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Sample records for chyli prevalence characteristics

  1. Cisterna chyli in patients with malignancy-Influence of cardiovascular disease on the prevalence of the cisterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerlein, Sebastian, E-mail: sfeuerlein@yahoo.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstrasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany); Stolz, Jochen [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstrasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany); Muche, Rainer [Institute of Biometry, University of Ulm (Germany); Hetzel, Martin [Dept. of Pulmonology, Red Cross Hospital Stuttgart (Germany); Klass, Oliver; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstrasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between the presence and size of the cisterna chyli (CC) on computed tomography (CT) and the presence of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: Out of a 3000-patient cohort 2599 patients who received a CT examination of the chest and/or abdomen with measurable inferior vena cava and azygos vein were included in this retrospective study. To assess the presence of cardiovascular disease the following parameters were recorded from the PACS or clinical information system: diameter of vena cava and azygos vein, presence of ascitis, serum creatinine, history of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease or arterial hypertension and medication (diuretics, beta-blocker). In addition the volume of the CC and the presence or absence of malignant disease were recorded. Mean values (vessel diameters, creatinine) or percentages were calculated and compared for the groups with (n = 416) and without (n = 2183) a cisterna. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for all parameters to identify the potential association with the presence and size of a cisterna. In addition the simultaneous influence of the parameter malignancy, cardiovascular disease and age on presence and size of the CC was analyzed in a logistic regression model. Results: The presence or absence of a CC was not associated with any of the measured parameter. Regarding the size of the CC, there was a positive correlation with the diameter of the azygos vein, the presence of ascitis and diuretic medication. The influences of malignancy, elevated central venous pressure and age on the development of a CC proved to be highly significant but could not be separated or quantified. Conclusion: The volume of the cisterna chyli is influenced by pathologic states with an increased central venous pressure, while the presence or absence of the cisterna seems to be independent of those factors.

  2. Cisterna chyli in patients with malignancy-Influence of cardiovascular disease on the prevalence of the cisterna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerlein, Sebastian; Stolz, Jochen; Muche, Rainer; Hetzel, Martin; Klass, Oliver; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between the presence and size of the cisterna chyli (CC) on computed tomography (CT) and the presence of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: Out of a 3000-patient cohort 2599 patients who received a CT examination of the chest and/or abdomen with measurable inferior vena cava and azygos vein were included in this retrospective study. To assess the presence of cardiovascular disease the following parameters were recorded from the PACS or clinical information system: diameter of vena cava and azygos vein, presence of ascitis, serum creatinine, history of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease or arterial hypertension and medication (diuretics, beta-blocker). In addition the volume of the CC and the presence or absence of malignant disease were recorded. Mean values (vessel diameters, creatinine) or percentages were calculated and compared for the groups with (n = 416) and without (n = 2183) a cisterna. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for all parameters to identify the potential association with the presence and size of a cisterna. In addition the simultaneous influence of the parameter malignancy, cardiovascular disease and age on presence and size of the CC was analyzed in a logistic regression model. Results: The presence or absence of a CC was not associated with any of the measured parameter. Regarding the size of the CC, there was a positive correlation with the diameter of the azygos vein, the presence of ascitis and diuretic medication. The influences of malignancy, elevated central venous pressure and age on the development of a CC proved to be highly significant but could not be separated or quantified. Conclusion: The volume of the cisterna chyli is influenced by pathologic states with an increased central venous pressure, while the presence or absence of the cisterna seems to be independent of those factors.

  3. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-01-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-02-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.).

  5. Giant cisterna chyli: MRI depiction with gadolinium-DTPA enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.C.Y.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the use of MRI with Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement in the diagnosis of giant cisterna chyli. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of contrast enhanced MRI with ultrasound and CT correlation in three patients with a giant cisterna chyli. An analysis of the morphology, location and post-contrast MR signal characteristics in relation to time was performed. RESULTS: Cisterna chyli has a characteristic lobulated morphology and location but the unenhanced MRI appearances are not specific. The post-Gadolinium-DTPA MRI appearances are critically dependent on the time elapsed after injection of contrast medium. Within the first 5 min, there is no enhancement at all, but by 10 min there is early layering of contrast medium evident, which by 30 min produces a clear fluid-fluid level. Delayed images at 4-5 h demonstrate a uniform enhancement of the cisternal contents producing a homogeneous intermediate signal. All of these features are best visualized on T1 fast saturation sequences. CONCLUSION: MRI with Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement is valuable in confirming the nature of the lymphatic ducts in the retroperitoneal space and helps to differentiate these normal structures from alternative lesions such as lymphadenopathy and tumour recurrence. Lee, K.C.Y., Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. (2000)

  6. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... headache on students' daily physical activity, whether they have seen a doctor on ... Table 3: Comparison of some clinical characteristics by headache .... the prevalence was 3.4% in women and 1.5% in men. The findings of ...

  7. The effect of cisterna chyli ablation combined with thoracic duct ligation on abdominal lymphatic drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Gretchen K; Waller, Ken R; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cisterna chyli ablation (CCA) and thoracic duct ligation (TDL) on abdominal lymphatic drainage in normal dogs. Experimental study. Nine female beagle dogs. TDL was performed in 3 dogs and was combined with CCA (CCA-TDL) and local omentalization in 6 dogs. Contrast lymphangiography was attempted in all dogs immediately before and after TDL. Dogs were reanesthetized at 31-37 days for lymphatic studies by new methylene blue (NMB) injection into a mesenteric lymph node and by contrast lymphangiography. In 6 CCA-TDL dogs, 2 had direct shunting of contrast from the lymphatic system into major abdominal veins, 3 had contrast material that dissipated into abdominal vessels within the mesenteric root, and 1 had shunting into the azygous vein. NMB was not observed within the omental pedicle after CCA-TDL. Chylous drainage was by the azygous vein in all 3 TDL dogs. CCA-TDL disrupted chylous drainage to the thoracic duct and resulted in direct intraabdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses identified by shunting of lymphatic flow directly into the abdominal vasculature in 5 of 6 CCA-TDL dogs. Omentalization of the cisternal ablation site was not beneficial in augmenting extrathoracic lymphatic drainage and is not recommended with CCA-TDL. CCA-TDL represents a novel approach to surgical redirection of chylous drainage to the venous circulation outside of the thorax and may be useful in the treatment of spontaneous chylothorax in the dog.

  8. [Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Piotr; Milanowski, Lukasz; Szejko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT) METHODS: 268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults) with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255), chronic motor tics (n = 6), chronic vocal tics (n= 1), transient tics (n = 1), tics unclassified (n = 2), PT (n= 5) were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists. PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%), aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown. PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human immune virus infection. ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of articular manifestations in the anti-retroviral treatment naive HIV infected patients. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Comprehensive care clinic ...

  10. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Calhoun, David A; Oliveras, Anna; Blanch, Pedro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, Jose R; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M; Dudenbostel, Tanja; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-12-07

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractory hypertension (RfH) and to determine the clinical differences between these patients and resistant hypertensives (RH). Secondly, we assessed the prevalence of white-coat RfH and clinical differences between true- and white-coat RfH patients. The present analysis was conducted on the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry database containing 70 997 treated hypertensive patients. RH and RfH were defined by the presence of elevated office blood pressure (≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg) in patients treated with at least 3 (RH) and 5 (RfH) antihypertensive drugs. White-coat RfH was defined by RfH with normal (<130/80 mm Hg) 24-hour blood pressure. A total of 11.972 (16.9%) patients fulfilled the standard criteria of RH, and 955 (1.4%) were considered as having RfH. Compared with RH patients, those with RfH were younger, more frequently male, and after adjusting for age and sex, had increased prevalence of target organ damage, and previous cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of white coat RfH was lower than white-coat RH (26.7% versus 37.1%, P <0.001). White-coat RfH, in comparison with those with true RfH, showed a lower prevalence of both left ventricular hypertrophy (22% versus 29.7%; P =0.018) and microalbuminuria (28.3% versus 42.9%; P =0.047). The prevalence of RfH was low and these patients had a greater cardiovascular risk profile compared with RH. One out of 4 patients with RfH have normal 24-hour blood pressure and less target organ damage, thus indicating the important role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in guiding antihypertensive therapy in difficult-to-treat patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  12. Prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleu, Dirk; Mir, Danial; Al Tabouki, Ahmed; Mesraoua, Rim; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Akhtar, Naveed; Al Hail, Hassan; D'souza, Atlantic; Melikyan, Gayane; Imam, Yahia Z B; Osman, Yasir; Elalamy, Osama; Sokrab, Tageldin; Kamran, Sadaat; Ruiz Miyares, Francisco; Ibrahim, Faiza

    2013-05-01

    No published epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Qatar exist. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of MS in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. We analyzed data for Qatari MS patients fulfilling the McDonald diagnostic criteria. A total of 154 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On 31 April 2010, the crude prevalence of MS in Qatar was 64.57 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 58.31-70.37). The female-to-male ratio was 1.33:1. A positive family history was found in 10.4% of included MS patients. We conclude that Qatar is now a medium-to-high risk area for MS, with some important differences in clinical characteristics as compared to other countries in the region.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of orofacial pain in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljic, Sonja; Savic, Sladjana; Stevanovic, Jasmina; Kostic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the characteristics and prevalence of orofacial pain, and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, in 319 university students: 188 second-year students in the Medical Faculty and 131 students in the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University of Kosovska Mitrovica. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence and characteristics of pain. Among the 319 students, 101 (32%) reported previous orofacial pain, and pain was more frequent among women (P pain and that the risk for pain development among women was 1.8 times that among men. Place of residence and relationship status were not associated with frequency of orofacial pain. The regions with the highest pain prevalences were the temporal region (7%; 95% confidence interval, 4-10%) and the region around the eye (6%; 95% confidence interval, 4-9%). The first episode of orofacial pain was less than 3 months previously in 59% of the participants, and 39% of students had sought professional medical help. (J Oral Sci 58, 7-13, 2016).

  14. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ashley H; Rickards, Hugh; Fasano, Alfonso; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2011-03-01

    Punding (the display of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors) is a relatively recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in PD. In this review, four large scientific databases were comprehensively searched for literature in relation to punding prevalence and clinical correlates in the context of PD. Prevalence was found to vary greatly (between 0.34 to 14%), although there were large disparities in study populations, assessment methods, and criteria. We observed an association between punding, dopaminergic medications, and impulse control disorder. Other characteristics, which may be more common among punders, include a higher severity of dyskinesia, younger age of disease onset, longer disease duration, and male gender. More research in large clinical datasets is required in many areas before conclusions are drawn. The pathophysiology behind the punding phenomenon is also poorly understood at present, rendering it difficult to develop targeted therapy. The current mainstay of treatment is the reduction in the dose of dopaminergic medications, the evidence for other suggested therapies being purely empirical.

  15. Cesarean section in Ethiopia: prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisma, Engida; Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John W; Mol, Ben W

    2017-11-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of cesarean section in Ethiopia. We used data collected for Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016. A two-stage, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used to gather information from women who gave birth within the 5-year period before each of the surveys. We analyzed the data to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with cesarean section using log-Poisson regression models. The national cesarean section rate increased from 0.7% in 2000 to 1.9% in 2016, with increases across seven of the eleven administrative regions of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa had the highest cesarean section rate (21.4%) in 2016 and the greatest increase since 2000. In the adjusted analysis, women who gave birth in private health facility had a 78.0% higher risk of cesarean section (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) (95% CI) 1.78 (1.22, 2.58)) compared with women who gave birth in public health facility. Having four or more births was associated with a lower risk of cesarean section compared with first births (aPR (95% CI) 0.36 (0.16, 0.79)). The Ethiopian national cesarean section rate is about 2%, but the rate varies widely among administrative regions, suggesting unequal access. Cesarean sections were highest among urban mothers, first births, births to women with higher education, and births to women from the richest quintile of household wealth.

  16. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsak; Santikul, Kanitta

    2002-11-01

    Dyslexia is the most common subtype of learning disabilities with a prevalence ranging from 5-10 per cent. The central difficulty in dyslexia is the phonological awareness deficit. The authors have developed a screening test to assess the reading ability of Thai primary school students. 1. To study the prevalence of dyslexia in first to sixth grade students at Wat Samiannaree School. 2. To study the clinical characteristics such as sex, neurological signs, verbal intelligence and comorbid attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) of the dyslexia group. A total of 486 first to sixth grade students were administered "Raven's progressive matrices test" for estimation of intellectual functioning. Those who scored below the fifth percentile were labeled as mental retardation and excluded from the study. The students' reading ability was evaluated by 3 steps; first by classroom teachers using some items of the screening test, second by the researchers examining some more items individually, and third by the special educator assessing more details in reading and phonology. The students who had a reading ability two-grade levels below their actual grades and impairment in phonology were diagnosed with dyslexia. The prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia were found to be 6.3 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively. The male to female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The dyslexia group had significantly lower Thai language scores than those of the normal group (p dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination but 90 per cent showed positive soft neurological signs. Mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised was 76 +/- 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7 per cent in the dyslexia group. Dyslexia was a common problem among primary school students in this study. Further studies in a larger population and different socioeconomic statuses are required to determine the prevalence

  17. Headache among patients with HIV disease: prevalence, characteristics, and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Kale E; Kirkland, Karl; Many, W J; Smitherman, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Headache is one of the most common medical complaints reported by individuals suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but limited and conflicting data exist regarding their prevalence, prototypical characteristics, and relationship to HIV disease variables in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to characterize headache symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS and to assess relations between headache and HIV/AIDS disease variables. Two hundred HIV/AIDS patients (49% female; mean age = 43.22 ± 12.30 years; 74% African American) from an internal medicine clinic and an AIDS outreach clinic were administered a structured headache diagnostic interview to assess headache characteristics and features consistent with International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II diagnostic semiologies. They also completed 2 measures of headache-related disability. Prescribed medications, most recent cluster of differentiation (CD4) cell count, date of HIV diagnosis, possible causes of secondary headache, and other relevant medical history were obtained via review of patient medical records. One hundred seven patients (53.5%) reported headache symptoms, the large majority of which were consistent with characteristics of primary headache disorders after excluding 4 cases attributable to secondary causes. Among those who met criteria for a primary headache disorder, 88 (85.44%) met criteria for migraine, most of which fulfilled ICHD-II appendix diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine. Fifteen patients (14.56%) met criteria for episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Severity of HIV (as indicated by CD4 cell counts), but not duration of HIV or number of prescribed antiretroviral medications, was strongly associated with headache severity, frequency, and disability and also distinguished migraine from TTH. Problematic headache is highly prevalent

  18. Prevalence, Predictive Factors, and Characteristics of Osteoporosis in Hyperthyroid Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde O. Ale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The osteoporosis in thyroid disorder has the lowest report especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to determine the prevalence, predictive factors, and characteristics of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid patients. Method. Forty (40 hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls ages 21–50 years were recruited in this study. Questionnaires were administered to capture bio- and clinical data. Biochemical tests included blood, thyroid functions, intact parathyroid hormone, corrected calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests. Bone mineral density (BMD was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results. Osteoporosis was observed in 18 (45% of study subjects, 13 (72.2% females and 5 (27.8% males, respectively. The BMD of the hyperthyroid patients had a negative correlation with free triiodothyronine, FT3 (r=−0.49, p=0.005, FT4 (r=−0.33, p=0.009, corrected calcium (r=−0.31, p=0.039, alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.53, p<0.001, and osteocalcin (r=−0.61, p<0.001. Conversely, a positive association with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH (r=0.54, p<0.001 was observed. Multiple regression showed osteocalcin (p<0.001 and TSH (p=0.015 as independent predictors of osteoporosis. Conclusion. Thyrotoxicosis is a risk factor for osteoporosis occurrence, and we recommend routine screening for this bone disease in persons over 20 years old with this disorder.

  19. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    OpenAIRE

    MoolRaj Kural; Naziya Nagori Noor; Deepa Pandit; Tulika Joshi; Anjali Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18?25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea durat...

  20. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of depression and socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background information: Various studies across the world have shown that depression is of high prevalence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and that it has lots of adverse effects on them. Diagnosis of depression among this group of people is however still very low in sub-Sahara Africa, particularly at primary ...

  2. The Prevalence of Tic Disorders and Clinical Characteristics in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. Method We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Results Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. Conclusions The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety. PMID:25436183

  3. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural, MoolRaj; Noor, Naziya Nagori; Pandit, Deepa; Joshi, Tulika; Patil, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18–25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea duration, pre-menstrual symptoms (PMS), family history, menses irregularities, menstrual history, severity grading using visual analogue scale (VAS) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Dysmenorrhea was reported in 84.2% (261) girls and 15.8% (49) reported no dysmenorrhea. Using VAS, 34.2% of girls experienced severe pain, 36.6% moderate and 29.2% had mild pain. Bleeding duration was found to be significantly associated with dysmenorrhea (χ2 = 10.5; P dysmenorrhea (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–3). Moreover, girls with the presence of clots had 2.07 times higher chance of having dysmenorrhea (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.04–4.1) (P dysmenorrhea, 90.9% experience the condition themselves (χ2 = 11.5; P dysmenorrhea had three times greater chance of having the same problem (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.5–5.8; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is found to be highly prevalent among college going girls. Family history, bleeding duration and presence of clots were significant risk factors for dysmenorrhea. PMID:26288786

  4. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Norway: prevalence, clinical and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retterstøl, Kjetil; Narverud, Ingunn; Selmer, Randi; Berge, Knut E; Osnes, Ingvild V; Ulven, Stine M; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål; Holven, Kirsten B; Iversen, Per O

    2017-06-12

    There is a lack of comprehensive patient-datasets regarding prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG; triglycerides ≥10 mmol/L), frequency of co-morbidities, gene mutations, and gene characterization in sHTG. Using large surveys combined with detailed analysis of sub-cohorts of sHTG patients, we here sought to address these issues. We used data from several large Norwegian surveys that included 681,990 subjects, to estimate the prevalence. Sixty-five sHTG patients were investigated to obtain clinical profiles and candidate disease genes. We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from six male patients and nine healthy controls and examined expression of mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. The prevalence of sHTG was 0.13 (95% CI 0.12-0.14)%, and highest in men aged 40-49 years and in women 60-69 years. Among the 65 sHTG patients, a possible genetic cause was found in four and 11 had experienced acute pancreatitis. The mRNA expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1A, CPT2, and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly higher in patients compared to controls, whereas those of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 1 were significantly lower. In Norway, sHTG is present in 0.1%, carries considerable co-morbidity and is associated with an imbalance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, all potentially contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity in sHTG.

  5. Hypercoagulability in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: prevalence, patient characteristics and postoperative outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Sulman; Johansson, Per Ingemar; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo investigate the prevalence of preoperative hypercoagulability assessed by thromboelastography (TEG), to identify patient characteristics associated with hypercoagulability and to explore whether hypercoagulability is associated with a greater risk for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke...

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of Blastocystis hominis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, M A; Orenstein, S R; Proujansky, R; Wadowsky, R M; Putnam, P E; Kocoshis, S A

    1993-02-01

    Blastocystis hominis, a protozoan whose pathogenicity has been questioned, is sometimes found in the human gastrointestinal tract. We sought to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis in stool and to characterize clinical features of infection with Blastocystis in children. Forty-six (3%) of 1,736 patients undergoing fecal microscopy at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1988, harbored Blastocystis. Of these 46 children, 75% had exposure to well water or had been in developing countries. Thirty-nine of the 46 (85%) experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. Blastocystis was the only parasite found in 35 of those 39 symptomatic children. Symptoms resolved within one month in 90% of patients receiving antiparasitic pharmacotherapy, but in only 58% (P < .04) of those receiving no therapy. We conclude that children infected with Blastocystis often experience gastrointestinal symptoms and that treatment increases the rate of symptomatic improvement. We speculate that Blastocystis is a human pathogen.

  7. Obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability: Prevalence and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sharon; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael

    Studies from a number of countries have indicated an increased risk of obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability. Whether risk factors for adults with intellectual disability apply to adolescents however is uncertain. This study examines obesity in a community sample of adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia, and investigates risk factors associated with obesity and overweight. A cross-sectional survey and medical record review on 261 adolescents with intellectual disability attending special education facilities in South-East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and September 2010 was conducted. Information on age, gender, weight, height, syndrome specific diagnoses, problematic behaviours, mobility, taking psychotropic or epileptic medication, and perceived household financial difficulties was collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and participants categorised as normal/underweight, overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Overall 22.5% (95% CI: 17.8-28.0%) of adolescents were obese, and 23.8% (95% CI: 19.0-29.4%) were overweight, a marked increase compared to Australian norms. Adolescents with Down syndrome were more likely to be obese than other participants (odds ratio=3.21; 95% CI: 1.41-7.30). No association was found with other risk factors examined. Prevalence of obesity and overweight were increased compared to general Australian adolescents. The only significant risk factor was the presence of Down syndrome. These findings reinforce the need for a health policy and practice response to obesity that is inclusive of individuals with intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care in six European countries. POPULATION: In total 6923 pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were...

  9. Epidemiology of autistic disorder in Bahrain: prevalence and obstetric and familial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M

    2013-09-01

    European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.

  10. Cutaneous wart-associated HPV types: prevalence and relation with patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, S.C.; de Koning, M.N.; Gussekloo, J.; Egberts, P.F.; Ter Schegget, J.; Feltkamp, M.C.; Bavinck, J.N.; Quint, W.G.V.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Eekhof, J.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on cutaneous wart-associated HPV types are rare. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous wart-associated HPV types and their relation with patient characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: Swabs were taken from all 744 warts of 246 consecutive immunocompetent

  11. Innocent Cardiac Murmur in Puppies : Prevalence, Correlation with Hematocrit, and Auscultation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of innocent cardiac murmurs in clinically healthy puppies, to investigate a possible correlation between the presence of an innocent murmur and hematocrit, and to describe the auscultation characteristics of innocent murmurs.

  12. Hypertrophy in port-wine stains: Prevalence and patient characteristics in a large patient cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Beek, Johan F.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Port-wine stains (PWS) may thicken and darken with age. Little is known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of PWS hypertrophy because of the lack of large studies. Objective: We sought to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with hypertrophic PWS. Methods: Medical

  13. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  14. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  15. [Beta-lactamic antibiotics allergy in cataract surgery. Prevalence and preoperative characteristics of allergic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rubio, M E; Cuesta-Rodríguez, T; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Cortés-Valdés, C

    2014-03-01

    To describe the proportion of patients allergic to β-lactam antibiotics and the prevalence of preoperative conjunctival bacteria among those undergoing cataract surgery in our area. Retrospective cross-sectional study of prevalence of β-lactam allergic patients consecutively scheduled for cataract surgery from 11 July 2005 to November 2012. For studying the prevalence of conjunctival bacteria and clinical characteristics in the patients' preoperative examination, those under 18 years and those with cataract surgery combined with other eye surgeries were excluded. Data from the first preoperative examination of the remaining patients were selected. Clinical data were extracted from the database generated in the evaluation made for anesthetic purposes, and the microbiological data from the laboratory database. Both bases were linked through a patient history code. A comparison was made between the prevalence of conjunctival bacteria and clinical characteristics in allergic and non-allergic patients. From 12,409 adults selected for the bacteriological study, 862 (6.96%) were allergic to β-lactams, their mean age (74.45 years) was higher than that of the non-allergic (P=.005). The proportion of women (71.4%) in the allergic patient group was much higher than that of men. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (especially Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), lung disease and heart failure, was higher in allergic patients. The prevalence of allergy to β-lactams in this study is within the range described in other populations. The higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and the predominance of women in those allergic to β-lactams are useful data to guide their surgical prophylaxis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (pigmentary keratopathy) in Pugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Dresser, Christine B; Hamor, Ralph E; Allender, Matthew C; Disney, Julia L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (CP) in Pugs. Prospective cross-sectional study. 295 Pugs > 16 weeks old. Ophthalmic examination of the anterior segment of each eye was performed, including determination of tear film characteristics (Schirmer tear test and tear film breakup time) and corneal sensitivity. Digital photographs of the head and each eye were obtained. Corneal pigmentation of eyes was graded as absent, very mild, mild, moderate, or severe. Signalment and medical history information and American Kennel Club registration status were recorded. Results-CP was detected in at least 1 eye of 243 of the 295 (82.4%) Pugs; CP was typically very mild or mild. Detection of CP was not significantly associated with coat color, age, eyelid conformation, or tear film characteristics but was significantly associated with sex of dogs. The severity of CP was not significantly associated with American Kennel Club registration status or age, but was significantly associated with sex, tear film characteristics, and coat color. Iris hypoplasia was detected in 72.1% of the Pugs. Iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes were detected in 85.3% of the Pugs. Prevalence of CP in Pugs in this study was high. Unexpectedly high prevalences of iris hypoplasia and persistent pupillary membranes were also identified. The condition identified in these Pugs was a pigmentary keratopathy, rather than pigmentary keratitis or corneal melanosis. This condition may have a genetic basis, and further studies are warranted to determine etiology.

  17. Diabetic Prevalence in Bangladesh: The Role of Some Associated Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Tasneem

    2012-12-01

    The study attempts at examining the association of a few selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics on diabetic prevalence. Nationally representative data from BIRDEM 2000 have been used to meet the objectives of the study. Cross tabulation, Chi-square and logistic regression analysis have been used to portray the necessary associations. Chi- square reveals significant relationship between diabetic prevalence and all the selected demographic and socio-economic variables except ìeducationî while logistic regression analysis shows no significant contribution of ìageî and ìeducationî in diabetic prevalence. It has to be noted that, this paper dealt with all the three types of diabetes- Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette use among adults in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamalludin Ab Rahman; Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed; Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff; Norny Syafinaz Ab Rahman; Samsul Draman; Mira Kartiwi; Balkish Mahadir; Tahir Aris

    2018-01-01

    Background E-cigarette (e-cig) use has become a worldwide phenomenon since 2010. This study aims to determine the prevalence of e-cig use, distribution and characteristics among Malaysian adults. Malaysia is a typical Asian country. The results of this study will provide evidence for policy makers to formulate appropriate measures towards regulation of e-cig in Malaysia and can become a reference for other similar countries. Methods Complex sampling design was...

  19. Can schools reduce bullying? The relationship between school characteristics and the prevalence of bullying behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence. Surveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed. This study drew on the following data sources: A pupil survey on bullying behaviours A survey of teachers on school policies and processes Analysis of data on school processes from school inspection reports Analysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics. Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data. Results show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying. The study provides support for the importance of schools' embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types, and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 year period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, P construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi squared P cases, subluxation/luxation in 10.7%, avulsion in 9%, root fracture in 3.8%, and concussion in 3.5%. Thirty-two subjects (28.6%, 133 teeth, OR=4.3, P < .001) presented at least 1 traumatized tooth with previous dental treatment. Among 212 (61.4%) traumatized teeth, 67.5% were upper incisors, 17.5% were lower incisors, 3.3% were upper canines, 1.9% were lower canines, and 9.9% were bicuspids and molars. Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence, and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender, and preexisting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of non-syndromic orofacial clefts and the influence of consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, N M; Sabbagh, H J; Innes, N P T; El Derwi, D; Hanno, A Z; Al-Aama, J Y; Habiballah, A H; Mossey, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and describe the characteristics of non-syndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFC) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and examine the influence of consanguinity. Six hospitals were selected to represent Jeddah's five municipal districts. New born infants with NSOFC born between 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2011 were clinically examined and their number compared to the total number of infants born in these hospitals to calculate the prevalence of NSOFC types and sub-phenotypes. Referred Infants were included for the purpose of studying NSOFC characteristics and their relationship to consanguinity. Information on NSOFC infants was gathered through parents' interviews, infants 'files and patient examinations. Prospective surveillance of births resulted in identifying 37 NSOFC infants born between 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2011 giving a birth prevalence of 0.80/1000 living births. The total infants seen, including referred cases, were 79 children. Consanguinity among parents of cleft palate (CP) cases was statistically higher than that among cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) patients (P = 0.039). Although there appears to be a trend in the relationship between consanguinity and severity of CL/P sub-phenotype, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.248). Birth prevalence of NSOFC in Jeddah City was 0.8/1000 live births with CL/P: 0.68/1000 and CP: 0.13/1000. Both figures were low compared to the global birth prevalence (NSOFC: 1.25/1000, CL/P: 0.94/1000 and CP: 0.31/1000 live births). Consanguineous parents were statistically higher among CP cases than among other NSOFC phenotypes.

  2. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle; Schei, Berit; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Tabor, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Routine antenatal care in six European countries. In total 6923 pregnant women. Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly between the countries. Characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare included a significantly higher prevalence of other forms of abuse, economic hardship and negative life events as well as a lack of social support, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. Among nulliparous women, abuse in healthcare was associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.12) for severe abuse in healthcare. For multiparous women only severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 4.04 (95% CI 2.08-7.83). Current severe suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with the wish for cesarean section, and counselling for fear of childbirth for both nulli- and multiparous women. Abuse in healthcare among women attending routine antenatal care is common and for women with severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare, this is associated with fear of childbirth and a wish for cesarean section. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Prevalence of food insecurity among food bank users in Germany and its association with population characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among food bank users in many European countries is unknown. The study aims to examine FI prevalence and associated population characteristics among this particular group of disadvantaged people in Germany. Food insecurity status was assessed among 1033 adult food bank users with a mean age of 53 years (57% female, 43% male) in Germany in 2015 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). About half of the participants (55.8%) were single with no children and born in Germany. Over 37% had a self-reported BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or above and 37.4% indicated to smoke. Over 70% of the food bank users can be described as food insecure. Of those, about 35% were considered mildly food insecure. Almost 30% were categorized as moderately food insecure while over 7% were categorized as severely food insecure. Significant associations with food insecurity were found for gender, age, subjective health status, smoking, duration of food bank use, school education and family type. Among this socially disadvantaged population, food insecurity is highly prevalent and public health efforts should be focusing on this vulnerable population taken into account the identified population and behavioral characteristics associated with food insecurity.

  4. Prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability in Mexican adolescent women and their populational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Allen-Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report prevalence of functioning difficulties and disabilities among Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old and identify differences in characteristics of those with and without a functioning difficulty or disability Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used chi square tests for independence and logistic regression to explore associations between this condition and various characteristics. Results. Of Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old, 11.1% had a functioning difficulty or disability. The group of domains of functioning difficulty and disability with by far the highest prevalence was socio-emotional and behavioral functioning difficulties or disability with 8.6%. Being employed, rural residence and self-reported depression symptoms were associated with having functioning difficulties or disability. Conclusions. This survey constitutes an important initial step in collecting data on functioning difficulty and disability in Mexico although larger samples should be studied.

  5. Prevalence of diagnostic characteristics indicating canine autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis in giant schnauzer and hovawart dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, K; Björnerfeldt, S; Karlsson, A; Andersson, G; Nachreiner, R; Hedhammar, A

    2009-04-01

    To investigate prevalence of autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAA) and/or elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), indicating canine autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and/or hypothyroidism, in two high-risk dog breeds. A cohort study was conducted in two birth cohorts of giant schnauzer and hovawart dogs. The cohorts were three to four and six to seven years of age at the time of blood sampling and screening for TgAA and TSH levels. Blood sampling was accompanied by one initial and one follow-up questionnaire to the dog owners. A total number of 236 giant schnauzers and 95 hovawarts were included in the study. Seventeen (7.2 per cent) giant schnauzers and three (3.2 per cent) hovawarts had been diagnosed as hypothyroid at the time of sampling. Out of the remaining dogs, 22 giant schnauzers (10.0 per cent) and nine hovawarts (10.1 per cent) had elevated TgAA and/or TSH levels. Prevalence of elevated TgAA and TSH levels varied with age. The high prevalence of diagnostic characteristics indicating CLT/hypothyroidism in these two breeds suggests a strong genetic predisposition. It would be advisable to screen potential breeding stock for TSH and TgAA as a basis for genetic health programmes to reduce prevalence of CLT in these breeds.

  6. Occlusal characteristics and prevalence of associated dental anomalies in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochib, Seema; Indushekar, K R; Saraf, Bhavna Gupta; Sheoran, Neha; Sardana, Divesh

    2015-06-01

    Morphological variations in primary dentition are of great concern to a pediatric dentist as it may pose clinical problems like dental caries, delayed exfoliation and also anomalies in the permanent dentition, such as impaction of successors, supernumerary teeth, permanent double teeth or aplasia of teeth. The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition of 1000 schoolchildren in the 3-5 year-old age group in Faridabad. One-thousand schoolchildren were examined using Type III examination (WHO, 1997) for primary molar relationship, occlusal characteristics, primate spaces, physiological spaces and other anomalies of teeth, including number and morphology. The prevalence of physiological spaces in maxillary and mandibular arches was 50.9% and 46.7%, respectively, whereas primate spaces were found in 61.7% of the children in the maxillary arch and 27.9% in the mandibular arch. The prevalence of unilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite was 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively, in the present study. The prevalence of hypodontia in the primary dentition was found to be 0.4% and the prevalence of fusion and gemination in the present study was 0.5%. Double teeth (fusion and gemination) and hypodontia were the most common dental anomalies found in the primary dentition in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The prevalence and characteristics of homelessness in the NSW substance treatment population: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julaine; Kemp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness episodes in Australian substance misuse treatment. A dataset containing all closed substance treatment episodes in NSW, Australia from July 2006 to June 2011 was used. Statistical analysis was used to determine any relationships between demographic and treatment variables and homelessness. Of the 213, 129 treatment episodes in the dataset 12.8% have some form of homelessness. Non-government and residential services have the highest prevalence of homelessness. Sex, age, and drug type have weak relationships with homelessness. Leaving against the advice of the treatment provider is more common in episodes where homelessness is a factor. Homelessness is a problem experienced by a significant proportion of the substance treatment population and treatment providers have an opportunity and an obligation to address it in their treatment delivery.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of endometrial polyps in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of endometrial polyps (EPs in the general female population is about 24%. Abnormal uterine bleeding is frequently the presenting symptom of EPs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of EPs in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods. The prevalence and characteristics of EPs were investigated in 961 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding who underwent dilatation and curettage between January and December 2006. Regarding histopathological features of EPs (presence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma, patients were divided into two groups: group A - patients who had EPs and EPs with hyperplasia without atypia (n = 204 and group B - patients who had EPs with atypical hyperplasia and EPs with carcinoma (n = 7. Results. In 211 (21.94% patients EPs were found with abnormal uterine bleeding. Histopathologically, there were 175 (82.94% EPs, 29 (13.74% EPs with hyperplasia without atypia, 5 (2.37% EPs with atypical hyperplasia, and 2 (0.95% EPs with endometrial carcinoma. Contrary to the patients with EPs and EPs with hyperplasia without atypia (group A, patients who had EPs with atypical hyperplasia and EPs with carcinoma (group B were older (p < 0.05, and more commonly postmenopausal (p < 0.05 and with hypertension (p < 0.05, all of statistical significance. Conclusion. The prevalence of endometrial polyps in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding according to our data was 21.95%. Atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma were rarely confined to a polyp. Older age, postmenopausal period and hypertension may increase the risk of premalignant and malignant changes in endometrial polyps.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuk Jennifer L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS among Canadian women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression. Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment. Methods An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model. Results The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS. Conclusions A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers.

  10. [Prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis in the health district of the Marina Alta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallego, A; Morera-Guitart, J

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis (EM) in the Marina Alta health district. A descriptive, retrospective study localizing cases (crossed register method). Day of prevalence: 1/05/01. Registers of the area analyzed: hospital admission, Neurology Clinic, Emergency Department of the hospital and Health Centres. The criteria of Poser were used for diagnosis. We analyzed the demographic, clinical and paraclinical aspects of the episodes and treatment (interferon-beta). Male/female ratio: 2.4. Average age: 46.6 years. Prevalence of definite EM: 40.3/100,000. Prevalence of autochthonous cases of EM: 28.7/100,000. Average age at onset: 32.6 years. Average duration of illness: 12.5 years. Commonest clinical form: remitting relapsing (48.1%), followed by progressive relapsing (7%), benign (5.5%) and primary progressive (1.8%). 5.5% died, all with the progressive secondary form. EDSS disability: greater in the progressive secondary form. Magnetic resonance (MR) was the commonest investigation used (84% of the results in concordance and 13% normal). Positive BOC in 70% of cases. We studied 202 episodes. The systems most affected were: sensory and pyramidal. Worsening of EDSS after recovery from the episode: 51.7%. 29% received interferon-beta, with five cases (31%) of major side effects (one psychotic outbursts, three with neutropenia and one generalized allergic reaction). In the Marina Alta the prevalence of EM adjusted for the autochthonous population is in the medium risk zone. The clinical features and course of the disease in our patients are similar to those seen in other national and foreign series. The most worthwhile tests were cranial MR and BOC CSF. Treatment with interferon-beta requires strict control in view of the high frequency of serious side effects seen.

  11. The prevalence and specific characteristics of hospitalised pressure ulcer patients: A multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Ting; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Ruifen; Tian, Suping; Yang, Chaoxia; Gan, Huaxiu; Zhu, Yanying; Liang, Xia; Wang, Ling; Wu, Zhenhua; Huang, Jinping; Hu, Ailing

    2018-02-01

    To ascertain the pressure ulcer prevalence in secondary and tertiary general hospitals in different areas of Guangdong Province in China and explore the possible risk factors that are related to pressure ulcers. Few multicentre studies have been conducted on pressure ulcer prevalence in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data from a total of 25,264 patients were included in the analysis at 25 hospitals in China. The investigators were divided into two groups. The investigators in group 1 examined the patients' skin. When a pressure ulcer was found, a pressure ulcer assessment form was completed. The investigators in group 2 provided guidance to the nurses, who assessed all patients and completed another questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the possible risk factors and pressure ulcer. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in the 25 hospitals ranged from 0%-3.49%, with a mean of 1.26%. The most common stage of the pressure ulcers was stage II (41.4%); most common anatomical locations were sacrum (39.5%) and the feet (16.4%). Braden score (p pressure ulcers from the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in Chinese hospitals was lower than that reported in previous investigations. Specific characteristics of pressure ulcer patients were as follows: low Braden score, longer expected length of stay, double incontinence, an ICU and a medical ward, hospital location in the Pearl River Delta, a university hospital and an older patient. The survey could make managers know their prevalence level of pressure ulcers and provide priorities for clinical nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

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    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  13. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  14. HIV prevalence and characteristics of sex work among female sex workers in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Testa, Adrienne; Osman, Mohamed; Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Malungu, Jacqueline; Irving, Greg; Abdalla, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    To measure prevalence of HIV and syphilis and describe characteristics of sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. A cross-sectional survey recruited 237 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A face-to-face, structured interview using handheld-assisted personal interviewing (HAPI) on personal digital assistants (PDAs) was completed and blood collected for serological testing. FSWs 15-19 years old accounted for 6.9% of the population; 20-24 year-old constituted an additional 18.0%. The majority (86.6%) never attended school. International (59.0%) and interzonal (10.7%) migration was common. Most (95.7%) reported no other source of income; 13.8% had five or more clients in the last 7 days. A minority (38.4%) had heard of STIs, even fewer (6.9%) held no misconceptions about HIV. Only 24% of FSW reported using a condom at last transactional sex, and 4% reported ever been tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 5.2% and syphilis prevalence was 3.1%. Sex work in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia, is characterized by high numbers of sexual acts and extremely low knowledge of HIV. This study illustrates the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions focusing on HIV testing, risk-reduction awareness raising, and review of condom availability and distribution mechanisms among FSWs and males engaging with FSWs.

  15. Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, L J; Robbins, J M

    1991-11-01

    Three definitions of somatization were operationalized: (a) high levels of functional somatic distress, measured by the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI) of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; (b) hypochondriasis measured by high scores on a measure of illness worry in the absence of evidence for serious illness; and (c) exclusively somatic clinical presentations among patients with current major depression or anxiety. Of 685 patients attending two family medicine clinics, 26.3% met criteria for one or more forms of somatization. While DSM-III somatization disorder had a prevalence of only 1% in this population, 16.6% of the patients met abridged criteria for subsyndromal somatization disorder (SSI 4,6). Hypochondriacal worry had a prevalence of 7.7% in the clinic sample. Somatized presentations of current major depression or anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 8%. The three forms of somatization were associated with different sociodemographic and illness behavior characteristics. A majority of patients met criteria for only one type of somatization, suggesting that distinct pathogenic processes may be involved in each of the three types.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  17. [Prevalence and characteristics of acute coronary syndromes in a sub-Saharan Africa population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guetta, R; Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Cho-Mottoh, M P; Angoran, I; Tano, M; Konin, C; Coulibaly, I; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Seka, R; Adoh, A M

    2016-04-01

    To assess prevalence, characteristics and management of acute coronary syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa population. Prospective survey from January, 2010 to December, 2013, carried out among patients aged 18 years old, admitted to intensive care unit of Abidjan Heart Institute for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Four hundred and twenty-five (425) patients were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of ACS was 13.5%. Mean age was 55.4±11 years. Clinical presentation was predominantly ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 71.5% of subjects, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) accounted for 28.5%. Two hundred and eighty patients (65.9%) were transferred by unsafe transportation. Among the 89 patients admitted within 12hours of the onset of symptoms, primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 20 patients (22.5%), or 6.6% of STEMI as a whole. Twenty-five patients (8.2%) received fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase. In-hospital death rate was 10%. The prevalence of acute coronary syndromes is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Excessive delays of admission and limited technical facilities are the major difficulties of their management in our regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Esaki, Hidetake; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Masahiko; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan. We collected bovine colostrum samples from 210 dams from 21 dairy farms in Hokkaido prefecture (Japan) between March and June 2009. L. monocytogenes was detected in samples from 6 (28.6%) of the 21 farms. Of the 210 samples, 16 (7.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. We recovered 80 L. monocytogenes isolates; 44 (55%) isolates were classified as serotype 1/2b and 36 (45%) were classified as serotype 4b. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the 80 isolates revealed six PFGE types. Two PFGE types corresponded to human listeriosis cases. Most L. monocytogenes isolates possessed virulence-associated genes (actA, hly, iap, inlA, inlC, mpl, plcA, plcB, opuCA, prfA, and clpC). One PFGE type isolate possessed an epidemic clone II marker. Our findings suggest that isolates from bovine colostrum have the potential to cause human and animal listeriosis. This is the first study on the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from bovine colostrum obtained from dairy farms. Our results have important implications for improving public health and elucidating the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in bovine colostrum.

  20. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in institutionalized children and adolescents with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; de Jong, Daniël; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2013-10-01

    Psychotropic drugs are a cornerstone in the treatment of psychopathology and/or behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability (ID), despite concerns about efficacy and safety. Studies on the prevalence of psychotropic drug use have mainly been focused on adults with ID or children without ID. Therefore the aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in children with mild ID who were institutionalized in specialized inpatient treatment facilities in The Netherlands. Demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, the nature of the behavioral problems, level of intellectual functioning, and medication data were extracted from medical records using a standardized data collection form. Adjusted relative risks (ARR) for the association between patient characteristics and psychotropic drug use were estimated with Cox regression analysis. Of the 472 included children, 29.4% (n=139) used any psychotropic drug, of which 15.3% (n=72) used antipsychotics (mainly risperidone), and 14.8% (n=70) used psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate). Age, sex, and behavioral problems were associated with psychotropic drug use. Boys had a 1.7 (95%CI 1.1-2.4) higher probability of using psychotropic drugs, compared to girls adjusted for age and behavioral problems. Having any behavioral problem was associated with psychotropic drug use with an ARR of 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.3), adjusted for sex and age. The high prevalence of psychotropic drug use in children with ID is worrisome because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness (especially for behavioral problems) at this young age, and the potential of adverse drug reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Myocardial Bridging in Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Martin Lopez, Elba; Capunay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Vallejos, Javier; Carrascosa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background: Myocardial bridging (MB) are congenital defects of the coronary arteries in which a segment of an epicardial artery lies in the myocardium for part of its course. The current gold standard for diagnosing MB is coronary angiography; however other invasive techniques are also useful. Myocardial bridging can also be visualized with the use of novel non-invasive imaging techniques such as multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of myocardial bridging in patients undergoing multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Material and Methods: A total of 452 consecutive patients were evaluated with 16-row and 64-row MDCT-CA due to the presence of abnormal findings in myocardial perfusion image tests, symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease, and in asymptomatic patients with a family history of coronary artery disease. The presence of MB, their location and characteristics were analyzed. Myocardial bridging were classified as complete and incomplete bridges with respect to continuity of the myocardium over the tunneled segment of the artery involved. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameter during systole and diastole were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MB was 35.18%; 88 were complete and 71 incomplete. Among complete MB, 6 affected both systole and diastole, 27 presented only systolic compression and 55 showed no compression. Incomplete MB showed absence of arterial compression. Conclusions: Multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography detected a higher prevalence of MB in the study population and allowed to classify them and to assess their functional aspects throughout the cardiac cycle. (authors) [es

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of migraine in medical students and its impact on their daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significant impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine headaches in medical students, to measure its impact on their life, and to assess their knowledge about the ailment. Information about lifestyle variables was also collected. Materials and Methods: All medical students who confirmed of having headache for more than 1 year formed the study group. Students filled a detailed questionnaire focusing on demographics, pain characteristics, accompanying factors, triggers, and family history of migraine. Lifestyle variables were enquired and migraine associated disability was assessed by MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment. The diagnosis of migraine was made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results are expressed in n = numbers and percentage. Results: Sixty-eight percent of medical students had headache. The prevalence of migraine in the whole cohort was 28%; however, of the headache group, migraine constituted 42%. There was a female preponderance. One-fourth of the students had weekly or daily attacks with 31% students reporting increase in their headache intensity and frequency. Forty-four percent of students had severe headaches. Dizziness, allodynia, and neck stiffness were reported as accompanying symptoms. Trigger factors were identified in 99% students, predominant of which were poor sleep hygiene, environmental changes, head movements, and mental stress. Only 4% of students did regular exercise. Twenty-seven percent of students reported self-medication use of analgesics. One-fourth of the students had migraine-associated disability but only 6% realized that they had migraine. Conclusion: Our study found a high prevalence of headache with migraine in medical students. The students′ awareness of the disease was very low with one-fourth of the students resorting to self-medication. Our

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Iranian Orofacial Cleft Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Shabnam; Pakshir, Hamidreza; Samady, Hedyeh

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with oral clefts exhibit considerably more dental anomalies than individuals without clefts. These problems could initially be among the symptoms of their disease and/or they may be the side effect of their treatments. Pushback palatoplasty could cause some interference during the development of teeth and result in tooth defects. The study was performed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of developmental dental anomalies in orofacial cleft patients who attended Shiraz Orthodontics Research Center-Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic. We managed to compare dental anomaly traits based on gender and cleft side. Eighty out of 121 cleft patients were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients used pushback palatoplasty in their palate closure surgeries. Intraoral photographs, panoramic and intraoral radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and dental and medical histories were examined and recorded by two observers. Data were analyzed using SPSS PC version 20.0. The differences in the side of cleft and dental anomalies were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of patients was 14.27 years (SD=5.06). The most frequent cleft type was unilateral cleft lip and palate (50%) followed by bilateral cleft lip and palate (43.75%), cleft palate (2.5%) and cleft lip (1.25%). Male predominance (70%) was observed. 92.5 percent had at least one developmental dental anomaly. The most prevalent anomalies were hypodontia (71.25%) followed by microdontia (30%), root dilacerations (21.25%) and supernumerary teeth (15%). The most prevalent cleft types were unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate with male and left side predominance. Hypodontia, microdontia, dilacerations and supernumerary teeth were the most prevalent developmental dental anomalies among Iranian southwestern cleft patients. The surgical technique used to repair their cleft palate may have played a role in developmental dental defects.

  5. Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: prevalence of age-related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eCarfì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.

  6. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Probable REM Behavior Disorder in Thai Parkinson’s Disease Patients

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    Patama Gomutbutra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease (PD patients who have REM behavior disorder (PD with RBD might be a PD subtype since they have different symptom clusters and disease trajectories from PD without RBD. Objective. To study the prevalence of PD with pRBD and to compare the clinical characteristics with PD without pRBD. The feasibility of clinical interview of items adopted from the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire was also to be determined. Methods. A total of 140 Parkinson's patients visiting neurological clinics during January to December 2016 were enrolled in this study. “Probable RBD (pRBD” was defined as present when the patient answered “yes” to a question adapted from the first Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ. The demographic data, motor symptoms, and nonmotor symptoms were obtained. Results. The prevalence of pRBD among this study’s PD patients was 48.5% (68 out of the total of 140. The median onset of RBD before PD diagnosis was 5 years (range: 0–11 years. By comparison of PD with pRBD and PD without pRBD, this study showed significant difference in the levodopa equivalent dose (742 mg/day versus 566 mg/day; p<0.01, prevalence of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension (35.3% versus 8.3%; p<0.01. The multivariable analysis found that pRBD is independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OR = 5.02, p<0.01. Conclusion. The findings regarding prevalence and main clinical features of PD with pRBD in this study were similar to those of a previous study of PD with polysomnogram- (PSG- proven RBD. This study hypothesized that interviewing by adopted MSQ may be a cost-effective tool for screening RBD. Further studies with direct comparison are needed.

  7. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral bony outgrowth in a Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualalou, Y; Azaroual, M F; Zaoui, F; Chbicheb, S; Berrada, S

    2014-11-01

    Oral bony outgrowths (OBOs) are localized bony protuberances that arise from the cortical plate. Various types of OBOs have been described, the precise designation of which depends on anatomic location such as torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, buccal exostosis, or palatal exostosis. We had for aim to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of OBOs in a Moroccan population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 15 and June 30, 2011 at the Rabat-Salé teaching hospital dental consultation and treatment center, in Morocco. Three hundred and fifty-three patients (160 female and 193 male patients), 11 to 82 years of age, were examined clinically and radiologically to determine the presence of OBO. Twenty-four patients (6.8%) presented with OBOs. The prevalence for exostosis, torus mandibularis, torus palatinus, and associated OBOs was 3.1%, 2%, 0.8%, and 0.9% respectively. There was a significant difference (P=0,01) between the average age for patients presenting with OBO (43.2±12 years of age) and the average age for patients without any OBO (36.5±16 years of age). The prevalence of OBOs in female patients (7.3%) was higher than in male patients (6.3%) but the difference was not significant (P=0.439). Patients with occlusal parafunctional activity presented with significantly more OBO (P=0.016). The reported prevalence of OBO is extremely variable, according to age, gender, and ethnic group. The occurrence of OBO could be triggered by genetic factors associated with environmental factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dyslipidemia in rural areas of North China: prevalence, characteristics, and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nannan; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhang, Haiqing; Song, Yongfeng; Zhao, Meng; Ji, Jiadong; Liu, Lu; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2016-09-13

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing worldwide. As a common pathogenic risk factor, dyslipidemia played a great role in the incidence and progress of these diseases. We investigated to achieve accurate and up-to-date information on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associations with other lipid-related diseases in rural North China. Using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design, we conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study of 8528 rural participants aged over 18 years in Shandong Province. Prevalence and characteristics of dyslipidemia were demonstrated. The odds ratios between dyslipidemia types and lipid-related diseases were further analyzed by logistic regression. Among the overall population, 45.8 % suffered from dyslipidemia. The prevalence of lipid abnormality (including high and very high levels) was 18.6, 12.7, 9.8 and 12.7 % for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), respectively. Among all participants with dyslipidemia, 23.9 % were aware, only 11.5 % were treated, 10.0 % were controlled. For subjects with dyslipidemia, the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was highest with a 3.3-fold over that of non-dyslipidmia (OR = 3.30, P Dyslipidemia has become a serious public health issue in rural North China. The rapid increase of high TC and incremental risk of high TG may contribute to the epidemic of AS, NAFLD and DM. It is imperative to develop individualized prevention and treatment guidelines according to dyslipidemia phenotypes.

  9. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  10. Domestic violence in pregnancy: prevalence and characteristics of the pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fátima Susana Jesus; Coutinho, Emília Carvalho; Duarte, João Carvalho; Chaves, Cláudia Margarida Balula; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Amaral, Odete Pereira; Parreira, Vitória Castro

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of domestic violence (physical, psychological or sexual) during pregnancy and to characterise these women. Pregnant women are not immune to domestic violence and therefore may be subject to any form of physical, psychological or sexual violence by partners. Health professionals' knowledge and awareness are important in the identification and intervention of pregnant women who experience domestic violence. Quantitative, descriptive, correlational study, using a nonprobabilistic convenience sample consisting of a total of 852 postpartum women, of whom 370 were experiencing domestic violence according to the criteria adopted through the modified scale of prevalence, applied between February-June 2012 in two Portuguese public health institutions. Authorisation was given by the Ethics Committees/Administration Councils of both institutions involved and the National Committee of Data Protection. The prevalence of DV during pregnancy was 43·4% (physical violence - 21·9%; psychological violence - 43·2%; and sexual violence - 19·6%). These women had the following profile: immigrant (OR = 5·70; IC95% 3·32-9·78), non-Caucasian (OR = 6·27; IC95% 3·76-10·46), single/divorced/widowed (OR = 2·28; IC95% 1·70-3·05), academic qualifications up to year 9 (OR = 4·94; IC95% 3·31-7·37); between 10-12 years of schooling (OR = 2·36; IC95% 1·70-3·29); unemployed (OR = 2·01; IC95% 1·50-2·69); and with a monthly income domestic violence. This is associated with certain sociodemographic factors identified in the study. Psychological violence was the most prevalent during pregnancy. Knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of pregnant women who experience domestic violence is of paramount importance in planning appropriate strategies for their needs during pregnancy. Results indicate the need for nurses to intervene when warning signs of domestic violence against pregnant women are detected. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of peripheral retinal degeneration in Chinese adults with high myopia: a cross-sectional prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis S C; Fan, Dorothy S P; Chan, Wai-Man; Tam, Barbara S M; Kwok, Alvin K H; Leung, Alfred T S; Parsons, Hugh

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of peripheral retinal findings in adult Chinese patients with high myopia (refraction degeneration (51.2%), followed by lattice degeneration in 12.2% and retinal holes in 7.5% of eyes. A positive correlation was noted between axial length and the lesions of pigmentary degeneration and pavingstone degeneration. The prevalence of retinal holes was 6.4% and 30.0% in eyes with axial length of or = 30 mm, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.006). A high prevalence of peripheral retinal degenerations was found in adult Chinese high myopes. The presence of retinal holes was positively correlated with very high myopia of an axial length of > or = 30 mm.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming, E-mail: moyercheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No. 901, Chung Hwa Road, Yong-Kang, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pau-Yang, E-mail: pausheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Kuo-Hsien, E-mail: moyer20361@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsin-Wen, E-mail: hwhuang660@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mennonite Christian Hospital, 44 Min-chuan Road, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chau-Chin, E-mail: moyermiming@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming; Chang, Pau-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Wen; Lee, Chau-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  15. DSM-5 Gambling Disorder: Prevalence and Characteristics in a Substance Use Disorder Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Lior; Denis, Cécile; Peer, Kyle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) replaced the DSM-IV diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) with Gambling Disorder (GD). GD requires four rather than five criteria for the diagnosis and excludes the “Illegal Acts” criterion. We examined the prevalence of GD and its characteristics and validity in a substance use disorder (SUD) sample. Methods Participants (N=6,613) in genetic studies of substance dependence underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Individuals who reported ever having gambled $10 at least monthly (n = 1,507) were the focus of the analyses. Results Approximately one-third of acknowledged gamblers (n = 563; 8.5% of the total sample) received both PG (DSM-IV) and GD (DSM-5) diagnoses and 678 (10.3% of the total) received a DSM-5 diagnosis, representing an increase of 20.4% relative to DSM-IV. Although the three groups were comparable demographically, the DSM-5-Only group was intermediate between the other two groups on the prevalence of comorbid substance use disorders, the distribution of DSM-IV PG criteria endorsed, and the types of gambling reported. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that the DSM-5-Only group was more likely than the No-Diagnosis group and less likely than the Both-Diagnoses group to acknowledge a gambling problem. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of PG in this SUD sample. Analysis of non-DSM variables suggested that the increased sensitivity of the DSM-5 GD diagnosis successfully identifies a broader set of individuals with clinically significant gambling-related problems. Prospective studies of individuals with GD are needed to validate this finding. PMID:24490711

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  17. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of tori and jaw exostoses in a teaching hospital in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawair, Faleh A; Shayyab, Mohammad H; Al-Rababah, Mohammad A; Saku, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral bony outgrowths (OBOs); torus palatinus (TP), torus mandibularis (TM), and exostoses in Jordanian dental patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 1 and December 31, 2008 at the University of Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Clinical examinations of 618 patients (354 men and 264 women), 10-82 years of age, were conducted to determine the presence of OBOs. There were 239 subjects (38.7%) who had OBOs. Nearly one-third (34.6%) had TP, TM, or both. The prevalence rates were 25.7% for TM, 15.4% for TP, and 14.4% for exostoses. The OBOs were mostly noted in patients in their fifth decade of life, with attrition, clenching, or bruxism. Women had more TP, but gender differences were not statistically significant in cases of TM and exostoses. Most TP were large in size (71.6%), spindle (41.1%), or flat (40%) in shape, and located at the premolar-molar region (45.3%). The TM were mostly medium to large in size (84.9%), bilateral (81.1%), composed of single node (69.2%), and located at the premolar region (65.4%). Of the studied subjects, 7.1% had mandibular buccal exostosis, 10% had maxillary buccal, and 2.4% had palatal exostoses. Statistically significant associations were noticed between the concurrent existence of OBOs. A relatively high prevalence of OBOs was noted, and this should be taken into consideration when planning periodontal surgery and prosthodontic treatment.

  18. Major Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Their Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn

    2016-09-01

    To identify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and correlations of major chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) among the adult population living in Chiang Mai. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in municipal areas of Chiang Mai. All clinical relevant data collected by face-to-face interview was confirmed by pulmonologists. The chest radiographic findings and post-bronchodilator spirometry were done in all subjects. The aeroallergen skin test and rhinoscopy were performed in all chronic rhinitis and asthma subjects. Five hundred seventy four subjects with mean age 52.9±10.0 years, 59.6% female, and 37.5% smokers were recruited. The prevalence of overall CRDs was 59.2%. Chronic rhinitis was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease (n = 239, 41.6%), followed by asthma (n = 58, 10.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 21, 3.7%). The most common abnormal pulmonary function test was restrictive lung disorders (n = 53, 9.6%). Asthma subjects were determined to be more allergic than chronic rhinitis subjects (58.1% vs. 39.9%, p-value = 0.033). Regarding the disease severity, 14.9% of chronic rhinitis and 10.3% of asthma subjects were classified as moderate to severe degree, whereas 81% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects were classified as moderate to very severe degrees. In asthma patients, there were positive association with chronic rhinitis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.0, p-value Chiang Mai population was significantly high with overlapped respiratory symptoms and varying disease severity. Additionally, chronic rhinitis had correlation with asthma but not with COPD.

  19. [Prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; González-Galilea, Ángel; Gisbert, Javier P; Cucala, Mercedes; Ponce, Julio

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases. An epidemiological, multicenter, mixed design study (retrospective review of randomized clinical records and prospective visits) conducted between February 2010 and March 2011 in 22 Spanish gastroenterology departments. Severe anemia was defined as Hb iron deficiency as ferritin anemia at admission was 60% (95% CI 55 to 65), and anemia was severe (Hb iron deficiency was 54% of evaluable patients (95% CI 47 to 61). Gastrointestinal bleeding at admission was found in 39% of the patients, of whom 83% (121/146) were anemic. At discharge, the proportion of anemic patients was unchanged (from 60% at admission to 58% at discharge) (95% CI 53 to 63) and iron deficiency was found in 41% (95% CI 32 to 50): anemia was severe in 17% and mild/moderate in 41%. During follow-up, at 3-6 months after admission, 44% (95% CI 39 to 50) of evaluable patients continued to have iron deficiency and 28% (95% CI 23 to 32) were still anemic: 5% severe and 23% mild/moderate. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 44% (95% CI: 39-50). During admission, 50% of patients with anemia did not receive treatment. At discharge, 55% were untreated. The prevalence of anemia in patients hospitalized for gastroenterological diseases was very high. Anemia persisted in over a quarter of patients at the follow-up visit. Only half of hospitalized patients received treatment for anemia, even when the anemia was severe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in an adult inpatient setting†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Michelle; Menard, William; Fleming-Ives, Kathryn; Modha, Poonam; Cerullo, Hilary; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, is an often-severe, understudied disorder. We determined BDD’s prevalence and clinical features on a general adult psychiatric inpatient unit. To our knowledge, only one previous prevalence study has been done in this setting. Method One hundred patients completed 3 self-report measures: the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDD-Q), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who screened positive for BDD were interviewed to confirm DSM-IV BDD and its clinical features. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. Results BDD was diagnosed in 16.0% (95% CI=8.7–23.3%) (n=16) of patients. A high proportion of those with BDD reported that BDD symptoms contributed to suicidality. Patients revealed BDD symptoms to a mean of only 15.1%±33.7% lifetime mental health clinicians; only one (6.3%) reported symptoms to his current inpatient psychiatrist. Most did not disclose their symptoms due to embarrassment. Those with BDD were younger (P=.008) and had higher CES-D scores (P=.008). The two groups did not significantly differ on BAI score, demographic characteristics or discharge diagnoses. Conclusions BDD is relatively common but underdiagnosed in psychiatric inpatients and is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. PMID:18164943

  1. Associated tuberculosis and diabetes in Conakry, Guinea: prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, N M; Camara, A; Camara, L M; Diallo, M M; Kaké, A; Bah-Sow, O Y

    2006-09-01

    Anti-tuberculosis centres in Conakry. To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with tuberculosis (TB), identify the associated risk factors and describe the clinical signs of the association of TB and diabetes. A total of 388 patients with TB selected by simple random sampling from the register of cases diagnosed in Conakry were examined and administered a capillary blood glycaemia test to detect diabetes. Thirteen cases of diabetes were identified, giving a prevalence rate of 3.35% (95%CI 1.35-5.35). Four (31%) had not been diagnosed before the survey. The diagnosis of diabetes preceded that of TB by an average of 5 years (range 1-9 years). The clinical characteristics of TB (frequent exposure to infection, site and proportion of new and retreated cases) did not differ from one group to another. Increased age (P Guinea. Because of frequent co-morbidity, systematic testing for diabetes among TB patients may be recommended, particularly if risk factors are present.

  2. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of acid gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Jackhammer oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Anne-Laure; Ropert, Alain; Bouguen, Guillaume; Siproudhis, Laurent; Boutroux, Dominique; Bretagne, Jean-François; Brochard, Charlène

    2016-10-01

    An association between acid gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Jackhammer oesophagus has been suggested. To assess the prevalence and characteristics of acid-GERD in Jackhammer oesophagus and the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors. Data and outcomes of patients with Jackhammer oesophagus were assessed. Two groups were compared: (i) GERD, defined by endoscopic oesophagitis or by an increase in acid exposure time or by an acid-hypersensitive oesophagus and (ii) non-GERD defined by normal oesophageal acid exposure without acid-hypersensitive oesophagus. Among the 1994 high-resolution manometries performed, 44 Jackhammer oesophagus (2.2%) were included (sex ratio M/F: 19/25; median age: 66 [61-75] years). Nineteen patients (43.2%) had GERD, 16 (36.4%) had no GERD and 9 patients (20.4%) were undetermined. Dysphagia was the predominant symptom (37/43 (86%)). After a median follow-up of 25.3 months [9.6-31.4], dysphagia was improved in 22/36 (61.1%) patients. Dysphagia improvement as well as other symptoms improvement was not associated with GERD status or proton-pump inhibitors use. The prevalence of GERD is high among patients with Jackhammer oesophagus. The rates of symptom improvement in Jackhammer oesophagus were high regardless of the use of proton-pump inhibitors treatment or of the presence of GERD. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aiding troubled employees: the prevalence, cost, and characteristics of employee assistance programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, T D; Steele, P; French, M T; Potter, F J; Rodman, N F; Zarkin, G A

    1996-06-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are job-based programs designed to identify and assist troubled employees. This study determines the prevalence, cost, and characteristics of these programs in the United States by worksite size, industry, and census region. A stratified national probability sample of more than 6400 private, nonagricultural US worksites with 50 or more full-time employees was contacted with a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. More than 3200 worksites responded and were eligible, with a response rate of 90%. Approximately 33% of all private, nonagricultural worksites with 50 or more full-time employees currently offer EAP services to their employees, an 8.9% increase over 1985. These programs are more likely to be found in larger worksites and in the communications/utilities/transportation industries. The most popular model is an external provider, and the median annual cost per eligible employee for internal and external programs was $21.83 and $18.09, respectively. EAPs are becoming a more prevalent point of access to health care for workers with personal problems such as substance abuse, family problems, or emotional distress.

  5. Anterior mediastinal masses in the Framingham Heart Study: Prevalence and CT image characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and CT image characteristics of anterior mediastinal masses in a population-based cohort and their association with the demographics of the participants. Chest CT scans of 2571 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51% female) were evaluated by two board-certified radiologists with expertise in thoracic imaging for the presence of anterior mediastinal masses, their shape, contour, location, invasion of adjacent structures, fat content, and calcification. For participants with anterior mediastinal masses, a previous cardiac CT scan was reviewed for interval size change of the masses, when available. The demographics of the participants were studied for any association with the presence of anterior mediastinal masses. Of 2571, 23 participants (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.3) had anterior mediastinal masses on CT. The most common CT characteristics were oval shape, lobular contour, and midline location, showing soft tissue density (median 32.1 HU). Fat content was detected in a few cases (9%, 2/23). Six out of eight masses with available prior cardiac CT scans demonstrated an interval growth over a median period of 6.5 years. No risk factors for anterior mediastinal masses were detected among participants’ demographics, including age, sex, BMI, and cigarette smoking. The prevalence of anterior mediastinal masses is 0.9% in the Framingham Heart Study. Those masses may increase in size when observed over 5–7 years. Investigation of clinical significance in incidentally found anterior mediastinal masses with a longer period of follow-up would be necessary

  6. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  7. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Monika Dybdahl; Braaten, Tonje; Obstfelder, Aud; Abelsen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH), the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005. The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0). Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97). The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70). Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37) than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56). The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93. We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, Jory; Rochat, Lucien; Romo, Lucia; Van der Linden, Martial; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Maurage, Pierre; Rothen, Stéphane; Billieux, Joël

    2015-06-01

    While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience. Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors. The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors.

  9. Prevalence and Toxin Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Organic Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Choi, Ok-Kyung; Kwon, Sun-Mok; Cho, Seung-Hak; Park, Byung-Jae; Jin, Na Young; Yu, Yong Man; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2017-08-28

    The prevalence and toxin characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from 39 organic vegetables were investigated. B. thuringiensis was detected in 30 out of the 39 organic vegetables (76.9%) with a mean value of 2.60 log CFU/g. Twenty-five out of the 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (83.3%) showed insecticidal toxicity against Spodoptera exigua . The hblCDA, nheABC , and entFM genes were found to be the major toxin genes, but the ces gene was not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis isolates. The hemolysin BL enterotoxin was detected in all 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (100%). The non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex was found in 27 out of 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (90.0%). The B. thuringiensis tested in this study had similar toxin gene characteristics to B. cereus , which possessed more than one toxin gene. B. thuringiensis could have the potential risk of foodborne illness based on the toxin genes and toxin-producing ability.

  10. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar; Sapna Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged...

  11. Cervicofacial tissue infarction in patients with acute invasive fungal sinusitis: prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Hanbee; Choi, Jin Wook; Cha, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Sung Tae

    2013-03-01

    Tissue infarction is known as one of the characteristic features of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings of cervicofacial tissue infarction (CFTI) associated with acute IFS. We retrospectively reviewed MR images in 23 patients with histologically or microbiologically proven acute IFS. CFTI was defined as an area of lack of enhancement in and around the sinonasal tract on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. We divided CFTI into two groups, i.e., intrasinonasal and extrasinonasal. Particular attention was paid to the location of extrasinonasal CFTI and the signal intensity of CFTI on T1- and T2-weighted images. The presence of bone destruction on CT scans was also recorded. CFTI was found in 17 (74%) of 23 patients. All of these 17 patients had intrasinonasal CFTI, and 13 patients also had extrasinonasal CFTI. All 13 patients with extrasinonasal CFTI died of disease directly related to IFS. Various locations were involved in the 13 patients with extrasinonasal CFTI, including the orbit (n = 8), infratemporal fossa (n = 7), intracranial cavity (n = 3), and oral cavity and/or facial soft tissue (n = 4). Various signal intensities were noted at the area of CFTI on T1- and T2-weighted images. Bone destruction was found on CT scans in only 3 of 17 patients with CFTI. CFTI with preservation of the bony wall of the involved sinonasal tract may be a characteristic MR imaging finding of acute IFS. The mortality is very high once the lesion extends beyond the sinonasal tract.

  12. The prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in urban minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Black, Sarah; Wang, Julie

    2012-12-01

    Urban minority children are known to have high rates of asthma and allergic rhinitis, but little is known about food allergy in this population. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in an urban pediatric population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records from children seen in the hospital-based general pediatric clinic at Mount Sinai Hospital serving East Harlem, NY, between July 1, 2008 and July 1, 2010 was performed. Charts for review were selected based on diagnosis codes for food allergy, anaphylaxis, or epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions. Of 9,184 children seen in this low-income, minority clinic, 3.4% (313) had a physician-documented food allergy. The most common food allergies were peanut (1.6%), shellfish (1.1%), and tree nuts (0.8%). Significantly more black children (4.7%) were affected than children of other races (2.7%, P food-allergic children, asthma (50%), atopic dermatitis (52%), and allergic rhinitis (49%) were common. Fewer than half had confirmatory testing or evaluation by an allergy specialist, and although most had epinephrine autoinjectors prescribed, most were not prescribed food allergy action plans. This is the largest study of food allergy prevalence in an urban minority pediatric population, and 3.4% had physician-documented food allergy. Significantly more blacks were affected than children of other races. Fewer than half of food-allergic children in this population had confirmatory testing or evaluation by an allergy specialist. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  14. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae From Five Hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Jae Seok; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min Jeong; Shin, Saeam; Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Seung Soon; Song, Wonkeun

    2016-11-01

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed. Production of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase was determined by genotypic tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by using an Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing and oxacillinase (OXA)-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 393 isolates tested, 79 (20.1%) were CPE. Of these 79 isolates, 47 (59.5%) harbored the bla(OXA-232) gene while the remaining isolates carried genes bla(KPC-2) (n=27), bla(IMP-1) (n=4), and bla(NDM-1) (n=1). Among the 24 KPC-2 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital B, 100% were resistant to carbapenems, 8% to colistin, and 0% to tigecycline. Among the 45 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae at hospital C, 95% were resistant to ertapenem, 68% to imipenem, 95% to meropenem, 10% to colistin, and 24% to tigecycline. PFGE analysis revealed a unique pattern for KPC-2 K. pneumoniae and identified 30 isolates belonging to the dominant pulsotypes (PT)1 and PT2 among 41 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae isolates. CPE strains are present in Korea, with the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-232 and KPC-2. The prevalence and predominant genotypes of CPE show hospital-specific differences.

  15. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: prevalence and specific clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Almudena; González Garcia, M Elena; San José-Valiente, Belén; Bajo Rubio, M Auxiliadora; Celadilla Diez, Olga; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Selgas, Rafael

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66.1±16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio. The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084-1.457, p=0.002), percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893-0.983, p=0.008), total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999, p=0.001) and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992-0.998). Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of problem drinking and characteristics of a single-question screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Scott H; Borg, Keith T; Miller, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders (i.e, abuse and dependence) are common in Emergency Departments (EDs). This study examined 1) the prevalence of these conditions among ED patients and 2) characteristics of a single screening question (having consumed at least five drinks for males or four for females during a single day). Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed. Logistic regression for clustered data was used to estimate the relative risk for past-year ED use associated with hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence. Contingency tables were analyzed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the single-question screen for detecting these conditions. Hazardous drinking was not associated with ED utilization. Alcohol abuse was associated with a relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and alcohol dependence with a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2). For current drinkers, the single question screen was 0.96, 0.85, and 0.90 sensitive for hazardous drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence, respectively. Individuals with a positive screen in the past year were considered at least hazardous drinkers, and specificity was 0.80, 0.64, and 0.65 for hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence, respectively. Specificity was modestly increased in women. Most problem drinkers were hazardous drinkers, but only severe alcohol use disorders were particularly prevalent in the ED. The single heavy-drinking-day item appears sensitive for problem drinking. Positive tests must be followed by additional assessment to differentiate hazardous drinking from alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of intended adolescent pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian maternity experiences survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekharan, Vineeth S; Kim, Theresa H M; Oulman, Elizaveta; Tamim, Hala

    2015-11-05

    There is limited research focusing on adolescent women who intended to become pregnant, as majority of research examines unintended adolescent pregnancies. The objective was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of Canadian adolescent women who intended to become pregnant. The analysis was based on the national 2006 Maternity Experiences Survey consisting of women who had a singleton live birth. The sample was restricted to adolescent women between 15 to 19 years of age. The main outcome of this study was the adolescent woman's pregnancy intention. A variety of sociodemographic, maternal, and pregnancy related factors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were reported for all variables. The sample size was 290, weighted to represent 2224 adolescent women. Based on the adjusted model, the odds of experiencing an intended pregnancy were increased if the adolescent woman was between 18-19 years old (OR 2.62, 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57), had a partner (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.99), experienced no violence/abuse (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 1.38, 6.86), and consumed no alcohol before pregnancy (OR 3.17, 95 % CI 1.56, 6.45). Additionally, adolescent women who reported drug use prior to pregnancy were more likely to have an intended pregnancy (OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.95). The findings from this study can be used as the basis for future research to investigate the characteristics and needs represented by this group of adolescents and to aid in the development of effective policies and programs.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of vibrator use among women who have sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Reece, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Research suggests that vibrator use may be more prevalent among lesbian/bisexual-identified women. However, previous research has been limited by small samples of lesbian- and bisexual-identified women and has not focused specifically on the characteristics of vibrator use between women. The present study was designed in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of women's use of vibrators with their female sexual partners and to understand the extent to which vibrator use is related to their sexual experiences. Data were collected via a cross-sectional web-based survey from 2,192 women living in the United States and the United Kingdom. All participants reported engaging in sexual behavior with only women in the previous year. Sociodemographic characteristics, vibrator use history, vibrator use perceptions, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Over three-quarters of women in the sample reported a history of vibrator use during solo masturbation/with a female partner and over a quarter of the sample reported use in the previous month. Participants who were older, white, and in a long-term relationship were the most likely to use a vibrator with a female partner in the previous year. Vibrator use lifetime history was unrelated to all FSFI subscales with the exception of pain for lesbian and queer-identified women. In contrast to lifetime use, participants who used a vibrator with a female sexual partner in the previous month scored higher on several of the FSFI domains than women who reported no vibrator use or vibrator use only during solo masturbation in the past month. Vibrator use was common among this sample of women who have sex with women. Women who reported recent vibrator use with other women had higher mean sexual functioning scores than women who reported no vibrator use or vibrator use only during masturbation. Implications for health-care providers are discussed. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-12-01

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

  1. Chronic pain: One year prevalence and associated characteristics (the HUNT pain study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Vatten, Lars; Kaasa, Stein

    2017-12-29

    Background The reported prevalence of chronic pain ranges from 11% to 64%, and although consistently high, the calculated economic burden estimates also vary widely between studies. There is no standard way of classifying chronic pain. We have repeated measurements of pain in a longitudinal population study to improve validity ofthe case ascertainment. In this paper, associations between chronic pain and demographic characteristics, self reported health and functioning, work Incapacity and health care use were investigated in a sample from the general Norwegian population. Methods A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 Study) was invited to report pain every three months during a 12 month period. Chronic pain was defined as moderate pain or more (on the SF-8 verbal rating scale) in at least three out of five consecutive measurements. Self reported health and functioning was measured by seven of the eight subscales on the SF-8 health survey (bodily pain was excluded). Health care utilisation during the past 12 months was measured by self report, and included seeing a general practitioner, seeing a medical specialist and seeing other therapists. The survey data was combined with information on income, education, disability pension awards and unemployment by Statistics Norway, which provided data from the National Education database (NUDB) and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV). Results The total prevalence of chronic pain was 36% (95% CI34-38) among women and 25% (95% CI 22-26) among men. The prevalence increased with age, was higher among people with high BMI, and in people with low income and low educational level. Smoking was also associated with a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Subjects in the chronic pain group had a self-reported health and functioning in the range of 1-2.5 standard deviations below that of those without chronic pain. Among the chronic pain group 52% (95% CI 49-55), of participants

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of rib fractures in ex-preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela; Butler, Sandra; Mactier, Helen; McDevitt, Helen; Young, David; Ahmed, Syed Faisal

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of rib fractures in ex-preterm infants. Infants born at rib fractures, and the case notes of all affected individuals were scrutinized. Of the 3318 eligible preterm infants, 1446 had a total of 9386 chest radiographs. Of these infants, 26 (1.8%) were identified as having a total of 62 rib fractures. Their median (range) gestation at birth was 26 weeks (23-34). The median chronological age of these infants at the time of the radiograph was 14 weeks (5 weeks to 8 months). The median corrected gestational age at the time of the radiograph was 39 weeks (34 weeks to 4 months). Of the 62 fractures, 27 (36%) were sited posteriorly, and 15 (53%) of the infants with posterior rib fractures were diagnosed with osteopathy of prematurity. Classic risk including conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and diuretics, were present in 23 of 26 (88%) infants. A full skeletal survey was performed in 8 of 26 (31%). Investigations for nonaccidental injury occurred in 4 of 26 (15%) cases. Evidence of rib fractures is present in ~2% of ex-preterm infants. The evaluation of these fractures in infancy requires a detailed neonatal history irrespective of the site of rib fracture.

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of School Services for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Glew, Kelly; Houck, Patricia; Greiner, Andrew; Fong, Dalea; Swanson, James; Arnold, L Eugene; Lerner, Marc; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of services reported by school staff for 543 high school students participating in the 8 year follow-up of the multi-site Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA). Overall, 51.6% of students with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were receiving services through an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or a 504 plan, a rate higher than expected for this age group. Less than 5% of these had 504 plans; 35.5% attended special education classes. Very few services (except tutoring) were provided outside of an IEP or 504 plan. Almost all students with services received some type of academic intervention, whereas only half received any behavioral support or learning strategy. Less than one-fourth of interventions appear to be evidence-based. Students receiving services showed greater academic and behavioral needs than those not receiving services. Services varied based upon type of school, with the greatest number of interventions provided to students attending schools that only serve those with disabilities. Original MTA treatment randomization was unrelated to services, but cumulative stimulant medication and greater severity predicted more service receipt. Results highlight a need for accommodations with greater evidence of efficacy and for increased services for students who develop academic difficulties in high school.

  4. Prevalence, morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of confluent inferior pulmonary veins in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Teiichi; Date, Taro; Tokuda, Michifumi

    2008-01-01

    Although the common trunk of left pulmonary veins (PVs) has been reported as a relatively popular anatomical variation of PVs, little is known about the coalescence of contralateral PVs. The present study was conducted to reveal the prevalence and electrophysiologic characteristics of the confluent inferior common PVs. Anatomical variation in the PV drainage to the left atrium (LA) was assessed using the multidetector computed tomography scan in 326 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent the PV isolation procedure. Coalescence of inferior PVs was observed in 5 cases (1.5%). Both inferior PVs conjoined prior to the junction with the LA in 3 cases, while they coalesced at the LA junction in the other 2 cases. The arrhythmogenic activities of the confluent inferior PVs were generally low in all cases without any ectopic firings triggering the observed AF. All inferior PVs, as well as the superior PVs, were successfully isolated either en bloc at the common trunk or individually at the orifice of each PV. Confluent inferior PVs were present in 1.5% of cases in patients with AF who underwent the PV isolation procedure. Preoperative recognition of this venous anomaly by 3-dimensional imaging is important for smooth and safe ablation. (author)

  5. Therapeutic use of cannabis: Prevalence and characteristics among adults in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Brands, Bruna; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Mann, Robert E

    2017-09-14

    To investigate the prevalence of therapeutic cannabis use within a general population sample of adults and to describe various characteristics associated with use. Data were derived from the 2013 and 2014 CAMH Monitor Survey of adults in Ontario, Canada. This repeated cross-sectional survey employed a regionally stratified design and utilized computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Analyses were based on 401 respondents who reported using cannabis. The data indicated that 28.8% of those who used cannabis in the past year self-reported using cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Of therapeutic users, 15.2% reported having medical approval to use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Cannabis use for therapeutic purposes was associated with more frequent use of cannabis, a moderate to high risk of problematic cannabis use, and a greater likelihood of using prescription opioids for medical purposes. There was little difference in cannabis use for therapeutic purposes according to sex, age, and marital status after adjusting for opioid use and problematic cannabis use. Findings suggest some potential negative consequences of cannabis use for therapeutic purposes; however, further research is needed to better understand the range and patterns of use and their corresponding vulnerabilities.

  6. Clinical Characteristics, Mutation Spectrum, and Prevalence of Åland Eye Disease/Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Marianne N; Kilic-Biyik, Kevser Z; Trotter, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods: A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from...

  7. Characteristics of prevalent and new COPD cases in Greece: the GOLDEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsiki E

    2015-07-01

    diagnosed COPD cases was estimated to be 18.2% (95% confidence interval: 14.9–22.3 per pulmonologist/3 months. Of those newly diagnosed, the majority of patients had mild or moderate airflow limitation (78.2%.Conclusion: The Greek Obstructive Lung Disease Epidemiology and health ecoNomics study reflected the real-life profile of COPD patients and provided evidence on the profile of new COPD cases in Greece. Various demographic factors were delineated, which can assist in designing more effective diagnostic and management strategies for COPD in Greece. Keywords: COPD, characteristics, newly diagnosed, epidemiology, prevalent cases, new cases, health care system, health care management, nationwide sampling 

  8. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygidakis, N A; Dimou, G; Briseniou, E

    2008-12-01

    This was to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of MIH in a group of Greek children. During the years 2003--2005, all MIH cases diagnosed according to the recently set criteria were selected from the new patients clinic of a Community Dental Centre for Children (Athens). Age, gender and teeth involved were recorded. The severity of MIH was determined collectively by dividing the affected teeth in two groups; a) mild defect (demarcated opacities) and b) moderate/severe defect (enamel breakdown and atypical restorations). Evaluation of the distribution of the affected teeth within MIH cases was performed in a separate group of 225 affected children aged 8-12 years with their entire 12 'index' teeth erupted. From the 3,518, 5.5 to 12 year old children that were examined, there were 360 (10.2%) children with MIH, 211 (58.6%) females and 149 (41.4%) males, with 1,926 affected teeth, 1,231 molars and 695 incisors. In the molars group, maxillary molars were more frequently affected (87.8/90.3%) than mandibular (81.7/82.2%). In the central incisor group, maxillary teeth were also more frequently affected (50/55%) than mandibular (24.4/25%), while laterals were the least affected. In all there were 37.9% molars with moderate/severe defects as compared with 4.9% incisors, the remaining 62.1% and 95.1% respectively being mild. The various associations between the affected teeth were evaluated in the sub-group of 225 MIH children with all 'index' teeth erupted (1,286 affected teeth, 776 molars and 510 incisors), with mean number of affected teeth per child being 5.7; separately for molars 3.4 and for incisors 2.2. In these cases 28.4% of the children had only molars affected and 71.6% had both molars and incisors. In descending order the associations of affected teeth more frequently found were: 4 molars/2 incisors (23.5%), 4 molars/4 incisors (16.8%), 4 molars alone (15.1%) and 2 molars alone (9.7%), the remaining being much less. As age increased the

  9. Burden in family caregivers of the elderly: prevalence and association with characteristics of the elderly and the caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara de Sa Neves Loureiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional, epidemiological study aimed to estimate the prevalence of burden among family caregivers of impaired elderly residents in the city of João Pessoa, and to identify associations between the mean burden and social and demographic characteristics of the elderly and the caregivers. A total number of 240 elderly residents in a previously drawn census tract participated in this research. The sample was composed of 52 elderly and their caregivers. For data collection, a questionnaire was applied with questions on social and demographic characteristics of elderly and caregivers, and the Burden Interview Scale was used. Results showed a high prevalence of burden among caregivers (84.6%, in which a statistically significant association was found with the following characteristics: retired elderly, elderly as head of family, spousal caregivers, and caregivers with less education. The findings of this study may contribute to the development of activities focused on formal and emotional support for the caregivers.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome identified by a stepwise approach

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    Inoue H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiromasa Inoue,1 Takahide Nagase,2 Satoshi Morita,3 Atsushi Yoshida,4 Tatsunori Jinnai,4 Masakazu Ichinose5 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Department of Biomedical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, 4Medical Department, AstraZeneca K.K., Osaka, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background and objective: There is increasing recognition of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS, which shares some features of both asthma and COPD; however, the prevalence and characteristics of ACOS are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ACOS among patients with COPD and its characteristics using a stepwise approach as stated in the recent report of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study enrolled outpatients who were receiving medical treatment for COPD. Clinical data, including spirometry results, were retrieved from medical records. For symptom assessment, patients were asked to complete the Clinical COPD questionnaire and the modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Results: Of the 1,008 patients analyzed, 167 (16.6% had syndromic features of ACOS. Of the total number of patients, 93 and 42 (9.2% and 4.2% also had a predefined clinical variability of ≥12%/≥200 mL and ≥12%/≥400 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, respectively, and therefore were identified as having ACOS. Conversely, the number of patients who had either syndromic or spirometric feature of ACOS was 595 (59.0%, ≥12%/≥200 mL FEV1 clinical variability, and 328 patients (32.5%, ≥12%/≥400 m

  11. Which characteristics of nursing home residents influence differences in malnutrition prevalence? An international comparison of The Netherlands, Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud

    2014-03-28

    Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.

  12. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella , and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella , thereby posing a threat to public health.

  13. Prevalence and Characteristics of Bed-Sharing Among Black and White Infants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Robb, Sara Wagner; Kanu, Florence A

    2016-02-01

    To examine: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of bed-sharing among non-Hispanic Black and White infants in Georgia, and (2) differences in bed-sharing and sleep position behaviors prior to and after the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2005 recommendations against bed-sharing. Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were obtained from the Georgia Department of Public Health. Analysis was guided by the socioecological model levels of: Infant, Maternal, Family, and Community/Society within the context of race. Data from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to address the first objective and from 2000 to 2004 and 2006 to 2011 to address the second objective. Rao-Scott Chi square tests and backward selection unconditional logistic regression models for weighted data were built separately by race; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 6595 (3528 Black and 3067 White) cases were analyzed between 2004 and 2011. Significantly more Black mothers (81.9 %) reported "ever" bed-sharing compared to White mothers (56 %), p Blacks, the final model included infant age, pregnancy intention, number of dependents, and use of Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Services. For Whites, the final model included infant age, maternal age, financial stress, partner-related stress, and WIC. When comparing the period 2000-2004 to 2006-2011, a total of 10,015 (5373 Black and 4642 White cases) were analyzed. A significant decrease in bedsharing was found for both Blacks and Whites; rates of non-supine sleep position decreased significantly for Blacks but not Whites. Continued high rates of bed-sharing and non-supine sleep position for both Blacks and Whites demonstrate an ongoing need for safe infant sleep messaging. Risk profiles for Black and White mothers differed, suggesting the importance of tailored messaging. Specific research and practice implications are identified and described.

  14. Reproducibility of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in populations with low, intermediate, and high prevalence of coronary artery disease by multidetector computer tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina C; Linde, Jesper J; Fuchs, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the interobserver agreement of visual coronary plaque characteristics by 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in three populations with low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence and to identify determinants for the reproducible assessment of these plaque characteristics...

  15. Age-related prevalence and characteristics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis patients living in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Rolf; Höglund-Åberg, Carola; Haubek, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Background: The presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis has been extensively studied for decades. Objective: To study the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in younger and older periodontitis patients and to genetically characterize isolates...

  16. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  17. Characteristics, prevalence, and outcomes of diabetic foot ulcers in Africa. A systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Mauro; Pizzol, Damiano; Tiago, Armindo; Putoto, Giovanni; Avogaro, Angelo; Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2018-05-26

    Among non-communicable diseases, diabetes represents a growing public health problem in Africa, where diabetes-related needs remain mostly unmet and the disabling features of foot are worsened by hygienic, cultural, and healthcare issues. We aimed to review clinical characteristics, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with diabetic foot ulcer in Africa. We searched the literature for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies reporting the characteristics of patients with diabetic foot in African countries, with a particular focus on ulcer prevalence, amputation rate, and mortality. Fifty-five full-text papers and ten abstracts were retrieved, reporting data from 19 African countries on 56,173 diabetic patients. According to the data collected, the overall prevalence of foot ulcers was 13% and increased over time, especially since 2001. Approximately 15% of patients with foot lesions underwent major amputation and 14.2% died during hospitalization. In patients with diabetic ulcers, insulin therapy was uncommon and neuropathy was the most common predisposing factor, but the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease correlated with amputation rates. Amputation and mortality decreased over time, probably as result of the implementation of screening programs in the last ten years. Mortality was directly related to previous amputation. The diabetic foot disease in Africa is a growing problem and is burden by high rate of in-hospital mortality. Educational interventions and screening programs including evaluation of the vascular status may play a crucial role to counter diabetic foot disease in Africa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence, characteristics and management of headache experienced by people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a cross sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Joanne; Wand, Benedict

    2017-08-01

    Headache is the most common type of pain reported by people with schizophrenia. This study aimed to establish prevalence, characteristics and management of these headaches. One hundred participants with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder completed a reliable and valid headache questionnaire. Two clinicians independently classified each headache as migraine, tension-type, cervicogenic or other. The 12-month prevalence of headache (57%) was higher than the general population (46%) with no evidence of a relationship between psychiatric clinical characteristics and presence of headache. Prevalence of cervicogenic (5%) and migraine (18%) was comparable to the general population. Tension-type (16%) had a lower prevalence and 19% of participants experienced other headache. No one with migraine was prescribed migraine specific medication; no one with cervicogenic and tension-type received best-practice treatment. Headache is a common complaint in people with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with most fitting recognised diagnostic criteria for which effective interventions are available. No one in this sample was receiving best-practice care for their headache.

  19. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the 10thmost common malignancy and the 4thlargest cancer killer in adults. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clini...

  20. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Planken, R. Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Methods Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ?150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. R...

  1. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and relationship with dental caries in Melbourne preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M L; Ghanim, A; Elsby, D; Manton, D J

    2018-03-01

    Dental caries and enamel defects (DDE) are prevalent amongst children. The presence of DDE, especially enamel hypomineralization, may increase caries experience. The reported prevalence of hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM) is 2.7-21.8%, although the occurrence in Australian children remains unknown. These HSPM represent a potential predictive factor for molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). In total, 623 children aged 3-5 years from 30 randomly selected kindergartens participated. The HSPM were recorded using an index combining the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry MIH Judgment Criteria and modified DDE Index. Caries was recorded using International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. In total, 144 HSPM were observed in 88 of the 623 (14.1%) children, a tooth-level prevalence of 5.8%. The prevalence of dentinal carious lesions was 13.2%, and caries prevalence (d 2-6 mft > 0) was 36.4%. Cavitated carious lesions affected 30.7% of HSPM. The relationship between an increase in HSPM lesion extent and increasing number of HSPM per child was statistically significant. A positive association between HSPM severity and extent at tooth level existed (P < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between the extent of HSPM and carious lesion severity (P < 0.05). In this population, children with HSPM did not have overall greater caries experience. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, D R; Ganesh, M; Bhaskar, V

    2012-02-01

    Most prevalence studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) have been carried out in European countries and data from Asia especially south Asian populations are lacking. To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MIH in children residing in a western region of India. A cross-sectional survey including 1,366 children from 5 age cohorts, 8-12 years, studying in primary schools or attending the University Department, was carried out in the area of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. The dental examination was performed by a single well-trained and calibrated examiner in day light conditions. Full mouth inspection of wet teeth was conducted using the EAPD 2003 criteria for diagnosis of MIH. Results were recorded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test, independent sample t-test and Pearson correlations. Prevalence of MIH was 9.2% in the examined population. Males and females were equally affected. Among 12 index teeth involved in the examination, the most commonly affected were in descending order 46, 36, 16, 11 [FDI] and the least 42, 32, and 22. 17.4% of the cases revealed only molars involved, the remaining 72.6% having both molars and incisors affected; all four first permanent molars showed in 23% of the cases while no cases of only affected incisors were found. Of the MIH teeth 77.3% revealed mild defects and 22.7% severe defects. All incisors were mildly affected, as compared with only 67.1% of the molars, the remaining 32.9% being severely affected. As age increased, a statistically significant larger total number and severity level of affected teeth were recorded. Prevalence of MIH using EAPD 2003 criteria was found to be similar to other studies evaluating children in different geographic locations such as Europe, South America etc. Using the EAPD standardised criteria, more studies should be conducted in other Indian regions, in order to further evaluate prevalence, characteristics and treatment needs for this clinically demanding

  3. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Positive Anti-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yul Hwangbo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLatent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA refers to a specific type of diabetes characterized by adult onset, presence of islet auto-antibodies, insulin independence at the time of diagnosis, and rapid decline in β-cell function. The prevalence of LADA among patients with type 2 diabetes varies from 2% to 20% according to the study population. Since most studies on the prevalence of LADA performed in Korea were conducted in patients who had been tested for anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADAb, a selection bias could not be excluded. In this study, we examined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of LADA among adult patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe included 462 patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within 5 years from the time this study was performed. We measured GADAb, fasting insulin level, fasting C-peptide level, fasting plasma glucose level, HbA1c, and serum lipid profiles and collected data on clinical characteristics.ResultsThe prevalence of LADA was 4.3% (20/462 among adult patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Compared with the GADAb-negative patients, the GADAb-positive patients had lower fasting C-peptide levels (1.2±0.8 ng/mL vs. 2.0±1.2 ng/mL, P=0.004. Other metabolic features were not significantly different between the two groups.ConclusionThe prevalence of LADA is 4.3% among Korean adult patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The Korean LADA patients exhibited decreased insulin secretory capacity as reflected by lower C-peptide levels.

  4. Caudal articular process dysplasia of thoracic vertebrae in neurologically normal French bulldogs, English bulldogs, and Pugs: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Simon; Ter Haar, Gert; De Decker, Steven

    2018-02-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of thoracic caudal articular process dysplasia in French bulldogs, English bulldogs and Pugs presenting for problems unrelated to spinal disease. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, computed tomography scans of the thoracic vertebral column of these three breeds were reviewed for the presence and location of caudal articular process hypoplasia and aplasia, and compared between breeds. A total of 271 dogs met the inclusion criteria: 108 French bulldogs, 63 English bulldogs, and 100 Pugs. A total of 70.4% of French bulldogs, 84.1% of English bulldogs, and 97.0% of Pugs showed evidence of caudal articular process dysplasia. Compared to French and English bulldogs, Pugs showed a significantly higher prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia, but also a lower prevalence of caudal articular process hypoplasia, a higher number of affected vertebrae per dog and demonstrated a generalized and bilateral spatial pattern more frequently. Furthermore, Pugs showed a significantly different anatomical distribution of caudal articular process dysplasia along the vertebral column, with a high prevalence of caudal articular process aplasia between T10 and T13. This area was almost completely spared in French and English bulldogs. As previously suggested, caudal articular process dysplasia is a common finding in neurologically normal Pugs but this also seems to apply to French and English bulldogs. The predisposition of clinically relevant caudal articular process dysplasia in Pugs is possibly not only caused by the higher prevalence of caudal articular process dysplasia, but also by breed specific anatomical characteristics. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity among Chinese youth aged 12-18 years: a multistage nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Xin, X; Ming, Q

    2018-02-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity by four different references and to explore the characteristics of adolescent overweight and obesity in Chinese secondary school students aged 12-18 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in this study. Using stratified random cluster sampling, 8999 secondary school students were enrolled. The references developed by Must and Dallal and Dietz, the Childhood Obesity Working Group of the International Obesity Task Force, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Group of China Obesity Task Force (GCOTF reference) were used to identify overweight and obese students. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity vary substantially based on the four references. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity based on GCOTF reference are 8.4% and 4.1%, respectively, which is significantly lower than the prevalence of overweight and obesity in their peers in 2000 (χ 2  = 24.03, P obesity in boys are 12.0% and 5.7%, which are higher than those in girls, 4.6% and 5.7% (χ 2  = 240.68, P obesity in singletons are higher than those in non-singletons (χ 2  = 40.25, P obesity in students with lower school community ladder of subjective social status are higher than those from higher ones (χ 2  = 21.61, P obesity in Chinese adolescents. The current prevalence rates of adolescent overweight and obesity decreased, and girls made a tremendous contribution to this decreasing trend. Singletons and adolescents in lower school community ladder of subjective socio-economic status may be at higher risk of getting overweight and obesity. More effective strategies with full consideration to the characteristics above should be developed to control and prevent adolescent overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ≥150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. The PCHA and DBA were identified in 100 % and 93 % (260/280) of cases, respectively. The prevalence of PCHA aneurysms was 4.6 % (13/280). All aneurysms were detected in proximal PCHA originating from the axillary artery (AA). The PCHA originated from the AA in 81 % of cases (228/280), and showed a curved course dorsally towards the humeral head in 93 % (211/228). The DBA originated from the AA in 73 % of cases (190/260), and showed a straight course parallel to the AA in 93 % (177/190). PCHA aneurysm prevalence in elite volleyball players is high and associated with a specific branching type: a PCHA that originates from the axillary artery. Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury. For the first time vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate ultrasound assessment. • Prevalence of PCHA aneurysms is 4.6 % among elite volleyball players. • All aneurysms are in proximal PCHA that originates directly from AA. • Vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate US assessment. • Mean PCHA and DBA diameters can be used as reference values. • Radiologists need a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury.

  7. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: Prevalence and specific clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Pérez-Torres

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Protein-energy wasting (PEW is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men with a mean age of 66.1 ± 16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. Results: The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p < 0.005, while 27.9% of SGA values were within the range of malnutrition. No differences were found between the 2 methods. Men had higher proteinuria, percentage of muscle mass and nutrient intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio.The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084–1.457, p = 0.002, percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893–0.983, p = 0.008, total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998–0.999, p = 0.001 and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992–0.998. Conclusion: Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Resumen: Introducción: El desgaste proteico energético (DPE se asocia a mayor mortalidad y difiere dependiendo del estadio de la enfermedad renal y de la técnica de diálisis. Su prevalencia en pacientes sin di

  8. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Barišić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6% answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2% schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7% with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0% of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD.

  9. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Maternal Characteristics in a Sample of Schoolchildren from a Rural Province of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Giorgie; Barišić, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital syndrome caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and is entirely preventable by abstinence from alcohol drinking during this time. Little is known about the prevalence of FAS and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Western countries. We present the results of FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) prevalence study and maternal characteristics in a sample of schoolchildren from a rural province of Croatia. This study involved seven elementary schools with 1,110 enrolled children attending 1st to 4th grade and their mothers. We used an active case ascertainment method with passive parental consent and Clarified IOM criteria. The investigation protocol involved maternal data collection and clinical examination of children. Out of 1,110 mothers, 917 (82.6%) answered the questionnaire. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy was admitted by 11.5%, regular drinking by 4.0% and binge drinking by 1.4% of questioned mothers. Clinical examination involved 824 (74.2%) schoolchildren and disclosed 14 (1.7%) with clinical signs of FAS and 41 (5.0%) of PFAS. The observed FAS prevalence, based on 74.2% participation rate, was 16.9, PFAS 49.7 and combined prevalence was 66.7/1,000 examined schoolchildren. This is the first FAS prevalence study based on active ascertainment among schoolchildren and pregnancy alcohol drinking analysis performed in a rural community of Croatia and Europe. High prevalence of FAS/PFAS and pregnancy alcohol consumption observed in this study revealed that FAS is serious health problem in rural regions as well as a need to develop future studies and preventive measures for pregnancy alcohol drinking and FASD. PMID:23591786

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of chronic kidney disease among Danish adults with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kristina H; Ryom, Lene; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    median duration of chronic pulmonary infection (28.3 (20.0-35.8) vs. 20.0 (9.9-34.7) years; p=0.008) and with longer intravenous aminoglycosides use (606 (IQR, 455-917) vs. 273 (IQR, 91-826) days, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The CKD prevalence is high and related to age, diabetes, chronic infection...

  11. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  13. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Psychiatric Disorders among Adolescent Bedouin with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders among Bedouin adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is the first study ever conducted on this topic within the Bedouin community in the Negev in Israel. The issue of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with intellectual disability…

  14. Can Schools Reduce Bullying? The Relationship between School Characteristics and the Prevalence of Bullying Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. Aims: The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and…

  15. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among adults in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; de Courten, Maximilian; Jiao, Shufang

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using a large representative sample in Beijing. Data from a total of 16442 adults (6489 men and 9953 women) aged > or =18 years from a survey of behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases in Beijing, in 2005, was a...

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Discogenic Pain in Tertiary Practice: 223 Consecutive Cases Utilizing Lumbar Discography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrills, Paul; Nowesenitz, Gillian; Barnard, Adele

    2015-08-01

    Between 26% and 42% of chronic low back pain is attributed to internal disc disruption of lumbar intervertebral discs. These prevalence estimates and data characterizing discogenic pain originate largely from research at elite practices, conducted 20 years ago. With few studies since, their concordance with rates in community practice has rarely been addressed. To assess the prevalence and key features of discogenic pain within community-based tertiary practice, and to evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of discography. This prospective, three-year study of 223 consecutive cases of chronic low back pain used image-guided lumbar discography to identify symptomatic and flanking asymptomatic discs. A subset of patients (n = 195) had previously undergone posterior column blocks to investigate spinal facet and/or sacroiliac joints as contributing pain sources. A total of 644 discs were tested without infection or complication. Positive discograms were recorded in 74% of patients, with 22.9% negative and 3.1% assessed as indeterminate. Among patients receiving both discography and diagnostic blocks, 63% had proven discogenic pain, 18% had pain of mixed etiology and 14% remained undiagnosed. Taking into account all low back pain cases during this study (n = 756), discogenic pain prevalence was 21.8% (95% CI: 17-26%). The prevalence of discogenic pain in this community practice is below the range, but within confidence intervals, previously reported. Prevalence is considerably elevated, however, among well-selected patients and discography enabled a firm diagnosis in most such cases. These findings are broadly in keeping with those reached in key publications and support the clinical utility of discography. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Brown Adipose Tissue in an 18F-FDG PET Study of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon Yeun; Lim, Jung Sub; Park, Eun Young; Cho, A Ra; Kim, Byeong Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2010-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Korean subjects using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET). Six thousand and five consecutive 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans of 5,115 patients (3,007 females and 2,108 males, mean age 53.5 years) were retrospectively reviewed. We characterized the nature of BAT, such as tis location, and we assessed the influence of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and temperature on BAT. The prevalence of BAT in Koreans in a single 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan in average conditions was 1.07%. The BAT detection rate was higher in females than males (1.32% vs 0.73%), and also with younger age (7.94% vs 0.73%), and lower BMI (BMI with BAT, 21.1 vs BMI without BAT, 23.15) and cold outdoor temperature (1.65% vs 0.49%). The most frequent location of BAT was the supraclavicular area (left, 0.91%; right, 0.88%) and ventral neck area (left, 0.62%; right, 0.63%). Conclusions The characteristics of BAT in Koreans are not different from those described for Caucasians. However, the low prevalence of BAT in our study might be related to some scan condition like ambient temperature, but further study is needed.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  1. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Charles U.; Omejua, Emeka G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk factors have a tendency to cluster. The presence of such a cluster in an individual has been designated the metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a paucity of reports of the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive patients in south east Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population of 250 consecutive newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients (126 males and 124 females) was evaluated. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done using standardized techniques. After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken for glucose and lipid profile assays. The NCEP ATP III criteria were then applied for the diagnosis of MetS. Results: The prevalence of the MetS among the study population was 31.2%. The sex-specific prevalences were 15.1% and 47.6% among male and female patients respectively. A large number of the patients (40.4%) were at a high potential risk of developing the MetS as they already met 2 of the criteria. The MetS prevalence increased progressively from 14.3% through 23.8%, in the patients aged 24-33years and 34-43 years, respectively to a peak (40.4%) among those aged 44-53 years before declining in those aged 54-63 years (31.8%), 64-73 years (33.3%) and 74 years and above (20.6%). Central obesity was the most common component of the MetS being present in 50.4% of patients (28.6% of males and 72.6% of females). Of the other components, low HDL-C was present in 38.8% (26.2% of males and 51.6% of females), elevated FBS in 12.8% (6.3% of males and 19.4% of females) and elevated triglycerides in 8.8% (11.9% of males and 5.6% of females). Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Chinese Patients With Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ivan F. M.; Cherk, Sharon W. W.; Cheng, Wai Wai; Fung, Eva L. W.; Yeung, Wai Lan; Ngan, Mary; Lee, Wing Cheong; Kwong, Ling; Wong, Suet Na; Ma, Che Kwan; Tai, Shuk Mui; Ng, Grace S. F.; Wu, Shun Ping; Wong, Virginia C. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this collaborative study on Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy is to determine the prevalence and to develop data on such patients as a prelude to the development of registry in Hong Kong. Information on clinical and molecular findings, and patient care, was systematically collected in 2011 and 2012 from all Pediatric Neurology Units in Hong Kong. Ninety patients with dystrophinopathy were identified, and 83% has Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The overall prevalence of dystrophinopathy in Hong Kong in 2010 is 1.03 per 10 000 males aged 0 to 24 years. Among the Duchenne group, we observed a higher percentage (40.6%) of point mutations with a lower percentage (45.3%) of exon deletions in our patients when compared with overseas studies. Although we observed similar percentage of Duchenne group received scoliosis surgery, ventilation support, and cardiac treatment when compared with other countries, the percentage (25%) of steroid use is lower. PMID:28503591

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of aquagenic pruritus in a young African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oziegbe E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquagenic pruritus (AP occurs during or after contact of the skin with water such as occurs in bathing. Methods This study aims to describe the prevalence of aquagenic pruritus in a young adult population and describe the circumstances of bathing. A Population-based cross sectional study involving administration of Questionnaires to young adult Nigerians on the occurrence of pruritus associated with bathing. Results The prevalence of bathing pruritus among respondents in this study was 23.8%. The commonest type of water respondents itch to was rain water (23% followed by cold water (19%. 8.33% of respondents feels like avoiding bathing because of these. Conclusion Bathing pruritus is a common finding among young adult Nigerians in the general population.

  5. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Takehiko; Shirota, Shiho; Sawai, Yachiyo; Murai, Takayuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition that increases the risk of coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. We determined the prevalence of MetS in vertigo patients and clinically investigated the association between MetS and vertigo. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The subjects were 333 patients, including 107 males and 226 females, who presented with vertigo as a primary symptom. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation...

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Puglia

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: We have observed less advanced disease in HIV and HCV-HIV patients compared with HBV–HIV coinfected patients. Moreover, our results show a higher prevalence of HIV/HCV among drug addicts and in the age-group 35–59, corresponding to those born in years considered most at risk for addiction. This study also confirms the finding of a less advanced HIV disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  7. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac cachexia has previously been estimated to 8-42 %. However, novel treatment strategies for chronic heart failure (CHF) have improved and decreased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to reassess the prevalence of cachexia in an outpatient CHF clinic...... and to characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  8. Prevalence and metabolic characteristics of adrenal androgen excess in hyperandrogenic women with different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, E; Lobo, R A

    2007-02-01

    Serum DHEAS has been found to be elevated in some women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We wished to determine whether this prevalence is different in women with androgen excess who have different phenotypes and to correlate these findings with various cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Two hundred and thirty-eight young hyperandrogenic women categorized into various diagnostic groups were evaluated for elevations in serum DHEAS, testosterone, glucose, insulin, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were stratified based on elevations in DHEAS. Serum DHEAS was elevated in 39.5% for the entire group [36.7% in PCOS and 48.3% in idiopathic hyperandrogenism (IHA)]. In classic (C)-PCOS, the prevalence was 39.6% and in ovulatory (OV) PCOS it was 29.1%. These differences were not statistically significant. Women with elevated DHEAS had higher testosterone but lower insulin, higher QUICKI, lower total and LDL-cholesterol and higher HDL-cholesterol, pPCOS. The prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism, as determined by elevations in DHEAS, appears to be statistically similar in IHA, C-PCOS and compared to OV-PCOS. Metabolic and cardiovascular parameters were noted to be more favorable in those women who have higher DHEAS levels.

  9. Diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in an aging population in Shanghai, China: Prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheyuan; Guo, Juntao; Huang, Ying; Cai, Enmao; Zhang, Xia; Pan, Qichao; Yuan, Zheng'an; Shen, Xin

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the difference of clinical characteristics and outcomes between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without diabetes mellitus in an aging population in Shanghai, China. This is a retrospective population-based study. 201 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Changning District, Shanghai during 2007-2008 were included. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were collected. Determination of diabetes mellitus was based on the medical records before pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 19.9% (40/201). Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus were more likely to be old (≥50, OR=5.23, 95% CI=2.07-13.25), to have pulmonary cavities (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.31-6.98), to be sputum smear positive (OR=2.90, 95% CI=1.12-7.51), and to have extension of anti-tuberculosis treatment duration (OR=2.68, 95% CI 1.17-6.14). Besides, they had a higher 2nd month sputum smear positive proportion (OR=2.97, 95% CI 1.22-7.22) and a higher 5-year recurrence rate (OR=5.87, 95% CI 1.26-27.40). High prevalence, severe clinical characteristics and poor outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus highlight the necessity of early bi-directional screening and co-management of these two diseases in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in patients with vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Takehiko; Shirota, Shiho; Sawai, Yachiyo; Murai, Takayuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition that increases the risk of coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. We determined the prevalence of MetS in vertigo patients and clinically investigated the association between MetS and vertigo. Case-control study. The subjects were 333 patients, including 107 males and 226 females, who presented with vertigo as a primary symptom. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation definition, which is based on waist circumference, blood serum levels, and blood pressure. MetS was detected in 53 (15.9%) of 333 vertigo patients, including 24 males (22.4%) and 29 females (12.8%); i.e., the frequency of MetS was significantly higher among the male patients than the female patients. The overall prevalence of MetS (15.9%) among vertigo patients did not differ from that observed among general adults in previous Japanese surveillance studies; however, MetS was significantly more common among the vertigo patients in males than general adult males. The prevalence of MetS was also examined in five types of vertigo, Concomitant MetS was noted in many males with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) and isolated vertigo of unknown etiology. It was suggested that MetS is involved in the development of vertigo in males. MetS might be a risk factor for vascular vertigo such as VBI in males. The high frequency of MetS among males with vertigo of unknown etiology suggested that the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is involved in this type of isolated vertigo.

  11. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Nutritional Characteristics of Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, María José; Chaparro, Maria; Molina, Begoña; Merino, Olga; Batanero, Ricardo; Dueñas-Sadornil, Carmen; Robledo, Pilar; Garcia-Albert, Ana María; Gómez-Sánchez, Maria Bienvenida; Calvet, Xavier; Trallero, Maria Del Roser; Montoro, Miguel; Vázquez, Iria; Charro, Mara; Barragán, Amaya; Martínez-Cerezo, Francisco; Megias-Rangil, Isabel; Huguet, José María; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Calvo, Marta; Campderá, Mariana; Muñoz-Vicente, Margarita; Merchante, Angel; Ávila, Ansel David; Serrano-Aguayo, Pilar; De Francisco, Ruth; Hervías, Daniel; Bujanda, Luis; Rodriguez, Gloria Esther; Castro-Laria, Luisa; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Van Domselaar, Manuel; Ramirez de la Piscina, Patricia; Santos-Fernández, Javier; Algaba, Alicia; Torra, Sandra; Pozzati, Liliana; López-Serrano, Pilar; Arribas, Maria Del Rosario; Rincón, Maria Luisa; Peláez, Andrés Camilo; Castro, Elena; García-Herola, Antonio; Santander, Cecilio; Hernández-Alonso, Moisés; Martín-Noguerol, Elisa; Gómez-Lozano, María; Monedero, Tamara; Villoria, Albert; Figuerola, Ariadna; Castaño-García, Andrés; Banales, Jesús M; Díaz-Hernández, Laura; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; López-Díaz, Javier; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; García-Talavera, Noelia; Nuevo-Siguairo, Olivia Karina; Riestra, Sabino; Gisbert, Javier P

    2017-12-04

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, to analyse the dietary beliefs and behaviours of these patients, to study their body composition, to evaluate their muscular strength and to identify the factors associated with malnutrition in these patients. This was a prospective, multicentre study. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients from 30 Spanish centres, from the outpatient clinics, were included. A questionnaire of 11 items was applied to obtain data from patients' dietary behaviour and beliefs. Patients who accepted were evaluated to assess their nutritional status using Subjective Global Assessment and body mass index. Body composition was evaluated through bioelectrical impedance. A total of 1271 patients were included [51% women, median age 45 years, 60% Crohn's disease]. Of these, 333 patients underwent the nutritional evaluation. A total of 77% of patients declared that they avoided some foods to prevent disease relapse. Eighty-six per cent of patients avoided some foods when they had disease activity because of fear of worsening the flare. Sixty-seven per cent of patients modified their dietary habits after disease diagnosis. The prevalence of malnutrition was 16% [95% confidence interval = 12-20%]. In the multivariate analysis, history of abdominal surgery, active disease and avoidance of some foods during flares were associated with higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in inflammatory bowel disease patients was high. We identified some predictive factors of malnutrition. Most of the patients had self-imposed food restrictions, based on their beliefs. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Takehiko; Shirota, Shiho; Sawai, Yachiyo; Murai, Takayuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition that increases the risk of coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. We determined the prevalence of MetS in vertigo patients and clinically investigated the association between MetS and vertigo. Study Design Case-control study Methods The subjects were 333 patients, including 107 males and 226 females, who presented with vertigo as a primary symptom. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation definition, which is based on waist circumference, blood serum levels, and blood pressure. Results MetS was detected in 53 (15.9%) of 333 vertigo patients, including 24 males (22.4%) and 29 females (12.8%); i.e., the frequency of MetS was significantly higher among the male patients than the female patients. The overall prevalence of MetS (15.9%) among vertigo patients did not differ from that observed among general adults in previous Japanese surveillance studies; however, MetS was significantly more common among the vertigo patients in males than general adult males. The prevalence of MetS was also examined in five types of vertigo, Concomitant MetS was noted in many males with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) and isolated vertigo of unknown etiology. Conclusion It was suggested that MetS is involved in the development of vertigo in males. MetS might be a risk factor for vascular vertigo such as VBI in males. The high frequency of MetS among males with vertigo of unknown etiology suggested that the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is involved in this type of isolated vertigo. PMID:24312461

  13. The prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in patients with vertigo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Yamanaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a condition that increases the risk of coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. We determined the prevalence of MetS in vertigo patients and clinically investigated the association between MetS and vertigo. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The subjects were 333 patients, including 107 males and 226 females, who presented with vertigo as a primary symptom. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation definition, which is based on waist circumference, blood serum levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS: MetS was detected in 53 (15.9% of 333 vertigo patients, including 24 males (22.4% and 29 females (12.8%; i.e., the frequency of MetS was significantly higher among the male patients than the female patients. The overall prevalence of MetS (15.9% among vertigo patients did not differ from that observed among general adults in previous Japanese surveillance studies; however, MetS was significantly more common among the vertigo patients in males than general adult males. The prevalence of MetS was also examined in five types of vertigo, Concomitant MetS was noted in many males with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI and isolated vertigo of unknown etiology. CONCLUSION: It was suggested that MetS is involved in the development of vertigo in males. MetS might be a risk factor for vascular vertigo such as VBI in males. The high frequency of MetS among males with vertigo of unknown etiology suggested that the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is involved in this type of isolated vertigo.

  14. Effect of working characteristics and taught ergonomics on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders amongst dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought. Methods Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years. Results Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD. Conclusions There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum. PMID:23547959

  15. Right Atrial Dual-loop Reentry Tachycardia after Cardiac Surgery: Prevalence, Electrophysiologic Characteristics and Ablation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-du; Sun, Qi; Guo, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Gong-Bu; Liu, Xu; Luo, Bin; Wei, Hui-Qiang; Santangeli, Pasquale; Liang, Jackson J; Ma, Jian

    2018-04-03

    Right atrial dual-loop reentry tachycardia has been described in patients with open-heart surgery. However, the prevalence, electrophysiologic substrate and ablation outcomes have been poorly characterized. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, electrophysiologic substrate and ablation outcomes for RA dual-loop reentry tachycardia following cardiac surgery. We identified all patients with atrial tachycardia after cardiac surgery. We compared electrophysiologic findings and outcomes of those with RA dual-loop reentry tachycardia versus a control group of patients with RA macro-reentrant arrhythmias in the setting of linear RA free wall (FW) scar. Out of 127 patients with 152 post-surgical atrial tachycardias (ATs), 28 (18.4%) had diagnosis of RA dual-loop reentry and 24/28 (85.7%) had tricuspid annular (TA) reentry combined with FW incisional reentry. An incision length > 51.5mm along the FW predicted the substrate for a second loop. In 22/23 patients (95.7%) with initial ablation in the cavo-tricuspid isthmus, a change in the interval between Halo d to CS p could be recorded, while 15/23 patients (65.2%) had CS activation pattern change. Complete success was achieved in 25/28 (89.3%) and 64/69 (92.8%) in the dual-loop reentry and control groups, respectively. After mean follow-up of 33.9±24.2 months, 24/28 (85.7%) and 60/69 (86.95%) were free of arrhythmias after initial procedure in two groups. The prevalence of RA dual-loop reentry is 18.4% among ATs with prior atriotomy scar. A long incision should alert physician the possibility of the second loop at the FW. Halo and CS activation pattern are important clues for circuit transformation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain with neuropathic component at Parakou in northern Benin in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoukonou, T; Gnonlonfoun, D; Kpozehouen, A; Adjien, C; Tchaou, B; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Adechina, H; Covi, R; Houinato, D

    2014-11-01

    The burden of chronic and neuropathic pain is high making it an important public health problem. The epidemiology is not well known in the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component at Tititou in Parakou in northeastern Benin. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 31 May 2012 and included 2314 people in a door-to-door survey. Chronic pain was defined as pain occurring for more than three months. Neuropathic pain was assessed with the DN4 score. A neurological exam was performed by a young physician for all people with chronic pain. During the interview, sociodemographic data, past medical history, weight and height were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the main associated factors. Among the 2314 people included in this survey, 49.7% were male. The mean age was 32.3 ± 13.1 years. Nine hundred seven reported pain occurring for more than 3 months. The prevalence of chronic pain was 39.2% (CI95%: 29.3-34.7). It was more frequent in females, older people, among diabetics, people with a history of any surgery, stroke, brain trauma, and alcoholism. The prevalence of chronic pain with a neuropathic component was 6.3% (CI95%: 5.0-7.9). The main associated factors were age, matrimonial status, professional occupation, body mass index, diabetes, history of zoster, history of any surgery, brain trauma. People with neuropathic pain often reported pain with burning (87.6%), prickling (82.8%), numbness (66.9%), tingling (63.4%), and lightning pain (48.3%). The main locations were the lower limbs and low back pain. This study suggested the high frequency of chronic neuropathic pain in the general population in Parakou compared with rates reported in western countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevalence and the clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia detected by stress thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Sachiro; Nishida, Yoshio

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia was retrospectively assessed in a group of 100 consecutive patients with angiographically proved coronary artery disease, and diagnostic ECG, by symptom-limited exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Twenty-four patients had no evidence of ischemia despite adequate exercise level. So among 76 patients with exercise induced ischemia, only 33 patients (43%) stopped exercise due to anginal pain (symptomatic ischemia: Group 3). And 43 patients with asymptomatic ischemia composed of 23 patients (30%) with ECG change (Group 2B) and 20 patients (26%) without ECG change (Group 2A). Patients background including the history of old myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus, were similar among Group 2A, 2B, and Group 3. Our Major observation was that the extent and severity of quantified SPECT perfusion defects was nearly identified between 3 groups. Thus in this study group, there was a rather high prevalence rate of silent ischemia (57%) by exercise thallium-201 criteria. Patients with silent ischemia, associated with positive and negative exercise ECG findings, and those with exercise angina had similar background and comparable amount of jeopardized myocardium. (author)

  18. Mobbing in Slovenia: Prevalence, Mobbing Victim Characteristics, and the Connection with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumel Damijan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of organizations face the problem of mobbing, which represents a serious, widespread problem with numerous consequences for victims, organizations, and society. We also recognize the connection this phenomenon has with the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. PTSD poses one of the most critical consequences for victims of mobbing, who mostly consist of employees at lower organizational levels. Our research focuses on the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia, its correlation to PTSD, and some differences in the subjective and objective assessments of being exposed to mobbing. We found that the prevalence of mobbing in Slovenia can be compared to some previous assessments as well as data from other countries. Among the study's participants, 24% could be classified as regular victims of mobbing. For the first time, we link mobbing with PTSD using a Slovenian sample. We also recorded some interesting differences between subjective and objective assessments of mobbing, thereby indicating the importance of subjective conceptualizations of mobbing acts, which should be investigated in greater detail in future research.

  19. Prevalence rates and socioeconomic characteristics of post-partum depression in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Molnar, Peter; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2011-01-30

    The rapid socioeconomic transition in post-communist Hungary adversely affected the overall morbidity and mortality rates in the 1990s. Prevalence data on depressive disorders from the region are still scarce, however. This study reports the findings of the first epidemiological survey, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on the prevalence of post-partum depression and the associated risk factors in Hungary. A total of 1030 mothers who delivered their babies between May and July 1999 in 16 counties in Hungary were screened for depressive symptoms 3-26 weeks post-partum. The survey found that 10.81% of the sample was above the cut-off score of 13, and the EPDS detected post-partum depressive symptoms with 76% (95% confidence interval (CI)=60.5-87.1) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI=90.5-94.1) specificity. In addition, 24 socio-demographic, socio-psychiatric data and personal and obstetric variables were surveyed. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that depression of the mother during pregnancy was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms post-partum. Depression before pregnancy, housing conditions, marital relationship status and family history of alcohol problems were also identified as predictors for post-partum depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    -level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery...... rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed....... There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7...

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of orthorexia nervosa in a sample of university students in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carpita, Barbara; Muti, D; Cremone, I M; Massimetti, G; Diadema, E; Gesi, C; Carmassi, C

    2018-02-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been recently defined as a pathological approach to feeding related to healthiness concerns and purity of food and/or feeding habits. This condition recently showed an increasing prevalence particularly among young adults. In order to investigate the prevalence of ON and its relationship with gender and nutritional style among young adults, we explored a sample of students from the University of Pisa, Italy. Assessments included the ORTO-15 questionnaire and a socio-demographic and eating habits form. Subjects were dichotomized for eating habits (i.e. standard vs vegetarian/vegan diet), gender, parents' educational level, type of high school attended, BMI (low vs high vs normal BMI). Chi square tests were performed to compare rates of subjects with overthreshold ORTO-15 scores, and Student's unpaired t test to compare mean scores between groups. Two Classification tree analyses with CHAID growing method were employed to identify the variables best predicting ON and ORTO-15 total score. more than one-third of the sample showed ON symptoms (ORTO-15 ≥ 35), with higher rates among females. Tree analyses showed diet type to predict ON and ORTO-15 total score more than gender. Our results seem to corroborate recent data highlighting similarities between ON and anorexia nervosa (AN). We propose an interpretation of ON as a phenotype of AN in the broader context of Feeding and eating disorders (FEDs) spectrum.

  2. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged 8-13 years selected by random sampling procedure. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were followed for MIH diagnosis. The presence of dental caries and treatment need for MIH-affected teeth were recorded as per the WHO criteria. Results: The prevalence of MIH in the children examined was 9.46%. Severity of the defects increased with the age of the children. Involvement of incisors increased when more First permanent molars (FPMs were affected. An average of 3.65 teeth was involved per MIH-affected individual. Significantly larger numbers of mandibular FPMs and maxillary central incisors were diagnosed with MIH. The association of dental caries was significantly higher with MIH-affected FPMs. Primary molars and permanent canines and premolars were also showed MIH like lesions in some of the MIH-affected children. Conclusion: MIH was observed in about 10% of the children examined. MIH-affected FPMs appear to be more vulnerable to early caries and subsequent pulp involvement with need for extensive dental treatment.

  3. Onchocerciasis in Venezuela: prevalence of microfilaraemia in Amerindians and morphological characteristics of the microfilariae from the Upper Orinoco Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, C; Arango, M; Yarzábal, L

    1984-09-01

    Data are presented on microfilaraemia in 191 Yanomami Amerindians from two areas of Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin, where an endemic focus of onchocerciasis has been recently detected. Onchocerca microfilariae were found in the blood of 12.6% of the persons examined. In the village with the higher number of examined individuals (N = 162), the prevalence of microfilaraemia in the age groups covaried with the prevalence of microfilariae in the skin and with the parasite load (mf/mg of skin). A positive correlation was found between age and these three variables. The prevalence of Onchocerca microfilaraemia in the Upper Orinoco focus is high, and may be related to the ability of the strain to invade the blood stream. Morphobiometric characteristics of the Onchocerca microfilariae isolated from human blood are similar to those of O. volvulus fixed in formalin from skin and from the uterus of female O. volvulus worms. All have a very short cephalic space. Comparisons with the entity from the Upper Caura river designated as Microfilaria bolivarensis were also made. It was concluded that there are no valid biometric differences in thick blood smears between microfilaria bolivarensis and microfilaria of O. volvulus from the Upper Orinoco deme. A more striking difference may be in the concentration of microfilariae observed in the blood, which in one case of mf. bolivarensis was more than forty times the highest number recorded for microfilaria O. volvulus in Parima.

  4. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jye Lim

    Full Text Available Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future.Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis.The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4% than men (12.5%. Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%. Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06 and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17, P < 0.05.Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%, with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of

  5. Receiver operating characteristics of perceptrons : Influence of sample size and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freking, Ansgar; Biehl, Michael; Braun, Christian; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    1999-01-01

    In many practical classification problems it is important to distinguish false positive from false negative results when evaluating the performance of the classifier. This is of particular importance for medical diagnostic tests. In this context, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have

  6. Prevalence, characteristics, and management of childhood functional abdominal pain in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Leo A. A.; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Benninga, Marc A.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To (i) describe the proportion of children presenting with abdominal pain diagnosed by the GP as functional abdominal pain (GPFAP); (ii) evaluate the association between patient and disease characteristics and GPFAP; (iii) describe diagnostic management by the GP in children presenting

  7. Prevalence, characteristics, and management of childhood functional abdominal pain in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Leo A. A.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Benninga, Marc A.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2013-01-01

    To (i) describe the proportion of children presenting with abdominal pain diagnosed by the GP as functional abdominal pain (GPFAP); (ii) evaluate the association between patient and disease characteristics and GPFAP; (iii) describe diagnostic management by the GP in children presenting with

  8. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze An; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036), and the most probable number (MPN) values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%), followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%), 1/2c-3c (16.1%), 4b-4d-4e (5.2%) and 4a-4c (2.8%). Most of the isolates carried hly (100%), inlB (98.8%), inlA (99.6%), inlC (98.0%) and inlJ (99.2%), and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs) were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8%) and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%). Resistance to clindamycin (46.8%) was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8%) were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9%) showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This

  9. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wu

    Full Text Available The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036, and the most probable number (MPN values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%, followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%, 1/2c-3c (16.1%, 4b-4d-4e (5.2% and 4a-4c (2.8%. Most of the isolates carried hly (100%, inlB (98.8%, inlA (99.6%, inlC (98.0% and inlJ (99.2%, and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8% and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%. Resistance to clindamycin (46.8% was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8% were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9% showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This

  10. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze′an; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036), and the most probable number (MPN) values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%), followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%), 1/2c-3c (16.1%), 4b-4d-4e (5.2%) and 4a-4c (2.8%). Most of the isolates carried hly (100%), inlB (98.8%), inlA (99.6%), inlC (98.0%) and inlJ (99.2%), and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs) were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8%) and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%). Resistance to clindamycin (46.8%) was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8%) were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9%) showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of various types of lichen planus in the Moscow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Molochkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Lichen planus (LP is an important problem for the healthcare due to its increasing prevalence, as well as typical, atypical and prone to malignization types of the disease that can be both severe and poorly responding to treatment. Accurate data on the prevalence of LP are lacking.Aim: To assess the prevalence of various LP types in the patient population of the Moscow Region.Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of examination of 338 patients with LP, who were getting standard treatment in the Department of Dermatovenereology and Dermato-oncology of the Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI in 1999 to 2017.Results: Among 338 LP patients, atypical LP of the skin was diagnosed in 81 (23.96%: hypertrophic type, in 31 (38.27%, pigmented, in 23 (28.4%, atrophic, in 11 (13.58%, follicular, in 8 (9.88%, lichen obtusus, in 3 (3.7%, bullous, in 1 (1.23%, erythematous, in 1 (1.23%, vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome, in 2 (2.47%, and Grinspan's syndrome, in 1 (1.23%. In 35 (43.21% of patients, cutaneous LP was associated with atypical oral LP (OLP: in 17 (48.57% of cases with hyperkeratotic, in 11 (31.43%, with erosive, and in 7 (20%, with exudative-hyperemic type. In 19 (23.46% cases, atypical cutaneous LP was associated with LP of the genital mucosae, including in 12 (63.16% cases with a typical reticular type, in 6 (31.58%, with atypical erosive, and in 1 (5.26%, with hypertrophic type. In 16 (4.73% of the patients there was atypical OLP only; in 6 (37.5% of them it had the exudative-hyperemic type, in 5 (31.25%, erosive, and in 5 (31.25%, hyperkeratotic. The most severe course of the dermatosis was observed for follicular, atrophic, hypertrophic types of cutaneous LP, vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome, and erosive OLP.Conclusion: Atypical LP was diagnosed in 81 (23.96% cases, and in 45 (55.6% cases it was associated with the OLP. The latter in 35 (43.21% of cases was characterized by atypical lesions of OLP, including

  12. Prevalence and Characteristics of Streptococcus canis Strains Isolated from Dogs and Cats

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    P. Lysková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus canis in dogs and cats, a total of 926 swabs were examined bacteriologically in the period from 2003 to 2005. Eighty-six isolates obtained from various anatomical locations were further characterized for their phenotypic properties. The most frequently isolated biotype produced phosphatase, leucine amidopeptidase, arginine dihydrolase, alpha-D- and beta-D-galactosidase and fermented lactose and ribose. Additional identification by species-specific amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region was consistent with S. canis. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G and ampicillin. The least effective antimicrobial agent was found to be tetracycline (only 33.8% of susceptible strains.

  13. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten

    2012-01-01

    and to characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  14. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T-T; Wang, A-P; Lu, J-X; Chen, M-Y; Zhao, C-C; Tang, Z-H; Li, L-X; Jia, W-P

    2018-03-21

    As the prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still unknown in ketosis-onset diabetes, the present study compared the characteristics of NAFLD in type 1 diabetes (T1D), ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. This cross-sectional study was performed with newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes, including 39 T1D, 165 ketosis-onset and 173 non-ketotic T2D, with 30 non-diabetics included as controls. NAFLD was determined by hepatic ultrasonography, then its clinical features were analyzed and its associated risk factors evaluated. NAFLD prevalence in patients with ketosis-onset diabetes (61.8%) was significantly higher than in controls (23.3%; P=0.003) and in T1D patients (15.4%; Pketosis-onset and non-ketotic T2D patients (52.6%; P=0.229), although BMI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) proved to be independent risk factors for the presence of NAFLD in both these groups whereas, in T1D patients, serum uric acid levels were independent risk factors. NAFLD prevalence and risk factors in ketosis-onset diabetes were similar to those in non-ketotic T2D, but different from those in T1D. These data provide further evidence that ketosis-onset diabetes should be classified as a subtype of T2D rather than idiopathic T1D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. Methods: A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Results: Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Conclusions: Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects. Citation: Khoury S, Carra MC, Huynh N, Montplaisir J, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism-tooth grinding prevalence, characteristics and familial aggregation: a large cross-sectional survey and polysomnographic validation. SLEEP 2016;39(11):2049–2056. PMID:27568807

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Keaster, Carol; Bozeman, Rosemary; Goodover, Joelene; Blankenship, Jason; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Brooks, Marita; Hasken, Julie; Gossage, J Phillip; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth, neurobehavior, and maternal risk interviews. Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS=75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community's prevalence of FAS is 2.9-7.5 per 1000, PFAS is 7.9-17.7 per 1000, and combined prevalence is 10.9-25.2 per 1000 or 1.1-2.5%. Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Among Bodybuilding Athletes in the South of Iran, Bushehr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerinejad, Mohammad Javad; Ostovar, Afshin; Farzaneh, Mohamad Reza; Keshavarz, Mojtaba

    2016-09-01

    Several reports have implied progressive increase of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use among Iranian athletes. More importantly, most of the previous research in the Iranian population had mainly focused on the anabolic steroid abuse, and ignored other agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PED use among bodybuilding athletes in Bushehr, south of Iran. Four hundred and fifty three male bodybuilding athletes were recruited from Bushehr gyms between February and May of 2015. Men were eligible to participate in the survey if they had regularly participated in the strength-training exercise (minimum of 1 year and 4 hour/week). Data were collected via a face-to-face interview. The survey consisted of three separate parts including demographic data, exercise pattern and PED use. According to this study, 234 (51.7%) of bodybuilding athletes had used PEDs. The PED users reported an average of 3.80 ± 4.52 agents' use in their programs and they had used PEDs for the average of 3.24 ± 3.99 years. The most prevalent agents which had been abused by the athletes were anabolic steroids (used by 185 athletes (79.4% of athletes). Furthermore, 110 (47%) of athletes reported stimulant agents' use during their routines. The most prevalent motivation for using PEDs was increasing muscle mass that was reported by 164 (70.1%) of PED users. In addition, sexual and dermatologic effects were the most prevalent adverse effects reported by the PED user athletes (114 (49.4%) and 103 (44.2%), respectively). This study showed the high rate of PED use among recreational and professional Iranian bodybuilding athletes that can expose them to the serious side effects of these agents.

  18. PREVALENCE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS OF OBESITY IN ADOLESCENTS IN THE CITY OF PERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ahmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there is a well-publicised worldwide increase in obese patients. The origins of adult obesity, in the majority of cases, are in children. Objective: Our aim was to study the prevalence and gender features of excess weight and obesity in adolescents in Perm. Methods: The study included adolescents aged 13–14, living in the city of Perm. Medical examinations were compared in statistics from 2005 and 2013. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured on all children. Body mass index was calculated, as was a standard deviation coefficient. Sexual development was evaluated according to the criteria of Tanner. Results: 828 adolescents were viewed (444 in 2005 and 384 in 2013. The prevalence of overweight adolescents in 2005 was 12.5%, including 3.1% who were obese. In 2013, 20.3% of adolescents were diagnosed as overweight, with 5.5% being diagnosed as obese. Abdominal obesity to type was diagnosed in 52.4% of obese children. Over the past 8 years, the number of adolescents who are overweight and obese has increased by more than half. A statistically significant increase has beenrecorded for overweight adolescents (ᵪ2 = 5,16; p = 0,023. In adolescents with excess body weight, growth rates were higher than in those children with either normal body weight or obesity; these differences were statistically significant in boys (p = 0.016. The total score of puberty in boys who were overweight was statistically significantly higher than adolescents with normal body weight orobesity (p = 0.0116. Conclusion: The percentage of children who are overweight and obese hasincreased by 74% and 67%, respectively over an 8-year period, resulting ina statistically significant increase in relation to overweight children. There was a significant increase in the number of teenage girls who are overweight.

  19. Association of workplace and population characteristics with prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian industry workers: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Bassanesi, Sérgio L; Chaves Junior, Hilton de Castro; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Ione M F; Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to risk factors for hypertension may be influenced by the characteristics of the workplace, where workers spend most of their daily time. To evaluate the association between features of the companies, particularly the presence of facilities to provide meals, and of population characteristics and the prevalence of hypertension, taking into account individual risk factors for hypertension. This multilevel analysis was based on a cross-sectional study with individual and company data from the SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria-Social Service of Industries) study and population-based data from the national census statistics. Workers aged ≥15 years were randomly selected from small (20-99), medium (100-499) and large (≥500 employees) companies per state using multistage sampling. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between hypertension and individual, workplace and population variables, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI) adjusted for three-level variables. 4818 Workers from 157 companies were interviewed and their blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Overall, 77% were men, aged 35.4 ±10.7 years, with 8.7 ±4.1 years of schooling and mostly worked in companies with a staff canteen (66%). Besides individual characteristics-being male, ageing, low schooling, alcohol abuse and higher BMI-a workplace with no staff canteen (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52), small companies (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) and living in cities with higher economic inequality (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) were associated with a higher risk for hypertension. Among Brazilian workers, the prevalence of hypertension is associated with individual risk factors, lack of a canteen at the workplace, small companies and higher economic inequalities of cities. These three-level characteristics help to interpret differences in the prevalence of hypertension between regions or countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  20. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Retail Poultry Meat in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Teranishi, Hiroshi; Saito, Shioko; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Wada, Eriko; Kumagai, Yuko; Takahashi, Shiho; Konno, Takayuki; Kashio, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Kato, Naoki; Hayashi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Horikawa, Kazumi; Oishi, Akira; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Yoshiko; Kuroki, Toshiro

    2017-05-24

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, and to analyze the association of genetic types of these bacteria with their geographical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates have been detected, respectively, in 54 and 71 samples out of 100 samples tested. Nine Salmonella serotypes were found, including S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (33%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Manhattan (9%), and others. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were detected in 64 (64%) and 14 (14%) samples, respectively. S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates were very frequently resistant to tetracycline (78.3%) and streptomycin (68.3%). Many C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (90.5%), nalidixic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (45.9%), and ciprofloxacin (40.5%). Cluster analysis was performed for the Salmonella isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. For Campylobacter isolates, the cluster analysis was based on both PFGE and comparative genomic fingerprinting. The molecular typing results were compared with the information about antimicrobial resistance and geographical locations in which the poultry meat was produced. This analysis revealed that C. jejuni strains with a particular genotype and antimicrobial resistance profile are spreading in specific areas of Japan.

  1. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 10(th)most common malignancy and the 4(th)largest cancer killer in adults. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, with the aim to compare these research findings to similar studies made in the developed countries. This is a retrospective research study done during the period of 2011-2015. This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, examined in the period of 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The imaging diagnostics are performed with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens, MSCT Emotion 6 Siemens, and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens, biopsy guide with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK; while the histopathology diagnostics has been performed in Clinic of Pathology at UCCK and prevalence is taken from the number of cases Reported at the Institute of Oncology Institute of Statistics and NIPH (National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo). Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer, results is female 39.5% (n=143) and male 61.5% (n=219), report M: F (1: 1.6), 286 cases resulted in head and neck 79 % (n=286), 76 cases resulted in body and tail cancers (21%), distant metastases in first imaging modality were found in(n=155) patients 43 %, local infiltration was found in patients: gastric infiltration 15 % (n=54), duodenal and papilla infiltration 26% (n=94), local infiltration spleen 16% (n=57), local infiltration mesentery 43 % (n= 155), dilated biliary tree 34 % (n=123), regional lymph node infiltration 83 % (n= 300). Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer

  2. Prevalence of Psychopathology and Sociodemographic Characteristics among Earthquake Survivors in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Askari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This  study  aimed  to  prospectively  analyze  the  effect  of  a  major  earthquake on the prevalence of psychological disorders such as acute stress disorder (ASD, anxiety, depression,  mixed  anxiety  depression  disorder  (MADD,  phobia,  aggressive  behavior, insomnia, psychosomatic disorders and also sociodemographic aspects among residents of rural community sample in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 801 adults exposed to the earthquake. Two months after the earthquake, all subjects were surveyed with measures administrated in a standard order as follows: demographic data sheet, disaster experiences scale (DES, general health questionnaire (GHQ, and symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The results revealed that 23% of the survivors in the exposed group had ASD, 10% had  anxiety  symptoms,  7.5%  depression,  4%  MADD,  5%  psychosomatic  disorders,  10% phobia, 7% aggressive behavior, and 10% insomnia. Conclusion: This article has summarized the current status of information on mental disorders caused by experiencing or witnessing a life threatening severe earthquake. The experience of fear, helplessness, and panic during the earthquake, and the appraisal by the victims of serious psychological, social, as well as demographical consequences after the earthquake, were positively related to the subscale scores and the total score of GHQ, SCL-90-R, and DES.

  3. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Waterborne Pathogen Legionella in Industrial Cooling Tower Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Qin, Tian; Li, Yun; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Hongmei; Ren, Hongyu; Li, Liping; Li, Yongguang; Zhao, Dong

    2015-10-12

    Cooling towers are a source of Legionnaires' disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey industrial cooling towers for the presence of Legionella. Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at factories in Shijiazhuang, China between March 2011 and September 2012. Overall, 35.7% of 255 industrial cooling tower water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 100 Colony-Forming Units (CFU)/liter to 88,000 CFU/liter, with an average concentration of 9100 CFU/liter. A total of 121 isolates were obtained. All isolates were L. pneumophila, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 1 (68 isolates, 56.2%), 6 (25, 20.7%), 5 (12, 9.9%), 8 (8, 6.6%), 3 (6, 5.0%) and 9 (2, 1.6%). All 121 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 64 different patterns were obtained. All 121 isolates were analyzed sequence-based typing (SBT), a full 7-allele profile was obtained from 117 isolates. One hundred and seventeen isolates were divided into 49 sequence types. Two virulence genes, lvh and rtxA, are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 92.6% (112/121) and 98.3% (119/121) isolates carried lvh and rtxA respectively and 90.9% (110/121) of tested isolates carried both genes. Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of L. pneumophila in industrial cooling tower environments in Shijiazhang, China, and the SBT and virulence gene PCR results suggested that the isolates were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  4. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Waterborne Pathogen Legionella in Industrial Cooling Tower Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are a source of Legionnaires’ disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey industrial cooling towers for the presence of Legionella. Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at factories in Shijiazhuang, China between March 2011 and September 2012. Overall, 35.7% of 255 industrial cooling tower water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 100 Colony-Forming Units (CFU/liter to 88,000 CFU/liter, with an average concentration of 9100 CFU/liter. A total of 121 isolates were obtained. All isolates were L. pneumophila, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 1 (68 isolates, 56.2%, 6 (25, 20.7%, 5 (12, 9.9%, 8 (8, 6.6%, 3 (6, 5.0% and 9 (2, 1.6%. All 121 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and 64 different patterns were obtained. All 121 isolates were analyzed sequence-based typing (SBT, a full 7-allele profile was obtained from 117 isolates. One hundred and seventeen isolates were divided into 49 sequence types. Two virulence genes, lvh and rtxA, are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. 92.6% (112/121 and 98.3% (119/121 isolates carried lvh and rtxA respectively and 90.9% (110/121 of tested isolates carried both genes. Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of L. pneumophila in industrial cooling tower environments in Shijiazhang, China, and the SBT and virulence gene PCR results suggested that the isolates were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed.

  5. Prevalence of alterations in the characteristics of smile symmetry in an adult population from southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Orozco-Varo, Ana; Arroyo-Cruz, Gema; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Deviation from the facial midline and inclination of the dental midline or occlusal plane has been described as extremely influential in the layperson's perceptions of the overall esthetics of the smile. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of deviation from the facial midline and inclination of the dental midline or occlusal plane in a selected sample. White participants from a European population (N=158; 93 women, 65 men) who met specific inclusion criteria were selected for the present study. Standardized 1:1 scale frontal photographs were made, and 3 variables of all participants were measured: midline deviation, midline inclination, and inclination of the occlusal plane. Software was used to measure midline deviation and inclination, taking the bipupillary line and the facial midline as references. Tests for normality of the sample were explored and descriptive statistics (means ±SD) were calculated. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in midline deviation, midline inclination, and occlusion plane (α=.05) RESULTS: Frequencies of midline deviation (>2 mm), midline inclination (>3.5 degrees), and occlusal plane inclination (>2 degrees) were 31.64% (mean 2.7±1.23 mm), 10.75% (mean 7.9 degrees ±3.57), and 25.9% (mean 9.07 degrees ±3.16), respectively. No statistically significant differences (P>.05) were found between sex and any of the esthetic smile values. The incidence of alterations with at least 1 altered parameter that affected smile esthetics was 51.9% in a population from southern Europe. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and signal characteristics of late gadolinium enhancement on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Shiro; Matsuoka, Koji; Onishi, Katsuya

    2012-01-01

    The background of this study was to determine the prevalence and signal intensity (SI) characteristics of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). Cine, black-blood T2-weighted and LGE MR images were acquired in 23 patients with TC within 72h of onset. Wall motion abnormality (WMA), edema and LGE were evaluated with a 16-segment model. The SI characteristics of LGE were analyzed using SI distribution in remote normal segments as reference. Follow-up MRI was performed 3 months later. Retrospective analysis of LGE MRI was also performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to compare the SI characteristics between TC and AMI. In acute phase, WMA and edema were observed in 236 (64%) and 205 (56%) of 368 segments. LGE was observed in 10 (2.7%) of 368 segments and in 5 (22%) of 23 patients. All LGE lesions in TC exhibited transmural enhancement. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in TC was significantly lower than that of AMI (3.1±0.3 standard deviations (SD) vs. 6.1±1.2 SD, P<0.01), and CNR value of 4 was useful for distinguishing TC from AMI. Both LGE and WMA disappeared within 12 months. Grey myocardial signal on LGE MRI may be observed in patients with TC. However, the extent of LGE is substantially less than that of WMA and edema, and disappears within 12 months. (author)

  7. [Madrid study on the prevalence and characteristics of outpatients with dual pathology in community mental health and substance misuse services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babín, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the prevalence of dual diagnosis and to evaluate the characteristics of these patients from community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, 208 from mental health services and 629 from substance misuse services. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate disorders from axis I and II. It was considered that 517 (61.8%) patients had dual pathology (current diagnoses of axis I or II disorders and an addictive disorder): 36,1% in mental health services and 70,3% in substance misuse services. There were fewer males amongst the dual patients and it was also found that they had a worse employment situation, along with higher figures of alcohol and cannabis dependence than addicts without dual diagnoses (n=194). When comparing them with patients with mental disorder diagnoses only, excluding substance use disorder (n=126), there were differences in all socio-demographic characteristics analyzed, and dual patients were associated with diagnoses of bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and had more suicide risk and different personality disorders. Thus, dual pathology is higher in patients who are in treatment and have differential characteristics (higher suicide risk, worse employment situation) that suggest greater severity that could be of help in the planning of care resource policies for these patients.

  8. Sibling Caregivers of People With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Sociodemographic Characteristics and Material Hardship Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Rosenthal, Eliana S

    2016-10-01

    In growing numbers, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are outliving their parents, or at least their parents' ability to care for them. Consequently, adult siblings without intellectual and developmental disabilities are increasingly taking on primary caregiving responsibilities. However, adult siblings have received little study generally, and sibling caregivers have received even less. We used nationally representative data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to describe the social characteristics and material hardship levels of sibling caregivers, in comparison to the general working age adult population. This study finds moderate material hardship to be pervasive among sibling caregivers, though extreme levels of hardship are possibly being abated somewhat through public benefit programs. Implications for greater service needs are discussed.

  9. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Perception of Nursery Antibiotic Stewardship Coverage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Vora, Niraj; Sunkara, Mridula

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged or unnecessary antibiotic use is associated with adverse outcomes in infants. Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) aim to prevent these adverse outcomes and optimize antibiotic prescribing. However, data evaluating ASP coverage of nurseries are limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of nurseries with and without ASP coverage and to determine perceptions of and barriers to nursery ASP coverage. The 2014 American Hospital Association annual survey was used to randomly select a level III neonatal intensive care unit from all 50 states. A level I and level II nursery from the same city as the level III nursery were then randomly selected. Hospital, nursery, and ASP characteristics were collected. Nursery and ASP providers (pharmacists or infectious disease providers) were interviewed using a semistructured template. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for themes. One hundred forty-six centers responded; 104 (71%) provided nursery ASP coverage. In multivariate analysis, level of nursery, university affiliation, and number of full-time equivalent ASP staff were the main predictors of nursery ASP coverage. Several themes were identified from interviews: unwanted coverage, unnecessary coverage, jurisdiction issues, need for communication, and a focus on outcomes. Most providers had a favorable view of nursery ASP coverage. Larger, higher-acuity nurseries in university-affiliated hospitals are more likely to have ASP coverage. Low ASP staffing and a perceived lack of importance were frequently cited as barriers to nursery coverage. Most nursery ASP coverage is viewed favorably by providers, but nursery providers regard it as less important than ASP providers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Infant's Unexplained Breast Preference for Nursing One Breast: A Self-Administered Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdi, Sameer Yaseen; Al Omran, Sadek Abdullah; Al-Aamri, Maryam Ali; Al Nasser, Mohammad Hasan; Al Omran, Abbas Moosa

    2015-12-01

    Breastfeeding is recommended by international bodies as the only source of infant nutrition during the first 6 months of life. Sometimes infants prefer to nurse on one breast for no obvious reason (hereafter called infant's unexplained breast preference [IUBP]). IUBP might reduce the rate of exclusive breastfeeding. The prevalence of IUBP is unknown because most of the literature on IUBP so far has been anecdotal. This study's objective was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IUBP among healthy infants in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study between March and August 2013 in the Al-Ahsa area, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Healthy infants who had been born at full term (≥37 weeks of gestation) and were 2-24 months of age were included. We distributed 600 self-administered surveys to mothers who attended vaccination clinics in nine primary healthcare centers. Of 478 mothers who responded to the survey, 121 (25.3%) reported unilateral breastfeeding. IUBP was the most common reason for unilateral breastfeeding, with a prevalence of 13.6% (65/478). IUBP developed at a median age of 1 month (range, 1 day-9 months) and was familial in 42.9% of cases. It was the only reason for formula feeding during the first 6 months of life in 18.5% of cases. IUBP is common, develops very early in life, and can be familial and a reason for formula feeding. However, these findings need to be confirmed in other studies of other populations.

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation Among Canadian Inuit from the 2007-2008 Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Sellen, Daniel W; Lou, Wendy; Young, Kue

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, breastfeeding initiation in Canadian Inuit. We used data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit children aged 3-5 years in 2007 or 2008 were randomly selected for the survey. Select household, maternal, infant and community characteristics were collected from the child's primary caregiver and entered into logistic regression models as potential predictors of breastfeeding initiation. Analyses were repeated in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. The reported prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 67.6% (95% CI 62.4-72.8) overall and 85.1% (95% CI 80.2-90.1) in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (pOR) indicate the primary caregiver was an important determinant of breastfeeding (adopted parent vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07; other vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and having access to a community birthing facility were also potentially important, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey indicate breastfeeding is initiated for more than two-thirds of children, but rates are below the national average and this may be one of several pathways to poor health outcomes documented in many Inuit communities. Considered in the particular context of birthing facilities utilization and postnatal care arrangements in Inuit communities, these results suggest that increasing breastfeeding initiation will require health interventions that effectively engage all types of primary caregivers.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of intravertebral enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scans in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasselet, Benjamin [Medical Imaging Department and Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Larbi, Ahmed; Viala, Pierre [Medical Imaging Department, Nimes University Hospital, 4 rue du Professeur Robert Debré, 30029 Nîmes (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Tetreau, Raphael [Medical Imaging Department, Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM), 208 Avenue des Apothicaires, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie [Medical Imaging Department, Toulouse University Hospital, Place du Docteur Baylac, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Taourel, Patrice [Medical Imaging Department and Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Cyteval, Catherine, E-mail: c-cyteval@chu-montpellier.fr [Medical Imaging Department and Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • 2.8% of collateral venous circulation seen on CT scan in a cancer population. • 37% of intravertebral enhancement in this population with collateral venous circulation. • 80.8% of intravertebral enhancements are located between C6 and. • 73% of intravertebral enhancements are located ipsilateral to the injection side. -  Abstract: Study design: This was a single center, retrospective observational study. Objective: to investigate—in a cancer population—the prevalence and hallmarks of intravertebral enhancement (IVE) detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Summary of background data: Intravertebral enhancements secondary to iodinated contrast stagnation have been described. Cancer patients have an increased risk of perivertebral venous thrombosis or stenosis secondary to several risk factors (cancer or drug induced hypercoagulability, deterioration of venous flow linked to catheter insertion, prolonged immobilization). In case of a high density lesion identified on CT, the diagnostic choice between metastasis and contrast media within bone marrow vessels may be an issue, especially as oncologic follow-up CT scans are usually performed with contrast medium injection. Methods: 2572 contrast-enhanced body CT scans performed in cancer patients over 3 months in the medical imaging department of a university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. IVE was sought when paravertebral venous collateral circulation was detected and bone metastasis ruled out and classified as linear or nodular. Their locations within vertebra, their relation to the injection side and the predominant collateral venous network side were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven (2.8%) patients had a collateral paravertebral venous system and among them 21 had IVE (37%). There were 208 IVE locations involving 75 vertebrae. 199 IVE were linear-shaped (95.7%) and 9 nodular-shaped (4.3%). 80.8% were located between C6 and T4. 88.9% were localized in the vertebral body. 73.1% were located

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of intravertebral enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scans in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasselet, Benjamin; Larbi, Ahmed; Viala, Pierre; Molinari, Nicolas; Tetreau, Raphael; Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie; Taourel, Patrice; Cyteval, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 2.8% of collateral venous circulation seen on CT scan in a cancer population. • 37% of intravertebral enhancement in this population with collateral venous circulation. • 80.8% of intravertebral enhancements are located between C6 and. • 73% of intravertebral enhancements are located ipsilateral to the injection side. -  Abstract: Study design: This was a single center, retrospective observational study. Objective: to investigate—in a cancer population—the prevalence and hallmarks of intravertebral enhancement (IVE) detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Summary of background data: Intravertebral enhancements secondary to iodinated contrast stagnation have been described. Cancer patients have an increased risk of perivertebral venous thrombosis or stenosis secondary to several risk factors (cancer or drug induced hypercoagulability, deterioration of venous flow linked to catheter insertion, prolonged immobilization). In case of a high density lesion identified on CT, the diagnostic choice between metastasis and contrast media within bone marrow vessels may be an issue, especially as oncologic follow-up CT scans are usually performed with contrast medium injection. Methods: 2572 contrast-enhanced body CT scans performed in cancer patients over 3 months in the medical imaging department of a university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. IVE was sought when paravertebral venous collateral circulation was detected and bone metastasis ruled out and classified as linear or nodular. Their locations within vertebra, their relation to the injection side and the predominant collateral venous network side were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven (2.8%) patients had a collateral paravertebral venous system and among them 21 had IVE (37%). There were 208 IVE locations involving 75 vertebrae. 199 IVE were linear-shaped (95.7%) and 9 nodular-shaped (4.3%). 80.8% were located between C6 and T4. 88.9% were localized in the vertebral body. 73.1% were located

  14. Evaluation of outpatients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting in Ethiopia: clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchfeld, Judith; Aderaye, Getachew; Palme, Ingela Berggren; Bjorvatn, Bjarne; Britton, Sven; Feleke, Yewenhareg; Källenius, Gunilla; Lindquist, Lars

    2002-01-01

    In a setting with a high prevalence of HIV we studied (i) the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and HIV; (ii) clinical and epidemiological characteristics of PTB; and (iii) the usefulness of standard procedures for diagnosing PTB. Of 509 consecutive outpatients evaluated on clinical suspicion of PTB in Addis Ababa, 33.0% were culture-verified as having PTB. PTB patients, non-TB patients and controls were HIV-1-positive in 57.1%, 38.5% and 8.3% of cases, respectively. Predictors for culture-verified PTB were age infection. Diagnosis of PTB based on clinical symptoms, sputum microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and chest radiography was sensitive (86.7%) but unspecific (64.1%). In HIV-positive patients both sensitivity and specificity were significantly lower (p infections are often misinterpreted as smear-negative PTB. HIV screening is therefore warranted not only in cases of verified TB but also as part of the diagnostic work-up in patients with respiratory symptoms suggestive of PTB. Also, increased awareness of, and improved diagnostic tools for, HIV-related pulmonary infections other than PTB are required, together with algorithms for patients with suspected PTB.

  15. Prevalence of fibromyalgia among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: relationship to viral characteristics and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ausaf; Carey, John J; Storan, Eoin; Scarry, Margaret; Coughlan, Robert J; Lee, John M

    2012-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in a cohort of subjects with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the relationship to subject demographics, viral characteristics, and quality of life. In a cross-sectional study of a cohort of HCV-infected individuals, all subjects underwent a standard assessment including history, clinical examination, and functional assessments for pain and disability. A total of 185 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Median age was 48.7 years, and 110 (59%) were women. A total of 106 (57%) of the subjects met criteria for the presence of FMS. Widespread pain and ≥11 tender points were present in all of the subjects with FMS, fatigue in 98 (92%), and depression in 60 (57%). Among those with FMS, mean pain score was 70±11.78 and 36% reported some functional impairment on (HAQ-DI>0), with 17% reporting moderate-to-severe functional impairment (HAQ-DI≥1.5). This study reveals a high prevalence of FMS (57%) among subjects with chronic HCV infection, one third of whom reported some degree of functional impairment. Recognition and management of this condition in such patients will help improve their quality of life.

  16. Prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder among psychiatric outpatients with mood, anxiety or somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Job; van Rood, Yanda R; van der Wee, Nic J; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; Zitman, Frans G

    2012-09-01

    To describe the prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) compared with other psychiatric outpatients with a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Outpatients referred for treatment of a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder were routinely assessed at intake. A structured interview (MINI-Plus), observer-based and self-rating instruments were administered by an independent assessor. Among our sample of 3798 referred patients, 2947 patients were diagnosed with at least one DSM-IV mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Of these patients 1.8% (n = 54) met the diagnostic criteria for BDD. In comparison with other outpatients, patients with BDD were on average younger, less often married and were more often living alone. Highly prevalent comorbid diagnoses were major depression (in 46.3% of cases), social anxiety disorder (in 35.2% of cases) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (in 16.7% of cases). Furthermore, patients with BDD had higher scores on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) as well as lower scores on the Short Form 36 social role functioning. BDD is frequently associated with depression, social phobia and OCD. Patients with BDD have more distress and more impaired interpersonal functioning.

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ulibarri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pprevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan.

  20. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of women with induced abortion in a population sample of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Goulart Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims at estimating the prevalence of women with induced abortion among women of childbearing age (15-49 years who had any previous pregnancy, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last quarter of 2008, and identifying the sociodemographic characteristics (SC associated with it. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The dependent variable was dichotomized as: no abortion and induced abortion. The independent variables were: age, paid work/activity, familial monthly income, schooling, marital status, contraceptive use and number of live births. Statistical analysis was performed using log-binomial regression models with approximation of Poisson to estimate the prevalance ratios (PR. Results: Of all women with any previous pregnancy (n = 683, 4.5% (n = 31 reported induced abortion. The final multivariate model showed that having now between 40 and 44 years (PR = 2.76, p = 0.0043, being single (PR = 2.79, p = 0.0159, having 5 or more live births (PR = 3.97, p = 0.0013, current oral contraception or IUD use (PR = 2.70, p = 0.454 and using a "non effective" (or of low efficacy contraceptive method (PR = 4.18, p = 0.0009 were sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion in this population. Conclusions: Induced abortion seems to be used to limit fertility, more precisely after having reached the desired number of children. The inadequate use or non-use of effective contraceptive methods, and / or the use of contraceptives " non effective", exposed also the women to the risk of unintended pregnancies and, therefore, induced abortions. In addition, when faced with a pregnancy, single women were more likely to have an abortion than married women.

  1. Sarcocystis spp. in domestic sheep in Kunming City, China: prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep (Ovis aries are intermediate hosts for at least six named species of Sarcocystis: S. tenella, S. arieticanis, S. gigantea, S. medusiformis, S. mihoensis, and S. microps. Here, only two species, S. tenella and S. arieticanis, were found in 79 of 86 sheep (91.9% in Kunming, China, based on their morphological characteristics. Four genetic markers, i.e., 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene, mitochondrial cox1 gene, and ITS-1 region, were sequenced and characterized for the two species of Sarcocystis. Sequences of the three former markers for S. tenella shared high identities with those of S. capracanis in goats, i.e., 99.0%, 98.3%, and 93.6%, respectively; the same three marker sequences of S. arieticanis shared high identities with those of S. hircicanis in goats, i.e., 98.5%, 96.5%, and 92.5%, respectively. No sequences in GenBank were found to significantly resemble the ITS-1 regions of S. tenella and S. arieticanis. Identities of the four genetic markers for S. tenella and S. arieticanis were 96.3%, 95.4%, 82.5%, and 66.2%, respectively.

  2. Sarcocystis spp. in domestic sheep in Kunming City, China: prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Huang, Si; Wen, Tao; Esch, Gerald W; Liang, Yu; Li, Hong-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are intermediate hosts for at least six named species of Sarcocystis: S. tenella, S. arieticanis, S. gigantea, S. medusiformis, S. mihoensis, and S. microps. Here, only two species, S. tenella and S. arieticanis, were found in 79 of 86 sheep (91.9%) in Kunming, China, based on their morphological characteristics. Four genetic markers, i.e., 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene, mitochondrial cox1 gene, and ITS-1 region, were sequenced and characterized for the two species of Sarcocystis. Sequences of the three former markers for S. tenella shared high identities with those of S. capracanis in goats, i.e., 99.0%, 98.3%, and 93.6%, respectively; the same three marker sequences of S. arieticanis shared high identities with those of S. hircicanis in goats, i.e., 98.5%, 96.5%, and 92.5%, respectively. No sequences in GenBank were found to significantly resemble the ITS-1 regions of S. tenella and S. arieticanis. Identities of the four genetic markers for S. tenella and S. arieticanis were 96.3%, 95.4%, 82.5%, and 66.2%, respectively. © J.-J. Hu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  3. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Fibromyalgia in the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    Full Text Available Most knowledge of fibromyalgia comes from the clinical setting, where healthcare-seeking behavior and selection issues influence study results. The characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population have not been studied in detail.We developed and tested surrogate study specific criteria for fibromyalgia in rheumatology practices using variables from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the modification (for surveys of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR preliminary fibromyalgia criteria. The surrogate criteria were applied to the 2012 NHIS and identified persons who satisfied criteria from symptom data. The NHIS weighted sample of 8446 persons represents 225.7 million US adults.Fibromyalgia was identified in 1.75% (95% CI 1.42, 2.07, or 3.94 million persons. However, 73% of identified cases self-reported a physician's diagnosis other than fibromyalgia. Identified cases had high levels of self-reported pain, non-pain symptoms, comorbidity, psychological distress, medical costs, Social Security and work disability. Caseness was associated with gender, education, ethnicity, citizenship and unhealthy behaviors. Demographics, behaviors, and comorbidity were predictive of case status. Examination of the surrogate polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD of the 2010 ACR criteria found fibromyalgia symptoms extending through the full length of the scale.Persons identified with criteria-based fibromyalgia have severe symptoms, but most (73% have not received a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The association of fibromyalgia-like symptoms over the full length of the PSD scale with physiological as well as mental stressors suggests PSD may be a universal response variable rather than one restricted to fibromyalgia.

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Work Anxiety in Medical Rehabilitation Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Jöbges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate frequency, type, and characteristics of work anxieties in patients with somatic illness. Cross-sectional observation study. Neurology, orthopedic, and cardiology rehabilitation clinics. Patients (N=1610; age, 18-65y) with work anxieties. Not applicable. Patients who scored high on at least 2 of 9 items in the work-anxiety screening questionnaire and who reported impairment were investigated with a differential diagnostic interview on work anxieties and with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview on non-work-related common mental disorders. Patients also filled out a self-rating questionnaire on their subjective symptom load and sociodemographic data. Approximately 20% to 27% of the investigated inpatients in somatic rehabilitation (altogether n=393) received a work-anxiety diagnosis. Patients with orthopedic illness report highest work anxiety and have previous longest sick leave (20.6wk in the past 12mo). Patients with orthopedic illness suffer from work-related adjustment disorder with anxiety, social anxieties, and workplace phobias, whereas patients with cardiac illness are more often affected by hypochondriac anxieties. Anxieties of insufficiency and worrying occur equally in all indications. About a quarter of patients in somatic rehabilitation are in need of additional diagnostic attention owing to work anxieties. Differential diagnostic of work anxiety is needed for initiating adequate therapeutic action. Somatic rehabilitation physicians should be aware of work anxieties in their patients, especially in patients with orthopedic illness with previous long-term sick leave. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Sun Protection Use and Sunburn and Association of Demographic and Behaviorial Characteristics With Sunburn Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Ding, Helen; Guy, Gery P; Watson, Meg; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary. Data analysis was performed from August 16, 2016, to September 6, 2017. The prevalence of sunburn and use of sun protection and their association with demographic characteristics, sun sensitivity, and health-related behaviors and conditions using multivariable logistic regression modeling. A total of 31 162 respondents (mean [SD] age, 47.0 [0.36] years; 13 932 male [44.7%] and 17 230 female [55.3%]) were included in the analyses, with 34.2% experiencing sunburn in 2015. Sunburn prevalence was higher among younger age groups (51.2% in adults 18-29 years old; 95% CI, 48.8%-53.7%), non-Hispanic white individuals (42.5%; 95% CI, 41.2%-43.9%), and those with sun-sensitive skin (50.2%). However, sunburn was also prevalent among black (13.2%; 95% CI, 11.6%-15.1%) and Hispanic (29.7%; 95% CI, 27.6%-31.9%) individuals, demographic groups that are often considered to be at low risk of skin cancer. The most frequent sun protection behaviors were staying in the shade (37.1%; 95% CI, 36.3%-38.0%) and using sunscreen (31.5%; 95% CI, 30.7%-32.3%) followed by wearing long clothing to the ankles (28.4%; 95% CI, 27.6-29.1). Sun avoidance behaviors (seeking shade and not going in the sun) were significantly (39.5% vs 35.1%; P sunburn. Those who used self-applied sunless tanning

  6. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products and its comparison with isolates from listeriosis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Luo, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Deng, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Miao, Yimao; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Xi; Liu, Xiang; Sun, Songsong; Xiao, Bo; Li, Qun; Ye, Changyun

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products in Zigong City, China. The overall occurrence of the L. monocytogenes in the ready-to-eat (RTE) shops and mutton restaurants surveyed was 16.2% (141/873). An occurrence of 13.5% was observed in RTE pork, 6.5% in RTE vegetables, and more than 24.0% in either cooked mutton or cooked haggis. Serotype 1/2b (45.4%), 1/2a (33.3%), and 1/2c (14.2%) were the predominant types. By comparing the clonal complexes (CCs) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the L. monocytogenes from cooked foods in Zigong City and 33 listeriosis cases from different districts of China, CC87, CC9, CC8, and CC3 were showed to be prevalent in cooked products and CC87 and CC3 were the first two frequent types in the 33 clinic-source strains. All CC87 stains harbored the newly reported Listeria pathogenicity island 4 (LIPI-4) gene fragment ptsA, and all CC3 strains possessed the Listeria pathogenicity island 3 (LIPI-3) gene fragment llsX. These may increase the occurrence of the strains belonging to CC87 and CC3 in listeriosis cases in China and also underline the risk of infection owing to the consumption of the cooked products from Zigong. ST619 (serotype 1/2b) harbored both llsX and ptsA, indicating a potential hypervirulent sequence type in Zigong.

  7. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of coronavirus NL63 infection in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Bing; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhao, Xin; Zhong, Li-Li; Zhou, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yun-De; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human coronavirus NL63 infection in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in Changsha. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) samples were collected from 1185 hospitalized children with ALRTI at the People's Hospital of Hunan province, between September 2008 and October 2010. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to screen for coronavirus NL63, which is a 255 bp fragment of a part of N gene. All positive amplification products were confirmed by sequencing and compared with those in GenBank. The overall frequency of coronavirus NL63 infection was 0.8%, 6 (60%) out of the coronavirus NL63 positive patients were detected in summer, 2 in autumn, 1 in spring and winter, respectively. The patients were from 2 months to two and a half years old. The clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia (60%), bronchiolitis (30%), and acute laryngotracheal bronchitis (10%). Four of the 10 cases had critical illness, 4 cases had underlying diseases, and 7 cases had mixed infection with other viruses. The homogeneity of coronavirus NL63 with those published in the GenBank at nucleotide levels was 97%-100%. Coronavirus NL63 infection exists in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 infections are common in children under 3 years of age. There is significant difference in the infection rate between the boys and the girls: the boys had higher rate than the girls. The peak of prevalence of the coronavirus NL63 was in summer. A single genetic lineage of coronavirus NL63 was revealed in human subjects in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 may also be one of the lower respiratory pathogen in China.

  8. Prevalence, enumeration and pheno- and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China

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    Moutong eChen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause serious illness in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, the elderly, and newborns. The aim of this study was to: (i evaluate the prevalence and contamination level (most probable number, MPN of L. monocytogenes in 567 retail raw foods (fishery products, n=154; raw/fresh meat, n=123; frozen foods, n=110; edible fungi, n=108; vegetables, n=72 collected from South China and (ii to gain further knowledge on the phenotype and genotype distributions of this important foodborne pathogen. Approximately 22% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The contamination levels were between 0.3 and 10 MPN/g in 75.0%, between 10 and 100 MPN/g in 11.0% and less than 100 MPN/g in 14.0% of the countable samples. Five serogroups were identified among the177 foodborne L. monocytogenes isolates, with1/2a-3a (42.4% and1/2b-3b (26.0% serogroups being the most dominant. Serogroup I.1 and II.2 were only found in the edible mushrooms, while serogroup III was dominant in the fishery products, suggesting that specific serogroups of L. monocytogenes may have distinct ecological niches. Ten (5.6% L. monocytogenes isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Genetic relatedness analysis revealed the absence of distinct associations between specific food types, antibiotic resistance, serogroups, and genetic diversity. The present study provided the first baseline data on the prevalence, contamination level, and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China. Some multidrug resistant strains belonged to the epidemiologically important serogroups (I.1 and II.1, implying a potential public health risk. In addition, these findings also provide basic information for the Chinese food safety associated authorities to draft appropriate standards to control L. monocytogenes contamination and improve microbiological safety of raw foods.

  9. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O'Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-02-19

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥ 8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥ 3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Mental stress-induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress-induced ischemia (all p mental stress-induced ischemia (all p Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the 10thmost common malignancy and the 4thlargest cancer killer in adults. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, with the aim to compare these research findings to similar studies made in the developed countries. This is a retrospective research study done during the period of 2011-2015. Materials and Methodology: This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, examined in the period of 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The imaging diagnostics are performed with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens, MSCT Emotion 6 Siemens, and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens, biopsy guide with MSCT Sensation 64 Siemens in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK; while the histopathology diagnostics has been performed in Clinic of Pathology at UCCK and prevalence is taken from the number of cases Reported at the Institute of Oncology Institute of Statistics and NIPH (National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo). Results: Out of a total of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreas cancer, results is female 39.5% (n=143) and male 61.5% (n=219), report M: F (1: 1.6), 286 cases resulted in head and neck 79 % (n=286), 76 cases resulted in body and tail cancers (21%), distant metastases in first imaging modality were found in(n=155) patients 43 %, local infiltration was found in patients: gastric infiltration 15 % (n=54), duodenal and papilla infiltration 26% (n=94), local infiltration spleen 16% (n=57), local infiltration mesentery 43 % (n= 155), dilated biliary tree 34 % (n=123), regional lymph node infiltration 83 % (n= 300). Out of a total

  11. Dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos: prevalência e características Chronic pain in schizophrenic patients: prevalence and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de dor crônica entre pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos é, possivelmente, no mínimo igual à encontrada entre a população geral. Para estimar a prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes com esquizofrenia, comparar os grupos com e sem dor crônica e caracterizar a dor foi realizado um estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 205 pacientes adultos, com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia (idade média 37 anos; 65% homens; média de escolaridade de nove anos; 87% sem companheiro(a; 65% residentes com os pais, atendidos em hospital público do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. A prevalência de dor foi de 36,6%; a dor foi mais presente no abdômen (30,7%, seguida da dor de cabeça, face e boca (24% e região lombar, sacra e cóccix (14,7%. Com relação à freqüência, 24% dos entrevistados referiram ter dor todos os dias. O tempo médio de dor foi de 41 meses, com intensidade moderada. A prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos foi semelhante à encontrada para a população geral, e o quadro álgico foi significativo em termos de duração, intensidade e freqüência dos episódios dolorosos.Chronic pain may be at least as prevalent in psychiatric patients as in the general population. To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients, compare the groups with and without chronic pain, and characterize the pain, a cross-sectional study was performed on a probabilistic sample of 205 adult patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (mean age 37 years; 65% men; mean schooling nine years; 87% single; 65% living with parents, treated at a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of pain was 36.6%, and the most frequent sites were abdomen (30.7%, head, face, and mouth (24%, and lower back (14.7%. Twenty-four percent of patients reported feeling pain every day. Mean duration of pain was 41 months, with moderate intensity. Prevalence of chronic pain in

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of young adult smokers in the U.S. in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mary E; Sabado, Melanie; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-09-01

    The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809). We applied weighted multiple logistic regression models to examine the associations between demographics, tobacco use behaviors, exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco messages, and the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. 59.0% of U.S. young adult smokers are in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Unemployment was positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 1.42 95% CI = 1.05, 1.91). Smoking every day (vs. some days), more cigarettes smoked per day, using roll-your-own cigarettes (vs. manufactured cigarettes only), currently smoking cigars, and signing up for promotional offers were positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (p Non-Hispanic Black was negatively associated with precontemplation stage (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.59). Not smoking after viewing a health warning on a cigarette pack was negatively associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.51). Many U.S. young adult smokers classify as being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Interventions to motivate these smokers to quit smoking with considerations of their specific characteristics (e.g., being unemployed) are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Complications of Supernumerary Teeth in Nonsyndromic Pediatric Population of South India: A Clinical and Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syriac, Gibi; Joseph, Elizabeth; Rupesh, S; Philip, John; Cherian, Sunu Alice; Mathew, Josey

    2017-11-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the presence of more number of teeth over the normal dental formula and may occur in permanent as well as early mixed dentition. This study determined the prevalence, characteristics, and complications caused by supernumerary teeth in nonsyndromic South Indian pediatric population. Characteristics of supernumerary teeth determined by clinical and radiographic examination were recorded. The age, sex, number of supernumerary teeth, eruption status, morphology, position, orientation, and complications (if any) associated with supernumerary teeth were recorded for each patient who had supernumerary teeth. The data collected were statistically analyzed. Supernumerary teeth were detected in 45 subjects (1.1%), of which 34 (75.6%) were male and 11 (24.4%) were female. There was no association between the number of supernumerary teeth and the gender of the patient. The total number of supernumerary teeth among the affected 45 patients was 54. The average number of supernumerary teeth per person was 1.2. The number of supernumerary teeth was one in 35 cases, two in 8 cases, and 3 in 1 case. Of the 45 patients, 8 patients with supernumerary teeth were in deciduous dentition stage, 29 patients were in mixed dentition stage, and 8 patients were in permanent dentition stage. Most supernumerary teeth presented in the anterior maxilla. Morphologically, conical-shaped supernumerary teeth were the most common finding. 68.5% of supernumerary teeth presented with straight orientation and inverted orientation was seen in 24.1%. Complications seen in patients with supernumerary teeth were delayed or noneruption of adjacent tooth malposition or rotation of adjacent teeth, diastema formation, and formation of dentigerous cyst. Supernumerary teeth have an incidence of 1.1% in South Indian population and can cause many complications that can harm the developing occlusion. Knowledge about supernumerary teeth may help the dentist in early diagnosis and early

  14. Prevalence of nursing diagnosis of decreased cardiac output and the predictive value of defining characteristics in patients under evaluation for heart transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Lígia Neres; Guimarães, Tereza Cristina Felippe; Brandão, Marcos Antônio Gomes; Santoro, Deyse Conceição

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to identify the prevalence of defining characteristics (DC) of decreased cardiac output (DCO) in patients with cardiac insufficiency under evaluation for heart transplantation, and to ascertain the likelihood of defining characteristics being predictive factors for the existence of reduction in cardiac output. Data was obtained by retrospective documental analysis of the clinical records of right-sided heart catheterizations in 38 patients between 2004 and 2009....

  15. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  16. Tears at the rotator cuff footprint: Prevalence and imaging characteristics in 305 MR arthrograms of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Wolf, Petra

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, imaging characteristics and anatomical distribution of tears at the rotator cuff (RC) footprint with MR arthrography (MR-A) of the shoulder. MR arthrograms obtained in 305 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Partial articular-sided supraspinatus tendon avulsions (PASTA), concealed interstitial delaminations (CID), reverse PASTA lesions and full-thickness tears (FT) at the humeral tendon insertion were depicted. Anatomical locations were determined and depths of tears were classified. 112/305 patients showed RC tears, including 63 patients with 68 footprint tears. 34 PASTA lesions were detected with 20/34 involving the anterior supraspinatus (SSP) tendon and 17/34 PASTA lesions were grade I lesions. Most CID lesions (14/23) occurred at the posterior SSP and 20/23 were classified as grade I or II. 9 FT and 2 reverse PASTA lesions were found. Statistical analysis revealed no difference in anatomical location (p = 0.903) and no correlation with overhead sports activity (p = 0.300) or history of trauma (p=0.928). There were significantly more PASTA lesions in patients <40 years of age (p = 0.029). Most RC tears detected with MR-A involve the SSP footprint and are articular-sided with predominance in younger patients, but concealed lesions are not as uncommon as previously thought. (orig.)

  17. Tears at the rotator cuff footprint: Prevalence and imaging characteristics in 305 MR arthrograms of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Wolf, Petra [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the prevalence, imaging characteristics and anatomical distribution of tears at the rotator cuff (RC) footprint with MR arthrography (MR-A) of the shoulder. MR arthrograms obtained in 305 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Partial articular-sided supraspinatus tendon avulsions (PASTA), concealed interstitial delaminations (CID), reverse PASTA lesions and full-thickness tears (FT) at the humeral tendon insertion were depicted. Anatomical locations were determined and depths of tears were classified. 112/305 patients showed RC tears, including 63 patients with 68 footprint tears. 34 PASTA lesions were detected with 20/34 involving the anterior supraspinatus (SSP) tendon and 17/34 PASTA lesions were grade I lesions. Most CID lesions (14/23) occurred at the posterior SSP and 20/23 were classified as grade I or II. 9 FT and 2 reverse PASTA lesions were found. Statistical analysis revealed no difference in anatomical location (p = 0.903) and no correlation with overhead sports activity (p = 0.300) or history of trauma (p=0.928). There were significantly more PASTA lesions in patients <40 years of age (p = 0.029). Most RC tears detected with MR-A involve the SSP footprint and are articular-sided with predominance in younger patients, but concealed lesions are not as uncommon as previously thought. (orig.)

  18. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dry eye disease in community-based type 2 diabetic patients: the Beixinjing eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xinrong; Lu, Lina; Xu, Yi; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Jiangnan; Zhang, Bo; Zou, Haidong

    2018-05-10

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) in community-based type 2 diabetic patients and to identify the associated factors related with DED. A total of 1360 type 2 diabetic patients in the Beixinjing community were randomly selected. All participants were given a questionnaire that assessed basic information and subjective symptoms.DED was diagnosed using the revised Japanese DED diagnostic criteria. All subjects underwent a routine ophthalmic examination, corneal sensitivity test, tear film break-up time(BUT) test, Schirmer I test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining(FL) and fundus photography. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded according to the International severity scale of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Of the 1360 subjects, 238 (17.5%) were diagnosed with DED. There was a significant association between the presence of DED and higher blood glucose (P dry eye examination should be added to the routine screening of diabetes.

  19. Trading Sex for Money or Compensation: Prevalence and Associated Characteristics from a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Clinic Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara B; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Plax, Katie; Kaushik, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and individual risk factors of people who trade or sell sex among sexually active individuals seeking HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Using electronic agency records, an analysis of the characteristics of 5,029 youth and adults who voluntarily obtained HIV and STI testing was conducted. Multiple imputation procedures for missing data from 3 variables and logistic regression were conducted. A total of 128 individuals reported having traded sex. Nine variables had statistically significant associations with trading sex. Individuals who identified as White and female had lesser odds of trading sex, whereas individuals who were transgender, were living in a shelter, had been sexually assaulted, had a previous STI, had high-risk sex, or used drugs had greater odds of trading sex. Elevated levels of high-risk behavior in addition to sexual trauma should be considered in intervention research and community health practice. Implications for service providers and researchers are discussed.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of self-reported physical and mental disorders among adults with hearing loss in Denmark: a national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Chapman, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Existing research shows that people with hearing loss have a high risk of additional physical and mental disorders. However, only a few population-based studies have been conducted. This study assesses the prevalence and characteristics of additional disorders among adults with hearing loss...

  1. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  2. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Harlizius, J; Bressan, N; Laerberg, R; Wieler, L H; Witte, W; Deurenberg, R H; Voss, A; Becker, K; Friedrich, A W

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were

  3. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, R.; Harlizius, J.; Bressan, N.; Laerberg, R.; Wieler, L.H.; Witte, W.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Voss, A.; Becker, K.; Friedrich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs and estimate the impact of this animal reservoir on human healthcare. Nasal swabs were derived from 1,600 pigs at 40 German farms. The MRSA were

  4. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  5. The prevalence of PFS and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of UK adults aged 18-75 incorporating a validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, I J; Bull, S; Deegan, K; Gruffydd-Jones, K; Holmes, S; Small, I; Emery, P W; Durham, S R

    2013-08-01

    Pollen-food syndrome (PFS), a food allergy affecting pollen-sensitized individuals, is likely to be the most prevalent food allergy in adults, estimated to affect 50-90% of people allergic to birch tree pollen. A validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire (PFSDQ2) was used to determine the prevalence of PFS and also to characterize those who report reactions to foods. Five UK General practices each sent the PFSDQ2 by post to 2000 patients aged 18-75 years randomly selected from their practice database. The validated questionnaire was accompanied by an additional set of questions to ascertain the demographic of the population, the foods involved and the age of onset. There were 3590 subjects who returned completed questionnaires, with an average return rate from each practice of 36% (range 22-47%). Of these, 73 were diagnosed with PFS according to the questionnaire (PFS+ve) giving a population prevalence of 2%. A further 482 subjects reported reactions to foods but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for PFS. The greatest prevalence of PFS was in the Croydon (SE England) urban practice (4.1%) and the lowest in the Aberdeen (Scotland) urban practice (0.8%) (P < 0.001).The most frequently reported trigger foods were apples, hazelnuts and kiwifruit and the majority of those with PFS first experienced symptoms below the age of 20 years. PFS+ve subjects were also more likely to be female and have a higher socio-economic status than those who did not report reactions to foods. The UK prevalence of PFS was 2%, although this varied according to the location of the practice population. The majority of PFS+ve subjects first reported symptoms in their teens. The reported age of onset has important implications for the diagnosis of primary and cross-reactive peanut and tree nut allergies in teenagers and young adults. The continuing rise in aeroallergen sensitization is likely to result in an increased frequency of PFS presenting in both primary and secondary care. © 2013

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of rmtB and qepA in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting eDeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 16S rRNA methylase and QepA, a fluoroquinolone efflux pump, are new mechanisms of resistance against aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolone, respectively. One of 16S rRNA methylase genes, rmtB, was found to be associated with qepA, were both located on the same transposable element. In this study, we intended to determine the current prevalence and characteristics of the 16S rRNA methylase genes and qepA, and to study the association between rmtB and qepA. A total of 892 Escherichia coli isolates were collected from various diseased food-producing animals in China from 2004-2008 and screened by PCR for 16S rRNA methylase genes and qepA. About 12.6% (112/892 and 0.1% (1/892 of isolates that were highly resistant to amikacin were positive for rmtB and armA, respectively. The remaining five 16S rRNA methlyase genes were not detected. Thirty-six (4.0% strains carried qepA. About 32.1% of rmtB-positive strains harbored qepA, which was not detected in rmtB-negative strains. Most strains were clonally unrelated, while identical PFGE profiles of rmtB-positive isolates were found in the same farm indicating clonal transmission. Conjugation experiments showed that rmtB was transfered to the recipients, and qepA also cotransfered with rmtB in some cases. The spread of E. coli of food animal origin harboring both rmtB and qepA suggests that surveillance for antimicrobial resistance of animal origin as well as the study of the mechanisms of resistance should be undertaken.

  7. Clinical characteristics of dental emergencies and prevalence of dental trauma at a university hospital emergency center in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kyun; Choi, Yong-Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of dental emergency patients who visited a university hospital emergency center and to evaluate the incidence of dental trauma. A retrospective chart review of patients with dental complaints and who visited the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH) emergency center in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, from January 2009 to December 2009 was conducted. Information regarding age, gender, the time, day, and month of presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow up was collected and analyzed. One thousand four hundred twenty-five patients with dental problems visited the SNUBH emergency center. Dental patients accounted for 1.47% of the total 96,708 patients at the emergency center. The male-to-female ratio was 1.68:1, with a considerably larger number of male patients (62.7%). The age distribution peak was at 0-9 years (27.5%), followed by patients in their forties (14.1%). The number of patients visiting the dental emergency center peaked in May (14.2%), on Sundays (22.4%), and between 2100 and 2400 h (20.8%). The patients' chief complaints were as follows: dental trauma, dental infection, oral bleeding, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). The prevalence of dental trauma was 66%. The reasons for dental emergency visits included the following: dental trauma, dental infection, oral bleeding, and TMD, with 66% of the patients requiring management of dental trauma. It is important that dentists make a prompt, accurate diagnosis and initiate effective treatment in case of dental emergencies, especially dental trauma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hasken, Julie M; Adnams, Colleen M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences. Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%. Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; de Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Hoyme, Derek; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference ≤ 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the prevalence and characteristics of abfractionlike cervical lesions in a population of U.S. veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, B T; Gillette, W B; Hancock, E B

    2001-12-01

    Abfraction is believed to be caused by biomechanical loading forces. It may be due to flexure and ultimate fatigue of tooth tissues that occur away from the point of occlusal loading. Other possible causes of cervical lesions include toothbrush abrasion and erosion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and prevalence of abfraction-like lesions in a population of U.S. veterans. The authors evaluated 103 teeth with noncarious cervical lesions in 32 subjects and characterized them based on the surface on which the lesion was located, history of toothbrush abrasion, size of the lesion, presence of plaque, surface texture, and presence and size of occlusal wear facets. Clinical examination revealed that adjacent control teeth had a significantly lower percentage of surfaces with plaque than did teeth with cervical lesions. Control teeth also had significantly less gingival recession than did affected teeth. Seventy-five percent of subjects reported a history of using a firm toothbrush, and 78.1 percent reported using a brushing technique that is known to cause toothbrush abrasion in the affected area. Affected teeth had neither significantly different occlusal wear facets nor occlusal contacts than control teeth. No significant correlations were found between cervical lesion dimensions and facet area. Toothbrush abrasion is strongly suspected as contributing to the formation of the majority of wedge-shaped lesions in this group of subjects. A small subset of lesions is thought to have resulted from some other phenomenon. Although the presence or contribution of occlusal stresses in the direct formation of these lesions could not be measured directly, the possibility of abfraction could not be eliminated. Because the existence of abfraction could not be ruled out in about 15 percent of the cases, teeth with noncarious, wedge-shaped lesions warrant careful occlusal evaluation, with the possible need for occlusal adjustment or bitesplint therapy

  11. Men's use and perceptions of commercial lubricants: prevalence and characteristics in a nationally representative sample of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Most research on men's use of commercial lubricants during sexual activities is in the context of condom use and often specifically among men who have sex with men. Less is known about men's use of lubricants associated with a broader range of sexual experiences. The aims of this study are to document the prevalence of commercial lubricant use among adult U.S. men (age 18+), to document men's use of lubricants across solo and partnered sexual behaviors, and to assess men's perceptions of the contributions lubricants have to the sexual experience. Data are from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Sociodemographic characteristics, recent and lifetime commercial lubricant use, lubricant use during specific sexual behaviors, frequency of lubricant use, and reasons for lubricant use. Most men in the United States (70%, N = 1,014) reported having used a commercial lubricant, with men older than 24 and those in a relationship more likely to report lubricant use. About one in four men had used a lubricant in the past 30 days. Intercourse was the most common behavior during which men used lubricant, though solo masturbation and partnered sexual play were also frequently linked to lubricant use. The most common reasons for lubricant use included "to make sex more comfortable," "for fun," "curiosity," and "my partner wanted to." Most American men have used a lubricant; lubricant use is common across all age groups, and some of the most common reasons why men report using lubricants have to do with sexual enhancement, comfort, and pleasure. Clinicians may find these data helpful to their efforts to educate patients about lubricant use, comfort during sex, and sexual enhancement. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. [Comparisons of prevalence and clinical and environmental characteristics between Tibetan and Han Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, K L; Zhuo, G; Chi, H B; Lan, Z

    2017-10-10

    Objective: By the preliminary comparison study on the constituent ratio and clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Tibetan and Han women in Tibetan Plateau, we aimed to find the relevance of its pathogenic factors, and to guide the treatment of PCOS in the plateau region and improve the prognosis. Methods: The general situation and clinical data of 165 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS from December 1, 2015 to November 30, 2016 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region were analyzed retrospectively. The prevalence of PCOS among Tibetan and Han women in Tibetan Plateau were compared. Results: (1) A total of 1 520 patients were treated in the Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital gynecological endocrinology clinics in one year (Tibetan 865 cases, Han 617 cases, other ethnic groups 38 cases), of which patients with PCOS accounted for 10.9% (165/1520). (2) The incidence of Tibetan PCOS patients with oligomenorrhea, infertility, amenorrhea, acne, hairy, LH/FSH inverted, overweight (BMI≥24), and waist circumference >80 cm were 21.2% (35/165), 20.6% (34/165), 16.4% (27/165), 28.5% (47/165), 17% (28/165), 38.2% (63/165), 23.6% (39/165), and 36.4% (60/165), respectively. The incidence of Han PCOS patients with oligomenorrhea, infertility, amenorrhea, acne, hairy, LH/FSH inverted, overweight (BMI≥24), and waist circumference >80 cm were 7.9% (13/165), 10.3% (17/165), 9.1% (15/165), 15.2% (25/165), 9.7% (16/165), 14.5% (24/165), 10.9% (18/165) and 19.4% (32/165), respectively. The proportion of high testosterone in Tibetan PCOS patients was higher than that in Han PCOS patients with statistically significant. (3) The chief complaint of Tibetan PCOS patients were oligomenorrhea and infertility, and the chief complaint of Han PCOS patients were infertility and amenorrhea. (4) The constituent ratio of outpatient clinics in Nyingchi who were with PCOS at an average elevation of about 3

  13. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  14. Prevalence of congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness in Australian Cattle Dogs and associations with coat characteristics and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerlad Susan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital hereditary sensorineural deafness (CHSD occurs in many dog breeds, including Australian Cattle Dogs. In some breeds, CHSD is associated with a lack of cochlear melanocytes in the stria vascularis, certain coat characteristics, and potentially, abnormalities in neuroepithelial pigment production. This study investigates phenotypic markers for CHSD in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs. Results Auditory function was tested in 899 Australian Cattle Dogs in family groups using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. Coat colour and patterns, facial and body markings, gender and parental hearing status were recorded. Deafness prevalence among all 899 dogs was 10.8% with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.3% bilaterally deaf, and amongst pups from completely tested litters (n = 696 was 11.1%, with 7.5% unilaterally deaf, and 3.6% bilaterally deaf. Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed a negative association between deafness and bilateral facial masks (odds ratio 0.2; P ≤ 0.001. Using multivariable logistic animal modelling, the risk of deafness was lower in dogs with pigmented body spots (odds ratio 0.4; P = 0.050. No significant associations were found between deafness and coat colour. Within unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral facial masks, no association was observed between the side of deafness and side of mask. The side of unilateral deafness was not significantly clustered amongst unilaterally deaf dogs from the same litter. Females were at increased risk of deafness (odds ratio from a logistic animal model 1.9; P = 0.034 after adjusting for any confounding by mask type and pigmented body spots. Conclusions Australian Cattle Dogs suffer from CHSD, and this disease is more common in dogs with mask-free faces, and in those without pigmented body patches. In unilaterally deaf dogs with unilateral masks, the lack of observed association between side of deafness and side of mask suggests that if CHSD is due to

  15. Job characteristics in relation to the prevalence of myocardial infarction in the US Health Examination Survey (HES) and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, R A; Theorell, T; Schwartz, J E; Schnall, P L; Pieper, C F; Michela, J L

    1988-08-01

    Associations between psychosocial job characteristics and past myocardial infarction (MI) prevalence for employed males were tested with the Health Examination Survey (HES) 1960-61, N = 2,409, and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) 1971-75, N = 2,424. A new estimation method is used which imputes to census occupation codes, job characteristic information from national surveys of job characteristics (US Department of Labor, Quality of Employment Surveys). Controlling for age, we find that employed males with jobs which are simultaneously low in decision latitude and high in psychological work load (a multiplicative product term isolating 20 per cent of the population) have a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction in both data bases. In a logistic regression analysis, using job measures adjusted for demographic factors and controlling for age, race, education, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking (HANES only), and physical exertion, we find a low decision latitude/high psychological demand multiplicative product term associated with MI in both data bases. Additional multiple logistic regressions show that low decision latitude is associated with increased prevalence of MI in both the HES and the HANES. Psychological workload and physical exertion are significant only in the HANES.

  16. Prevalence and incidence of memory complaints in employed compared to non-employed aged 55-64 years and the role of employment characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Rijs

    Full Text Available To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC in 55-64-year-olds.Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525 and employment characteristics (n = 1071 with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline. Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526 and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up. Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits. Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population.At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC.Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55-64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work.

  17. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Molyko and Bomaka, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoh, Fuh Anold; Wung, Buh Amos; Atashili, Julius; Benjamin, Pokam Thumamo; Marvlyn, Eba; Ivo, Keumami Katte; Nguedia, Assob Jules Clément

    2016-11-08

    Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells). Each sample was subjected to physicochemical examinations (pH, turbidity, odour and sliminess) and parasitological analysis (wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) to determine the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa. A data collection tool was used to note characteristics of collected samples and the data was analysed using EPI-INFO Version 3.5.3. The overall prevalence of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources was 62.6 %. Eight species of enteric protozoa were observed with Cryptosporidium parvum being the most predominant (45.8 %). Spring water was the most contaminated source with enteric protozoa (85.7 %) while pipe borne water had all eight species of protozoa identified. A pH of 6 was the only significant factor associated with the prevalence of these pathogens in water sources. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in water sources in Molyko and Bomaka is high, spring water is the most contaminated water source and Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common protozoa contaminating water. A water pH of 6 is associated to the prevalence of protozoa. Community members need to be educated to treat water before drinking to avoid infection by enteric protozoa in water and further studies with larger samples of water need to be conducted to find other correlates of the presence of protozoa in water.

  18. Prevalence Rates of Work Organization Characteristics Among Workers in the U.S.: Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by demographic characteristics, and industry and occupation of current/recent employment. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, of which 65% were current/recent workers. Among adults who worked in the past 12 months, 18.7% worked 48 hr or more per week, 7.2% worked 60 hr or more per week, 18.7% had non-standard work arrangements, 7.2% were in temporary positions, and 28.7% worked an alternative shift. Conclusions Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics are provided. These national estimates can be used to help occupational health professionals and employers to identify emerging occupational safety and health risks, allow researchers to examine associations with health, and use the data for benchmarking. PMID:22911666

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among 4-Year-Old Children in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Bilder, Deborah A; Zahorodny, Walter; Pettygrove, Sydney; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Rice, Catherine; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Baio, Jon; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) facilitates timely access to intervention services. Yet, few population-based data exist on ASD identification among preschool-aged children. The authors aimed to describe ASD prevalence and characteristics among 4-year-old children in 5 of 11 sites participating in the 2010 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Children with ASD were identified through screening of health and education records for ASD indicators, data abstraction and compilation for each child, and clinician review of records. ASD prevalence estimates, ages at first evaluation and ASD diagnosis, cognitive test scores, and demographics were compared for 4-year-old children and 8-year-old children living in the same areas. Among 58,467 children in these 5 sites, 4-year-old ASD prevalence was 13.4 per 1000, which was 30% lower than 8-year-old ASD prevalence. Prevalence of ASD without cognitive impairment was 40% lower among 4-year-olds compared with 8-year-olds, but prevalence of ASD with cognitive impairment was 20% higher among 4-year-olds compared with 8-year-olds. Among 4-year-olds with ASD, female and non-Hispanic white children were more likely to receive their first comprehensive evaluation by age 36 months compared with male and non-Hispanic black children, respectively. Among children diagnosed with ASD by age 48 months, median age at first comprehensive evaluation was 27 months for 4-year-olds compared with 32 months for 8-year-olds. Population-based ASD surveillance among 4-year-old children provides valuable information about the early identification of children with ASD and suggests progression toward lowering the age of first ASD evaluation within participating Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring communities.

  20. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  1. Individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning in a forensic addiction treatment centre: Prevalence and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding substance-related problems and offending behavior in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MBID; IQ 50-85) has increased over the last years, but is still limited. The present study examined differences in prevalence and clinical

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of MIH in school children residing in an endemic fluorosis area of India: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, R; Ramesh, M; Chalakkal, P

    2015-12-01

    This was to study the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among school children residing in a fluorosis endemic area in Tamilnadu (Salem, India). A target sample of 5000 children of age ranging between 9 and 14 years, comprising 250 children from each of 20 blocks of Salem, participated in this study. The examination was completed in their respective schools by a calibrated examiner using EAPD criteria. Of 4989 children examined, 384 children had MIH. A prevalence of 7.3 %. The MIH found in girls was 8.9 % compared with 6.1 % in boys. Single-tooth involvement of MIH was seen predominantly in incisors (2.24 %), whereas with molars usually three teeth were involved (1.1 %). MIH with caries involvement was found in 51 % of the teeth. The prevalence of MIH in the endemic fluorosis district was found to be 7.3 %. A gradual increase in MIH was seen with age due to post enamel breakdown. Caries involvement was also seen in more than 50 % of the MIH-involved teeth. This prevalence study for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is rare in the literature, especially in a fluorosis endemic district in Tamilnadu.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of vibrator use by women in the United States: results from a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debra; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Dodge, Brian; Ghassemi, Annahita; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2009-07-01

    Although vibrators are commonly recommended by clinicians as adjunct to treatment for female sexual dysfunction, and for sexual enhancement, little is known about their prevalence or correlates of use. The aim of this study was to determine the lifetime and recent prevalence of women's vibrator use during masturbation and partnered sex, and the correlates of use related to sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, and sexual function. A nationally representative sample of 3,800 women aged 18-60 years were invited to participate in a cross-sectional Internet-based survey; 2,056 (54.1%) participated. The prevalence of vibrator use, the relationship between vibrator use and physical and psychological well-being (as assessed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] Healthy Days measure) and health-promoting behaviors, the relationship between vibrator use and women's scores on the Female Sexual Function Index, and an assessment of the frequency and severity of side effects potentially associated with vibrator use. The prevalence of women's vibrator use was found to be 52.5% (95% CI 50.3-54.7%). Vibrator users were significantly more likely to have had a gynecologic exam during the past year (P health-promoting behaviors and positive sexual function, and rarely associated with side effects. Clinicians may find these data useful in responding to patients' sexual issues and recommending vibrator use to improve sexual function. Further research on the relationships between vibrator use and sexual health is warranted.

  4. Characteristic Trends in Prevalence and Use of New Synthetic "Designer" Drugs over the Territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, Azat R.; Yuldashev, Vladimir L.; Galeeva, Elena Kh.; Achmetova, Elvina A.; Nikolaev, Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of this study has become vivid in the light of the growing problem of prevalence and use of new synthetic drug types, incidence rate of comorbid states, and pathomorphism of psychoactive substances consumption. The aim of this paper consists in analysis and disclosure of the research data obtained on consumption of such designer drugs…

  5. Prevalence, sleep characteristics, and comorbidities in a population at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea: A nationwide questionnaire study in South Korea.

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    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence, sleep characteristics, and comorbidities associated with a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in the Korean adult population.We analyzed data from 2,740 subjects who responded to a nationwide questionnaire survey of sleep characteristics. Those who qualified under two or more symptom categories of the Berlin questionnaire were defined as "at high risk for OSA". We investigated their socio-demographic information, sleep habits, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors and consequences significantly associated with a high risk for OSA.The prevalence of a high risk for OSA was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.5-17.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age (≥ 70 years, odds ratio [OR] 2.68 and body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 (OR 10.75 were significantly related with a high risk for OSA, whereas regular physical activity (OR 0.70 had a protective effect. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with a high risk for OSA were perceived insufficient sleep (OR 1.49, excessive daytime sleepiness (OR 1.88, and insomnia (OR 3.70. In addition, hypertension (OR 5.83, diabetes mellitus (OR 2.54, hyperlipidemia (OR 2.85, and anxiety (OR 1.63 were comorbid conditions independently associated with a high risk for OSA.This is the first study to demonstrate the prevalence of a high risk for OSA in a nationwide representative sample of the Korean adult population. These findings elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of those at high risk for OSA.

  6. Estimating prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of bovine cysticercosis in Belgium in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Famke; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Eichenberger, Ramon Marc; Berkvens, Dirk

    2018-04-30

    A Bayesian model was developed to estimate values for the prevalence and diagnostic test characteristics of bovine cysticercosis (Taenia saginata) by combining results of four imperfect tests. Samples of 612 bovine carcases that were found negative for cysticercosis during routine meat inspection collected at three Belgian slaughterhouses, underwent enhanced meat inspection (additional incisions in the heart), dissection of the predilection sites, B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and ES Ab-ELISA. This Bayesian approach allows for the combination of prior expert opinion with experimental data to estimate the true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard test. A first model (based on a multinomial distribution and including all possible interactions between the individual tests) required estimation of 31 parameters, while only allowing for 15 parameters to be estimated. Including prior expert information about specificity and sensitivity resulted in an optimal model with a reduction of the number of parameters to be estimated to 8. The estimated bovine cysticercosis prevalence was 33.9% (95% credibility interval: 27.7-44.4%), while apparent prevalence based on meat inspection is only 0.23%. The test performances were estimated as follows (sensitivity (Se) - specificity (Sp)): enhanced meat inspection (Se 2.87% - Sp 100%), dissection of predilection sites (Se 69.8% - Sp 100%), Ag-ELISA (Se 26.9% - Sp 99.4%), Ab-ELISA (Se 13.8% - Sp 92.9%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Chinese Patients With Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Territory Wide Collaborative Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophelia H S; Lo, Ivan F M; Cherk, Sharon W W; Cheng, Wai Wai; Fung, Eva L W; Yeung, Wai Lan; Ngan, Mary; Lee, Wing Cheong; Kwong, Ling; Wong, Suet Na; Ma, Che Kwan; Tai, Shuk Mui; Ng, Grace S F; Wu, Shun Ping; Wong, Virginia C N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this collaborative study on Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy is to determine the prevalence and to develop data on such patients as a prelude to the development of registry in Hong Kong. Information on clinical and molecular findings, and patient care, was systematically collected in 2011 and 2012 from all Pediatric Neurology Units in Hong Kong. Ninety patients with dystrophinopathy were identified, and 83% has Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The overall prevalence of dystrophinopathy in Hong Kong in 2010 is 1.03 per 10 000 males aged 0 to 24 years. Among the Duchenne group, we observed a higher percentage (40.6%) of point mutations with a lower percentage (45.3%) of exon deletions in our patients when compared with overseas studies. Although we observed similar percentage of Duchenne group received scoliosis surgery, ventilation support, and cardiac treatment when compared with other countries, the percentage (25%) of steroid use is lower.

  8. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of white-coat hypertension based on different definition criteria in untreated and treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence and associated risks of white-coat hypertension (WCH) are still a matter of debate. We aimed to assess differences in prevalence and associated conditions of WCH defined on the basis of the normality of all daytime, night-time, and 24-h blood pressure (BP), only daytime, or only 24-h BP. We selected 115 708 patients (45 020 untreated and 70 688 treated) from the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring Registry. WCH was estimated in patients with elevated office BP (≥140 and/or 90 mmHg) by using normal daytime (definition criteria. Only diagnostic criteria which considers the normality of all ambulatory periods identifies patients with cardiovascular risk similar to normotensive patients. These results support using such criteria for a more accurate definition of WCH.

  9. Prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for hepatitis C infection among pregnant women in Calabar municipality, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboto, Clement Ibi; Andy, Iniobong Ebenge; Eni, Ogban Ibor; Jewell, Andrew Paul

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in developing countries where intravenous drug use (IDU) is uncommon its poorly understood. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence of HCV and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Calabar municipality. A total of 506 out of 716 antenatal care (ANC) patients seen at the General Hospital, Mary Slessor Avenue, Calabar between August and November 2005 and the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between October and November 2005 were evaluated for their HCV status using the One Step HCV Test kit (Binomial diagnostics, UK), with reference to the subjects' demographic and behavioural risk factors. HCV prevalence was determined to be 0.4% (2/506) and was only seen in women aged 38 years and over. Histories of blood transfusion, surgery, involvement in polygamous marriage, sharing of a toothbrush and female circumcision were all non-significant risk factors for the infecion. This study reveals a low HCV prevalence among pregnant women in Calabar municipality with no identifiable risk factor. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the transmission modes of HCV especially in developing countries where intravenous drug use is rare.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of painful diabetic neuropathy in a large community-based diabetic population in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Caroline A; Malik, Rayaz A; van Ross, Ernest R E; Kulkarni, Jai; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2011-10-01

    To assess, in the general diabetic population, 1) the prevalence of painful neuropathic symptoms; 2) the relationship between symptoms and clinical severity of neuropathy; and 3) the role of diabetes type, sex, and ethnicity in painful neuropathy. Observational study of a large cohort of diabetic patients receiving community-based health care in northwest England (n = 15,692). Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was assessed using neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS). Prevalence of painful symptoms (NSS ≥5) and PDN (NSS ≥5 and NDS ≥3) was 34 and 21%, respectively. Painful symptoms occurred in 26% of patients without neuropathy (NDS ≤2) and 60% of patients with severe neuropathy (NDS >8). Adjusted risk of painful neuropathic symptoms in type 2 diabetes was double that of type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1 [95% CI 1.7-2.4], P diabetic patients have painful neuropathy symptoms, regardless of their neuropathic deficit. PDN was more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes, women, and people of South Asian origin. This highlights a significant morbidity due to painful neuropathy and identifies key groups who warrant screening for PDN.

  11. Prevalence, Characteristics, and One-Year Follow-Up of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Isfahan City, Iran

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    Pegah Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Need of neonatal screening for Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is under debate, in part because of limited data on importance of the disease regarding the prevalence of congenital CMV (cCMV infection and associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of cCMV infection in Iran, where there is high maternal seroprevalence of CMV. Methodology. This prospective study was conducted in Isfahan city, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. CMV was investigated in urine specimens by using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method. CMV-infected infants were examined for clinical and laboratory findings attributed to CMV infection and followed up for one year. Results. Among 1617 studied neonates, eight (0.49% were positive for CMV infection. CMV-infected neonates were more likely to be preterm than noninfected ones (25% versus 4.5%, p=0.0508, and they had lower birth weight. Three out of the eight CMV-infected neonates had transient symptoms at birth. At follow-up, one case had mild hearing loss. Most patients had impaired growth during the one-year follow-up. Conclusions. The primary object of this study was determination of prevalence of cCMV infection in Iran as a developing country, which was at the lower range compared with other such countries. cCMV infection may result in short-term impairment in growth.

  12. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of apparent therapy-resistant hypertension in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional cohort study in secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beus, Esther; van der Sande, Nicolette G C; Bots, Michiel L; Spiering, Wilko; Voskuil, Michiel; Visseren, Frank L J; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2017-09-06

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of apparent therapy-resistant hypertension (aTRH) in patients with clinical manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to study clinical characteristics related to aTRH in this population. The SMART (Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease) study is a large, single-centre cohort study in secondary care. Office blood pressure (BP) at inclusion was used to evaluate BP control in 6191 hypertensive patients with clinical manifest (cardio)vascular disease. Therapy-resistant hypertension was defined as BP ≥140/90 mm Hg despite use of antihypertensive drugs from ≥3 drug classes including a diuretic or use of ≥4 antihypertensive drugs irrespective of BP. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between clinical characteristics measured at baseline and presence of aTRH. The prevalence of aTRH was 9.1% (95% CI 8.4 to 9.8). Prevalence increased with age and when albuminuria was present and was higher in patients with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Presence of aTRH was related to diabetes, female sex, duration and multiple locations of vascular disease, body mass index and waist circumference. Carotid intima-media thickness was higher (0.99±0.28 vs 0.93±0.28 mm) and ankle-brachial index lower (1.07±0.20 vs 1.10±0.19) in patients with aTRH compared with patients without aTRH. aTRH is prevalent in patients with clinical manifest CVD and is related to clinical factors known to be related with increased vascular risk, and with lower eGFR. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Metabolically Healthy Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Da Young; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2017-11-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) are differentiated by the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) and insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MHO in Korean children and adolescents and to investigate the anthropometric, laboratory, and lifestyle predictors of MHO. This study included data from 530 obese subjects, aged 10-19 years, obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were classified into MHO and MUO groups according to the presence of CMRF (MHO(CMRF)/MUO(CMRF)) and degree of IR (MHO(IR)/MUO(IR)). Demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle factors were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to identify factors that predicted MHO. The prevalence of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) in obese Korean youth was 36.8% (n = 197) and 68.8% (n = 356), respectively. CMRF profiles were significantly less favorable in MUO children. Longer and more vigorous physical activity and less protein intake were associated with MHO(CMRF) phenotype. The best predictors of MHO(CMRF) and MHO(IR) were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.88; P obesity in youth, the approach to individuals with MHO and MUO should be personalized due to variation in clinical characteristics. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate long-term consequences of MHO. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Prevalência e caracterização da anemia em idosos do Programa de Saúde da Família Prevalence and characteristics of anemia in an elderly population attending a Health Family Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A anemia é considerada um problema de saúde pública em escala mundial e é o distúrbio hematológico de maior prevalência que acomete a população idosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a prevalência e características da anemia em idosos do Programa de Saúde da Família de Camaragibe, PE. O delineamento foi transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 284 idosos > 60 anos, de ambos os sexos, realizado em novembro/dezembro-2003. A anemia foi avaliada pela hemoglobina (Hb, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, volume corpuscular médio (VCM e amplitude de distribuição eritrocitária (RDW. A prevalência de anemia foi, em média, de 11,0%. A morfologia eritrocitária não mostrou associação com as concentrações de Hb. A grande maioria dos idosos apresentou anemia normocrômica, normocítica, sem anisocitose, sugestivo de anemia por doença crônica. A ínfima prevalência de microcitose e macrocitose com anisocitoseminimiza a gênese da deficiência de ferro, bem como da deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico na etiologia da anemia em idosos. Concluímos que o uso de indicadores que reflitam o grau de anisocitose eritrocitária associados àqueles que avaliam o estado nutricional do ferro é extremamente recomendado para o diagnóstico das anemias em idosos.Anemia is a serious public health problem worldwide that mainly affects children and women of childbearing age. However, data about anemia in elderly individuals are still scarce in developing countries. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and characteristics of anemia among an elderly population attending the Health Family Program in Camaragibe, northeast Brazil. Following a systematic sampling procedure, a cross-sectional study was carried out in November and December 2003 involving 284 subjects of both genders with ages grater than or equal to 60 years old. Anemia was estimated by the measurement of hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin

  15. Prevalence and anatomic characteristics of infarct-like lesions on MR images of middle-aged adults: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R N; Cai, J; Burke, G; Hutchinson, R G; Liao, D; Toole, J F; Dagher, A P; Cooper, L

    1999-08-01

    MR imaging has revealed putative evidence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease (CVD) as reflected by white matter signal changes and infarct-like lesions (ILLs). Nonetheless, the prevalence of this condition in the general population has been defined only to a limited extent. We herein report the prevalence and anatomic characteristics of ILLs seen on cranial MR images obtained as part of a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults. These results are contrasted to those of previous similar studies, particularly those of an elderly population in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). This Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort consists of a probability sample of community-living persons who were 55 to 72 years old at the time of MR examination. MR imaging of 1890 participants was performed at two ARIC field centers, based on a common protocol. MR studies were evaluated by trained readers at the MR Reading Center using original digital data displayed on a high-resolution workstation. The measures of lesion size, anatomic location, and signal intensity were collected. The definition for an ILL was a non-mass, hyperintense region with an arterial vascular distribution on spin-density and T2-weighted images. Two hundred ninety participants had ILLs, for an overall prevalence of 15.3%. Eighty-two percent of participants with ILLs had lesions that were 3 mm or larger in maximal dimension, although 87% of these lesions were 20 mm or smaller in maximal dimension. The prevalence of ILLs increased with age, from 7.9% in the 55- to 59-year-old age group to 22.9% in the 65- to 72-year-old age group (P male and female participants. The basal ganglia and thalamic region was the most commonly affected anatomic site, accounting for 78.9% of the lesions. Considering that the prevalence of self-reported stroke or transient ischemic attack in ARIC participants is 1.5%, these results suggest that there is significantly more subclinical than

  16. Idiopathic epilepsy in the Italian Spinone in the United Kingdom: prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of survival and seizure remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risio, L; Newton, R; Freeman, J; Shea, A

    2015-01-01

    There is lack of data on idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in the Italian Spinone (IS). To estimate the prevalence of IE in the IS in the United Kingdom (UK) and to investigate predictors of survival and seizure remission. The target population consisted of 3331 IS born between 2000 and 2011 and registered with the UK Kennel Club (KC). The owners of 1192 dogs returned phase I questionnaire. Sixty-three IS had IE. Population survey. The owners of all UK KC-registered IS were invited to complete the phase I questionnaire. Information from the phase I questionnaire and veterinary medical records was used to identify IS with IE and obtain data on treatment and survival. Additional information was obtained from owners of epileptic IS who completed the phase II questionnaire. The prevalence of IE in the IS in the UK was estimated as 5.3% (95% CI, 4.03-6.57%). Survival time was significantly shorter in IS euthanized because of poorly controlled IE compared with epileptic IS that died of unrelated disorders (P = 0.001). Survival was significantly longer in IS with no cluster seizures (CS) (P = 0.040) and in IS in which antiepileptic medication was initiated after the second seizure rather than after ≥3 seizures (P = 0.044). Seizure remission occurred only in 3 IS. The prevalence of IE in IS (5.3%) is higher than in dogs (0.6%) in the UK. Idiopathic epilepsy in IS has a severe phenotype. Antiepileptic medication initiation after the second seizure and aggressive treatment of CS may improve survival. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. THE PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIMARY HEADACHE IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: a subgroup of the functional somatic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa LS SOARES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The irritable bowel syndrome and primary headache are two chronic diseases characterized by symptoms of recurring pain and affect approximately 10%-20% of the general population. Objectives To study the prevalence of primary headache in volunteers with irritable bowel syndrome in a Brazilian urban community. Methods It was evaluated the prevalence of primary headache associated with irritable bowel syndrome in adult volunteers 330 no patients.The protocol included the Rome III criteria, international classification of Headaches, later divided into four groups: I- Irritable bowel syndrome (n = 52, II- Primary headache (n = 45, III-Irritable bowel syndrome (n = 26 and headache, and IV- Controls (207. Results We not found significant difference in the average age of the four groups and the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, primary headache and their association was more frequent in females. The frequent use of analgesics was greater in groups II and III. Conclusion Our results suggest that irritable bowel syndrome and primary headache are also common in third world countries. The frequency in use of analgesics in association between the two entities was relevant. The identification of irritable bowel syndrome patients with different clinical sub-types could improve the therapeutics options and the prevention strategies.

  18. Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection and characteristics of oocyst shedding in a breeding colony of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Clare; Greiner, Ellis; Uhl, Elizabeth W

    2008-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging problem in reptile medicine and has been associated with a wasting syndrome in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). This study determined the prevalence of infection in a breeding colony of leopard geckos to be 9.8%. Two groups of 20 geckos, one that was fecal positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., and one, whose individuals were fecal negative at the inception of the study, were followed for 2 mo. Fecal samples were tested for oocysts every 2 wk, body weights were measured, and a body condition score was assigned for each gecko. Selected geckos from these two groups were euthanized and necropsied. There were statistically significant differences (P weight, mean body condition score, and prevalence of infection. Cryptosporidium sp. infection is endemic in this breeding colony, and there were a large number of geckos with a subclinical or carrier state of infection. These animals continued to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. but gained weight and remained in good body condition. Only one gecko in the entire group of 40 was confirmed to be negative for oocysts or developmental stages by repeated fecal exams and histopathology. An additional 37 severely emaciated geckos from the breeding colony were euthanized, and all were positive for Cryptosporidium sp. on histopathologic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of this study indicate that although some animals can recover from a clinical infection, if a gecko is severely wasted, it should be euthanized because of the poor prognosis and possible source of infection to other geckos.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of general and football-specific emergency medical service activations by high school and collegiate certified athletic trainers: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Laura C; Swartz, Erik E; Cappaert, Thomas A; Hootman, Jennifer M

    2010-11-01

    To describe frequency and characteristics of emergency medical services (EMS) activations by certified athletic trainers (ATs) and effects of pre-season planning meetings on interactions between ATs and EMS both generally and specifically during football head/neck emergencies. Retrospective cross-sectional survey. 2009 Web-based survey. Athletic trainers (n = 1884; participation rate, 28%) in high school and collegiate settings. Athletic trainer work setting, AT demographics, history of pre-season planning meetings. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the prevalence of EMS activation, planning meetings, and characteristics of AT-EMS interactions (eg, episodes of AT-perceived inappropriate care and on-field disagreements). Chi square tests tested differences (P football injury, 59.9% vs 27.5%; P football season, high school ATs perceived more episodes of inappropriate care (10.4% vs 3.9%; P emergency care providers.

  20. Angst for tandbehandling. Prevalens og karakteristika blandt voksne danskere [Fear of dental treatment. Prevalence and characteristics among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.; Scheutz, F.

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey using random sample of residents of the municipality of Aarhus were interviewed about dental treatment fear and characteristics of any pre-existing anxiety. Results showed that 4.2% of 539 residents surveyed had extreme anxiety and 6% were moderately afraid. Results of dental...... anxiety, especially in the odontophobiia group, were years of avoidance of treatment and associated poor subjective perceptions of oral health. Logistic analyses revealed that although dental drilling was the identifying feature of dental anxiety characteristics, the drill could be symbolic for the many...

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in finishing pigs: Implications on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wonhee; Fratamico, Pina M; Ruth, Leah E; Bowman, Andrew S; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Manning, Shannon D; Funk, Julie A

    2018-01-02

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, which can cause serious illnesses, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. To study the epidemiology of STEC in finishing pigs and examine the potential risks they pose for human STEC infections, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study in three finishing sites. Six cohorts of pigs (2 cohorts/site, 20 pigs/cohort) were randomly selected, and fecal samples (n=898) were collected every two weeks through their finishing period. Eighty-two pigs (68.3%) shed STEC at least once, and the proportion of STEC-positive pigs varied across sites (50-97.5%) and cohorts (15-100%). Clinically important serotypes, O157:H7 (stx 2c , eae) and O26:H11 (stx 1a , eae), were recovered from two pigs at sites C and A, respectively. The most common serotype isolated was O59:H21 (stx 2e ), which was particularly prevalent in site B as it was recovered from all STEC positive pigs (n=39). Each cohort showed different patterns of STEC shedding, which were associated with the prevalent serotype. The median shedding duration of STEC in pigs was 28days, consistent with our prior study. However, among pigs shedding O59:H21 at least once, pigs in cohort B2 had a significantly longer shedding duration of 42days (P<0.05) compared to other cohorts. Stx2e was the most commonly observed stx variant in finishing pigs (93.9%), in accordance with the previous studies. Stx2e has been reported to be significantly associated with edema disease in pigs, however, the pathogenicity in humans warrants further investigations. Nonetheless, our findings affirm that pigs are an important reservoir for human STEC infections, and that the circulating serotypes in a cohort and site management factors may significantly affect the prevalence of STEC. Molecular characterization of STEC isolates and epidemiological studies to identify risk factors for shedding in pigs are strongly warranted to further address the

  2. Associations between skin barrier characteristics, skin conditions and health of aged nursing home residents: a multi-center prevalence and correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Elisabeth; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Trojahn, Carina; Kottner, Jan

    2017-11-13

    Geriatric patients are affected by a range of skin conditions and dermatological diseases, functional limitations and chronic diseases. Skin problems are highly prevalent in elderly populations. Aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between health, functional and cutaneous variables in aged long-term care residents. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive prevalence study was conducted in a random sample of 10 institutional long-term care facilities in Berlin. In total, n = 223 residents were included. Demographic and functional characteristics, xerosis cutis, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were assessed. Stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH and skin temperature were measured. Data analysis was descriptive and explorative. To explore possible bivariate associations, a correlation matrix was created. The correlation matrix was also used to detect possible collinearity in the subsequent regression analyses. Mean age (n = 223) was 83.6 years, 67.7% were female. Most residents were affected by xerosis cutis (99.1%; 95% CI: 97.7% - 100.0%). The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 9.0% (95% CI: 5.0% - 13.0%), of incontinence associated dermatitis 35.4% (95% CI: 29.9% - 42.2%) and of skin tears 6.3% (95% CI: 3.2% - 9.5%). Biophysical skin parameters were not associated with overall care dependency, but with age and skin dryness. In general, skin dryness and measured skin barrier parameters were associated between arms and legs indicating similar overall skin characteristics of the residents. Prevalence of xerosis cutis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were high, indicating the load of these adverse skin conditions in this population. Only few associations of demographic characteristics, skin barrier impairments and the occurrence of dry skin, pressure ulcers, skin tears and incontinence-associated dermatitis have been detected, that might limit the diagnostic value of skin

  3. Associations between skin barrier characteristics, skin conditions and health of aged nursing home residents: a multi-center prevalence and correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hahnel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geriatric patients are affected by a range of skin conditions and dermatological diseases, functional limitations and chronic diseases. Skin problems are highly prevalent in elderly populations. Aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between health, functional and cutaneous variables in aged long-term care residents. Methods This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive prevalence study was conducted in a random sample of 10 institutional long-term care facilities in Berlin. In total, n = 223 residents were included. Demographic and functional characteristics, xerosis cutis, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were assessed. Stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH and skin temperature were measured. Data analysis was descriptive and explorative. To explore possible bivariate associations, a correlation matrix was created. The correlation matrix was also used to detect possible collinearity in the subsequent regression analyses. Results Mean age (n = 223 was 83.6 years, 67.7% were female. Most residents were affected by xerosis cutis (99.1%; 95% CI: 97.7% - 100.0%. The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 9.0% (95% CI: 5.0% - 13.0%, of incontinence associated dermatitis 35.4% (95% CI: 29.9% - 42.2% and of skin tears 6.3% (95% CI: 3.2% - 9.5%. Biophysical skin parameters were not associated with overall care dependency, but with age and skin dryness. In general, skin dryness and measured skin barrier parameters were associated between arms and legs indicating similar overall skin characteristics of the residents. Conclusion Prevalence of xerosis cutis, pressure ulcers and skin tears were high, indicating the load of these adverse skin conditions in this population. Only few associations of demographic characteristics, skin barrier impairments and the occurrence of dry skin, pressure ulcers, skin tears and incontinence-associated dermatitis

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Nonblanching, Palpable Skin Lesions With a Linear Pattern in Children With Henoch-Schönlein Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Ramelli, Vera; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2017-11-01

    Linear nonblanching skin lesions are thought to occur very rarely in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of linear nonblanching skin lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. A prospective case series was conducted at the ambulatory practice of a hospitalist between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015, among 31 consecutive children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Thirty-one consecutive children affected with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome who were from 3.0 to 12.0 years of age (median age, 6.2 years). Children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome underwent a careful, structured skin examination established in advance with emphasis on the presence of palpable lesions with a linear pattern. Among the 31 children in the study (12 girls and 19 boys; median age, 6.2 years [range, 3.0-12.0 years]), 8 (26%) had linear lesions on the legs, groin, waistline, wrists, or forearms. Patients with or without linear lesions did not differ significantly with respect to sex, age, and cutaneous, abdominal, articular, or renal involvement. This study illustrates the prevalence and characteristics of linear skin lesions in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Patients with symptoms suggestive of this vasculitis should be evaluated for the presence of nonblanching, palpable lesions with a linear pattern.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of impaired glucose metabolism in patients referred to comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation: the DANSUK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas Soja, Anne Merete; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Melchior, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    and mortality. We studied the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (T2DM, IGT and impaired fasting glucose; IFG) in patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation, and further studied whether we could identify groups in which an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) need not be performed. METHODS: As part...... of a cardiac rehabilitation trial, 201 patients participated. Patients without a diagnosis of T2DM (N=159) underwent an OGTT 3 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (21%) had known T2DM at enrolment. Based on the OGTT, 26 patients (13%) had unrecognized T2DM, 36 (18%) had IGT and 19 (9%) were...... predictive value of 39%. CONCLUSION: More than 60% of the patients (123/201) referred to cardiac rehabilitation had impaired glucose metabolism and 18% of the screened patients (29/159) would be misclassified if an OGTT was omitted. IFG and IGT did not identify the same patients or the same cardiovascular...

  6. Prevalence of micro- and macrovascular diabetes complications at time of type 2 diabetes diagnosis and associated clinical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedebjerg, Anne; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Berencsi, Klara

    2018-01-01

    enrolled in the prospective Danish Center for Strategic Research in T2D cohort during 2010-2016. We calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of complications using log-binomial and Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 35% (n=2456) T2D patients had diabetic complications around...... diagnosis; 12% (n=828) had microvascular complications, 17% (n=1186) macrovascular complications, and 6% (n=442) had both. HbA1c levels of ≥7% were associated with microvascular complications [HbA1c 7%-8%; aPR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.62] but not macrovascular complications [aPR: 0.91, 95......, smoking, elevated CRP levels, and anti-hypertensive therapy. Microvascular complications were associated with high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and absence of lipid-lowering therapy. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of patients with T2D had diabetes complications around time of diagnosis. Our findings...

  7. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0-57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted "choose least" or "not recommended" items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  8. The EuroPrevall birth cohort study on food allergy: baseline characteristics of 12,000 newborns and their families from nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, D; Keil, T; Grabenhenrich, L; Dubakiene, R; Drasutiene, G; Fiocchi, A; Dahdah, L; Sprikkelman, A B; Schoemaker, A A; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K; Kowalski, M L; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Clausen, M; Papadopoulos, N G; Mitsias, D; Rosenfeld, L; Reche, M; Pascual, C; Reich, A; Hourihane, J; Wahn, U; Mills, E N C; Mackie, A; Beyer, K

    2012-05-01

    It is unclear why some children develop food allergy. The EuroPrevall birth cohort was established to examine regional differences in the prevalence and risk factors of food allergy in European children using gold-standard diagnostic criteria. The aim of this report was to describe pre-, post-natal and environmental characteristics among the participating countries. In nine countries across four major European climatic regions, mothers and their newborns were enrolled from October 2005 through February 2010. Using standardized questionnaires, we assessed allergic diseases and self-reported food hypersensitivity of parents and siblings, nutrition during pregnancy, nutritional supplements, medications, mode of delivery, socio-demographic data and home environmental exposures. A total of 12,049 babies and their families were recruited. Self-reported adverse reactions to food ever were considerably more common in mothers from Germany (30%), Iceland, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands (all 20-22%) compared with those from Italy (11%), Lithuania, Greece, Poland, and Spain (all 5-8%). Prevalence estimates of parental asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema were highest in north-west (Iceland, UK), followed by west (Germany, the Netherlands), south (Greece, Italy, Spain) and lowest in central and east Europe (Poland, Lithuania). Over 17% of Spanish and Greek children were exposed to tobacco smoke in utero compared with only 8-11% in other countries. Caesarean section rate was highest in Greece (44%) and lowest in Spain (<3%). We found country-specific differences in antibiotic use, pet ownership, type of flooring and baby's mattress. In the EuroPrevall birth cohort study, the largest study using gold-standard diagnostic criteria for food allergy in children worldwide, we found considerable country-specific baseline differences regarding a wide range of factors that are hypothesized to play a role in the development of food allergy including allergic family history

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of coronary artery disease in heart failure with preserved and mid-range ejection fractions: A systematic angiography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Lory; Cautela, Jennifer; Resseguier, Noemie; Laine, Marc; Arques, Stephane; Pinto, Johan; Orabona, Morgane; Barraud, Jeremie; Peyrol, Michael; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent; Thuny, Franck

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines recommend careful screening and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in heart failure with preserved or mid-range ejection fraction (HFpEF/HFmEF). We aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of CAD using a prospective systematic coronary angiography approach. A systematic coronary angiography protocol was applied in consecutive patients admitted for HFpEF/HFmEF during a 6-month period in a single centre. History of CAD and results of angiography, including revascularization, were reported. Of the 164 patients with HFpEF/HFmEF who were included, an angiography assessment was applied in 108 (66%) (median age: 79 years [interquartile range: 70-85 years]; 54% were women). In our analysis, 64% (95% confidence interval [CI] 55-73%) of patients had a significant coronary stenosis corresponding to a global CAD prevalence of 80% (95% CI 73-88%). The prevalence of CAD was similar for HFpEF and HFmEF. The left main coronary artery presented a significant stenosis in 6.5% of cases and 39% of patients had a two- or three-vessel disease. The rate of significant coronary stenosis was non-significantly higher in patients with a history of CAD. Patients with HFpEF/HFmEF with and without CAD did not differ in clinically meaningful ways, in terms of symptoms or laboratory and echocardiography results. This strategy led to complete revascularization in 36% of patients with significant stenosis and in 23% of all patients with HFpEF/HFmEF. Our study differs from others in that we used a systematic angiography approach. The results suggest a much higher prevalence of CAD in HFpEF/HFmEF than previously reported and should encourage clinicians to aggressively identify this co-morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426

  11. Illicit use of opioid substitution drugs: prevalence, user characteristics, and the association with non-fatal overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Lillehagen, Mats; Gjersing, Linn; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2015-02-01

    Diversion of opioid substitution drugs (OSD) is of public concern. This study examined the prevalence, frequency, and predictors of illicit OSD use in a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) and assessed if such use was associated with non-fatal overdoses. Semi-annual cross-sectional interviews conducted in Oslo, Norway (2006-2013), from 1355 street-recruited IDUs. Hurdle, logistic, and multinomial regression models were employed. Overall, 27% reported illicit OSD use in the past four weeks; 16.8% methadone, 12.5% buprenorphine, and 2.9% both drugs. Almost 1/10 reported at least one non-fatal overdose in the past four weeks, and roughly 1/3 reported such experience in the past year. Use of additional drugs tended to be equally, or more prevalent among illicit OSD users than other IDUs. In terms of illicit OSD use being a risk factor for non-lethal overdoses, our results showed significant associations only for infrequent buprenorphine use (using once or less than once per week). Other factors associated with non-fatal overdoses included age, education, homelessness, as well as the benzodiazepines, stimulants, and heroin use. Users of diverted OSD may represent a high-risk population, as they used more additional drugs and used them more frequently than other IDUs. However, illicit OSD use may be less harmful than previously assumed. After accounting for an extensive set of covariates, only infrequent illicit buprenorphine use, but not methadone use, was associated with non-fatal overdoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of pressure ulcers in public and private hospitals care units and nursing homes in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrois, Brigitte; Colin, Denis; Allaert, François-André

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study conducted in 2014 was to describe the prevalence of pressure ulcers in different types of French hospital unit at the national level to compare them with data from the 1994 and 2004 study. This cross-sectional study was conducted over a single day. All care units were invited to participate by drawing lots stratified by region in successive waves until 1,200 agreements were obtained. Lots were drawn for towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants. All public- and private-sector hospital facilities in each town drawn by lot were invited to participate in the survey. 776 hospital services throughout France took part and accommodated 21,538 patients: 12,752 women (59.2%) and 8,786 men (40.8%). Of these patients, 1,753 (8.1%; IC95% = 7.7; 8.5) had pressure ulcers. The pressure-ulcer rate was 7.8% (IC95% = [7.3; 8.3] (n = 997)) for hospitalized women and 8.6% (IC95% = [8.0; 9.2] (n = 756)) for men (p = 0.0381). The 8.1% level reported in 2014 therefore points to a reduction in pressure-ulcer prevalence; 8.6% in 1994 and 8.9% in 2004. The actions performed daily by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers, supported by research and training programs, including those by PERSE, are having a real impact over time.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan; Shahab, Lion; McNeill, Ann

    2014-06-01

    E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers. Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions. Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n=3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n=884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n=1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n=2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n=994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each >80%) and 38% used the brand 'E-lites'. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n=1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.25-1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.38-3.34). There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are

  14. The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S Lewis

    Full Text Available Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma, Bartonella spp. (Bartonella, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, and feline calicivirus (FCV in bobcat and puma populations across wildland-urban interface (WUI, low-density exurban development, and wildland habitat on the Western Slope (WS and Front Range (FR of Colorado during 2009-2011. Samples were collected from 37 bobcats and 29 pumas on the WS and FR. As predicted, age appeared to be positively related to the exposure to pathogens that are both environmentally transmitted (Toxoplasma and directly transmitted between animals (FIV. In addition, WS bobcats appeared more likely to be exposed to Toxoplasma with increasing intraspecific space-use overlap. However, counter to our predictions, exposure to directly-transmitted pathogens (FCV and FIV was more likely with decreasing space-use overlap (FCV: WS bobcats and potential intraspecific contacts (FIV: FR pumas. Environmental factors, including urbanization and landscape covariates, were generally unsupported in our models. This study is an approximation of how pathogens can be evaluated in relation to demographic, social, and environmental factors to understand pathogen exposure in wild animal populations.

  15. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Mycobacterial Diseases in the Barletta-Andria-Trani Province, Italy (2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Brindicci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major worldwide problems regarding public health. This study evaluates the burden of this disease in the BAT Province of the Apulia region (Italy; 12,295 patients were studied, including 310 immigrants. Tubercular disease and mycobacteriosis were found in 129 patients. The number of new TB cases/year ranged from three in 2005 to 12 in 2009. TB was more frequently localized in the lung (70.5%. 14.4% of cases were institutionalized patients for severe neurological and/or psychiatric disease. The database evidenced certain aspects of our study population: the large number of TB patients institutionalized between natives, but no larger presence of TB among HIV-positive patients in immigrants compared to Italians. Our findings should help to redefine the alarm regarding the spread of an epidemical form of TB but also to present certain criticisms regarding patient management (especially immigrants regarding costs, hospitalization, and difficulty of reinstating the patient in the community. Further our data underscore the importance of prevalence of TB in bedridden, institutionalized patients.

  16. Performance Characteristics of the Reverse Syphilis Screening Algorithm in a Population With a Moderately High Prevalence of Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourk, Angela R; Nolte, Frederick S; Litwin, Christine M

    2016-11-01

    With the recent introduction of automated treponemal tests, a new reverse syphilis algorithm has been proposed and now used by many clinical laboratories. We analyzed the impact of instituting the reverse screening syphilis algorithm in a laboratory that serves a geographic area with a moderately high prevalence of syphilis infection. Serum samples sent for syphilis testing were tested using a treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as the screening assay. EIA reactive samples were tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and titered to end point if reactive. RPR nonreactive samples were analyzed by the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (TP-PA). Pertinent medical records were reviewed for false-reactive screens and samples with evidence of past syphilis infection. Among 10,060 patients tested, 502 (5%) were reactive on the initial EIA screen. The RPR was reactive in 150 (1.5%). TP-PA testing determined that 103 (1.0%) were falsely reactive on initial EIA screen. The reverse screening algorithm, however, identified 242 (2.4%) with evidence of latent, secondary, or past syphilis, 21 of whom had no or unknown prior treatment with antibiotics. Despite a 1.0% false-reactive rate, the reverse syphilis algorithm detected 21 patients with possible latent syphilis that may have gone undetected by traditional syphilis screening. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Prospective progression from high-prevalence disorders to bipolar disorder: Exploring characteristics of pre-illness stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, Aswin; Cotton, Susan M; Betts, Jennifer K; Chanen, Andrew; Nelson, Barnaby; Davey, Christopher G; McGorry, Patrick D; Berk, Michael; Bechdolf, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Identification of risk factors within precursor syndromes, such as depression, anxiety or substance use disorders (SUD), might help to pinpoint high-risk stages where preventive interventions for Bipolar Disorder (BD) could be evaluated. We examined baseline demographic, clinical, quality of life, and temperament measures along with risk clusters among 52 young people seeking help for depression, anxiety or SUDs without psychosis or BD. The risk clusters included Bipolar At-Risk (BAR) and the Bipolarity Index as measures of bipolarity and the Ultra-High Risk assessment for psychosis. The participants were followed up for 12 months to identify conversion to BD. Those who converted and did not convert to BD were compared using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney U tests. The sample was predominantly female (85%) and a majority had prior treatment (64%). Four participants converted to BD over the 1-year follow up period. Having an alcohol use disorder at baseline (75% vs 8%, χ(2)=14.1, pdepressive symptoms and cannabis use had high effects sizes of association with BD outcomes, without statistical significance. The small number of conversions limited the power of the study to identify associations with risk factors that have previously been reported to predict BD. However, subthreshold affective symptoms and SUDs might predict the onset of BD among help-seeking young people with high-prevalence disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies. Methods In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, pketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both pketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Urinary Incontinence in a Treatment Seeking Male Prospective Cohort: Results from the LURN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Brian T; Smith, Abigail R; Lai, H Henry; Yang, Claire C; Gore, John L; Erickson, Brad A; Kreder, Karl J; Cameron, Anne P; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Griffith, James W; Lentz, Aaron; Talaty, Pooja; Andreev, Victor P; Kirkali, Ziya

    2018-03-01

    Male urinary incontinence is thought to be infrequent. We sought to describe the prevalence of urinary incontinence in a male treatment seeking cohort enrolled in the LURN (Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network). Study inclusion and exclusion criteria, including men with prostate cancer or neurogenic bladder, were previously reported. LURN participants prospectively completed questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and other clinical variables. Men were grouped based on incontinence type, including 1) no urinary incontinence, 2) post-void dribbling only and 3) urinary incontinence. Comparisons were made using ANOVA and multivariable regression. Of the 477 men 24% reported no urinary incontinence, 44% reported post-void dribbling only and 32% reported urinary incontinence. African American men and those with sleep apnea were more likely to be in the urinary incontinence group than in the no urinary incontinence group (OR 3.2, p = 0.02 and OR 2.73, p = 0.003, respectively). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly higher bother compared to men without leakage (p urinary incontinence and men with only post-void dribbling those with urinary incontinence were significantly more likely to report higher scores (more severe symptoms) on the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) questionnaire regarding bowel issues, depression and anxiety than men without urinary incontinence (p Urinary incontinence is common among treatment seeking men. This is concerning because the guideline recommended questionnaires to assess male lower urinary tract symptoms do not query for urinary incontinence. Thus, clinicians may be missing an opportunity to intervene and improve patient care. This provides a substantial rationale for a new or updated symptom questionnaire which provides a more comprehensive symptom assessment. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  20. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Baio, Jon; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Bilder, Deborah; Charles, Jane; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Julie; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Lee, Li-Ching; Pettygrove, Sydney; Robinson, Cordelia; Schulz, Eldon; Wells, Chris; Wingate, Martha S; Zahorodny, Walter; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2012. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin). Surveillance to determine ASD case status is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional service providers in the community. Data sources identified for record review are categorized as either 1) education source type, including developmental evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services or 2) health care source type, including diagnostic and developmental evaluations. The second phase involves the review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors that are consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known

  1. Prevalence of neck pain and associated factors with personal characteristics, physical workloads and psychosocial among male rubber workers in FELDA settlement Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chow Li; Bin Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Rahman, Anita Binti Abd; Hassan, Syed Tajuddin Syed; Ismail, Kamal Bin

    2011-12-29

    Rubber tapping processes posed potential risk of various health problems among rubber workers. It ranges from simple musculoskeletal aches to more serious and complicated structural damage to bone, muscles, tendons and nerves of musculoskeletal system. These health problems might be linked directly to the arduous demands of farm labor. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) and musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and its association with personal characteristics, physical workloads and psychosocial factors among rubber workers. Stratified random sampling method was adopted and a total of 419 rubber workers in FELDA's scheme Malaysia participated in this study. Data was collected through face to face interview using modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The results revealed the prevalence of NP was 59.9% and weak correlation with age (?= -0.184, p= 0.001) and a positive weak correlation with working hours per day (?= 0.099, p= 0.043) significantly. All physical workloads (neck flexion or rotation, awkward postures, repetitive motion and static postures) had significant weak to moderate positive correlation with NP (p<0.05). Job insecurity was found to have weak and positive correlation with NP (p<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed risk factors for NP were decreased with age (OR= 3.92, 95% CI 1.61 - 9.58, p=0.003), increase in neck flexion or rotation (OR= 9.52, 95% CI 5.55 - 16.32, p= 0.001), awkward postures (OR=2.23, 95% CI 1.29 - 3.86, p= 0.004) and static postures (OR= 1.86, 95% CI 1.10 - 3.14, p= 0.021). This study showed that high prevalence of NP was associated with neck flexion or rotation, awkward and static postures.

  2. [Gender and age characteristics and the trends in prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Russia during the 1994-2012 period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Keshabyants, E E; Peskova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI > 30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005-2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20-30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20-60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000-2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000-2005 and the 2005-2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000-2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of suicide attempters and ideators among acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørlie, Tore; Sørgaard, Knut W; Bogdanov, Anatoly; Bratlid, Trond; Rezvy, Grigory

    2015-08-04

    More knowledge about suicidality and suicide risk profiles in acute psychiatric hospital patients (both first-time and chronic patients) is needed. While numerous factors are associated with suicidality in such populations, these may differ across cultures. Better understanding of factors underlying suicide risk can be informed by cross-cultural studies, and can aid development of therapeutic and preventive measures. An explorative, cross-sectional cohort study was carried out. Acutely admitted patients at one psychiatric hospital in northwest Russia and two in northern Norway were included. At admission, demographic, clinical, and service use data were collected, in addition to an assessment of suicidal ideation and attempts, comprising five dichotomic questions. Data from 358 Norwegian and 465 Russian patients were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistics. Within each cohort, attempters and ideators were compared with patients not reporting any suicidality. The observed prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts was significantly higher in the Norwegian cohort than in the Russian cohort (χ(2) = 168.1, p suicidal ideators and attempters had more depressed moods, more personality disorders, and greater problems with alcohol/drugs, but fewer psychotic disorders, cognitive problems or overactivity than non-suicidal patients. Russian suicidal ideators and attempters were younger, more often unemployed, had more depressed mood and adjustment disorders, but had fewer psychotic disorders and less alcohol/drug use than the non-suicidal patients. Rates of suicidal ideation and non-fatal attempts in Norwegian patients were intermediate between those previously reported for patients admitted for the first time and those typical of chronic patients. However, the significantly lower rates of suicidal ideation and non-fatal attempts in our Russian cohort as compared with the Norwegian, contrasted with what might be expected in a region with much higher suicide

  4. Demographic characteristics and prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-positive patients seen in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choon, S E; Mathew, M; Othman, B S

    2000-06-01

    The demographic characteristics, risk behaviourand prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in 132 HIV-infected individuals seen in a Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru. Sixty-one (46.2%) were Malays, 37.9% Chinese, 10.6% Indians and 5.3% were of other ethnic groups. The male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 20 to 40 years-old. Seventy (53.0%) were single, 34.1% were married and 7.5% were divorcees. The majority of them (97.7%) were heterosexual. Fifty seven (53.3%) of our male patients patronised commercial workers. Eighty-one (61.8%) were not intravenous drug users (IVDU). Of the 50 IVDUs, 24 had multiple sexual exposures. Fifty-three (48.2%) of the 109 patients screened for STDs had one or more other STDs. Thirty-four patients (31.9%) reported one STD in the past and 3.6% reported two STDs in the past. Fifty-six patients (42.4%) had developed AIDS. Thirteen had passed away. The main mode of transmission of HIV infection in this population is through heterosexual intercourse and the prevalence of STDs is high. These findings indicate a need to advocate responsible sexual behaviour and to detect as well as treat STDs early to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

  5. The prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5-defined anxious distress specifier in adults with major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Soczynska, Joanna K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and illness characteristics in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) with anxious distress specifier (ADS) enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project, which is a collaborative research platform...... at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Canada and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. METHODS: Data from participants who met criteria for a current major depressive episode as part of MDD (n = 830) were included in this post hoc analysis. Diagnostic and Statistical......, employment, marital status). Greater severity of illness was observed in adults with ADS as evidenced by a higher number of hospitalizations, higher rates of suicidal ideation, greater depressive symptom severity, greater workplace impairment, decreased quality of life, and greater self-reported cognitive...

  6. Food allergen protein families and their structural characteristics and application in component-resolved diagnosis: new data from the EuroPrevall project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E N Clare

    2009-09-01

    A large number of food allergens able to induce allergic symptoms in predisposed individuals, including severe, even life-threatening reactions, have been identified and characterized. However, proteins able to cause such IgE-mediated reactions can be assigned to only a limited number of protein families. Detailed knowledge about the characteristics of food allergens, their 3D structures, biological activity and stability, will help to improve diagnosis of food allergy, avoid unnecessary exclusion diets and assess the risk of cross-reactive allergies to other food sources. This review is dedicated to summarizing current knowledge about the most important food allergen protein families and to presenting data from the EuroPrevall allergen library, a proof-of-concept collection of highly purified, characterized and authenticated food allergens from animal and plant food sources to facilitate improved diagnosis of food allergies.

  7. Restless legs syndrome in patients with Parkinson's disease: a comparative study on prevalence, clinical characteristics, quality of life and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtehnejad, S-M; Shafieesabet, M; Shahidi, G A; Delbari, A; Lökk, J

    2015-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder that can coexist with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the association between these two movement disorders is quite poorly explored and previous findings are controversial in different aspects. To compare prevalence of RLS in Iranian PD population with a matched control group and to investigate the impact of comorbid RLS on quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and clinical characteristics in PD population. This study was conducted on 108 individuals with idiopathic PD (IPD) and 424 matched controls. RLS was diagnosed using the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria. Further assessments were performed on clinical characteristics, PD severity scales, psychiatric features, nutritional status, fatigue, and QoL in PD patients with and without RLS. Restless legs syndrome was significantly more common among the patients with IPD (14.8%) compared to the controls (7.5%) [OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.0)]. IPD subjects with RLS had significantly higher anxiety score [10.1 (SD = 5.1) vs 5.9 (SD = 5.0); P = 0.003], worse nutritional status [23.7 (SD = 2.7) vs 25.4 (SD = 3.7); P = 0.008], and poorer QoL [26.9 (SD = 13.1) vs 17.0 (SD = 13.2); P = 0.006]. The number of positive answers to the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria had significant direct correlation with unpredictability of the off periods and the presence of symptomatic orthostasis. Our study demonstrated a higher prevalence of RLS in patients with PD compared to general population. PD patients with RLS suffer from more anxiety, worse nutritional status, and worse QoL. RLS negatively accompanies with psychiatric problems, emotional behaviors, stigma, and cognitive impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The prevalence and characteristics of intra-atrial right coronary artery anomaly in 9,284 patients referred for coronary computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P.; Pregowski, Jerzy; Kruk, Mariusz; Staruch, Adam D.; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Michalek, Piotr; Ruzyllo, Witold; Kepka, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, radiologic patterns and clinical characteristics of intra-atrial right coronary artery (IARCA) among adult coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) population. Methods: We included 9,284 consecutive subjects who underwent CCTA at a single high-volume center. The presence of IARCA including the number, length and diameter of IARCA segments with accompanying atherosclerosis and coronary anomalies were evaluated. Additionally, clinical characteristics and midterm follow-up of IARCA patients were recorded. Results: The IARCA prevalence was 0.15% (14/9,284) with 15 intra-atrial segments. The intra-atrial segment length ranged from 14 to 53 mm, and the mean diameter proximal to the entry site was 3.3 ± 0.7 mm. IARCA was more often associated with intramuscular course of the left anterior descending coronary artery (29% vs. 4%, p = 0.001) and anomalous origin of the left circumflex artery from the right aortic sinus (14% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.001) compared with non-IARCA cases. The majority of IARCA patients were women (86%) presenting with supraventricular arrhythmia (71%). Compared with computed tomographic population without IARCA, IARCA subjects were younger (60 ± 12 vs. 54 ± 14 years, p = 0.037) and more often women (51% vs. 86%, p = 0.013). At a mean of 20 months follow-up of IARCA patients there were no adverse cardiac events except for supraventricular tachycardia episodes occurring in 36% of subjects. Conclusions: IARCA occurs rarely and is often associated with additional coronary anomalies. The clinical profile of IARCA patients is most often represented by middle-aged women with supraventricular arrhythmia showing favorable midterm prognosis

  9. The Prevalence and Types of Child Abuse among Teachers and its Relationship with their Demographic Characteristics and General Health in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Teachers are one of the groups that in addition to teaching the students can have a role in control and identification of child abuse and violence in schools. Certainly, before doing any action and choose an approach to reduce misbehavior, we should be aware of situation, how and prevalence of child abuse in schools. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of child abuse among teachers and its relationship with demographic characteristics and general health in teachers whom teaching in primary schools. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 350 female and male students and 82 teachers that performed with a multi-stage sampling method. The tools for data gathering included: questionnaire of teachers' personal and job characteristics (12 questions, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ (28 questions, and standard questionnaire of Conflict Tactics Scale. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of independent t-test, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with SPSS version 16. Results Results of statistical analysis revealed that there wasn’t a significant association between general health and physical abuse. But there was a significant association between general health, emotional abuse and neglect. So that their general health score was higher (more score was not associated with better general health, the emotional abuse and neglect were also higher. Conclusions According to the results, it is suggested to design and implement some programs for prevention and reduction of violence in schools of our country and education of violence prevention methods should be part of school curriculum.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialing; Xu, Ping; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Ou, Qianting; Zhang, Ting; Bai, Chan; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Junli; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes might cause an increase in colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in community settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population, and to identify the characteristics of the isolated strains. A total of 956 participants from 11 community settings were included in the study. Of the 529 diabetes participants, 46 were colonized with S. aureus and 22 were colonized with MRSA. Of the 427 non-diabetes participants, 25 were colonized with S. aureus and 12 were colonized with MRSA. Men (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.99, P = 0.047) were less likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization, and those with well-controlled blood glucose (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01-4.13, P = 0.047) among the diabetes population were more likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization. The proportion of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the diabetes population (52.17%) was higher than that in the non-diabetes population (28.00%; χ 2 = 3.848, P = 0.050). The most common clonal complex type and Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec type of MRSA in diabetes population was clonal complex 5 (40.91%) and type IV (27.27%), respectively. The proportion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene in MRSA strains was 17.65%. There was great sequence type diversity in MRSA strains. The prevalence of MRSA in the community-based diabetes population was moderate, and the high proportions of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains and diverse molecular characteristics in the diabetes population should be noticed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of metabolically healthy obese individuals and other obese/non-obese metabolic phenotypes in a working population: results from the Icaria study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Goday

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolically healthy obese (MHO phenotype may present with distinct characteristics compared with those with a metabolically unhealthy obese phenotype. Epidemiologic data on the distribution of these conditions in the working population are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MHO and other obese/non-obese metabolic phenotypes in a working population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of all subjects who had undergone a medical examination with Ibermutuamur Prevention Society from May 2004 to December 2007. Participants were classified into 5 categories according to their body mass index (BMI; within each of these categories, participants were further classified as metabolically healthy (MH or metabolically unhealthy (MUH according to the modified NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate some clinically relevant factors associated with a MH status. Results In the overall population, the prevalence of the MHO phenotype was 8.6 %. The proportions of MH individuals in the overweight and obese categories were: 87.1 % (overweight and 55.5 % (obese I-III [58.8, 40.0, and 38.7 % of the obese I, II, and III categories, respectively]. When the overweight and obese categories were considered, compared with individuals who were MUH, those who were MH tended to be younger and more likely to be female or participate in physical exercise; they were also less likely to smoke, or to be a heavy drinker. In the underweight and normal weight categories, compared with individuals who were MH, those who were MUH were more likely to be older, male, manual (blue collar workers, smokers and heavy drinkers. Among participants in the MUH, normal weight group, the proportion of individuals with a sedentary lifestyle was higher relative to those in the MH, normal weight group. The factors more strongly associated with the MUH phenotype were BMI and age, followed by the

  12. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence, characteristics and management in a large cohort of parkinsonian outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucile; Lefaucheur, Romain; Fetter, Damien; Derrey, Stéphane; Borden, Alaina; Wallon, David; Bourre, Bertrand; Maltête, David

    2014-12-01

    To describe demographic and clinical characteristics in a group of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with non-motor fluctuations (NMF) and to evaluate the management of medications proposed to treat NMF. Three hundred and three PD patients (mean age, 66 ± 10.3 years; mean disease duration, 10.1 ± 6.5 years) were enrolled. Each patient was interviewed in a non-directed fashion about the main NMF manifestations, i.e. dysautonomic, mental, and sensory symptoms. Both groups of patients with and without NMF were compared. Dysautonomia, motor fluctuations, age, disease duration, and LEDD were included in a multiple regression to determine which were predictive of NMF. NMF were found in 57 (19%) patients, mean age 65 ± 10.1 years, mean age at onset of PD 53.7 ± 10.9 years, mean disease duration 12.5 ± 6.9 years. NMF occurred on average 9.8 ± 7.7 years after the onset of PD. Fifty patients (86%) with NMF had also MF and 10 (21%) had PDD. Twenty-five (44%) patients suffered from sensory, 28 (49%) from autonomic and 25 (44%) from neuropsychiatric symptoms. Both disease and L-Dopa treatment durations, and LEDD were significantly higher in NMF patient's group. Motor fluctuations (p = 0.0016) and presence of dysautonomia (p = 0.007) were found to be two independent predictors of NMF. The development of new instruments to assess NMF is crucial for optimized management of advanced PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics and predictors of death among hospitalized HIV-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence country: Bangladesh.

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    Lubaba Shahrin

    Full Text Available Predictors of death in hospitalized HIV-infected patients have not been previously reported in Bangladesh.The primary aim of this study was to determine predictors of death among hospitalized HIV-infected patients at a large urban hospital in Bangladesh.A study was conducted in the HIV in-patient unit (Jagori Ward of icddr,b's Dhaka Hospital. Characteristics of patients who died during hospitalization were compared to those of patients discharged from the ward. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine associations between potential risk factors and death. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with death.Of 293 patients admitted to the Jagori Ward, 57 died during hospitalization. Most hospitalized patients (67% were male and the median age was 35 (interquartile range: 2-65 years. Overall, 153 (52% patients were diagnosed with HIV within 6 months of hospitalization. The most common presumptive opportunistic infections (OIs identified were tuberculosis (32%, oesophageal candidiasis (9%, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP (8%, and histoplasmosis (7%. On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of mortality were CD4 count ≤200 cells/mm3 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 16.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-74.4, PJP (aOR: 18.5, 95% CI: 4.68-73.3, oesophageal candidiasis (aOR: 27.5, 95% CI: 5.5-136.9, malignancy (aOR:15.2, 95% CI: 2.3-99.4, and bacteriuria (aOR:7.9, 95% CI: 1.2-50.5. Being on antiretroviral therapy prior to hospitalization (aOR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.06-0.5 was associated with decreased mortality.This study showed that most patients who died during hospitalization on the Jagori Ward had HIV-related illnesses which could have been averted with earlier diagnosis of HIV and proper management of OIs. It is prudent to develop a national HIV screening programme to facilitate early identification of HIV.

  15. Patients ≥ 75 years with acute coronary syndrome but without critical epicardial coronary disease: prevalence, characteristics, and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent; Farah, Ahmed; von Korn, Hubertus; Memisevic, Nedim; Richter, Stefan; Tukhiashvili, Ketevan; Lauer, Bernward; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute onset of chest pain and elevation of myocardial necrosis markers is occasionally observed. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics and outcome of such patients with advanced age. Methods We retrospectively analysed 4,311 patients with acute onset of chest pain plus necrosis marker elevation. Two hundred and seventy two patients without CAD on angiogram (6.3%) were identified. Out of them, 50 (1.2%) patients ≥ 75 years (Group I) were compared with (1) 222 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients without CAD on angiogram < 75 years (Group II), and (2) 610 consecutive patients ≥ 75 years with Non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (Group III). Results Group I compared to Group III patients made up for more females (64.0% vs. 49.2%; P < 0.0001), and had more severe anginal symptoms on presentation [Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class I/II, 26.0% vs. 49.8%; P = 0.02]. Group I patients also had lower troponin levels (0.62 ± 0.8 ng/mL vs. 27 ± 74 ng/mL; P < 0.02), lower leukocyte count (9.4 ± 3.13 × 109 vs. 12 ± 5.1 × 109; P = 0.001) and better preserved left ventricular function (56.7% ± 14.3% vs. 45% ± 11%; P < 0.0001). Event-free survival (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, recurrent angina, and re-hospitalisation) was more frequent in Group I and II patients compared to Group III patients (64.9%, 66.7%, and 41.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions ACS in patients ≥ 75 years without CAD is very infrequent, associated with a (1) similar outcome compared to ACS patients < 75 years without CAD, and (2) significant better outcome compared to NSTEMI patients ≥ 75 years. PMID:25678899

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic-resistance characteristics of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from free-living and captive raptors in Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrow, Judilee; Whittington, Julia K; Mitchell, Mark; Hoyer, Lois L; Maddox, Carol

    2009-04-01

    Due to their predatory nature, raptor species may serve as important indicators of environmental contamination with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Raptors prey on small rodents and birds that have diverse habitat ranges, including urban and rural environments, and their intestinal microflora can reflect that of the animals on which they feed. Enterococcus spp. were selected as target organisms because they have been isolated from the avian gastrointestinal tract, can be conferred by prey items, and because they are capable of multiple resistance patterns. They are also a concerning source of human antimicrobial resistance. In this study fecal cultures were obtained from 15 May 2004 to 31 August 2004, from 21 free-living raptors and four captive raptors. Enterococcus was isolated from 21 (84%) of the 25 birds, and 54 isolates were chosen for further study based upon unique colony morphology. The most common isolate recovered was Enterococcus faecalis (95%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 89-100). One bird in the study was determined to have Enterococcus gallinarum. Two distinct ribotypes of E. faecalis were identified, one with unique bands at 11 and 13 kb and the other with unique bands at 14 and 20 kb. Both ribotypes were found in free-living and captive birds. The Enterococcus isolates in this study demonstrated a variety of antimicrobial-resistance characteristics, including almost complete resistance to amikacin, first-generation cephalosporins, spectinomycin, and sulphadimethoxime. Isolates demonstrated variable resistance to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and ticarcillin. No phenotypically vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis isolates were recovered from any of the raptors; three isolates had intermediate level susceptibility. A significantly higher number of isolates collected from captive birds demonstrated resistance to chloramphenicol than those obtained from free-living birds. This trend was not duplicated with any of the remaining

  17. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in the United States: estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J; Guo, Jing; Denny, Clark H; Green, Patricia P; Miracle, Heidi; Sniezek, Joseph E; Floyd, R Louise

    2015-04-01

    Non-pregnant women can avoid alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) by modifying drinking and/or contraceptive practices. The purpose of this study was to estimate the number and characteristics of women in the United States who are at risk of AEPs. We analyzed data from in-person interviews obtained from a national probability sample (i.e., the National Survey of Family Growth) of reproductive-aged women conducted from January 2002 to March 2003. To be at risk of AEP, a woman had to have met the following criteria in the last month: (1) was drinking; (2) had vaginal intercourse with a man; and (3) did not use contraception. During a 1-month period, nearly 2 million U.S. women were at risk of an AEP (95 % confidence interval 1,760,079-2,288,104), including more than 600,000 who were binge drinking. Thus, 3.4 %, or 1 in 30, of all non-pregnant women were at risk of an AEP. Most demographic and behavioral characteristics were not clearly associated with AEP risk. However, pregnancy intention was strongly associated with AEP risk (prevalence ratio = 12.0, P alcohol spectrum disorders. For pregnant women and women intending a pregnancy, there is an urgent need for wider implementation of prevention programs and policy approaches that can reduce the risk for this serious public health problem.

  19. Workplace violence against nurses--prevalence and association with hospital organizational characteristics and health-promotion efforts: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Yao; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chien, Li-Yin; Huang, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of workplace violence and explore the role of hospital organizational characteristics and health promotion efforts in reducing hospital violence among nurses in Taiwan. Cross-sectional survey. One hundred hospitals across Taiwan. The final sample in our study comprised responses from 26,979 nurses. The data were obtained from a nationwide hospital survey, Physical and Mental Health and Safety Needs in Full-Time Health Care Staff, which was developed and conducted by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Taiwan, in 2011. The main dependent variable was whether nurses had experienced violence within the past year. Physical violence, threatened or intimidated personal safety, verbal violence or sexual harassment were all included. Of the 26,979 nurses, 13,392 nurses (49.6%) had experienced at least one episode of any type of violence in the past year; 5150 nurses (19.1%) had been exposed to physical violence, and 12,491 nurses (46.3%) had been exposed to non-physical violence. The prevalence of having experienced any violence varied widely and ranged from the highest (55.5%) in an emergency room or intensive care unit to the lowest (28.3%) among those aged 55-65 years. After adjusting for other characteristics, younger nurses were significantly more likely to be exposed to any violent threat. Nurses working in public hospitals had a significantly higher risk of workplace violence than those working in private hospitals. Significant variations were also observed among work units. Although nurses working in a certified health promoting hospital (HPH) did not have a lower risk of workplace violence, those working in an outstanding HPH had a significantly lower risk of workplace violence. A similar pattern was observed for non-physical violence. Workplace violence is a major challenge to workplace safety for nurses in hospitals. This large scale nurse survey identified individual, work and hospital characteristics associated with workplace violence

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons

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    Zweifel Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%. S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline. Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA. Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts.

  1. Low prevalence of liver disease but regional differences in HBV treatment characteristics mark HIV/HBV co-infection in a South African HIV clinical trial.

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    Prudence Ive

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA 'Safeguard the household study' in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation.812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA. Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline.Forty-eight (5.9% were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3% were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.0. More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p = 0.002 and HBV DNA levels ≤2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007.One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations.

  2. Hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese patients with hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Bo; Rao, Hui-Ying; Ma, Yuan-Ji; Bai, Lang; Chen, En-Qiang; Du, Ling-Yao; Yang, Rui-Feng; Wei, Lai; Tang, Hong

    2016-10-12

    Little is known about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes of HBV/HCV dual infection compared with HCV monoinfection. A cross-sectional study. China. 997 patients with HCV from 28 university-affiliated hospitals in China were enrolled in this research. Patients were divided into two subgroups. The prevalence of HBV infection in patients with HCV was 4.11% (41/997). The age-specific prevalence of HBsAg was 0.70%, 3.97% and 5.85% in groups aged 18-30, 30-50 and >50 years old (p=0.057), respectively. Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection and patients with HCV monoinfection had similar HCV viral loads (5.80±0.89 vs 5.83±1.00 log10 IU/mL, p=0.904). The dominant HCV genotype was 1b in both groups (53.65% vs 56.90%, p=0.493). The protective C allele in IL-28B (rs12979860) was also the dominant allele type in both patient groups (85.36% vs 83.99%, p=0.814). Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection had a higher ratio of liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation than patients with HCV monoinfection (39.02% vs 17.69%, p=0.001; 31.70% vs 12.13%, p=0.001). The HBV burden was moderate in HCV-infected patients in China. Liver cirrhosis was more common in patients with HBV/HCV dual infection, suggesting the need for closer monitoring of dual-infected individuals. NCT01293279; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of smokers interested in internet-based smoking cessation interventions: cross-sectional findings from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert

    2013-03-18

    An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or "app" that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than 1% have used them to support a quit attempt in the

  4. Malformações cardíacas congênitas em necropsias pediátricas: características, associações e prevalência Congenital cardiac malformations in pediatric necropsies: characteristics, associations and prevalence

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    Dinaldo de Lima Leite

    2010-03-01

    second cause of death in children younger than one year, with cardiovascular defects being responsible for 39.4% of these deaths. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and the characteristics of the congenital cardiac malformations in pediatric necropsies performed in Hospital Regional da Asa Sul, Brasília, DF, Brazil, from January 1996 to December 2007. METHODS: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study that reviewed 1,591 necropsies performed from January 1996 to December 2007 and found 189 (11.9% with congenital cardiac malformations, included in this study. RESULTS: The cardiac abnormalities were observed mainly in the group of live births (117/61.9%, followed by the stillbirths (35/18.5%, the infant group (30/15.9% and the preschoolers' group (7/3.7%, with no cases identified among school-aged children. The main alterations detected were: interatrial communication in 96 patients (27%, interventricular communication in 66 patients (18.5% and patent ductus arteriosus in 51 (14.3%, with no predominance of either sex. In 133 patients (70.4%, the cardiopathies were multiple and in 96 (50.8% they were associated with anomalies in other organs and systems; among these, 45 (23.8% presented cardiopathies as syndrome components, especially trisomies, at all age ranges. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study show a high prevalence of congenital cardiac anomalies in our country and distribution and association that were similar to the ones observed in developed countries. The high mortality associated to such anomalies highlights the need for more comprehensive research in order to identify the risk factors and seek the primary prevention of some of these defects.

  5. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  7. The prevalence and virulence characteristics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli at an urgent-care clinic in the USA: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennimo, David; Abbas, Atif; Huang, David B; Chiang, Tom

    2009-04-01

    This case-control study examined the prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), its genes and elicited inflammatory response, and the stool characteristics of adult patients with and without acute diarrhoeal illness presenting to an urgent-care clinic in the USA. A total of 1004 individual stool specimens (253 from patients with acute diarrhoeal illness and 751 from patients without diarrhoeal illness) were collected between 1 June 2003 and 30 June 2008. EAEC was identified as the sole cause of acute diarrhoeal illness in 6 % (n=15) of patients and in 2 % (n=15) without diarrhoeal illness. Control patients (n=15) were similar to case patients (n=15) for age, gender and co-morbidities. The EAEC genes aggR, aap, aat, astA and/or set1A were identified more frequently in case patients compared with control patients (P clinic in the USA and suggest that aggR, aap, aatA, astA and set1A may be markers for virulence.

  8. Prevalencia y características de los abusos sexuales a niños/Prevalence and characteristics of child sexual abuse

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    David Cantón-Cortés (España

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue delimitar las tasas de prevalencia de los abusos sexuales infantiles, así como, especialmente, clarificar las características más frecuentes de los abusos, las víctimas y los agresores. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas. Estos resultados serán relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. The aim of the present work was to delimit the prevalence of child sexual abuse, as well as, especially, to clarify the most frequent characteristics of abuse, survivors and perpetrators. Results show the problematic of sexual abuse to minors, as well as the circumstances under they take place and the profile of perpetrator and survivors. These results are relevant in order to design abuse detection and prevention programs

  9. Self-reported child abuse in the home: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and correlates among public secondary school students in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Bhochhibhoya, Shristi; Rijal, Shristi; Pathak, Ramjee Prasad

    2018-06-19

    To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district. In each school, we administered the questionnaires to the students in a classroom selected randomly. To assess the correlates, we ran multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by schools. Among the 962 students, 88.88% had experience of at least one form of abuse throughout their lifetime. Psychological abuse was the most prevalent form of abuse (previous year: 75.19%; lifetime: 76.15%) followed by physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect and sexual abuse. Adults were the most common perpetrators of child abuse (37.55%). The correlates identified in this study mostly aligned with the global literature on correlates of abuse. Female students were more likely to report neglect (previous year: adjusted OR (AOR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.04; lifetime: AOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.02), but no gender difference was observed with other forms of abuse. Students living with a single parent had a greater likelihood of exposure to violence (previous year: AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.94; lifetime: AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.53), neglect (previous year: AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.69; lifetime: AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.81) and sexual abuse (previous year: AOR 3.03, 95% CI 1.45 to 6.37; lifetime: AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.14). Over 88% of students reported experiencing child abuse in the home in one or more forms throughout their lifetime. Delineating the reasons for the high burden and its

  10. Prevalence of malnutrition and relationship between dietary intake and sociodemographic characteristics with anthropometric indicators among Malaysian children below five years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Nguyen, Thu Ha; Wee, Bee Suan; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Lee, Shoo Thien; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Norimah, A Karim

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition, a condition marked by deficiencies of energy, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals, can pose a great risk to the health of a child. This paper aims to determine the nutritional status and the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, nutrient and energy intake with anthropometric indicators among children below five years old. This study is part of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). This nationwide cross sectional study recruited a total of 880 (48.2% boys, 51.8% girls) children aged between 0.5 months to 5 years through stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised weight and height, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaires developed and validated for Malaysian children. WHO Child Growth Standards 2006 was used to determine z-scores for height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ). Overall, 7.5% of the children were underweight, 13.3% stunted, 3.2% wasted and 2.6% thin with the highest prevalence in children aged below one year. The prevalence of underweight (8.6% vs 6.3%), stunted (16.8% vs 9.7%) and wasting (4.0% vs 2.3%) was found to be higher among boys; while thinness was higher among girls (3.5% vs 1.6%). WHZ (R2 = 0.296), HAZ (R2 = 0.291) and BAZ (R2 = 0.265) were found to have positive and significant relationships with intake of energy, calcium and vitamin C. Statistically significant linear dependence of the mean of WAZ on all nutrient variables was found (R2 = 0.448). Other factors influencing anthropometric outcomes were sex, locality of residence, household income and ethnicity. In conclusion, malnutrition is still a health concern among children under five in Malaysia. Stunting and underweight is the predominant nutritional problem among children below one year old. Problems of malnutrition need to be

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in dogs and cats attended in diverse veterinary clinics from the Madrid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed J; García, Marta E

    2017-12-01

    Despite extensive research on the epidemiology of pathogenic clostridia in dogs and cats, most published studies focus on a selected animal population and/or a single veterinary medical centre. We assessed the burden of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile shedding by small animals in 17 veterinary clinics located within the Madrid region (Spain) and differing in size, number and features of animals attended and other relevant characteristics. In addition, we studied the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates. Selective culture of all fecal specimens collected during a single week from dogs (n = 105) and cats (n = 37) attended in participating clinics yielded C. perfringens/C. difficile from 31%, 4.8% of the dogs, and 20%, 0% of the cats analyzed, respectively, and three dogs yielded both species. Furthermore, 17 animals (15 dogs and two cats) that yielded a positive culture for either species were recruited for a follow-up survey and C. perfringens was again obtained from nine dogs. Considerable differences in prevalence were observed among participating clinics for both clostridial species. C. perfringens isolates (n = 109) belonged to toxinotypes A (97.2%) and E (three isolates from one dog), whereas C. difficile isolates (n = 18) belonged to the toxigenic ribotypes 106 (33.3%) and 154 (16.7%), a 009-like ribotype (33.3%) and an unknown non-toxigenic ribotype (16.7%). Amplified fragment length polymorphism-based fingerprinting classified C. perfringens and C. difficile isolates into 105 and 15 genotypes, respectively, and tested isolates displayed in vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin (2.8%, 88.8%), clindamycin (0%, 16.7%), erythromycin (0.9%, 16.7%), imipenem (1.8%, 100%), levofloxacin (0.9%, 100%), linezolid (5.5%, 0%), metronidazole (4.6%, 0%) and/or tetracycline (7.3%, 0%). All animals from which multiple isolates were retrieved yielded ≥2 different genotypes and/or antimicrobial susceptibility profiles

  12. Prevalence of comorbidities and baseline characteristics of LAP-BAND AP® subjects in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dreyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the baseline characteristics in patients who chose placement of a LAP-BAND AP® System (LBAP and participated in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO Study across regions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HERO is a five-year, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with LBAP placement between July 22, 2009 and January 31, 2011. In addition to baseline and peri-surgery clinical data, seven follow up visits are scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months, and annually through year five. Data collection included family and medical history, clinical outcomes, laboratory data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, productivity, healthcare resource utilization, and adverse events. RESULTS: LBAP were placed in 1106 enrolled patients; 56.6% from the US, 26.3% from Europe, 7.1% from Canada, and 10.0% from Australia. The majority were female (n = 877 (79.3% with a mean age of 43 years (s.d. = 11.4 and mean body mass index of 45.1 kg/m(2 (s.d. = 6.9. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN (overall  = 42.9% and diabetes (overall 22.2%, with 27% from the US and 14% from Europe. Overall, less than 5% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence rates of HTN, diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than in women across all regions. Overall HRQoL also worsened with increasing BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The HERO study is the first large, multinational and long-term registry with the LBAP. This study will provide real-world outcomes data on LAGB that will help inform patient choice, clinician treatment strategies, and payer reimbursement decisions.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2014-01-01

    Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a "new" diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients with eating disorders between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients with ARFID were compared to those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other specified feeding or eating disorder/unspecified feeding or eating disorder with respect to demographics, anthropometrics, clinical symptoms, and psychometric testing, using Chi-square, ANOVA, and post-hoc analysis. 39/173 (22.5%) patients met ARFID criteria. The ARFID group was younger than the non-ARFID group and had a greater proportion of males. Similar degrees of weight loss and malnutrition were found between groups. Patients with ARFID reported greater fears of vomiting and/or choking and food texture issues than those with other eating disorders, as well as greater dependency on nutritional supplements at intake. Children's Eating Attitudes Test scores were lower for children with than without ARFID. A higher comorbidity of anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorder, and learning disorders, and a lower comorbidity of depression, were found in those with ARFID. This study demonstrates that there are significant demographic and clinical characteristics that differentiate children with ARFID from those with other eating disorders in a day treatment program, and helps substantiate the recognition of ARFID as a distinct eating disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5.

  14. Prevalence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of kidney disease in anti-retroviral-naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U H Okafor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS about three decades ago, several renal disorders have been reported as common complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. These renal disorders result from diverse etiologies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of anti-retroviral-naοve HIV-infected patients with impaired kidney disorder in South-South Nigeria. This study was conducted on patients presenting at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City in South-South Nigeria for six months. The patients′ demographic data and clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Their glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated and the protein excretion was assessed from the protein- creatinine ratio. Data were analyzed using statistical software program SPSS version 15.0. Threehundred and eighty-three patients with a mean age of 35.39 ± 8.78 years and a male: female ratio of 1:1 were studied; 53.3% had evidence of kidney disorder. The main clinical features in patients with kidney disorder were evidence of fluid retention, urinary symptoms, pallor and encephalopathy. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 115.33 ± 17.17 and 72.33 ± 14.31 mm Hg, respectively. The mean estimated GFR was 52.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Patients with kidney disorder had higher proteinuria (P = 0.001, lower mean CD4 cell count and packed cell volume (P = 0.019 and 0.001, respectively. Kidney disorder is a common complication in HIV-infected patients, and they have clinical and laboratory anomalies. Screening of HIV/AIDS patients at the time of diagnosis will facilitate early diagnosis of kidney disorders in them.

  15. Clinical characteristics, prevalence, and factors related to delirium in children of 5 to 14 years of age admitted to intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Ramirez, C; Álvarez Gómez, M L; Agudelo Vélez, C A; Zuluaga Penagos, S; Consuegra Peña, R A; Uribe Hernández, K; Mejía Gil, I C; Cano Londoño, E M; Elorza Parra, M; Franco Vásquez, J G

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics, prevalence and factors associated with delirium in critical patients from 5 to 14 years of age. An analytical, cross-sectional observational study was made. Delirium was assessed with the Pediatric-Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) and motor classification was established with the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98. A pediatric Intensive Care Unit. All those admitted over a one-year period were assessed during the first 24-72h, or when possible in deeply sedated patients. Patients in stupor or coma, with severe communication difficulty, subjected to deep sedation throughout admission, and those with denied consent. Twenty-nine of the 156 assessed patients suffered delirium (18.6%) and 55.2% were hypoactive. The neurocognitive alterations evaluated by the pCAM-ICU were similar in the three motor groups. Intellectual disability (OR=17.54; 95%CI: 3.23-95.19), mechanical ventilation (OR=18.80; 95%CI: 4.29-82.28), liver failure (OR=54.88; 95%CI: 4.27-705.33), neurological disease (OR=4.41; 95%CI: 1.23-15.83), anticholinergic drug use (OR=3.23; 95%CI: 1.02-10.26), different psychotropic agents (OR=4.88; 95%CI: 1.42-16.73) and tachycardia (OR=4.74; 95%CI: 1.21-18.51) were associated to delirium according to the logistic regression analysis. The frequency of delirium and hypoactivity was high. It is therefore necessary to routinely evaluate patients with standardized instruments. All patients presented with important neurocognitive alterations. Several factors related with the physiopathology of delirium were associated to the diagnosis; some of them are modifiable through the rationalization of medical care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y.L.; Zhang, B.; Jia, F.J.; Li, X.L.; Tang, Y.; Ren, Y.Z.; Liu, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and long (10 h or more) sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR)=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849) than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h) shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181). In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6%) were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min) than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%). In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min) of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia

  17. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Hao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less and long (10 h or more sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849 than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181. In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6% were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%. In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia.

  18. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y.L. [Department of Human Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, Department of Human Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, B.; Jia, F.J.; Li, X.L.; Tang, Y. [Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou (China); Ren, Y.Z. [Zhongshan The Third People' s Hospital, Zhongshan, China, Zhongshan The Third People' s Hospital, Zhongshan (China); Liu, W.H. [Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-02-17

    Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and long (10 h or more) sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR)=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849) than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h) shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181). In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6%) were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min) than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%). In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min) of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia.

  19. The EuroPrevall birth cohort study on food allergy: baseline characteristics of 12,000 newborns and their families from nine European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, D.; Keil, T.; Grabenhenrich, L.; Dubakiene, R.; Drasutiene, G.; Fiocchi, A.; Dahdah, L.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Schoemaker, A. A.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K.; Kowalski, M. L.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Sigurdardottir, S.; Clausen, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Mitsias, D.; Rosenfeld, L.; Reche, M.; Pascual, C.; Reich, A.; Hourihane, J.; Wahn, U.; Mills, E. N. C.; Mackie, A.; Beyer, K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear why some children develop food allergy. The EuroPrevall birth cohort was established to examine regional differences in the prevalence and risk factors of food allergy in European children using gold-standard diagnostic criteria. The aim of this report was to describe pre-, post-natal

  20. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical features of atherosclerotic lesions in ketosis-onset diabetes are largely absent. We aimed to compare the characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions among type 1, ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes, including 53 type 1 diabetics with positive islet-associated autoantibodies, 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, and 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics. Sixty-two subjects without diabetes were used as control. Femoral intima-media thickness (FIMT), lower limb atherosclerotic plaque and stenosis were evaluated and compared among the four groups based on ultrasonography. The risk factors associated with lower limb atherosclerotic plaque were evaluated via binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of lower limb plaque in the patients with ketosis-onset diabetes (47.6%) was significantly higher than in the control subjects (25.8%, p = 0.013), and showed a higher trend compared with the patients with type 1 diabetes (39.6%, p = 0.072), but no difference was observed in comparison to the patients with non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (62.3%, p = 0.859). The mean FIMT in the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.73 ± 0.17 mm) was markedly greater than that in the control subjects (0.69 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.045) after controlling for age and sex, but no significant differences were found between the ketosis-onset diabetics and the type 1 diabetics (0.71 ± 0.16 mm, p = 0.373), and the non-ketotic type 2 diabetics (0.80 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.280), respectively. Age and FIMT were independent risk factors for the presence of lower limb plaque in both the ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetic patients, while sex and age in the type 1 diabetic patients. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of lower limb

  1. Prayer or spiritual healing as adjuncts to conventional care: a cross sectional analysis of prevalence and characteristics of use among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Angela; Sibbritt, David; Phillips, Jane L; Hickman, Louise D

    2015-06-25

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of users of prayer or spiritual healing among women. This cross sectional study was conducted as a part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), a 20-year study that examines various factors affecting women's health and well-being. The sample used in the current study were women from the 1946-1951 cohort (n=9965) (59-64 years) who were surveyed in 2010. Use of prayer or spiritual healing; demographic factors and measures of health status. χ(2) Tests, analyses of variance (to determine associations) and a stepwise backward logistic regression model (for the most significant predictors) using a likelihood ratio test were used to determine the outcome measures. It is estimated that 26% of Australian women from the 1946-1951 cohort (aged 59-64 years) use prayer or spiritual healing on a regular basis. Women were significantly more likely to use prayer or spiritual healing if they were non-smokers, non-drinkers or low-risk drinkers, had symptoms of severe tiredness (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.40), depression, (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53), anxiety (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.53), diagnosed cancer (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.65) or other major illnesses (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.75) and used other complementary therapies. A significant proportion of adult women are using prayer or spiritual healing. Given that prayer or spiritual healing was significantly associated with health symptoms, chronic illnesses and positive health seeking behaviours, respect for prayer or spiritual healing practices is required within health care settings. Future research is recommended around specific populations using prayer or spiritual healing, reasons for their use and potential benefits on health related outcomes and general well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Prevalence and associated risk characteristics of HIV infection based on anal sexual role among men who have sex with men: a multi-city cross-sectional study in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zeng

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the HIV prevalence among MSM was alarmingly high. Moreover, the ‘0.5’ and ‘0’ role MSM were found to have a higher risk of infection compared to the ‘1’ role MSM, while respective risk characteristics were not completely the same across the three groups. Along with routine preventive intervention services, more focused and specific interventions are needed to target anal sex role classes separately.

  3. Pressure ulcer and patient characteristics--A point prevalence study in a tertiary hospital of India based on the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel minimum data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Chitra; George, Joby V; Mehta, Yatin; Wangmo, Namgyal

    2015-08-01

    Pressure ulcers is a frequent problem in hospitalized patients. Several prevalence studies have been conducted across the globe. Little information is available regarding prevalence of pressure ulcers in India. The aim was to identify the prevalence of pressure ulcers in one of the tertiary hospital in northern India and the factors associated with its development. A cross sectional point prevalence study. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) data collection form. Ethics approval was obtained prior to start of the study. Total of 358 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients above 18 years of age admitted in intensive care units and wards were included in the study. Patients admitted in emergency, day care, coronary care unit were excluded because of their short duration of hospital stay (varies from 24 to 72 h usually). All patients admitted before midnight on the predetermined day were included. The Braden scale was used to identify the risk of developing pressure ulcers. European Pressure ulcer advisory panel (EPUAP) minimum data set was used to collect prevalence data. The overall prevalence rate was 7.8%.The sacrum and heel were more commonly affected. Grade III pressure ulcers were the most common (42.8%). The pressure ulcer prevalence rate in our hospital was lower than that published in international studies. Severe forms of pressure ulcers were commonly encountered This data provides background information that may help us in developing protocols for applying effective practices for prevention of pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feeding management practices and feed characteristics associated with Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered market-weight finisher swine: a systematic review and summation of evidence from 1950 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Denagamage, T; Sargeant, J M; Rajić, A; McKean, J

    2008-11-17

    This review summarizes evidence for associations between Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine and changes in feeding management practices or feed characteristics. A systematic review of the topic was conducted with the goal of minimizing the impact of bias on the review conclusions. Potential interventions included feed withdrawal from swine prior to slaughter, feed acidification, heat treatment of feed, pelletized feed versus mash, course versus fine grind, and wet versus dry feeds. In the reviewed literature, Salmonella prevalence was measured either by culture or by the presence of antibodies to Salmonella. The evidentiary value of studies was assessed, and studies that failed to meet predetermined standards were excluded. 7694 potentially relevant references were identified by an extensive literature search; however, 2623 references that were not published in English were excluded, because funds for translation were not available. Of the remaining references, only 277 were considered relevant to the review topic by two independent reviewers, and assessed for methodological quality. During quality assessment, 233 references were excluded because they failed to report design features that limit the introduction of bias or were conducted in a non-target population such as gnotobiotic, neonatal, nursery, or recently weaned pigs and sows. Forty-four publications passed the quality assessment conducted by 2 independent reviewers, but only 15 of the 44 publications reported studies that tested hypotheses associated with feeding management practices and feed characteristics and Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine. The most common study design was cross-sectional (7/15). The included studies failed to provide strong evidence of an association between any of the potential interventions and Salmonella prevalence, due to the potential for confounding, and the failure to document temporal association between the intervention and Salmonella prevalence. The

  5. White-coat hypertension and normotension in the League of Hypertension of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP: prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Segre

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of white-coat normortension, white-coat hypertension, and white-coat effect. METHODS: We assessed 670 medical records of patients from the League of Hypertension of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo. White-coat hypertension (blood pressure at the medical office: mean of 3 measurements with the oscillometric device ³140 or ³90 mmHg, or both, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring mean during wakefulness ³ 135/85 were analyzed in 183 patients taking no medication. The white-coat effect (difference between office and ambulatory blood pressure > 20 mmHg for systolic and 10 mmHg for diastolic was analyzed in 487 patients on treatment, 374 of whom underwent multivariate analysis to identify the variables that better explain the white-coat effect. RESULTS: Prevalence of white-coat normotension was 12%, prevalence of white-coat hypertension was 20%, and prevalence of the white-coat effect was 27%. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was observed between white-coat hypertension and familial history of hypertension, and between the white-coat effect and sex, severity of the office diastolic blood pressure, and thickness of left ventricular posterior wall. CONCLUSION: White-coat hypertension, white-coat normotension, and white-coat effect should be considered in the diagnosis of hypertension.

  6. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayley E. Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  7. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  8. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  9. Relationship between pure Schistosoma haematobium infection in Upper Egypt and irrigation systems. Part II: Host characteristics. The general prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, age and sex distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, H M; Allam, F A; Hassanein, F

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of bilharziasis was studied in four villages in Assiut Governorate. These villages were almost similar with respect to their socioeconomic conditions, modes of living, availability and date of introduction of medical services. The first village, Gezirat El-Maabda, has a basin system of irrigation. The other three villages had shifted to the perennial system of irrigation for three years in Nazza Karrar, 26 years in El-Ghorayeb and 95 years in Garf Sarhan and were similar with respect to proximity to water courses. So the only variable of importance between the four villages was the mode of irrigation. Bilharziasis was diagnosed by detection of eggs in urine or faeces. A definitive relationship between the prevalence of S. haematobium infection and the type of irrigation system was further documented. A low prevalence was found in Gezirat El-Maabda (2.95%). In the other three villages a much higher prevalence existed (31.9%, 46.2% & 38.9% in Nazza Karar, El-Ghorayeb and Garf Sarhan respectively). The higher prevalence of S. haematobium in Nazza Karar (31.9%) only three years after introduction of perennial irrigation was a disappointing finding. It can be considered as an evidence against the elaborate measures and precautions planned and incompletely implemented before or after the establishment of Aswan High Dam. Not a single case of S. mansoni was encountered during this study. As regards the age and sex distribution of S. haematobium in the three villages irrigated perennially, a steep rise started at the age group 5-9 years reaching a peak at the age group 10-14 years. In Gezirat El-Maabda the peak was reached at later age (15-19 years). The cause of this difference was explained. Males showed a higher rate of infection than females in almost all age groups of the four village studied.

  10. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of the Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS in Patients Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sierra Montoya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common behavioral issue for children. One of the sleeping disorders most frequently related to ADHD is the Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs, something that is generally associated with paresthesias and motor restlessness. The prevalence rate of RLS in children diagnosed with ADHD is close to 18%, but in Colombia, these cases have been hardly studied. Objective: To determine the frequency of RLS, in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional study, filled out by parents of children diagnosed with ADHD, were analyzed. This questionnaire contained clinical criteria for classifying ADHD according to the DSM-IV, as well as diagnostic criteria for RLS by the National Institutes of Health (2003. Results: A predominance rate of 65.6% in combined ADHD was observed in children with RLS criteria. Upon carrying out an exploratory data analysis, it was found that having a family history of RLS and belonging to the middle or low socioeconomic strata are conditions associated with the presence of RLS in children with ADHD, with a significant p (p < 0.000 and a PR of 4.47 (3.16-6.32. Conclusions: The prevalence of RLS was similar to the findings of other clinical investigations. However, it highlights new prevalence values in relation to the comorbidity between ADHD and RLS, suggesting the need for new clinical and therapeutic alternatives amidst the presence of both syndromes.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of subclinical hypothyroidism in an opportunistic sample in the population of Castile-León (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal Hidalgo, Ana Isabel; Lozano Alonso, José E; Vega Alonso, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    To describe the distribution of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values and to estimate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the adult population of Castile and León (Spain). An observational study was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 45 primary care centers in Castile and León. TSH was determined in people aged ≥35 years that attended a primary care physician and had a blood test for any reason. Confirmatory analysis included free thyroxine and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody determination. A total of 3957 analyses were carried out, 63% in women. The mean age was 61.5 years. The median TSH value was 2.3 μIU/mL (2.5 μIU/mL in women and 2.1 μIU/mL in men), with a rising trend with age. TSH values were higher in undiagnosed or untreated subclinical hypothyroidism than in patients under treatment. The lowest levels were found in euthyroidism. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 9.2% (95%CI: 8.3-10.2), and hypothyroidism was three times higher in women than in men (12.4% versus 3.7%). Hypothyroidism increased with age, reaching a peak of 16.9% in women aged 45 to 64 years. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our sample was high and in the upper limits of values found in previous studies. Proper diagnosis and treatment are important because of the risk of progression to hypothyroidism and the association with multiple diseases and other risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and associated demographic characteristics of exposure to multiple metals and their species in human populations: The United States NHANES, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn K; Lewin, Michael D; Ruiz, Patricia; Eichner, June E; Mumtaz, Moiz M

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) are among the top 10 pollutants of global health concern. Studies have shown that exposures to these metals produce severe adverse effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects, particularly joint toxicities, are poorly understood in humans. The objective of this investigation was to identify and characterize prevalent combinations of these metals and their species in the U.S. NHANES population to provide background data for future studies of potential metal interactions. Exposure was defined as urine or blood levels ≥ medians of the NHANES 2007-2012 participants ≥6 years (n = 7408). Adjusted-odds ratios (adj-OR) and 95% confidence intervals were determined for covariates (age, gender, and race/ethnicity, cotinine and body mass index). Species-specific analysis was also conducted for As and Hg including iAs (urinary arsenous acid and/or arsenic acid), met-iAs (urinary monomethylarsonic acid and/or dimethylarsinic acid), and oHg (blood methyl-mercury and/or ethyl-mercury). For combinations of As and Hg species, age- and gender-specific prevalence was determined among NHANES 2011-2012 participants (n = 2342). Data showed that approximately 49.3% of the population contained a combination of three or more metals. The most prevalent unique specific combinations were Pb/Cd/Hg/As, Pb/Cd/Hg, and Pb/Cd. Age was consistently associated with these combinations: adj-ORs ranged from 10.9 (Pb/Cd) to 11.2 (Pb/Cd/Hg/As). Race/ethnicity was significant for Pb/Cd/Hg/As. Among women of reproductive age, frequency of oHg/iAs/met-iAS and oHg/met-iAs was 22.9 and 40.3%, respectively. These findings may help prioritize efforts to assess joint toxicities and their impact on public health.

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2014-01-01

    Background Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a “new” diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. Methods A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients wi...

  15. Kyol Goeu (‘Wind Overload’) Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2009-01-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, ‘wind overload’) is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios. PMID:20808711

  16. Kyol Goeu ('Wind Overload') Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2001-12-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, 'wind overload') is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios.

  17. Evaluating prevalence and risk factors of building-related symptoms among office workers: Seasonal characteristics of symptoms and psychosocial and physical environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2017-04-12

    Psychosocial and environmental factors at the workplace play a significant role in building-related symptoms (BRSs). Environmental factors change during summer cooling and winter heating using air-conditioning systems. Thus, significant risk factors in each season need to be clarified. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted during summer in Japan and seasonal differences between summer and winter were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 489 offices. Possible risk factors for BRSs associated with the work environment, indoor air quality, and job stressors were examined by multiple regression analyses. Among people having at least one BRS, the prevalence of BRSs in summer (27.8%) was slightly higher than that in winter (24.9%). High prevalence was observed for eye and nasal symptoms related to dryness and general symptoms related to psychological distress in both seasons. Analyses revealed that dryness of air was an important and significant risk factor associated with BRSs, and job stressors were significantly associated with general symptoms in both seasons. Conversely, humidity was a significant risk factor of general symptoms in summer (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.43). Carpeting, recently painted walls, and unpleasant chemical odors in summer and noise, dust and dirt, and unpleasant odors such as body or food odors in both seasons were significant risk factors for BRSs. Improvements in the physical environmental qualities in an office throughout the year are important along with the reduction in psychological distress related to work.

  18. Suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students: prevalence and association with socio-demographic characteristics and psychoactive substances use: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, Btissame; Bendaou, B; Elkinany, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2015-11-14

    Suicidal behavior is a major cause of injury and death worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have tackled this issue in the Arab world. The present study investigated the prevalence and the risk factors of suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students. From April 2012 to November 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the North-Centre region of Morocco among students in public secondary schools selected using stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected via anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used in its Moroccan Colloquial Arabic version to assess suicidality according to the DSM-IV criteria. A total of 3020 students (53 % boys) aged 11-23 years (average age = 16 ± 2.1 years) were included in the study. The prevalence of suicide ideation, suicide planning and suicide attempts during the last month were 15.7, 6.3, and 6.5 % respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that suicidal behaviors followed different epidemiological patterns. According to the multivariate analyses, the risk factors for all suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students were the female gender, middle school level, urban locations, low family income, parents' divorce, tobacco consumption and psychoactive substances (alcohol and cannabis) use. The intervention of preventive programs has become an emergency to overcome the issue of suicidality in Morocco. Further researches on adolescents' suicidal behaviors are suggested to update temporal data and assess the effectiveness of potential interventions.

  19. [Prevalence and characteristics of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling-elderly as determined by comprehensive health examination and interview for the prevention of geriatric syndrome and bed-ridden state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuko; Kim, Hunkyung; Iwasa, Hajime; Kwon, Jinhee; Sugiura, Miho; Furuna, Taketo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takao

    2007-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and characteristics of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling elderly individuals. The participants were 1,783 individuals (768 men and 1,015 women) aged over 70 years who participated in a comprehensive health examination involving a medical examination and interview, plus physical performance tests. Differences in characteristics between individuals with and without urinary incontinence were examined, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to describe the characteristics associated with urinary incontinence. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 13.4% in men and 23.3% in women. Urinary incontinence was significantly associated with a lower level of physical fitness. Multivariate logistic regression showed that urinary incontinence was significantly associated with a slower walking speed (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.19, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 0.08-0.48) and lower serum albumin level (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.99) in men, and with a slower walking speed (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.15-0.56), a higher BMI (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), depression (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.40-6.69), and lack of physical activity (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98) in women. The characteristics of urinary incontinence in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals were a low level of physical fitness and poor nutritional state in men, and a low level of physical fitness, a tendency to be obese, a poor mental health state, and lack of physical activity in women.

  20. [Prevalence and characteristics of the "burnout syndrome" of the medical staff of cancer and TB institutions of Primorskiĭ Kraĭ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasova, M V; Kaptsov, V A; Sheparev, A A

    2012-01-01

    As 50 doctors and 70 nurses in oncologic dispensaries as well 90 doctors and 110 nurses in tuberculosis dispensaries in Primorye have been studied on the basis of voluntary testing methods supposed by C. Maslach and V.V. Boiko. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative prevalence and psychological features of the "burnout syndrome" among doctors and nurses of oncologic and tuberculosis dispensaries in Primorye Territory. "Emotional burnout" in various stages of its development is much more common among nurses (75% of respondents), compared with physicians (less than 50% tested). In nursing professional burnout syndrome developed significantly more frequently in the more severe form, and with less seniority of professional activity. The dependence of burning on the age and professional experience is more common for physicians. There is an urgent need to study the epidemiology of the "burnout syndrome" and identify ways to prevent the formation of social syndrome in medical personnel.

  1. [Mixed connective tissue disease: prevalence and clinical characteristics in African black, study of 7 cases in Gabon and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missounga, Landry; Ba, Josaphat Iba; Nseng Nseng Ondo, Ingrid Rosalie; Nziengui Madjinou, Maria Ines Carine; Malekou, Doris; Mouendou Mouloungui, Emeline Gracia; Nzengue, Emmanuel Ecke; Boguikouma, Jean Bruno; Kombila, Moussavou

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that mixed connective tissue disease seems more frequent in the black population and among Asians. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) among connective tissue disorders and all rheumatologic pathologies in a hospital population in Gabon as well as to describe the clinical features of this disease. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of patients treated for mixed connective tissue disease (Kasukawa criteria) and other entities of connective tissue disorders (ACR criteria) in the Division of Rheumatology at the University Hospital in Libreville between January 2010 and December 2015. For each case of MCTD the parameters studied were articular and extra-articular manifestations, anti-U1RNP antibodies levels, patient's evolution. Over a period of 6 years, data were collected by medical records of 7 patients out of 6050 patients and 67 cases of connective tissue disorders, reflecting a prevalence of 0.11% and 10.44% respectively. the 7 patients were women (100%), with an average age of 39.5 years. Articular manifestations included: polyarthritis, myalgias, chubby fingers and Raynaud's phenomenon in 87.5%, 87.5%, 28.6% and 14% respectively. The 7 patients had high anti-U1RNP antibodies levels, ranging between 5 and 35N (N≤ 7 IU). A case of death due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was certified. This is the largest case series of MCTD reported in Black Africa. The disease seems to be rare among the black Africans; the reason could be genetic. The demographic and clinical aspects appear similar to those in Caucasians, Asians and Blacks except for a low frequency of Raynaud?s phenomenon among Blacks.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens in Anhui province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL genes and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR determinants in 202 Escherichia coli isolates from chickens in Anhui Province, China, and to determine whether ESBL and PMQR genes co-localized in the isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility for 12 antimicrobials was determined by broth microdilution. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs, DNA sequencing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were employed to characterize the molecular basis for β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance. High rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed, 147 out of the 202 (72.8% isolates were resistant to at least 6 antimicrobial agents and 28 (13.9% of the isolates were resistant to at least 10 antimicrobials. The prevalence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-206 genes was 19.8%, 24.3% and 11.9%, respectively. Seventy-five out of the 202 (37.1% isolates possessed a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant in the form of qnrS (n = 21; this determinant occurred occasionally in combination with aac(6'-1b-cr (n = 65. Coexistence of ESBL and/or PMQR genes was identified in 31 of the isolates. Two E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M and qnrS, while two others carried blaCTX-M, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr. In addition, blaTEM-1, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr were co-located in two other E. coli isolates. PFGE analysis showed that these isolates were not clonally related and were genetically diverse. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe detection of TEM-206-producing E. coli in farmed chickens, and the presence of blaTEM-206, qnrS and aac(6'-1b-cr in one of the isolates.

  3. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in adults from the French childhood leukemia survivors’ cohort: a comparison with controls from the French population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Claire; Berbis, Julie; Bertrand, Yves; Vercasson, Camille; Thomas, Frédérique; Chastagner, Pascal; Ducassou, Stéphane; Kanold, Justyna; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Paillard, Catherine; Poirée, Marilyne; Plantaz, Dominique; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Gandemer, Virginie; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Sirvent, Nicolas; Saultier, Paul; Béliard, Sophie; Leverger, Guy; Baruchel, André; Auquier, Pascal; Pannier, Bruno; Michel, Gérard

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among adults from the French LEA childhood acute leukemia survivors’ cohort was prospectively evaluated considering the type of anti-leukemic treatment received, and compared with that of controls. The metabolic profile of these patients was compared with that of controls. A total of 3203 patients from a French volunteer cohort were age- and sex-matched 3:1 to 1025 leukemia survivors (in both cohorts, mean age: 24.4 years; females: 51%). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Metabolic syndrome was found in 10.3% of patients (mean follow-up duration: 16.3±0.2 years) and 4.5% of controls, (OR=2.49; Pmetabolic syndrome displayed a unique profile compared with controls: smaller waist circumference (91 vs. 99.6 cm; P=0.01), and increased triglyceride levels (3.99 vs. 1.5 mmol/L; Pmetabolic syndrome had a larger waist circumference (109 vs. 99.6 cm; P=0.007) than controls. Regardless of the anti-leukemic treatment, metabolic syndrome risk was higher among childhood leukemia survivors. Its presentation differed depending on the treatment type, thus suggesting a divergent pathophysiology. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01756599. PMID:29351982

  5. The Prevalence of Harmful Content on Outdoor Advertising in Los Angeles: Land Use, Community Characteristics, and the Spatial Inequality of a Public Health Nuisance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. Methods. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. Results. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy. PMID:24524512

  6. Neglecting the Left Side of a City Square but Not the Left Side of Its Clock: Prevalence and Characteristics of Representational Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect. PMID:23874416

  7. The prevalence of harmful content on outdoor advertising in Los Angeles: land use, community characteristics, and the spatial inequality of a public health nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bryce C; Sloane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy.

  8. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Meiji Soe; San, Thida; Aye, Mya Mya; Mya, San; Maw, Win Win; Zan, Khin Nyein; Htut, Wut Hmone Win; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2017-08-04

    Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes ( pvl ) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa -VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl -positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl -positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus , a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl -negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw . The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl , as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar.

  9. Association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Ortega-González, Carlos; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Moran, Carlos; Sánchez-Serrano, Ana Paola; Higareda-Sánchez, Rodolfo; de la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR), pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Level-three medical institution, an infertility clinic in Mexico City. Participants We included infertile Mexican women with diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria: group 1 (n=83), normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 18.5–24.9 kg/m2); group 2 (n=217), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2); and group 3 (n=238), obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Primary and secondary outcome measures IR was determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) >2.5 and pre-diabetes by fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L and/or glucose value between 7.8 and 11 mmol/L at 2 hours during an oral glucose tolerance test. We compared clinical–biochemical characteristics among groups. Results Prevalence of IR for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 19.3%, 56.2% and 78.2%; overweight and obesity increase the IR OR (CI 95%) to 5.3 (2.9 to 9.8) and 14.9 (8.0 to 28), respectively. Prevalence of pre-diabetes for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7.2%, 17.5% and 31.5%; overweight and obesity increase the pre-diabetes OR (CI 95%) to 2.7 (1.1 to 6.7) and 5.9 (2.4 to 14), respectively. Acanthosis nigricans was more frequent in group 3 than group 1. Free Androgen Index (FAI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) was higher in group 1 than group 3. Conclusions Obese and overweight infertile Mexican women with PCOS, attending to an infertility clinic, have a higher prevalence of IR and pre-diabetes compared with normal-weight women with PCOS. Therapeutic interventions should include those that improved metabolic functioning prior to

  10. Association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and clinical-biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Ortega-González, Carlos; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Moran, Carlos; Sánchez-Serrano, Ana Paola; Higareda-Sánchez, Rodolfo; de la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco

    2016-07-22

    To study the association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR), pre-diabetes and clinical-biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Retrospective cross-sectional study. Level-three medical institution, an infertility clinic in Mexico City. We included infertile Mexican women with diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria: group 1 (n=83), normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)); group 2 (n=217), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)); and group 3 (n=238), obese (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)). IR was determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) >2.5 and pre-diabetes by fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L and/or glucose value between 7.8 and 11 mmol/L at 2 hours during an oral glucose tolerance test. We compared clinical-biochemical characteristics among groups. Prevalence of IR for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 19.3%, 56.2% and 78.2%; overweight and obesity increase the IR OR (CI 95%) to 5.3 (2.9 to 9.8) and 14.9 (8.0 to 28), respectively. Prevalence of pre-diabetes for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7.2%, 17.5% and 31.5%; overweight and obesity increase the pre-diabetes OR (CI 95%) to 2.7 (1.1 to 6.7) and 5.9 (2.4 to 14), respectively. Acanthosis nigricans was more frequent in group 3 than group 1. Free Androgen Index (FAI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) was higher in group 1 than group 3. Obese and overweight infertile Mexican women with PCOS, attending to an infertility clinic, have a higher prevalence of IR and pre-diabetes compared with normal-weight women with PCOS. Therapeutic interventions should include those that improved metabolic functioning prior to attempting pregnancy in these groups of women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  11. Prevalence, characteristics and severity of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children from the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija

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    Martinović Brankica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Molar-incisor hypomnineralization (MIH is relatively common developmental anomaly characterized by hypomineralized enamel defects in the first permanent molars and incisors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children aged eight and 10 years who live in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Methods. The study included 712 respondents, 289 of whom aged eight (40.6% and 423 of whom aged 10 years (59.4%. Criteria according to Weerheijm were used for diagnosis of hypomineralization and the severity of changes was determined. Results. The frequency of hypomineralized changes in the first permanent molars and incisors of the examined children in this area was 12.2%. It was lower in children aged eight years (10.7% compared to those aged 10 (13.2%. Demarcated enamel opacity was more common in younger children, whereas both atypical restoration and tooth extraction due to hypomineralization were more common in older children. Mild form is more common in children aged eight years, whereas both severe form and severe form with extracted teeth are more common in children aged 10 years. The results indicate that the first permanent molars were most commonly affected by MIH changes. Conclusion. The percentage of the respondents with MIH changes in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, which is 12.2%, is not negligible and points to the necessity of early diagnosis in order to prevent and reduce the complications of the condition by timely prevention and treatment.

  12. Study of Prevalence and Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA Nasal Colonization in 2-5 Years Old Children in Isfahan

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    Ramin Dibaj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: We carried out a descriptive study to determine the extent of nasal colonization and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA isolates in 2-5 year old children of day care centers in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of isolates were determined using standard phenotypic profiles including colony morphology, Gram staining, catalase, hyaluronidase, coagulase and Dnase tests as well as mannitol fermentation. The MRSA detection was carried out according to CLSI guidelines with oxacillin agar screen test. Methicillin resistance was further confirmed by detection of a 310 bp fragment of mecA gene of MRSA by PCR. Drug susceptibility testing to antibiotics other than methicillin was conducted by disk diffusion. The Beta-lactamase production and inducible clindamycin resistance were also determined by performing the double-disc diffusion(D-test. Results: Out of 323 children, 115 (35.6% carried S. aureus and 11 (9.5% carried MRSA. All MRSA strains were found to contain mecA gene. The susceptibility of strains to vancomycin, rifampicin and Linezolid were 100%. The susceptibility of strains to gentamicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, amoxiclav, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and penicillin were 99%, 97%, 94%, 94%, 93%, 88%, 44.4% and 1.8% respectively. Beta-lactamase production was seen in 19 (16.5% of staphylococcal strains. Inducible clindamycin resistance was seen in 4 (3.5% of the isolates. Conclusions: Our data indicates that the spread of CA-MRSA within Iranian population is worthy of consideration and merits further molecular investigation to determine the source and mode of transmission.

  13. Prevalence, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of various flow and gradient patterns in mild or moderate aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong-Qiang Benjamin; Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2016-10-15

    Paradoxical low-flow aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has only been described in severe AS. Controversy surrounds prognosis and management but no studies have reported this phenomenon in mild or moderate AS. We investigated the prevalence of flow and gradient patterns in this population, characterising their clinical and echocardiographic profile. Consecutive subjects (n=1362) with isolated AS: mild (n=462, aortic valve area≥1.5cm(2), 2.5m/s

  14. Prevalence, populations and pheno- and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat vegetables marketed in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Igarashi, Maria Crystina; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2012-04-02

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of great concern due to the high fatality rates of listeriosis. The consumption of RTE vegetables has increased in Brazil over the last two decades, but little is known about the risks associated to the consumption of these products. This study evaluated the prevalence and counts of L. monocytogenes in 512 packages of ready-to-eat vegetables marketed in São Paulo. The isolates were characterized for their serotypes, ribotypes, positivity for virulence genes inlA, inlC and inlJ, resistance to chlorine, growth rate variability and capability to form biofilm on stainless steel (AISI 304, #4) coupons. L. monocytogenes was detected in 3.1% of the samples. Only five samples presented countable levels, with counts between 1.0×10(1) and 2.6×10(2)CFU/g. Isolates belonged to serotypes 1/2b or 4b and most were positive for genes inlC and inlJ. Ribotypable isolates were grouped into four groups: 1038 (69.4%), 19175 (11.3%), 19191 (17.7%) and 18604 (one isolate). Most isolates survived to exposure to 125 ppm of a chlorine-based disinfectant for 3 min. All isolates were capable to attach to the coupons, reaching counts above 4 log(10) CFU/cm(2) and the growth rate (μ) at 25°C of the majority of the isolates varied between 0.1 and 0.2 log OD/h, but for few strains the μ was as high as 0.26 log OD/h. Results of this survey indicate that RTE vegetables may be vehicles of L. monocytogenes strains with limited variation in serotype, ribotype and virulence factors but varying significantly in resistance to chlorine disinfectants, capability of forming biofilm and growth rate. Data obtained is of foremost importance to serve as baseline for the development of scientific-based policies to control the incidence of L. monocytogenes in RTE vegetables in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of beliefs about actual and mythical causes of cancer and their association with socio-demographic and health-related characteristics: Findings from a cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Lion; McGowan, Jennifer A; Waller, Jo; Smith, Samuel G

    2018-04-23

    Literature on population awareness about actual causes of cancer is growing but comparatively little is known about the prevalence of people's belief concerning mythical causes of cancer. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of these beliefs and their association with socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviours. A survey containing validated measures of beliefs about actual and mythical cancer causes and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, overweight) was administered to a representative English population sample (N = 1330). Awareness of actual causes of cancer (52% accurately identified; 95% confidence interval [CI] 51-54) was greater than awareness of mythical cancer causes (36% accurately identified; 95% CI 34-37; P cancer causes were exposure to stress (43%; 95% CI 40-45), food additives (42%; 95% CI 39-44) and electromagnetic frequencies (35%; 95% CI 33-38). In adjusted analysis, greater awareness of actual and mythical cancer causes was independently associated with younger age, higher social grade, being white and having post-16 qualifications. Awareness of actual but not mythical cancer causes was associated with not smoking and eating sufficient fruit and vegetables. Awareness of actual and mythical cancer causes is poor in the general population. Only knowledge of established risk factors is associated with adherence to behavioural recommendations for reducing cancer risk. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  17. Prevalência e características da cefaléia em uma população de praticantes regulares de exercícios físicos Prevalence and characteristics of headache in a population of regular physical exercise practitioners

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    Fabrício Miranda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available MOTIVO: O impacto causado pela cefaléia pode impedir a aderência a um programa regular de atividade física. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência e as características da cefaléia em uma população de praticantes de exercícios físicos. MÉTODO: Cem alunos de uma academia foram avaliados. Todos eram alunos regulares por pelo menos 12 meses e praticavam exercícios aeróbicos pelo menos 3 vezes por semana. Um questionário sobre a prevalência e características da cefaléia foi aplicado a todos aqueles que apresentaram nos últimos 12 meses. O questionário de avaliação de impacto MIDAS também foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: 57 homens e 43 mulheres foram incluídos. Oitenta apresentaram cefaléia no período avaliado. Em 63% a dor era pulsátil. Em 73% da amostra a freqüência de crises situava-se em menos de 1 vez a cada 10 dias. O escore do questionário MIDAS foi inferior a 5 em 83% desses pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Embora não avaliados por médico e baseado em recall, os dados sugerem alta prevalência de cefaléia com critérios de migrânea. É incerto se a prática regular de exercícios físicos reduz a freqüência de crises ou se os sofredores de cefaléia com baixa freqüência de crises são os que fazem atividade física regular.BACKGROUND: The burden of headache may impede sufferers from adhering to a routine of physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of headache in a health club population. METHOD: One hundred attendees of a health club were interviewed. They all were regular attendees for the previous 12 months and practiced aerobic exercises no less than 3 times a week. A questionnaire with characteristics of headache was applied to all who had a headache attack during the previous 12 months. MIDAS questionnaire was used as well. RESULTS: 57 men and 43 women were included. Eighty subjects had a headache attack, which was pulsatile in 63% of the sufferers. MIDAS was lower than 5 days in 83% of the

  18. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  19. Prevalence and associated characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: One hundred and eighty four blood donors negative for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis were assessed for their levels of CMV specific IgG and IgM antibodies (AccuDiagTM ELISA, DIAGNOSTIC AUTOMATION INC, USA) using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ...

  20. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

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    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  1. Refractory hypertension: definition, prevalence, and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acelajado, Maria Czarina; Pisoni, Roberto; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Cartmill, Falynn; Zhang, Bin; Cofield, Stacey S; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2012-01-01

    Among patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN), there are those whose blood pressure (BP) remains uncontrolled in spite of maximal medical therapy. This retrospective analysis aims to characterize these patients with refractory hypertension. Refractory hypertension was defined as BP that remained uncontrolled after ≥3 visits to a hypertension clinic within a minimum 6-month follow-up period. Of the 304 patients referred for RHTN, 29 (9.5%) remained refractory to treatment. Patients with refractory hypertension and those with controlled RHTN had similar aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity (PRA). Patients with refractory hypertension had higher baseline BP (175±23/97±15 mm Hg vs 158±25/89±15 mm Hg; P=.001/.005) and heart rate, and higher rates of prior stroke and congestive heart failure. During follow-up, the BP of patients with refractory hypertension remained uncontrolled (168.4±14.8/93.8±17.7 mm Hg) in spite of use of an average of 6 antihypertensive medications, while those of patients with controlled RHTN decreased to 129.3±11.2/77.6±10.8 mm Hg. Spironolactone reduced the BP by 12.9±17.8/6.6±13.7 mm Hg in patients with refractory hypertension and by 24.1±16.7/9.2±12.0 mm Hg in patients with controlled RHTN. In patients with RHTN, approximately 10% remain refractory to treatment. Similar aldosterone and PRA levels and a diminished response to spironolactone suggest that aldosterone excess does not explain the treatment failure. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cyberbullying in Portuguese Schools: Prevalence and Characteristics

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    Matos, Armanda P. M.; Vieira, Cristina C.; Amado, João; Pessoa, Teresa; Martins, Maria José D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of cyberbullying in 23 Portuguese schools. A sample of 3,525 sixth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade students completed a self-response questionnaire assessing their perceptions and experiences of cyberbullying. The findings showed that 7.6% of students have been victimized, and 3.9% have bullied others at…

  3. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking control is urgently needed to prevent the epidemic of tobacco-related diseases and deaths in developing countries. This requires data on smoking, especially among vulnerable groups like students. We have surveyed cigarette smoking among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, in the North ...

  5. El dolor de espalda en la población catalana: Prevalencia, características y conducta terapéutica Back pain in the general population of Catalonia (Spain: Prevalence, characteristics and therapeutic behavior

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    A. Bassols

    2003-04-01

    situación clínica de elevada frecuencia en la población catalana y un motivo muy importante de utilización de atención médica y de limitación de la actividad personal y profesional.Background: Back pain is a common symptom of health assistance in Western countries. The goal of the present survey was to establish the prevalence of back pain in the general population in Catalonia, as well as to establish its characteristics, its relationship to sociodemographic variables, the therapeutic behavior followed by those affected and the associated-impairment and disabilities for the sufferers. Methods: The survey was a descriptive study including a sample of 1,964 people, obtained from the census (1991 and representative of the population older than 18 years. The study was done in 1994 and data were obtained by means of a telephone interview. The prevalence of pain in the last six months was determined. Among those suffering back pain, additional information was obtained concerning its characteristics, the relationship with socio-demographic variables, the therapeutic behaviors used by patients, and the personal, social and work impairment and disabilities. Results: Back pain was highly prevalent (50.9%, appeared in all ages (mean age of 47.6 years, was the highest in women (60.7%, in manual workers (54.9% and in those less educated (71.1%. Back pain was long lasting (69.2% more than 3 years, frequent (49.7% more than the half of the days, and highly painful (severe-unbearable in 51.4%. The therapeutic behaviors most commonly used were the visit to the physician (71.9%, the use of alternative medical treatments (24.7%, physical therapy (22.7%, physical exercises and electrotherapy and self-medication (14.6%, being acetylsalicylic acid the most employed. In general, the duration and degree of improvement was variable. Back pain limited the daily activities (36.7% and forced to bed rest (22.7%. It was also a significant reason for time off work (17% and disability pension (6

  6. The prevalence and illness characteristics of DSM-5-defined "mixed feature specifier" in adults with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder: Results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Soczynska, Joanna K; Cha, Danielle S; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Dale, Roman S; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Gallaugher, Laura Ashley; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Muzina, David J; Carvalho, Andre; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-02-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals with mood disorders present with sub-syndromal hypo/manic features. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and illness characteristics of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5 (DSM-5) - defined mixed features specifier (MFS) in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Data from participants who met criteria for a current mood episode as part of MDD (n=506) or BD (BD-I: n=216, BD-II: n=130) were included in this post-hoc analysis. All participants were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP): a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Mixed features specifier was operationalized as a score ≥ 1 on 3 or more select items on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) or ≥ 1 on 3 select items of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) during an index major depressive episode (MDE) or hypo/manic episode, respectively. A total of 26.0% (n=149), 34.0% (n=65), and 33.8% (n=49) of individuals met criteria for MFS during an index MDE as part of MDD, BD-I and BD-II, respectively. Mixed features specifier during a hypo/manic episode was identified in 20.4% (n=52) and 5.1% (n=8) in BD-I and BD-II participants, respectively. Individuals with MDE-MFS as part of BD or MDD exhibited a more severe depressive phenotype (p=0.0002 and pdefined MFS is common during an MDE as part of MDD and BD. The presence of MFS identifies a subgroup of individuals with greater illness complexity and possibly a higher rate of cardiovascular comorbidity. The results herein underscore the common occurrence of MFS in adults with either BD or MDD. Moreover, the results of our analysis indicate that adults with mood disorders and MFS have distinct clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns. Copyright

  7. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

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    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  8. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Macur, Mirna; Kir?ly, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygy?rgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ...

  9. Associação entre prevalência de laqueadura tubária e características sócio-demográficas de mulheres e seus companheiros no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Association of prevalence of tubal ligation and sociodemographic characteristics of women and their partners in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Anibal Faúndes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem uma alta prevalência de laqueadura tubária. Alguns setores da sociedade acreditam que essa alta prevalência estaria indicando um controle da natalidade dissimulado, que visa diminuir a fecundidade nas camadas mais pobres da população. O objetivo deste trabalho é contribuir para a compreensão das possíveis diferenças sócio-econômicas quanto à prática da laqueadura. Para este fim, analisamos uma base de dados com 1.335 mulheres com idade de 15 a 49 anos, obtida entre mulheres de nível sócio-econômico médio-baixo ou baixo, em duas regiões do Estado de São Paulo, no ano de 1991. Os resultados mostraram uma aparentemente maior prevalência de laqueadura entre as mulheres com menor nível educacional e também entre as que moravam em habitação de boa qualidade. Entretanto, ao controlar por idade, essas associações desapareceram, sugerindo que se deviam apenas a menor escolaridade e maiores recursos das mulheres de maior idade, sendo este último o fator mais fortemente associado à prevalência de laqueadura. Discute-se a complexidade das relações entre nível sócio-econômico e ligadura tubária, incluindo a diferença sócio-econômica na prevalência de cesárea, intimamente ligada à esterilização feminina.Brazil has a high prevalence of tubal ligation. The hypothesis that it indicates undercover birth control efforts specifically addressed to the poorest sector of Brazilian society has been raised. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether there are differences in rates of tubal ligation depending on socioeconomic status. Data were gathered from interviews with 1335 women 15-49 years of age, of low or lower-middle socioeconomic status, carried out in 1991 in two regions of the State of São Paulo. The results showed an apparently higher prevalence of tubal ligation among women with less schooling,, but also among those living in better housing. However, after controlling for women's age, these

  10. Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India

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    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (<15 years and almost half of them had lost one or both of their parents. The study shows the poor socio-economical situation and the high level of illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas.

  11. Impact of using DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder in bariatric surgery candidates: change in prevalence rate, demographic characteristics, and scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was recently included in the DSM-5. The prevalence rate for BED using the DSM-IV-TR research criteria tends to be higher in bariatric surgery candidates than the normative population; however, no studies have examined how many more bariatric surgery candidates will meet the new, less conservative criteria of DSM-5. We explore the current BED prevalence rate change in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Data were obtained for 1,283 bariatric surgery candidates. 84 men and 213 women were diagnosed with current BED using DSM-IV-TR research criteria. A semi-structured interview, the binge eating scale (BES), and a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) were given to every patient as part of standard procedures mandated by the facility. An additional 3.43% (p MMPI-2-RF and BES scores when compared with patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Thus, the current investigation indicates that individuals meeting BED criteria based on DSM-5 are similar to those meeting the more conservative diagnostic threshold outlined in DSM-IV-TR in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyam; Naik, Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-02

    Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas.

  13. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  14. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  15. Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer-A nationwide, population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, E; Lindhardt, B Ø

    2017-01-01

    of included patients who were diagnosed with cancer after completing a NSSC-CPP diagnostic course. Associations between patient characteristics and cancer diagnosis were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: The mean age of the 23,934 patients included in the analysis was 64.6 years...

  16. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Trauma hepático: prevalência e características epidemiológicas de vítimas encaminhadas ao Instituto Médico Legal de Palmas, Tocantins = Liver trauma: prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of victims referred to the Forensic Department of Palmas, Tocantins

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Danilo Lopes; Ferreira, Maurício Barbosa; Pereira, Marcus Vinicius Moura; Reis Junior, Paulo Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: Analisar a prevalência e as características epidemiológicas relacionadas ao trauma hepático nas vítimas encaminhadas ao Instituto Médico Legal de Palmas, Tocantins. Métodos: Um estudo transversal retrospectivo foi realizado no Instituto Médico Legal (IML) de Palmas, Tocantins, incluindo todas as vítimas encaminhadas para esse serviço, no período de janeiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2010, consistindo em óbitos por causas violentas e que possuíssem lesões traumáticas de tecido hepático. ...

  18. Treinamento esfincteriano precoce: prevalência, características materna da criança e fatores associados numa coorte de nascimentos Early toilet training: prevalence, the characteristics of the mother and of the child and associated factors in a cohort of births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Marques Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência de crianças sem fraldas, a idade de início do treinamento esfincteriano e a expectativa materna em relação à aquisição deste controle numa coorte de nascimentos. MÉTODOS: todas as crianças nascidas em 2004 em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foram incluídas em um estudo longitudinal. Aos 12 meses, as crianças tiveram seu desenvolvimento avaliado e as mães questionadas sobre o início do treinamento esfincteriano e expectativa em relação à idade da retirada das fraldas. Diferenças entre grupos foram avaliadas através de testes qui-quadrado para heterogeneidade e tendência linear. RESULTADOS: aos 12 meses de idade, 14,7% das mães tinham iniciado o treinamento esfincteriano. Apenas 2,2% receberam orientação pediátrica sobre retirada de fraldas. Os grupos de mães com maior prevalência de início de treinamento aos 12 meses foram as do primeiro quintil econômico, cinco a oito anos de escolaridade, adolescentes e maiores de 40 anos. Dois terços acham que o momento para deixar as fraldas é antes dos 18 meses; 1,3% das crianças estão sem fraldas de dia. CONCLUSÕES: o treinamento esfincteriano começou precocemente em uma parcela significativa destas crianças, sendo desprezível a proporção de mães orientadas pelos pediatras. Informações sobre o momento ideal e métodos adequados de controle esfincteriano devem ser oferecidas às mães, no contexto da puericultura e atenção básica à saúde.OBJECTIVES: to assess the prevalence of children not using diapers, the age at which toilet training started and the mother's expectations regarding the attainment of this in a cohort of births. METHODS: all children born in 2004 in the city of Pelotas, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. At the age of 12 months they were assessed for their development. Mothers were questioned regarding the beginning of toilet training and parental expectations in

  19. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the reproductive, physical and mental well-being of women. In Ethiopia however, knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence against women is ... socio-economic, relationship and behavioral factors increase women's risk of being victimized. Thus .... exchange are the main types of marriage.

  20. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...

  1. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ärnlöv, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry; Wiȩcek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schöttker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Helmer, Catherine; Metzger, Marie; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Bongard, Vanina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Denkinger, Michael D.; Brenner, Hermann; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Perry, Ivan; Eustace, Joseph; Lupo, Antonio; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palleschi, Simonetta; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. For this systematic review, two researchers

  2. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Arnlov, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Otero Gonzalez, Alfonso; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Voelzke, Henry; Wiecek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schoettker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.

    Background. Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. Methods. For this systematic review, two

  3. Analysis of the prevalence of different topographical characteristics of the residual ridge in mandibular free-end arches Análise da prevalência de diferentes características topográficas do rebordo residual em arcos mandibulares com extremidades livres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gramani Guedes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study observed the prevalence of different types of residual ridge inclination in free-ends of mandibles and reported possible correlative factors that may affect resorption. For this purpose, periapical radiographs and individual data collected from a sample of 64 hemiarches were used. Two radiographs were taken of each free-end, and tracing was employed to determine the angles formed by the resorption configuration in the area of the 1st mandibular molar. The following conclusions were drawn: 1 the great majority of alveolar ridges were distally descending; 2 the average angle was wider for users of mandibular removable partial dentures; 3 the results obtained suggest that the type of opposing maxillary arch affects the inclination of mandibular ridges; 4 greater inclination was observed when the 2nd bicuspids of the mandible were the abutment teeth; 5 no significant correlation was established between age, sex and residual ridge resorption.Esta pesquisa constatou a prevalência dos tipos de rebordos residuais no sentido ântero-posterior em extremidades livres inferiores, além de correlacionar alguns fatores que possam influenciar as suas reabsorções. Para isso, utilizamos radiografias periapicais e dados individuais colhidos na amostra de 64 hemiarcos; foram obtidas 2 radiografias de cada área de extremidade livre e, a partir de traçados, determinamos os ângulos formados pela reabsorção na altura do 1º molar inferior. Podemos constatar que: 1º a grande maioria de inclinação encontrada foi de rebordos descendentes para distal; 2º a média de angulação foi maior para usuários de prótese parcial removível inferior; 3º os resultados sugeriram existir influência do tipo de arco antagônico superior na inclinação dos rebordos inferiores; 4º observou-se aumento de inclinação quando os segundos pré-molares inferiores eram os dentes adjacentes ao espaço protético; e 5º não foram encontradas correla

  4. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  5. Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RESULTS. Demographic characteristics revealed that the prevalence of rhinovirus infection in children showed 38% positivity of which 20 (10.0%) were males while 17 (8.5%) were females. Children between the ages ofO-24 months have the highest prevalence of 45.9% while those older than 96 months have the least.

  6. the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by exercise. Parameters ..... Prolonged adaptation to fat- rich diet ...

  7. Prevalence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  8. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  9. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  10. Pacientes clínicos referenciados, mas não internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: prevalência, características clínicas e prognóstico Referred medical patients not admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: prevalence, clinical characteristics and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodolfo Rocco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A evolução dos pacientes cuja internação é negada nos centros de terapia intensiva (CTI é pouco conhecida. Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar as características dos pacientes internados com aqueles que não foram internados em CTI e identificar os fatores associados com o processo de triagem para a internação. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo coorte prospectiva e observacional durante 26 meses. Os dados dos pacientes foram coletados através de um formulário padronizado para a solicitação de internação no CTI. Os desfechos de interesse do estudo foram a internação no CTI e a evolução hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 455 pacientes dos quais 254 (56% foram internados e 201 (44% não; a maioria destes, por falta de vagas (82%. Os pacientes não internados apresentaram maior letalidade (85% versus 61%; p 70 anos [4,0(2,4-6,5], cirrose hepática [3,7(1,8-7,5], e escala de coma de Glasgow BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information on the outcomes of patients who were refused to the ICU is limited. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical characteristics of patients who were admitted with those of patients who were refused to the ICU and to identify clinical parameters associated with triage procedures. METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study. The following data were collected using a standard questionnaire: comorbidities, acute illness, vital status, laboratory data and APACHE II score. The end-points of interest were admission to the ICU and vital status at hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 455 patients were studied; 254 (56% were admitted and 201 (44% were not. The main reason for the refuse of admission was the lack of ICU beds (82%. Patients who were not admitted had a higher mortality (85% vs. 61%; p 70 years [4.0(2.4-6.5], hepatic cirrhosis [3.7(1.8-7.6], and Glasgow coma scale < 5 [3.6(1.9-6.9]. The variables associated with ICU admission were: mechanical

  11. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  12. Prevalence of nursing diagnosis of decreased cardiac output and the predictive value of defining characteristics in patients under evaluation for heart transplant Prevalencia del diagnóstico de enfermería de disminución del gasto cardíaco y valor predictivo de las características definidoras en pacientes en fase de evaluación para trasplante cardíaco Prevalência do diagnóstico de enfermagem de débito cardíaco diminuído e valor preditivo das características definidoras em pacientes em avaliação para transplante cardíaco

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Neres Matos; Tereza Cristina Felippe Guimarães; Marcos Antônio Gomes Brandão; Deyse Conceição Santoro

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to identify the prevalence of defining characteristics (DC) of decreased cardiac output (DCO) in patients with cardiac insufficiency under evaluation for heart transplantation, and to ascertain the likelihood of defining characteristics being predictive factors for the existence of reduction in cardiac output. Data was obtained by retrospective documental analysis of the clinical records of right-sided heart catheterizations in 38 patients between 2004 and 2009....

  13. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  14. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of dementia in Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarsland, Dag; Andersen, Kjeld; Larsen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported, and the proportion of patients with PD who eventually develop dementia is unknown.......Few longitudinal studies of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported, and the proportion of patients with PD who eventually develop dementia is unknown....

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Polypharmacy and Drug-Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polypharmacy is the prescription of multiple medications for a patient which is a common problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the extent of polypharmacy and occurrence of drug–drug interaction in Afincho Ber Health Centre, Addis Ababa. The study was conducted by retrospective crosssectional review ...

  17. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of obsessive-compulsive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    73% of the study group experienced depressive symptoms compared to 50.8% of the control group. .... was conducted on the relevant variables within the two groups. ..... schizotypy vs. schizophrenia with OCD: diagnostic dilemmas and.

  18. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of obsessive-compulsive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were matched for gender and age of onset of illness with 59 subjects who do not have OCD/OCS (control group). The diagnostic instrument used in this cohort is the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) version 2, which has been translated into Afrikaans. In addition to the DIGS, information for the relevant ...

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of foal rejection in Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarbe-Díaz, S V; Houpt, K A; Kusunose, R

    1998-09-01

    Separate surveys of Thoroughbred, Paint, and Arabian mare owners revealed a higher than expected rate of foal rejection in Arabian mares. A behavioural history form was submitted by owners of foal rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares, and maternal behaviour and management practices compared. Four generation pedigrees of rejecting and nonrejecting Arabian mares were also examined. Foal rejecting mares were more likely to avoid, threaten, squeal at, chase, bite, and kick their foals post partum than nonrejecting mares. Nonrejecting mares were more likely to lick, nicker and defend their foals post partum than rejecting mares. No statistically significant relationship was found between foal rejection and the type of breeding method (natural vs. artificial insemination), the presence of people at birth, the presence of nearby horses at birth, or assistance of the first nursing bout. The presence at least once of 1 of 2 related sires was statistically higher in the pedigrees of rejecting vs. nonrejecting mares. Inherited and learned or environmental factors are likely to affect the expression of foal rejection behaviour.

  20. Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of inpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reporting when a culture of quality monitoring is not entrenched.[6]. Objective. The practice of ..... in commercial aviation could be exploited in health to identify ... Olsen S, et al. Patient safety in developing countries: Retrospective estimation of.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Jones, Lisa M; Wolak, Janis

    2012-01-01

    To obtain national estimates of youth involved in sexting in the past year (the transmission via cell phone, the Internet, and other electronic media of sexual images), as well as provide details of the youth involved and the nature of the sexual images. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey of 1560 youth Internet users, ages 10 through 17. Estimates varied considerably depending on the nature of the images or videos and the role of the youth involved. Two and one-half percent of youth had appeared in or created nude or nearly nude pictures or videos. However, this percentage is reduced to 1.0% when the definition is restricted to only include images that were sexually explicit (ie, showed naked breasts, genitals, or bottoms). Of the youth who participated in the survey, 7.1% said they had received nude or nearly nude images of others; 5.9% of youth reported receiving sexually explicit images. Few youth distributed these images. Because policy debates on youth sexting behavior focus on concerns about the production and possession of illegal child pornography, it is important to have research that collects details about the nature of the sexual images rather than using ambiguous screening questions without follow-ups. The rate of youth exposure to sexting highlights a need to provide them with information about legal consequences of sexting and advice about what to do if they receive a sexting image. However, the data suggest that appearing in, creating, or receiving sexual images is far from being a normative behavior for youth.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of compulsive buying in college students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvanko, Arit; Lust, Katherine; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    students. Overall survey response rate was 35.1% (n=2108). Our data indicated that 3.6% (n=67) of college students surveyed met criteria for CB with significantly more women affected (4.4%, n=48) than men (2.5%, n=19). Relative to students not meeting criteria for CB, college students who met criteria...... of college students who meet criteria for CB. During the spring of 2011, an online survey examining CB (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning was emailed to 2108 University...

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and metabolic syndrome (MS) share a ... patients with other known systemic disorders, long‑term intake of drugs that ... Keywords: Alcohol, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome ...

  4. Poor physician performance in the Netherlands: characteristics, causes, and prevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, M.M.P.G. van den; Wagner, C.; Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Poor physician performance has a profound impact on patient safety and society's trust in the health care system. The attention that this topic has received in the media suggests that it is a large-scale issue. However, research about physician performance is still scant; there is

  5. Prevalence of fatigue in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, W; Kearney, Y; Bury, G

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in general practice due to its association with physical, psychological and social problems. To determine the prevalence of fatigue as an unsolicited symptom during general practice consultations. A random sample of GPs practising in Ireland was invited to provide data on consultations held over one day. Data were recorded on the presence of fatigue as a main or supporting symptom, social and demographic characteristics. Data were recorded by 89 GPs on 1,428 consultations. The prevalence of fatigue was 25%. It was the main reason for attending the doctor in 6.5% and a secondary reason in 19%. Sixty-two per cent of patients were female and 48% were eligible for free GP services. The mean age was 47.1 years. The presence of fatigue was associated with: attending a female GP, being female, attending a GP who had been qualified for fewer years and attending the GP frequently. The prevalence of fatigue reported in this study is over three times higher than that reported in earlier work. Doctor characteristics appear to be as important as patient characteristics in determining fatigue.

  6. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  7. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  8. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

  9. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  10. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  11. Gastric MALT lymphoma: clinical characteristics and prevalence of H. pylori infection in a series of 37 cases Linfoma MALT gástrico: características clínicas y prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori en una serie de 37 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Gisbert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma diagnosed in our hospital during the last 15 years. Methods: patients with gastric MALT lymphoma diagnosed in our hospital during the last 15 years were retrospectively included. Demographic, clinic, analytic, endoscopic, and histological variables were reviewed. The extension study, the staging classification, and the presence of H. pylori infection were assessed. Results: thirty-seven patients with gastric MALT lymphoma were identified. Mean age was 61 years, with 62% of males. The most common presentation symptom was dyspepsia (76%, followed by digestive bleeding (11% and constitutional syndrome (8%. At endoscopy, erosive lesions were identified in 41%, and proliferative or exophytic lesions in 43%. Most lymphomas were classified as low-grade (68%. The stage distribution was EI for 56%, EII for 13%, EIII for 3%, and EIV for 28%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection (histology in all cases, rapid urease test in 19%, and 13C-urea breath test in 24% was 46%. When only low-grade lymphomas in stage EI were considered, H. pylori prevalence increased to 55%. When H. pylori infection was evaluated by 13C-urea breath testing (in addition to histology, the prevalence of H. pylori infection increased to 78%. Conclusions: it is probable that the reduced H. pylori prevalence found in some studies, as in ours, could be explained by false-negative results obtained when only one diagnostic method was used. Therefore, at least two (invasive diagnostic methods should be performed. Furthermore, the performance of a non-invasive diagnostic method (such as a 13C-urea breath test before the exclusion of H. pylori infection should be considered.Objetivo: revisar retrospectivamente las características clínicas y la prevalencia de infección por H. pylori en los pacientes con linfoma MALT gástrico diagnosticados

  12. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  13. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...

  14. High prevalence of daily and multi-site pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard

    2013-01-01

    Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated...... with respondent characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported daily and multi-site pain among adolescents aged 12--19 years and associations of almost daily pain and multi-site pain with respondent characteristics (sex, age, body mass index (BMI), HRQoL and sports...

  15. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  16. Prevalence of myasthenia gravis in the Catalan county of Osona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, J M; Altimiras, J; Roura, P; Alonso, F; Bufill, E; Munmany, A; Alfonso, S; Illa, I

    The reported prevalence of myasthenia gravis ranges between 5 and 24 cases per 100,000, and people over 65years account for less than 50% of all cases. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of myasthenia gravis in the county of Osona were studied in patients younger and older than 65. The study draws from the county-based prospective myasthenia gravis register implemented by the Neurology Department at Hospital General de Vic in 1991. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis was 32.89×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 23.86-41.91). The standardized prevalence (European population) was 35.47×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 26.10-44.84). The ratio of women to men was 1.3. Overall, the group of patients older than 65 accounted for 62.75% of all cases. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis increased considerably in older age groups. No cases were registered among patients under 25years old, prevalence was 21.87×10 5 in the 25 to 64 age group, and prevalence in patients over 65 years increased to 122.35×10 5 . The clinical characteristics prior to treatment and at the cut-off date are similar (P>.05) in patients younger than 65 and those aged 65 and older. These figures show the highest prevalence rate reported to date. This high prevalence is due to the rate observed among patients older than 65. These results provide a new warning that myasthenia gravis may be underdiagnosed in the elderly population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  18. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  19. 温州大学生网络成瘾状况及其三维人格特征的横断面调查%Cross-sectional survey of prevalence and personality characteristics of college students with internet addiction in Wenzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜德国; 朱盛; 叶敏捷; 林崇光

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internet addiction can seriously affect the social functioning and studies of college students in China but measures for addressing this problem have not yet been developed or tested.Objective: Assess the personality characteristics of college students with internet addiction.Methods: Two self-report scales, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), were administered to a stratified random sample of 697 college students from colleges and vocational schools in Wenzhou, China. The characteristics of 48 subjects who meet Chen's criteria for internet addiction (score of 64 or greater out of 100 on the CIAS) were compared to those of 649 subjects who did not meet criteria for internet addiction.Results: The prevalence of internet addiction in the sample was 6.9% (95% CI=5.1-9.1%). Compared to students without internet addiction, those with internet addiction were more likely to be male, of Han ethnicity, to have a history of substance use (primarily tobacco and alcohol), and to be a student at a technical college. Students with internet addiction had higher mean (sd) scores on the novelty-seeking subscale of the TPQ [17.9 (1.2) v. 13.0 (1.6), t=16.75 p<0.001] and on the harm-avoidance subscale [17.2 (1.9) v. 14.6 (1.1), t=15.14, p<0.001] but lower scores on the reward-dependence subscale [14.6 (1.4) v. 18.3 (1.7), t=-7.64, p<0.001]. Logistic regression found that the most important independent predictors of internet addiction were Han ethnicity (OR= 5.52, 95% CI=2.00-15.32), male gender (4.40, 1.97-9.81),and substance use (1.08, 1.02-1.15). After adjustment for other variables personality measures were not significantly associated with internet addiction.Conclusion: The prevalence of internet addiction among college students in Wenzhou is similar to that in other parts of China. Significant differences in the personality characteristics assessed by the TPQ between university students with and without

  20. ADHD in Tunisian Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Ahmed; Guedria, Asma; Brahem, Takoua; Amamou, Badii; Sboui, Wiem; Gaddour, Naoufel; Gaha, Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a population of high school students and to explore the factors associated with this disorder. This was a cross-sectional study that had included 447 high school students. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale translated in Arabic language. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by a preestablished questionnaire. The self-esteem was assessed by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The prevalence of ADHD was 18.1%. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between the diagnosis of ADHD and the bad relationships with parents (odds ratio [OR] = 16.43; p antecedents (OR = 12.16; p antecedents (OR = 3.16; p = .009). The prevalence of ADHD in this study was one of the highest prevalence reported. The factors associated with ADHD may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  1. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  2. Lifetime Prevalence and Socioemotional Effects of Hearing about Community Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Angela; Hurley, Jimmy D.; Shumate, Howard W.; Haden, Sara Chiara

    2006-01-01

    This study extends findings on community violence (CV) exposure in young adults by examining the prevalence, characteristics, and socioemotional effects related to hearing about violence. Surveys of lifetime CV exposure and socioemotional outcomes were completed by 518 male and female undergraduates completed and were divided into groups with…

  3. changing patterns of the prevalence of helicobacter pylori among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study described the prevalence of H. pylori among large numbers of ... the gastric antrum for Rapid Urease Test (RUT) in identifying H. Pylori. Data on patient characteristics, clinical diagnosis and findings upon endoscopy were analyzed by simple ..... factors to be taken into account when planning treatment include compli-.

  4. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study determined the prevalence and socio‑demographic characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge. Study Design: Descriptive cross‑sectional study. Setting: University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swab samples ...

  5. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  6. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  7. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  8. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  9. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.

    1976-12-01

    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  10. Teenage pregnancy and family characteristics as seen among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the hospital prevalence of teenage pregnancy and the family ... characteristics of the teenagers and their family as well as sexual history. ... 115 (44.2%) of the teenagers' mothers had SSEsenior secondary education, ...

  11. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among adolescents students of Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani; Zahra Hasanzadeh; Mahvash Raghibi

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is believed that adolescents suffer from dysmenorrhea but premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is not a common and prevalent disorder. Recently, some studies indicated that PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were common problems among students and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms reported differently due to socio-cultural characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PMS and PMDD in a group of Iranian adolescent students.Materials and Me...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    reproductive and sexual health characteristics of the participants, knowledge on HIV ... Keywords: HIV, older adults, prevalence, knowledge, risk factors, Tanzania ... With increased availability of ART, people are living longer and age with HIV ...

  13. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  14. Prevalence and profiles of unmet healthcare need in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammatacharee Noppakun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the light of the universal healthcare coverage that was achieved in Thailand in 2002, policy makers have raised concerns about whether there is still unmet need within the population. Our objectives were to assess the annual prevalence, characteristics and reasons for unmet healthcare need in the Thai population in 2010 and to compare our findings with relevant international literature. Methods A standard set of OECD unmet need questionnaires was used in a nationally-representative household survey conducted in 2010 by the National Statistical Office. The prevalence of unmet need among respondents with various socio-economic characteristics was estimated to determine an inequity in the unmet need and the reasons behind it. Results The annual prevalence of unmet need for outpatient and inpatient services in 2010 was 1.4% and 0.4%, respectively. Despite this low prevalence, there are inequities with relatively higher proportion of the unmet need among Universal Coverage Scheme members, and the poor and rural populations. There was less unmet need due to cost than there was due to geographical barriers. The prevalence of unmet need due to cost and geographical barriers among the richest and poorest quintiles were comparable to those of selected OECD countries. The geographical extension of healthcare infrastructure and of the distribution of health workers is a major contributing factor to the low prevalence of unmet need. Conclusions The low prevalence of unmet need for both outpatient and inpatient services is a result of the availability of well-functioning health services at the most peripheral level, and of the comprehensive benefit package offered free of charge by all health insurance schemes. This assessment prompts a need for regular monitoring of unmet need in nationally-representative household surveys.

  15. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  16. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were......). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. CONCLUSIONS: The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort...

  17. Characteristics of Recent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, A. D.; Eble, M. C.; Mungov, G.

    2017-12-01

    How long do tsunamis impact a coast? How often is the largest tsunami wave the first to arrive? How do measurements in the far field differ from those made close to the source? Extending the study of Eblé et al. (2015) who showed the prevalence of a leading negative phase, we assimilate and summarize characteristics of known tsunami events recorded on bottom pressure and coastal water level stations throughout the world oceans to answer these and other questions. An extensive repository of data from the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) archive for tsunami-ready U.S. tide gauge stations, housing more than 200 sites going back 10 years are utilized as are some of the more 3000 marigrams (analog or paper tide gauge records) for tsunami events. The focus of our study is on five tsunamis generated by earthquakes: 2010 Chile (Maule), 2011 East Japan (Tohoku), 2012 Haida Gwaii, 2014 Chile (Iquique), and 2015 Central Chile and one meteorologically generated tsunami on June 2013 along the U.S. East Coast and Caribbean. Reference: Eblé, M., Mungov, G. & Rabinovich, A. On the Leading Negative Phase of Major 2010-2014 Tsunamis. Pure Appl. Geophys. (2015) 172: 3493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-015-1127-5

  18. [Prevalence of mobbing in workers and factor risk associates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico there is little research to know the magnitude of mobbing. To identify the prevalence of mobbing and characteristics associated in workers. A cross-sectional study of 499 workers who use medical unit. A questionnaire was used to determine the presence of mobbing and various instruments to know the personality, vulnerability to stress, self-esteem and depression. Prevalence odds ratio, dispersion, chi-square and Poisson regression were calculated. A prevalence of 36% was found; no significant differences between sex or school level in mobbing presence, 20.2%, were found. Sixty per cent women are perceived as victims of harassment high relative to men (p = 0.04). Workers with low self-esteem have a greater association with high mobbing (p mobbing and personality and emotional disorders were identified.

  19. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  20. Prevalence of Endometriosis Among Women Undergoing Laparoscopic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Chu

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated 752 patients for endometriosis in consecutive laparoscopic procedures over a one year period. Six hundred eighty patients underwent laparoscopy for indications unrelated to symptoms of endometriosis and 72 patients were diagnosed clinically to have endometriosis before the procedures. In the 72 patients with clinical indications of endometriosis, 59 patients had disease confirmed at surgery (82%. Out of 680 asymptomatic patients, 186 patients (24.7% were documented to have the disease of various characteristics or appearances in which the typical lesions accounted for 42%. The overall prevalence among these women undergoing laparoscopy was 32.5%. However, a prevalence of 12% was shown in a subset of asymptomatic patients indicated for sterilization. This may reflect the appropriate prevalence in reproductive age population.

  1. Prevalence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus...... studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. RESULTS: Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46.......1%. CONCLUSIONS: Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance...

  2. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  3. Prevalence of antiplatelet therapy in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littenberg Benjamin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of, and patient characteristics associated with, antiplatelet therapy in a cohort of primary care patients with Type 1 or Type2 diabetes. Methods Subjects participating in a randomized trial of a decision support system were interviewed at home and medication usage verified by a research assistant. Eligibility for antiplatelet therapy was determined by American Diabetes Association criteria and clinical contraindications. The association between antiplatelet use and patient characteristics was examined using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results The mean age of subjects was 64 years (range 31–93. The prevalence of antiplatelet use was 54% overall; 45% for subjects without known CVD vs. 78% for those with CVD; 46% for women vs. 63% for men; and 45% for younger subjects (age = 65 (OR 1.9 [1.3, 2.7]. The prevalence of antiplatelet therapy for younger women without CVD was 32.8% compared to a prevalence of 90.3% for older men with CVD. Conclusion Despite clinical practice guidelines recommending antiplatelet therapy for patients with diabetes, there are still many eligible patients not receiving this beneficial therapy, particularly patients under 65, women, and patients without known CVD. Effective methods to increase antiplatelet use should be considered at the national, community, practice and provider level.

  4. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...

  5. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality found in hospital inpatients, and is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients. SIADH is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, and every case warrants investigation of the underlying cause. In this review, we will examine the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and clinical consequences of hyponatraemia due to SIADH.

  6. Prevalence of workplace bullying of South African employees

    OpenAIRE

    Leanri Cunniff; Karina Mostert

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Workplace bullying has negative physical and psychological effects on employees and several negative effects on organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in South Africa and whether there are differences in employees’ experiences of bullying with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, sense of coherence (SOC) and diversity experiences. Motivation for the study: This study intended to draw a...

  7. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in teenagers of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.

  8. Prevalence of hyperthyroidism according to type of vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-06-01

    Vegetarian diets may be associated with low prevalence of autoimmune disease, as observed in rural sub-Saharan Africans. Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. We studied prevalence of hyperthyroidism according to dietary pattern in a population with a high proportion of vegetarians. Cross-sectional prevalence study. The association between diet and prevalence of hyperthyroidism was examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and salt use. The Adventist Health Study-2 conducted in the USA and Canada. Church members (n 65 981) provided demographic, dietary, lifestyle and medical history data by questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported hyperthyroidism was 0·9 %. Male gender (OR=0·32; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·41) and moderate or high income (OR=0·67; 95 % CI 0·52, 0·88 and OR=0·73; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·91, respectively) protected against hyperthyroidism, while obesity and prevalent CVD were associated with increased risk (OR=1·25; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·54 and OR=1·92; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·42, respectively). Vegan, lacto-ovo and pesco vegetarian diets were associated with lower risk compared with omnivorous diets (OR=0·49; 95 % CI 0·33, OR=0·72, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·53, 0·81 and OR=0·74; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·00, respectively). Exclusion of all animal foods was associated with half the prevalence of hyperthyroidism compared with omnivorous diets. Lacto-ovo and pesco vegetarian diets were associated with intermediate protection. Further study of potential mechanisms is warranted.

  9. Nosocomial infections at Clinical Centre in Kragujevac: Prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nosocomial infections (NIs are a serious health problem in hospitals worldwide and are followed by a series of consequences, medical, judicial, ethical and economic. Objective The main aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of NIs at the Clinical Centre in Kragujevac. Methods A prevalence study of nosocomial infections was conducted from 16th till 20th May, 2005, within Second National Prevalence Study of Niš in the Republic of Serbia. Results The study included 866 patients. 40 patients had a NI, thus the prevalence of patients with NIs and prevalence of NIs was the same, 4.6%. Among NIs, the most frequent were urinary infections (45.0% followed by surgical-site infections (17.5%, skin and soft tissue infections (15% and pneumonia (12.5%. The rate of NIs was highest at departments of orthopaedics and traumatological surgery (12.0%, followed by intensive care units (8.0%. Overall, 67.5% (27/40 NIs were culture-proved; the leading pathogens were Escherichia coli (40.0%, followed by gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas species, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacteriaceae with equal frequency of 8.0%. Nosocomial infections were significantly more frequent in patients aged ≥65 years (p<0.05, with longer hospitalization ≥8 days (p<0.00, in intensive care patients (p<0.05, patients with an intravenous catheter (p<0.00, urinary catheter (p<0.00, and those under antibiotic therapy (p<0.00. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of nosocomial infections in our hospital is similar to the prevalence in the developed countries. The study of prevalence provides a prompt insight into basic epidemiological and ethiological characteristics of nosocomial infections, hence identification of hospital priorities and the need to undertake appropriate prevention measures. .

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  11. Scleroderma prevalence: demographic variations in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E

    2009-03-15

    To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Dyslipidemia in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xianbin; Tang, Wenge; Li, Qin; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Yulin

    2015-10-26

    The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China. There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 5375 residents of Chongqing, aged ≥18 years, and estimated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associated risk factors. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.5% (34.4% among men and 37.6% among women). Among the 2009 patients with dyslipidemia, 44.2% had isolated hypertriglyceridemia, 14.7% had isolated hypercholesterolemia, 13.2% had mixed hyperlipidemia, and 28.0% had isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years (48.2%), and then declined gradually; in women, the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with age, with the peak prevalence occurring after age 60 (46.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women. In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China.

  13. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  14. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  15. Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities in Belgian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a transversal, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michel P; Dath, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have at least one comorbid chronic disease. These comorbidities increase disease burden and costs and may impact the selection of glucose-lowering therapies. The aim of our study was to describe the prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities in patients with T2DM in Belgium. This was a single centre, transversal, descriptive study performed at Saint-Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. T2DM patients aged >18 years presenting to the outpatient diabetes clinic and regularly followed (≥1 year) between July 2011 and 2016 were included in the database. Information on descriptive characteristics was collected and several comorbidities were assessed. Overall, 778 patients were included. The median age was 68 years. The most frequently observed comorbidities were hypertension (85.5%), metabolic syndrome (MetS; 84.6%) and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis (71.7%). 78.5% of the T2DM patients had ≥4 comorbidities. The highest co-prevalence of comorbidities was the combination of MetS and hypertension (75.8%), MetS and overweight (60.5%), and hypertension and overweight (56.6%). The observed prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities in T2DM Belgian patients was high, with 95.0% patients having at least two comorbid conditions.

  16. Prevalent knee pain and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...

  17. Autistic Characteristics in Adults with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeford, SallyAnn Rose

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders [ASD] in epilepsy is approximately 20%-32%, with previous research reporting high rates of under-diagnosis of ASD in epilepsy. Current psychological assessments were adapted to provide epilepsy-specific measures of behaviour, which increased validity by addressing specific methodological problems highlighted by several researchers. The initial experiments provided a comprehensive investigation of autistic traits and characteristics in a heterogeneou...

  18. Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene pol...

  19. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  20. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  1. The prevalence of personality disorders in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Reiko; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Nolido, Nyryan V; Barsky, Arthur J

    2010-01-01

    Although Axis I hypochondriasis is closely related to certain personality characteristics, the nature and extent of personality dysfunction in these patients still needs clarification. This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders observed in hypochondriacal patients, described the types and comorbidity of personality disorders, and compared the psychological distress of patients with and without the most common comorbid personality disorder. One hundred fifteen patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for hypochondriasis completed self-administered assessments, including the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Whiteley Index, and the Somatic Symptom Inventory. These data were taken from a study conducted between September 1997 and November 2001. Eighty-eight patients (76.5%) had 1 or more personality disorders, whereas 27 patients (23.5%) had no personality disorders. Fifty-one patients (44.3%) had more than 3 personality disorders. The most common personality disorder in the hypochondriacal patients was obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD; 55.7%), followed by avoidant personality disorder (40.9%). The comorbidity of OCPD and avoidant personality disorder was 53.1% (34 of 64 patients with OCPD). The total PDQ-4+ score of the 64 patients with OCPD was significantly higher than that of the 51 patients without OCPD. On the SCL-90-R, the 64 patients with OCPD showed significantly higher scores on all of 3 global indices and 7 of 10 primary symptom dimensions (paranoid ideation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, and psychoticism) on the SCL-90-R compared to the 51 patients without OCPD. The high prevalence of personality disorders, particularly OCPD, among patients with hypochondriasis suggests that consideration of personality features is important in assessment and

  2. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macur, Mirna; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-09-01

    Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation.

  3. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Prevalence Estimation and Validation of New Instruments in Psychiatric Research: An Application of Latent Class Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…

  5. Prevalence of electrocardiographic ST-T changes during acute ischemic stroke in patients without known ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper K; Bak, Søren; Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated characteristics and prevalence of ST-segment depression and/or T-wave inversion in the resting electrocardiogram of 244 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, but without ischemic heart disease. The prevalence of ST-T changes ranged from 13% to 16% and this is what to expect...

  6. Use of antipsychotic drugs in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) in the Netherlands : prevalence and reasons for prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kuijper, G.; Hoekstra, P.; Visser, F.; Scholte, F. A.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

    Background We investigated antipsychotic drug prescription practice of Dutch ID physicians, studying prevalence of antipsychotic drug use, reasons for prescription and the relationship between these reasons and patient characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study of medical and pharmaceutical

  7. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark in 2010. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...... and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6...

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...... and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6...

  9. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Matthew H.; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Curry, Susanna R.; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Methods Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13–17 and young adults aged 18–25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18–25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9