - is to ensure that nuclear licensees operate their facilities at all times in a safe manner. Much has been written about ways to improve regulatory processes or to improve the effectiveness of a regulatory body, including in previous OECD/NEA regulatory guidance booklets. But until now, none have focused on the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator. Effective organisations are those that have good leadership and are able to transform strategic direction into operational programmes. Effectiveness is about how well the organisation is achieving its fundamental purpose - in the case of a nuclear safety regulator, ensuring that licensees operate their facilities and discharge their obligations in a safe manner. This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory body. The report provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator. (authors)

  12. Rainwater harvesting state regulations and technical resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted in-depth research of state-level rainwater harvesting regulations for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help federal agencies strategically identify locations conducive to rainwater harvesting projects. Currently, rainwater harvesting is not regulated by the federal government but rather it is up to individual states to regulate the collection and use of rainwater. There is no centralized information on state-level regulations on rainwater harvesting maintained by a federal agency or outside organization. To fill this information gap, PNNL performed detailed internet searches for each state, which included state agencies, universities, Cooperative Extension Offices, city governments, and related organizations. The state-by-state information on rainwater harvesting regulations was compiled and assembled into an interactive map that is color coded by state regulations. The map provides a visual representation of the general types of rainwater harvesting policies across the country as well as general information on the state programs if applicable. The map allows the user to quickly discern where rainwater harvesting is supported and regulated by the state. This map will be available on the FEMP website by September 2015.

  13. Institutions and Regulations in Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    Institutions (including regulations) are constitutive elements of innovation systems, and therefore cornerstones of innovation policy. Focusing on (soft and hard) regulation, the paper identifies the most salient regulatory areas from the perspective of the innovation system. When asking about...... for the innovativeness of the society at large; and the extent to which regulation is adapting to new (social, economic and technological) contexts and is socially legitimate and accepted. These are potentially the three problems that innovation policy needs to address in this area. This provides guidance for the design...

  14. Activation and Regulation of Cellular Eicosanoid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Brock

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the wide variety of physiological responses that are regulated by lipid messengers. One particular group of lipid messengers, the eicosanoids, plays a central role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses in a receptor-mediated fashion. These mediators are related in that they are all derived from one polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. However, the various eicosanoids are synthesized by a wide variety of cell types by distinct enzymatic pathways, and have diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. In this review, the major pathways involved in the synthesis of eicosanoids, as well as key points of regulation, are presented.

  15. Regulation of p21ras activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowy, D R; Zhang, K; DeClue, J E;

    1992-01-01

    The ras genes encode GTP/GDP-binding proteins that participate in mediating mitogenic signals from membrane tyrosine kinases to downstream targets. The activity of p21ras is determined by the concentration of GTP-p21ras, which is tightly regulated by a complex array of positive and negative control...... mechanisms. GAP and NF1 can negatively regulate p21ras activity by stimulating hydrolysis of GTP bound to p21ras. Other cellular factors can positively regulate p21ras by stimulating GDP/GTP exchange....

  16. The regulation of mobile health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Amy J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In July 2011, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued draft guidance concerning the regulation of mobile medical applications (applications on a wireless device that are used as accessories to medical devices or to convert a mobile platform to a medical device. While the suggestion of regulation is rooted in patient safety, concerns about limits on innovation and discovery as well as the evolving nature of both mobile health and current healthcare delivery have emerged. This article discusses the prevalence of mobile health, the context of regulation concerning mobile medical applications, and implications for the future.

  17. Sexin’ Work: The Politics of Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Grant

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores regulation in both the institutionalized and discursive production of prostitution control. The contemporary regulation of prostitution in Canadian and international contexts are explored to show that prostitution was never seriously targeted for elimination; the case of street sex work in Winnipeg is used to illustrate this phenomenon. I argue that prostitution is a cultural and political necessity deployed by nation-states to discipline women, regulate their bodies, and ensure they uphold reproductive normativity. The purpose of such regulatory projects is underwritten by the drive to strengthen national/ ethnic/racial/class identities within normative forms of gender and sexuality.

  18. Developing self-regulation in early childhood☆

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Tang, Yiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Studies using fMRI at rest and during task performance have revealed a set of brain areas and their connections that can be linked to the ability of children to regulate their thoughts, actions and emotions. Higher self-regulation has also been related favorable outcomes in adulthood. These findings have set the occasion for methods of improving self-regulation via training. A tool kit of such methods is now available. It remains to be seen if educators will use these new findings and tools t...

  19. Developing self-regulation in early childhood☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.; Tang, Yiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Studies using fMRI at rest and during task performance have revealed a set of brain areas and their connections that can be linked to the ability of children to regulate their thoughts, actions and emotions. Higher self-regulation has also been related favorable outcomes in adulthood. These findings have set the occasion for methods of improving self-regulation via training. A tool kit of such methods is now available. It remains to be seen if educators will use these new findings and tools to forge practical methods for improving the lives of the world's children. PMID:24563845

  20. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  1. PSD: new regulations and old problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program is the Clean Air Act of 1977 effort to protect air that is cleaner than the national standards. New PSD regulations were enacted by EPA in 1980. These new regulations, however, do not address or resolve many of the basic conflicts that arose under the original program. Problems encountered in implementing these regulations are identified, including their complexity, efficient allocation of permits, superfluous review, and insufficient data collection. Alternative approaches, such as the establishment of a set of technology-based standards, are recommended.

  2. 76 FR 76295 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Wells, Maine'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 52599). We..., Maine. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. Dated: November 21, 2011. Daniel A. Neptun,...

  3. Smart-grid Investments, Regulation and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Mikkers, Misja

    2013-01-01

    Grid infrastructure managers worldwide are facing demands for reinvestments in new assets with higher on-grid and off-grid functionality in order to meet new environmental targets. The roles of the current actors will change as the vertical interfaces between regulated and unregulated tasks become...... blurred. In this paper, we characterize some of the effects of new asset investments policy on the network tasks, assets and costs and contrast this with the assumptions of the current economic network regulation. To provide structure, we present a model of investment provision under regulation between...... a distribution system operator and a potential investor–generator. The results from the model confirm the hypothesis that network regulation should find a focal point, should integrate externalities in the performance assessment and should avoid wide delegation of contracting-billing for smart-grid investments....

  4. Molecular mechanism and regulation of autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping YANG; Zhong-qin LIANG; Zhen-lun GU; Zheng-hong QIN

    2005-01-01

    Autophagy is a major cellular pathway for the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. A large number of intracellular/extracellular stimuli, including amino acid starvation and invasion of microorganisms, are able to induce the autophagic response in cells. The discovery of the ATG genes in yeast has greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms participating in autophagy and the genes involved in regulating the autophagic pathway. Many yeast genes have mammalian homologs,suggesting that the basic machinery for autophagy has been evolutionarily conserved along the eukaryotic phylum. The regulation of autophagy is a very complex process. Many signaling pathways, including target of rapamycin (TOR) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-I (PI3K-I)/PKB, GTPases, calcium and protein synthesis all play important roles in regulating autophagy. The molecular mechanisms and regulation of autophagy are discussed in this review.

  5. Regulation of monoubiquitinated PCNA by DUB autocleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, T.T.; Nijman, S.M.B.; Galardy, P.J.; Cohn, M.A.; Haas, W.; Gygi, S.P.; Ploegh, H.L.; Bernards, R.A.; D'Andrea, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Monoubiquitination is a reversible post-translational protein modification that has an important regulatory function in many biological processes, including DNA repair. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that are negative regulators of monoubiquitination, but little is known about their r

  6. Molecular regulation of telomerase activity in aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig Nicholls; He Li; Jian-Qiu Wang; Jun-Ping Liu

    2011-01-01

    The process of aging is mitigated by the maintenance and repair of chromosome ends (telomeres),resulting in extended lifespan.This review examines the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions and regulation of the enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT),which functions as the primary mechanism of telomere maintenance and regulates cellular life expectancy.Underpinning increased cell proliferation,telomerase is also a key factor in facilitating cancer cell immortalization.The review focuses on aspects of hormonal regulations of telomerase,and the intraceilular pathways that converge to regulate telomerase activity with an emphasis on molecular interactions at protein and gene levels.In addition,the basic structure and function of two key telomerase enzyme components-the catalytic subunit TERT and the template RNA (TERC) are discussed briefly.

  7. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains the most recent revision from the Government Printing Office (GPO) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 - Food and Drugs.

  8. Annual report 2011 the Norwegian energy regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeiland, Arne; Lund, Per Tore

    2012-07-01

    The report provides an overview of the current regulation of the electricity and district heating markets in Norway, and explains relevant market developments. An overview of legislative amendments, research work and international participation is also presented in the report (Author)

  9. Regulation of geothermal energy development in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The regulatory system is presented in a format to help guide geothermal energy development. State, local, and federal agencies, legislation, and regulations are presented. Information sources are listed. (MHR)

  10. Regulation of water balance in mangroves

    OpenAIRE

    Reef, Ruth; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    Background Mangroves are a group of highly salt-tolerant woody plants. The high water use efficiency of mangroves under saline conditions suggests that regulation of water transport is a crucial component of their salinity tolerance.

  11. GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE COAL-PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government will soon issue an industry policy to regulate the coal-chemicals sector, after a circular in August ordered local authorities to tighten their grip on the approval of new coal-to-petrochemicals projects in China.

  12. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  13. Ceramide-induced TCR up-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, C; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Dietrich, J;

    2000-01-01

    The TCR is a constitutively recycling receptor meaning that a constant fraction of TCR from the plasma membrane is transported inside the cell at the same time as a constant fraction of TCR from the intracellular pool is transported to the plasma membrane. TCR recycling is affected by protein...... kinase C activity. Thus, an increase in protein kinase C activity affects TCR recycling kinetics leading to a new TCR equilibrium with a reduced level of TCR expressed at the T cell surface. Down-regulation of TCR expression compromises T cell activation. Conversely, TCR up-regulation is expected...... to increase T cell responsiveness. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize potential pathways for TCR up-regulation. We found that ceramide affected TCR recycling dynamics and induced TCR up-regulation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Experiments applying phosphatase...

  14. Promoter architectures and developmental gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Vanja; Lenhard, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Core promoters are minimal regions sufficient to direct accurate initiation of transcription and are crucial for regulation of gene expression. They are highly diverse in terms of associated core promoter motifs, underlying sequence composition and patterns of transcription initiation. Distinctive features of promoters are also seen at the chromatin level, including nucleosome positioning patterns and presence of specific histone modifications. Recent advances in identifying and characterizing promoters using next-generation sequencing-based technologies have provided the basis for their classification into functional groups and have shed light on their modes of regulation, with important implications for transcriptional regulation in development. This review discusses the methodology and the results of genome-wide studies that provided insight into the diversity of RNA polymerase II promoter architectures in vertebrates and other Metazoa, and the association of these architectures with distinct modes of regulation in embryonic development and differentiation. PMID:26783721

  15. Information provision by regulated public transport companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deborger, Bruno; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and the quality of information then more stringent information requirements induce the firm to reduce frequency; this strongly limits the welfare improvement of information regulation. Finally, of all institutional structures considered, socially optimal fares, frequency and quality of information stimulate...

  16. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  17. Metabotropic Regulation of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Martin Connelly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work now shows the importance of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic inhibition in regulating CNS function. However, outside of pathological conditions, there is relatively little evidence that the magnitude of tonic inhibition is itself under regulation. Here we review the mechanisms by which tonic inhibition is known to be modulated, and outline the potential behavioural consequences of this modulation. Specifically, we address the ability of protein kinase A and C to phosphorylate the extrasynaptic receptors responsible for the tonic GABAA current, and how G-protein coupled receptors can regulate tonic inhibition through these effectors. We then speculate about the possible functional consequences of regulating the magnitude of the tonic GABAA current.

  18. Topological regulation of lipid balance in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are unevenly distributed within and between cell membranes, thus defining organelle identity. Such distribution relies on local metabolic branches and mechanisms that move lipids. These processes are regulated by feedback mechanisms that decipher topographical information in organelle membranes and then regulate lipid levels or flows. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the major lipid source, transcriptional regulators and enzymes sense changes in membrane features to modulate lipid production. At the Golgi apparatus, lipid-synthesizing, lipid-flippase, and lipid-transport proteins (LTPs) collaborate to control lipid balance and distribution within the membrane to guarantee remodeling processes crucial for vesicular trafficking. Open questions exist regarding LTPs, which are thought to be lipid sensors that regulate lipid synthesis or carriers that transfer lipids between organelles across long distances or in contact sites. A novel model is that LTPs, by exchanging two different lipids, exploit one lipid gradient between two distinct membranes to build a second lipid gradient. PMID:24606148

  19. 43 CFR 424.1 - Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States and the Okanogan Irrigation District, it is ordered as follows: The Okanogan Irrigation District... States and the Okanagon Irrigation District) ... applicable Federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations pertaining to water quality standards...

  20. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  1. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    OpenAIRE

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specific...

  2. The Evolving Regulation of Internet Pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlach, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This paper follows the rise of the Internet drug sale industry and the response to the trend by regulators, policymakers, and private companies. After discussing the existing laws and their enforcement to police rogue Internet pharmacies, the paper outlines in detail the 2008 Ryan Haight Act and its effect. Finally, the paper analyzes two of the ongoing efforts to tighten the regulation of Internet pharmacies further.

  3. The Financial Regulations of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ease of comparison and reference, Attachment I shows the full texts of the relevant Regulations in the original form, incorporating all amendments approved by the Board of Governors until 8 June 1999, and in its amended form, after all the above mentioned approved changes. The full text of the Financial Regulations of the Agency, as approved and amended by the Board of Governors up to 11 June 2010, is reproduced in Attachment II for the information of all Members of the Agency

  4. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behavio...

  5. Orion Suit Loop Variable Pressure Regulator Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Michael; Vassallo, Andrew; Lewis, John F.; Campbell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) integrates the cabin and pressure suits with the core life support systems to provide life support during contingency depressurized cabin operations. To provide the multipule suit pressures between nominal pressurized cabin suited operations, suit leak checks, depressurized cabin suited operations, and elevated suit pressure for denitrification, a variable pressure regulator is needed. This paper documents the development and integrated testing of the suit loop regulator for Orion.

  6. Fucose Sensing Regulates Bacterial Intestinal Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Alline R.; Curtis, Meredith M.; Ritchie, Jennifer M; Munera, Diana; Matthew K Waldor; Moreira, Cristiano G.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract provides a complex and competitive environment for the microbiota 1 . Successful colonization by pathogens depends on scavenging nutrients, sensing chemical signals, competing with the resident bacteria, and precisely regulating expression of virulence genes 2 . The GI pathogen enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) relies on inter-kingdom chemical sensing systems to regulate virulence gene expression 3–4 . Here we show that these systems control the express...

  7. Sampled-data modeling of switching regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Arthur R.; Middlebrook, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The high-frequency capabilities of two switching regulator modeling techniques, state-space averaging and discrete modeling, are compared. A new linear, small-signal modeling technique, which combines the continuous form of state-space averaging with the accuracy of discrete modeling, is then developed. This new method, called sampled-data modeling, succeeds, where state-space averaging fails, in predicting the subharmonic instability in current-programmed regulators, and is shown to be of...

  8. Regulation and localization of endogenous human tristetraprolin

    OpenAIRE

    Fairhurst, Anna-Marie; Connolly, John E.; Hintz, Katharine A; Goulding, Nicolas J; Rassias, Athos J.; Yeager, Mark P.; Rigby, William; Wallace, Paul K

    2003-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the development and pathogenicity of infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders, such as septic shock and arthritis. The zinc-finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) has been identified as a major regulator of TNF biosynthesis. To define its intracellular location and examine its regulation of TNF, a quantitive intracellular staining assay specific for TTP was developed. We establish for the first time that in peripheral blood leukocytes, expr...

  9. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  10. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that...

  11. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  12. Gun Control after Heller: Litigating against Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Adam Samaha

    2009-01-01

    The "core right" established in D.C. vs. Heller (2008) is to keep an operable handgun in the home for self-defense purposes. If the Court extends this right to cover state and local jurisdictions, the result is likely to include the elimination of the most stringent existing regulations - such as Chicago's handgun ban - and could also possibly ban regulations that place substantial restrictions or costs on handgun ownership. We find evidence in support of four conclusions: The effect of Helle...

  13. An Economic Evaluation of Plastic Bag Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, several jurisdictions worldwide have implemented plastic bag regulations to curb environmentally deleterious effects of plastic bag production and consumption. The problems that each jurisdiction experience vary from place-to-place; as do the policy mechanisms set forth to combat these problems. Documentation of explicit economic rationality regarding these plastic bag regulations is scarce. This thesis sets out to fill some of that void. The thesis is organized as fol...

  14. Central Leptin Regulation of Obesity and Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic and lack of efficient therapeutics demand a clear understanding of the mechanism underlying body weight regulation. The cloning of leptin, a key body weight regulating adipokine released in proportion to the adipose tissue mass, has revolutionized our understanding of the mechanism by which the body weight is controlled. It is now well established that the brain, especially the hypothalamus, maintains body weight homeostasis by effectively adjusting food intake an...

  15. Signaling mechanisms for regulation of chemotaxis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianqing WU

    2005-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a fascinating biological process, through which a cell migrates along a shallow chemoattractant gradient that is less than 5% difference between the anterior and posterior of the cell. Chemotaxis is composed of two independent,but interrelated processes-motility and directionality, both of which are regulated by extracellular stimuli, chemoattractants.In this mini-review, recent progresses in the understanding of the regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis by chemoattractant signaling are reviewed.

  16. Specific affect regulation impairments in major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeyer, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in affect regulation as well as cognitive reactivity have been considered to play important roles in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is a lack of studies investigating, (a) whether certain difficulties in emotion regulation are specific for MDD, (b) whether certain meta-mood beliefs are associated with an increased risk for MDD, and (c) whether reduced abilities to engage in mood-incongruent information processing and...

  17. Regulation of the genes involved in nitrification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, D.J.; Sayavedra-Soto, L.A.

    2003-08-14

    OAK-B135 This project focuses on the characterization of the regulation of the genes involved in nitrification in the bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. The key genes in the nitrification pathway, amo and hao, are present in multiple copies in the genome. The promoters for these genes were identified and characterized. It was shown that there were some differences in the transcriptional regulation of the copies of these genes.

  18. Managerial incentives and access price regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Policy makers have identified the non-discrimination principle as a key instrument to regulate vertically integrated firms in control of upstream bottlenecks. Economists argue that the non-discrimination principle may create a level playing field, but at the expense of higher consumer prices. However, this rests on the assumption that the firms do not respond strategically to the regulation. We show that when the owners of the retail firms decide which type of manager to employ, they will res...

  19. Regulation of aleurone development in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Philip W; Yi, Gibum

    2011-03-01

    The aleurone layer of cereal grains is important biologically as well as nutritionally and economically. Here, current knowledge on the regulation of aleurone development is reviewed. Recent reports suggest that the control of aleurone development is more complex than earlier models portrayed. Multiple levels of genetic regulation control aleurone cell fate, differentiation, and organization. The hormones auxin and cytokinin can also influence aleurone development. New technical advances promise to facilitate future progress.

  20. Changing Fear: The Neurocircuitry of Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to alter emotional responses as circumstances change is a critical component of normal adaptive behavior and is often impaired in psychological disorders. In this review, we discuss four emotional regulation techniques that have been investigated as means to control fear: extinction, cognitive regulation, active coping, and reconsolidation. For each technique, we review what is known about the underlying neural systems, combining findings from animal models and human neuroscience....

  1. Circulating somatostatin. Physiological regulator of pancreatic function?

    OpenAIRE

    Gyr, K; Beglinger, C; Köhler, E; Trautzl, U; Keller, U.; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether somatostatin is released into the circulation in sufficient amounts to regulate exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function and to evaluate the possible role of somatostatin as a hormonal regulator of the pancreas. Mean plasma somatostatin levels (SLI) increased from 11 +/- 2 pmol liter-1 to peak concentrations of 18 +/- 2 in six healthy male volunteers after a steak meal (P less than 0.05). Infusion of somatostatin inhibited hormone-induced ...

  2. Mechano-Regulation of Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huan; Tang, Liling

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing contributes to the complexity of proteome by producing multiple mRNAs from a single gene. Affymetrix exon arrays and experiments in vivo or in vitro demonstrated that alternative splicing was regulated by mechanical stress. Expression of mechano-growth factor (MGF) which is the splicing isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) splicing variants such as VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF206, VEGF189, VEGF165 and VEGF145 are regulated...

  3. Sequence Classification: 893787 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ociation with SAGA and for H2B deubiquitylation; Sgf11p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6325210 ... ...it of SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, regulates transcription of a subset of SAGA-regulated genes, required for the Ubp8p ass

  4. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes.

  5. Regulations in the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material available for this review, as well as the Guidelines for Preparing Regulations for the Control of Food Irradiation Facilities adopted by ICGFI, the international Conference Document on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, the draft European Economic Community Directive and the Codex General Standard and Code of Practice on food irradiation suggest that the following aspects may be subject to regulation: Food irradiation licensing, radiation safety, food hygiene, package labelling, inspection, certification for commercial purposes. The purpose of this review is to provide Member States with the information necessary for and special to the control of food processing by irradiation, so as to enable them to ensure that they have or they can adopt effective regulations governing all aspects of trade in irradiated food. Three countries have introduced in their food laws special provisions to regulate the processing of food by radiation. Twenty-three countries have issued such special regulations under the existing statutory authority of one of the executive branches: Seven countries either by reference or by incorporation in whole or in part in their regulations, gave recognition to the Codex Standard and Code of Practice. The absence of such specific recognition should not be interpreted, however, to mean that those countries have not accepted the Codex recommendations. Many provisions seem to have taken the Codex recommendations as a guide. 16 refs

  6. Complex regulation controls Neurogenin3 proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Roark

    2012-10-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS is known to be responsible for the rapid turnover of many transcription factors, where half-life is held to be critical for regulation of transcriptional activity. However, the stability of key transcriptional regulators of development is often very poorly characterised. Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3 is a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that plays a central role in specification and differentiation of endocrine cells of the pancreas and gut, as well as spermatogonia and regions of the brain. Here we demonstrate that Ngn3 protein stability is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system and that Ngn3 can be ubiquitylated on lysines, the N-terminus and, highly unusually, on non-canonical residues including cysteines and serines/threonines. Rapid turnover of Ngn3 is regulated both by binding to its heterodimeric partner E protein and by the presence of cdk inhibitors. We show that protein half-life does appear to regulate the activity of Ngn3 in vivo, but, unlike the related transcription factor c-myc, ubiquitylation on canonical sites is not a requirement for transcriptional activity of Ngn3. Hence, we characterise an important new level of Ngn3 post-translational control, which may regulate its transcriptional activity.

  7. THE FRENCH REGULATION SCHOOL: A CRITICAL REVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia, Gajst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The French regulation school sets out to carry out an analysis of Capitalism and its transformations, with the purpose of understanding the periods of stable growth and the moments of structural change. The object of this paper consists of carrying out a critical revision of the contributions of this school, concentrating on the conceptual framework that it has developed. For this, in the first place the influences that marked the regulation approach will be reviewed, with special attention on its recovery from the Marxist tradition. Secondly, the ontological and methodological differences between the regulation approach and the neoclassic economy theory will be highlighted. Thirdly, the fundamental concepts of the regulation school will be examined. In fourth place, it will be seen how, from these concepts, the crisis at the beginning of the 1970s was interpreted. In fifth place, how the regulation approach is thought as to the relation between economy and policy. In sixth place, the question of the international dimension will be examined. Finally, the main objections that have been presented to the regulation approach, will be shown and will be evaluated critically.

  8. Identifying differentially regulated subnetworks from phosphoproteomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebbe Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various high throughput methods are available for detecting regulations at the level of transcription, translation or posttranslation (e.g. phosphorylation. Integrating these data with protein networks should make it possible to identify subnetworks that are significantly regulated. Furthermore, such integration can support identification of regulated entities from often noisy high throughput data. In particular, processing mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic data in this manner may expose signal transduction pathways and, in the case of experiments with drug-treated cells, reveal the drug's mode of action. Results Here, we introduce SubExtractor, an algorithm that combines phosphoproteomic data with protein network information from STRING to identify differentially regulated subnetworks and individual proteins. The method is based on a Bayesian probabilistic model combined with a genetic algorithm and rigorous significance testing. The Bayesian model accounts for information about both differential regulation and network topology. The method was tested with artificial data and subsequently applied to a comprehensive phosphoproteomics study investigating the mode of action of sorafenib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor. Conclusions SubExtractor reliably identifies differentially regulated subnetworks from phosphoproteomic data by integrating protein networks. The method can also be applied to gene or protein expression data.

  9. Fascin regulates nuclear actin during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelpsch, Daniel J; Groen, Christopher M; Fagan, Tiffany N; Sudhir, Sweta; Tootle, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods. Loss of Fascin reduces, whereas overexpression of Fascin increases, the frequency of nurse cells with high levels of nuclear actin, but neither alters the overall nuclear level of actin within the ovary. These data suggest that Fascin regulates the ability of specific cells to accumulate nuclear actin. Evidence indicates that Fascin positively regulates nuclear actin through Cofilin. Loss of Fascin results in decreased nuclear Cofilin. In addition, Fascin and Cofilin genetically interact, as double heterozygotes exhibit a reduction in the number of nurse cells with high nuclear actin levels. These findings are likely applicable beyond Drosophila follicle development, as the localization and functions of Fascin and the mechanisms regulating nuclear actin are widely conserved.

  10. World experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bila Iryna S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tendencies of state regulation of entrepreneurship in EU countries, USA and Japan and identifies state regulation of entrepreneurship as a system, which consists of certain elements, unity and interaction of which determine its efficiency and functionality. Analysis, systematisation and generalisation of experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship in these countries allow making a conclusion that the existing differences in the role of the state in economy are not connected with the degree of state regulation, but are connected with the means used for its realisation. General tendencies of development of relations between the state and entrepreneurial sector allowed identification of main elements of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship, which include: forecasting, planning and programming socio-economic development; anti-monopoly competitive policy; tax and investment policy; innovation policy and stimulation of R and D (Research and Development. The prospect of further studies is identification of specific features of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship in the modern Ukrainian economy.

  11. 7 CFR 946.51 - Recommendation for regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation for regulations. 946.51 Section 946.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 946.51 Recommendation for regulations. The committee...

  12. The role of regulation in Europe's energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author emphasizes the two main issues of the role of a regulation authority in the de-regulated European internal energy markets: regulation and competition and regulation and security of supply. He explains the manner in which the European Commission will organize the preparation of new or revised guidelines under the regulation. (J.S.)

  13. Chemicals regulation and the Porter Hypothesis:a critical review of the new European chemicals regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frohwein, T. (Torsten); B Hansjürgens

    2005-01-01

    In this contribution, discussions about the Porter Hypothesis and the pros and cons of the new European chemicals regulation system REACH are tied together. The contribution seeks to apply the Porter Hypothesis to the field of European chemicals regulation. Porter’s claim of positive effects of regulation on innovations seems especially important for the chemicals sector pursuing differentiation. But, understanding Porter’s concept of strategic management indicates that certain segments of th...

  14. CONTINUUM OF INSTITUTIONS OF STATE REGULATION AND SELF­REGULATION OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Kovalenko

    2013-01-01

    Government regulation of business is based on the application of different rules of behavior of economic agents. These rules are being developed and implemented at the national and regional levels of economic regulation. At a certain stage of development of national and regional regulations are beginning to constrain the global interaction of the agents of economic development. This trend for the economy of Russia and many countries that have more attention udlyat create market conditions for...

  15. Factors that regulate embryonic gustatory development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimm Robin F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous molecular factors orchestrate the development of the peripheral taste system. The unique anatomy/function of the taste system makes this system ideal for understanding the mechanisms by which these factors function; yet the taste system is underutilized for this role. This review focuses on some of the many factors that are known to regulate gustatory development, and discusses a few topics where more work is needed. Some attention is given to factors that regulate epibranchial placode formation, since gustatory neurons are thought to be primarily derived from this region. Epibranchial placodes appear to arise from a pan-placodal region and a number of regulatory factors control the differentiation of individual placodes. Gustatory neuron differentiation is regulated by a series of transcription factors and perhaps bone morphongenic proteins (BMP. As neurons differentiate, they also proliferate such that their numbers exceed those in the adult, and this is followed by developmental death. Some of these cell-cycling events are regulated by neurotrophins. After gustatory neurons become post-mitotic, axon outgrowth occurs. Axons are guided by multiple chemoattractive and chemorepulsive factors, including semaphorins, to the tongue epithelium. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, functions as a targeting factor in the final stages of axon guidance and is required for gustatory axons to find and innervate taste epithelium. Numerous factors are involved in the development of gustatory papillae including Sox-2, Sonic hedge hog and Wnt-β-catenin signaling. It is likely that just as many factors regulate taste bud differentiation; however, these factors have not yet been identified. Studies examining the molecular factors that regulate terminal field formation in the nucleus of the solitary tract are also lacking. However, it is possible that some of the factors that regulate geniculate ganglion development, outgrowth, guidance and

  16. Moving from self-regulation to external regulation of Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishau, R.J.; Dawson, J.; Lee, D.W.

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses the initiative to transfer the regulation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The paper gives an overview of some of the major technical, policy and legal issues that accompany this initiative. The paper focuses on specific issues and how they may be affected by external regulation of occupational radiation protection at DOE facilities. Differences between the NRC and the DOE approach to regulating nuclear safety are compared and contrasted. Some projected impacts from this transition are examined. Finally, recommendations are provided that may enhance the transition, increasing the likelihood of successful external NRC regulation.

  17. 34 CFR 661.3 - What regulations apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 661.3 What regulations apply? The following regulations apply to this program: (a) The regulations in 34 CFR part 655. (b)...

  18. Know-How on design of switching regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces switching regulator from base to application, which deals with fundamentals of switching regulator such as the reason of boom about switching regulator, understanding simple circuit without electric transformer and decision of circuit type with input voltage and output voltage, configuration and characteristic of switching regulator, a concrete design of switching regulator, pulse width control circuit and protection circuit, concrete circuit examples of switching power and the point of switching regulator.

  19. Adipostatic regulation of motivation and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon F

    2010-05-01

    The proper maintenance of body weight and mood are two of the most prevalent health issues present in society today. Obese humans display higher levels of mood-related disorders and the causality of such an association is unknown. A common feature of obesity is the imbalance of regulatory hormones which normally act to maintain stable energy balance and body weight. The adiposity hormone leptin is one such signal elevated in obesity with the capacity to dampen feeding behavior through action on brain circuits which regulate appetite and metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that leptin may regulate motivation through its actions within brain reward circuitry. In addition, leptin signaling within central nervous system regions that regulate cognition and emotion elicits anti-depressant like effects. Together, these data indicate that leptin may regulate the decreased motivation and mood present in obesity and depression. This review describes the capacity of leptin to regulate motivation and depression through actions within brain circuits that modulate effort-based behavior and emotion, respectively.

  20. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  1. Regulation and license for NPP in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any activity relating to nuclear energy shall maintain safety, security, safeguards, health worker and public as well as environmental protection, according to article 16(1) act No. 10 year 1997 on Nuclear Energy. The act No. 10 year 1997 on Nuclear Energy stipulated independent government agency as nuclear energy regulatory called BAPETEN (Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency). BAPETEN has task to make regulation, licensing process and inspection. Bapeten shall have a licensing and inspection system in fulfilling his function to issued licensing according to Nuclear Energy Act. In Article 17 stipulated that any nuclear energy utilization or construction and operation of nuclear reactor and other nuclear installation as well as decommissioning of nuclear reactor shall have license. Requirements and process to issue license for nuclear reactor stipulated further in Government Regulation no. 43 year 2006. The purpose of the Government Regulation No. 43 is to stipulate licensing of nuclear reactor in order to assure the health of worker and public, environment protection and security of nuclear material and nuclear facility. Requirement and guidance in licensing NPP mandated by Government Regulation or Presidential Decree stipulated in Bapeten Chairman Regulation

  2. Tau regulates the subcellular localization of calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreda, Elena Gomez de [Centro de Biologia Molecular ' Severo Ochoa' , CSIC/UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avila, Jesus, E-mail: javila@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular ' Severo Ochoa' , CSIC/UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} In this work we have tried to explain how a cytoplasmic protein could regulate a cell nuclear function. We have tested the role of a cytoplasmic protein (tau) in regulating the expression of calbindin gene. We found that calmodulin, a tau-binding protein with nuclear and cytoplasmic localization, increases its nuclear localization in the absence of tau. Since nuclear calmodulin regulates calbindin expression, a decrease in nuclear calmodulin, due to the presence of tau that retains it at the cytoplasm, results in a change in calbindin expression. -- Abstract: Lack of tau expression in neuronal cells results in a change in the expression of few genes. However, little is known about how tau regulates gene expression. Here we show that the presence of tau could alter the subcellular localization of calmodulin, a protein that could be located at the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Nuclear calmodulin binds to co-transcription factors, regulating the expression of genes like calbindin. In this work, we have found that in neurons containing tau, a higher proportion of calmodulin is present in the cytoplasm compared with neurons lacking tau and that an increase in cytoplasmic calmodulin correlates with a higher expression of calbindin.

  3. Banking Regulation Of Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denada Hafizi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has affected the development of banking system in Western Balkan Countries, including Italy and Greece. These effects are expressed with the contraction of lending, fallen of foreign direct investments, fallen of the volume of remittances and fallen of international trade. The banking system continually faces new challenges in a dynamically changing financial system, and this makes difficult theimplementation of bank regulation and supervision.All the countries have improved their banking regulation in order to avoid the contagion effect among banks and banking system in general, effects that get increased especially when banks are engaged in international banking. The standardization of regulatory requirements provides potential solution to the problems of regulating international banking. So, there is a moving through agreements like Basel Accords.For all these countries will be a comparison of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and of capital to assets ratio in order to find out how well is capitalized their bankingsystem. The sources of data are the reports of International Monetary Fund for a time series of 2008-2013. In the end there are some conclusions for the main problems that theimplementation of supervision and bank regulation faces.Keywords: Basel Accords, Capital Ratio, Banking Regulation

  4. Epigenetic regulation of cystatins in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenbark, Ashley G; Coleman, William B

    2009-01-01

    Cystatins function as cysteine protease inhibitors, are expressed in numerous cell types, and regulate a number of physiological processes. Four cystatins have been extensively studied: cystatin A, cystatin B, cystatin C, and cystatin M. Aberrant regulation of cystatins occurs in a number of diseases, including cancer and certain neurodegenerative disorders. Recent advances in the understanding of cystatin function suggest that these proteins may regulate promotion or suppression of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Cancer is a disease of abnormal gene expression and cancer cells exhibit aberrant epigenetic events (such as DNA methylation), leading to gene silencing. Cystatins are epigenetically silenced through DNA methylation-dependent mechanisms in several forms of cancer, including breast, pancreatic, brain, and lung. These findings suggest that DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role in the loss of cystatin gene expression and protein function during neoplastic transformation and/or tumor progression. This review summarizes the biological processes in which cystatins function, focuses on the neoplastic events that involve aberrant regulation of cystatins, and discusses the possible epigenetic regulation of cystatins in cancer.

  5. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and the regulation of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2012-07-01

    Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.

  6. Gasotransmitters: novel regulators of epithelial na(+) transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The vectorial transport of Na(+) across epithelia is crucial for the maintenance of Na(+) and water homeostasis in organs such as the kidneys, lung, or intestine. Dysregulated Na(+) transport processes are associated with various human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis, or intestinal disorders, which indicate that a precise regulation of epithelial Na(+) transport is essential. Novel regulatory signaling molecules are gasotransmitters. There are currently three known gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). These molecules are endogenously produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and have been shown to regulate various physiological processes. There is a growing body of evidence which indicates that gasotransmitters may also regulate Na(+) transport across epithelia. This review will summarize the available data concerning NO, CO, and H(2)S dependent regulation of epithelial Na(+) transport processes and will discuss whether or not these mediators can be considered as true physiological regulators of epithelial Na(+) transport biology.

  7. Gasotransmitters: Novel regulators of epithelial Na+ transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eAlthaus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The vectorial transport of Na+ across epithelia is crucial for the maintenance of Na+ and water homeostasis in organs such as the kidneys, lung or intestine. Dysregulated Na+ transport processes are associated with various human diseases such as hypertension, the salt-wasting syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis or intestinal disorders, which indicate that a precise regulation of epithelial Na+ transport is essential. Novel regulatory signaling molecules are gasotransmitters. There are currently three known gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S. These molecules are endogenously produced in mammalian cells by specific enzymes and have been shown to regulate various physiological processes. There is a growing body of evidence, which indicates that gasotransmitters may also regulate Na+ transport across epithelia. This review will summarize the available data concerning NO, CO and H2S dependent regulation of epithelial Na+ transport processes and will discuss whether or not these mediators can be considered as true physiological regulators of epithelial Na+ transport biology.

  8. Transport regulations for radioactive material in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material in Germany is regulated by the dangerous goods transport regulations and the regulations of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. For radioactive material shipments by road, rail, sea and air the modal regulations on the transport of dangerous goods for class 7 of the ADR, RID, ADNR, IMO and ICAO are implemented in Germany and have to be complied with. In parallel with this the Atomic Energy Act requirements and the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance concerning the transport of radioactive material have to be met. They contain provisions regarding the reliability of transport organisations and persons, training of persons involved in transport nuclear liability insurance, physical protection and public interest in addition to the need to fulfil the dangerous goods transport regulations. According to these requirements shipment approvals which are presented in the paper, are necessary for nuclear material, large sources and other radioactive materials. Based on this some practical implications for radioactive material shipments will be discussed as well as some aspects of the future developments. The paper also gives an overview of the responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive material shipments in Germany. (author)

  9. Working together with regulators on nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for earlier and clearer communications with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the Environment Agency (EA) on jointly regulated issues has been developed across the nuclear industry over the past two years. The matched pair of industry and regulators' 'Working Together' documents was published in January 2003. In the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), the scheme is being put into practice through the issue of Initial Regulatory Notifications (IRN) of various projects and issues, to capture key regulatory topics and prompt regulators' initial responses. The IRN may be based on a safety and environment overview report or may be a precursor to it. Positive responses, in line with the Working Together documents, were received from HSE and the EA, following receipt of the first three UKAEA IRNs. (author)

  10. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  11. Honduras geothermal development: Regulations and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Winchester, W.W.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Planning, and Evaluation funded a project to review and evaluate existing power sector laws and regulations in Honduras. Also included in the scope of the project was a review of regulations pertaining to the privatization of state-run companies. We paid particular attention to regulations which might influence opportunities to develop and commercialize Honduras` geothermal resources. We believe that Honduras is well on the road to attracting foreign investment and has planned or has already in place much of the infrastructure and legal guarantees which encourage the influx of private funds from abroad. In addition, in light of current power rationing and Honduras` new and increasing awareness of the negative effects of power sector development on the environment, geothermal energy development is even more attractive. Combined, these factors create a variety of opportunities. The potential for private sector development of geothermal positive.

  12. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...... Governance in the EU fills a gap in the extensive literature on corporate governance and highlights the political nature of EU corporate governance regulation. Laura Horn advances a critical political economy perspective focusing in particular on political struggles and processes of the neoliberal...... transformation of company law and corporate governance regulation. Her findings about the marketization of corporate control are at the core to a better understanding of the broader context of capitalist restructuring in the European Union....

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Qing Yang; Xin Fang; Xiu-Ming Wu; Ying-Bo Mao; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play critical roles in plant-environment interactions.They are synthesized in different organs or tissues at particular developmental stages,and in response to various environmental stimuli,both biotic and abiotic.Accordingly,corresponding genes are regulated at the transcriptional level by multiple transcription factors.Several families of transcription factors have been identified to participate in controlling the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites.These regulators integrate internal (often developmental) and external signals,bind to corresponding cis-elements — which are often in the promoter regions — to activate or repress the expression of enzyme-coding genes,and some of them interact with other transcription factors to form a complex.In this review,we summarize recent research in these areas,with an emphasis on newly-identified transcription factors and their functions in metabolism regulation.

  14. Regulation of cell proliferation by G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, N; Tsim, S T; Dermott, J M; Onesime, D

    1998-09-17

    G Proteins provide signal transduction mechanisms to seven transmembrane receptors. Recent studies have indicated that the alpha-subunits as well as the betagamma-subunits of these proteins regulate several critical signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Of the 17 alpha-subunits that have been cloned, at least ten of them have been shown to couple mitogenic signaling in fibroblast cells. Activating mutations in G alpha(s), G alpha(i)2, and G alpha12 have been correlated with different types of tumors. In addition, the ability of the betagamma-subunits to activate mitogenic pathways in different cell-types has been defined. The present review briefly summarizes the diverse and novel signaling pathways regulated by the alpha- as well as the betagamma-subunits of G proteins in regulating cell proliferation. PMID:9779986

  15. Glial Cell Regulation of Rhythmic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F. Rob; Ng, Fanny S.; Sengupta, Sukanya; You, Samantha; Huang, Yanmei

    2015-01-01

    Brain glial cells, in particular astrocytes and microglia, secrete signaling molecules that regulate glia–glia or glia–neuron communication and synaptic activity. While much is known about roles of glial cells in nervous system development, we are only beginning to understand the physiological functions of such cells in the adult brain. Studies in vertebrate and invertebrate models, in particular mice and Drosophila, have revealed roles of glia–neuron communication in the modulation of complex behavior. This chapter emphasizes recent evidence from studies of rodents and Drosophila that highlight the importance of glial cells and similarities or differences in the neural circuits regulating circadian rhythms and sleep in the two models. The chapter discusses cellular, molecular, and genetic approaches that have been useful in these models for understanding how glia–neuron communication contributes to the regulation of rhythmic behavior. PMID:25707272

  16. Regulations And Control Of Food And Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective control of processed food and medicines is crucial for the maintenance of public health. Issues of wholesomeness, quality, efficacy and safety are of paramount concern to both consumers and regulatory agencies alike. Laws and regulatory are put in in place to ensure minimum standards of practice by the various operators in the food and pharmaceutical sub-sectors, such as will guarantee that the regulated products (food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, chemicals and bottled water) they deal in satisfy all the parameters of quality, wholesomeness, efficacy and safety. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) was established to enforce all relevant laws and regulations on food and drugs among other-regulated products. NAFDAC has put in place appropriate administrative structures and procedures in its efforts to fulfill its mandate. Finally, the agency is in the process of extending its regulatory and control activities to cover irradiated food products in order to safeguard public health

  17. Biophysical regulation of stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-06-01

    Bone adaptation to its mechanical environment, from embryonic through adult life, is thought to be the product of increased osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In parallel with tissue-scale loading, these heterogeneous populations of multipotent stem cells are subject to a variety of biophysical cues within their native microenvironments. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-the most broadly studied source of osteoblastic progenitors-undergo osteoblastic differentiation in vitro in response to biophysical signals, including hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow and accompanying shear stress, substrate strain and stiffness, substrate topography, and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, stem cells may be subject to indirect regulation by mechano-sensing osteocytes positioned to more readily detect these same loading-induced signals within the bone matrix. Such paracrine and juxtacrine regulation of differentiation by osteocytes occurs in vitro. Further studies are needed to confirm both direct and indirect mechanisms of biophysical regulation within the in vivo stem cell niche.

  18. Welfare and the regulation of network sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the title subject concerns the development of a framework to assess the optimal regulation of network sectors from a welfare perspective. The assessment concerns the external organization of the network sector, the competition modality within the sector, ownership relations, additional regulations, and a method to regulate tariffs. The assessment framework can be used to realize an optimal combination of fore-mentioned aspects of the organization of the market. The framework is operationalized applying two instruments: indicators and a social cost-benefit analysis. The indicators provide insight into the impacts of the re-organization of a sector on welfare, while the cost-benefit analysis shows the actual effects. The set of indicators refers to causes of the effects on welfare

  19. Rhizobial gibberellin negatively regulates host nodule number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In legume-rhizobia symbiosis, the nodule number is controlled to ensure optimal growth of the host. In Lotus japonicus, the nodule number has been considered to be tightly regulated by host-derived phytohormones and glycopeptides. However, we have discovered a symbiont-derived phytohormonal regulation of nodule number in Mesorhizobium loti. In this study, we found that M. loti synthesized gibberellic acid (GA) under symbiosis. Hosts inoculated with a GA-synthesis-deficient M. loti mutant formed more nodules than those inoculated with the wild-type form at four weeks post inoculation, indicating that GA from already-incorporated rhizobia prevents new nodule formation. Interestingly, the genes for GA synthesis are only found in rhizobial species that inhabit determinate nodules. Our findings suggest that the already-incorporated rhizobia perform GA-associated negative regulation of nodule number to prevent delayed infection by other rhizobia. PMID:27307029

  20. GPR55: from orphan to metabolic regulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Song, Shuang; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2015-01-01

    GPR55 belongs to the class A family of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) and its activity is regulated by a range of synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids, and by lipid-derived ligands. Cannabinoids are known to be important in controlling appetite and metabolic balance, and it is now emerging that GPR55 may have a role to play in energy homeostasis through the regulation of food intake, fuel storage in adipocytes, gut motility and insulin secretion. This review summarises our current knowledge of expression and function of GPR55 in tissues involved in metabolic regulation, the signalling cascades through which GPR55 is reported to act to exert its effects, and it comments on the difficulties in reaching firm conclusions when using GPR55 ligands of poor specificity. Understanding the role of GPR55 in energy homeostasis may provide a novel target for therapeutic intervention in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24972076